Anda di halaman 1dari 82

BUILDING SERVICES PROJECT 1

BLD 60903 / ARC 2423

TAYLOR’S UNIVERSITY
LAKESIDE CAMPUS
Prepared by:

0323827 LAU HUI MING


0326733 LIM SIEW NI
0326500 NURUL SHAHIRA
0326969 NG JER VAIN
0323840 PAU JIN WEI
0327039 PRITIKA RAMA MOHAN

TUTOR: AR.SATEERAH
TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT 3

INTRODUCTION 4

CH 01. MECHANICAL VENTILATION 5


1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
1.2 TYPES OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 7
1.3 COMPONENTS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 10
1.4 UNIFORM BUILDING BY LAWS 1984 16
1.5 SUMMARY 16

CH 02. AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 17


2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.2 CYCLE OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 19
2.3 COMPONENTS IN AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 21
2.4 TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 22
2.5 CASE STUDY 23
2.6 UNIFORM BUILDING BY LAWS 1984 30
2.7 SUMMARY 30

CH 03. ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 31


3.1 INTRODUCTION 32
3.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 32
3.3 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION 34
3.3.1 DETECTION DEVICES 34
3.3.2 FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 36
3.3.3 WATER BASED SYSTEM 39
3.3.4 NON WATER BASED SYSTEM 44
3.4 SUMMARY 47

CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 48


4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 49
4.2 COMPARTMENTATION 49
4.3 FIRE APPLIANCES ACCESS 52
4.4 FIRE ESCAPE 53
4.5 UNIFORM BUILDING BY LAWS 1984 57
4.6 SUMMARY 58

CH 05. MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 59


5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 60
5.2 TYPES OF HOIST MECHANICAL SYSTEM 61
5.3 CASE STUDY 65
5.4 COMPONENTS OF ELEVATOR 68
5.5 ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM 73
5.6 SAFETY EQUIPMENTS 75
5.7 EMERGENCY 76
5.8 SUMMARY 77

CH 06. CONCLUSION 78

CH 07. REFERENCE 80
ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

Building services are essential to function well in every building. The aim in the systems
installed in buildings are necessity to comfort user, always functional, efficient and safe to use
in optimal condition.In this report, we produced the outcome of the analysis on the various
building services that are functioning in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus. The four main
categories of building services that will be covered which include: fire protection system,
air-conditioning system, mechanical ventilation system and mechanical transportation system.

We had a trip from Block B to Block, with guidance of Mr Antony from the facilities
management office. They had showed and explained to us the building services not only the
requirement field but also the electrical appliances and water plumbing systems. We were then
further explored and researched of our respective field in this report. Uniform Building by Law
(UBBL) is being referred to gather more information on the regulation of the services.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Throughout this project, we would like to thank Mr. Antony from the facilities management
department of Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus for allowing us to have a site visit
regarding on the building services. They have been patiently explained for us for every
question that we bring forward. They also provide the important datas to us. Secondly, we
would like to thank our tutor Ar.Sateerah Hassan for her guidance throughout the process of
this project. Besides, we are also grateful that Ms. Sateerah had spent their quality time with
us by providing some detailed information during the tutorial session. From this assignment,
we have truly understand the functionality of using specific system to ensure the right system
could be used on specific area. Finally, we would like to thank all the group members who had
put in their effort and hardwork in making this research report into a success.

3
INTRODUCTION

In this project, students are required to perform a case study on the services applied
and installed in multi-storey buildings according to syllabus covered in this subject, Building
Services. The topics are covered include Mechanical Ventilation System, Mechanical
Transportation System, Active and Passive Fire Protection and Air-Conditioning System.

This project aims to develop student’s understanding of technical function of a building


by investigating the systems by site visit in order to enhance the knowledge by experiencing
the site itself as reference. It is also important for architecture students to understand the
technical function of a building as a useful discovery in future designing project to ensure the
design proposal are practical and efficient.

With Uniform Building By Law (UBBL) as reference and evidence of support, this case
study will be eased and students can start practice using UBBL as a guide in designing a
building.

Taylor’s University was chosen as the site to perform the case study on. It was design
by NWKA architect Sdn Bhd. Work commenced of RM450 million for this campus.The total
land use set on 27 acres of tropical greenery, It is a multi storey education building that divide
into few blocks which are Block A,B,C,D,E and commercial block.This institute is categorized
as Office Building which benefit the students in this case study as all the requirement stated in
brief are provided. To be more specific, the main site is located within Block B.

It’s a Modern Tropical concept.Tropical means the use of the architecture to respond to
the environment by employing passive, natural cooling system and sustainable criteria to
shape and mould the built environment.

Limitation of studies that this group has to face is not all the technical system can be
found in Block B as this building is a clustered type hence some of the system are located in
the other blocks. Another limitation is where the elevator is unavailable to visit due to
complication of the system management.

However, all the limitation can be overcome easily by requesting the staff for a visit to
other blocks as mentioned above and research can be done on the elevator’s study.
4
1 MECHANICAL
VENTILATION

BY PRITIKA RAMA MOHAN

5
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

CH 01 . MECHANICAL VENTILATION
1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION

Ventilation is necessary in buildings to remove ‘stale’ air and replace it with ‘fresh’ air.

Figure 1.1 Basic Ventilation Concept

It helps to
● Moderate internal temperatures
● Moderate internal humidity
● Replenishing oxygen
● Reducing the accumulation of moisture, odours, bacteria, dust, carbon dioxide, smoke
and other contaminants that can build up during occupied periods
● Creating air movement which improves the comfort of occupants

Ventilation can be divided into two types :

Natural Ventilation :
A passive flow of external air to indoor spaces through openings caused by different pressure
between the building and it’s surrounding.

Mechanical Ventilation :
Process of supplying and removing air by using mechanical devices.

Generally natural ventilation is preferable to mechanical ventilation as it has lower maintenance


cost and does not need to break through walls and ceilings with ducts and making rooms for
large ventilation units.

Yet due to a range of circumstances the application of natural ventilation throughout the whole
Taylor’s University Block B building may not be possible because:

● Some areas of the University is too deep to ventilate from the perimeter.
● Poor air quality due to its position beside a highway .
● The urban structure is very dense (eg: DK Senza & D’Latour) which shelters the building
from the wind .
● Internal partitions between classrooms and units blocks the wind flow.
● Due to security and safety requirements some windows cannot be opened.
6
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

This problems can be solved using mixed mode or assisted ventilation where natural
ventilation is reinforced by mechanical systems.

Mechanical systems have their advantages:


● Circulation system such as ceiling fan creates internal air movement, but does not
induce fresh air.
● A pressure system, in which fresh outside air is blown into the building by inlet fans,
creating a higher internal pressure than the outside air.
● A vacuum system, in which stale internal air is extracted from the building by an
exhaust fan, creating lower pressure inside the building than the outside air.
● A local exhaust system that extracts local sources of heat or contaminants at their
source, such as cooker hoods, fume cupboards and so on.

1.2 Types of Mechanical Ventilation System


There are 3 types of mechanical ventilation system which are exhaust system ,supply system
and a combination of both system that is used in Taylor’s University Block B.

1.2.1 Exhaust Ventilation System


Exhaust ventilation systems work by depressurizing the building.By reducing the inside air
pressure below the outdoor air pressure, they extract indoor air from a building while
make-up air infiltrates through leaks in the building shell and through intentional, passive
vents.

Exhaust ventilation systems are relatively simple and inexpensive to install. Typically, an
exhaust
ventilation system is composed of a single fan connected to a centrally located, single
exhaust
point in the building.

A preferable option is to connect the fan to duct from several rooms (especially rooms where
pollutants tend to be generated, such as bathrooms).Adjustable, passive vents through
windows or walls can be installed to introduce fresh air rather than rely on leaks in the
building
envelope.

Figure 1.2 Exhaust Ventilation 7


CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.2.2 Supply Ventilation System

Supply ventilation systems work by pressurizing the building. They use a fan to force outside air
into the building while air leaks out of the building through holes in the shell, bath- and
range-fan ducts, and intentional vents.

As with exhaust ventilation systems, supply ventilation systems are relatively simple and
inexpensive to install. A typical system has a fan and duct system that introduces fresh air into
usually one—but preferably several—rooms that residents occupy most
(for example, bedrooms, living room, kitchen). This system may include adjustable window or
wall vents in other rooms.

Supply ventilation systems allow better control of the air that enters the house than do
exhaust ventilation systems. By pressurizing the house, these systems discourage the
entry of pollutants from outside and prevent backdrafting of combustion gases from
fireplaces and appliances.

They also allow air introduced into the house to be filtered to remove pollen and dust or to be
dehumidified.Supply ventilation systems work best in hot or mixed climates. Because they
pressurize the house, they have the potential to cause moisture
problems in cold climates.

Figure 1.3 Supply Ventilation System

8
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.2.3 Balanced Ventilation System

Balanced ventilation systems, if properly designed and installed, neither pressurize nor
depressurize a house. Rather, they introduce and exhaust approximately equal quantities of fresh
outside air and polluted indoor air, respectively. A balanced ventilation system usually has two fans
and two duct systems. It facilitates good distribution of fresh air by placing supply and exhaust
vents in appropriate places.

A typical balanced ventilation system is designed to supply fresh air to bedrooms and common
rooms where people spend the most time. It also exhausts air from rooms where moisture and
pollutants are most often generated, such as the kitchen, bathrooms, and the laundry room.
Like both supply and exhaust systems, balanced ventilation systems do not tamper or remove
moisture from the air before it enters the house.
They do, however, use filters to remove dust and pollen from outside air before introducing it into
the house.

Also, like supply ventilation systems, outdoor air may need to be mixed with indoor air before
delivery to avoid cold air drafts in the winter. This may contribute to higher heating and cooling
costs.Balanced ventilation systems are appropriate for all climates.

Figure 1.4 Balanced Ventilation

9
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.3 Components of the Mechanical Ventilation System

Mechanical equipment is one of the important structures in mechanical ventilation services . It


is responsible for the comfort of the users when circulating through the structure.It is an
instrumental in circling the air through the building , displacing stale and pungent air out of the
compound and bringing fresh air in.

There are many devices ranging from different sizes that serve its individual purpose as well
as playing a vital role of keeping the air in the compound fresh

1.3.1 Fan
A fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid with high volume and low pressure. The
purpose of the fan is to remove hot ,humid and polluted air while bringing in outdoor air to
provide cooling comfort to the users or cool the building . To minimise the energy used , fan
should be sized and controlled to move only the amount of air is required for the certain period.

1.3.1.1 Propeller Fan


Propeller fan is a fan that uses airfoil shaped blade in converting rotational motion into thrust.
Pressure is produced between the forward and rear surface of the blade , and fluid is
accelerated behind the blade .

Propeller fans in Taylor’s University Block B is located in various places such as the toilet,
kitchen, and every machinery rooms to remove heat produced by the machine as well as
odors and moisture in the air.

There are 3 types of propeller fans used in Block B ranging from light duty to heavy duty.

Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7


Light Duty Propeller Fan Medium Duty Propeller Fan Heavy Duty Propeller Fan

10
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.3.1.2 Axial Fan

Axial fan is a type of compressor that increases the pressure of the air flowing through it. The
blades of the axial fan forces air to flow parallel to the shaft about which the blade rotate . The
flow is axial and linear besides it is used for high flow rate.

They are generally selected for simple extraction or cooling applications with very low system
resistance ,such as moving air from one large space to another ,desk fan and condenser
cooling in refrigeration .

Product specification:
The double flanged casing is produced in mild steel or galvanised steel. The blades are made
of aluminium. Pitch angle can be adjusted manually. Air flow from impeller to motor is fitted as
standard .Air flow from motor to impeller can be supplied upon request.
The axial fan installed in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus is at the rooftop level , in
correspondence with smoke spill system .

Figure 1.8 Axial Fan

1.3.1.3 Centrifugal Fan

Used in buildings to cycle the air and prevent it from stagnating. It efficiently moves large or
small quantities of air over wide range of pressure . It consists of impeller which revolve inside
a casing shaped like a scroll. The direction of air moving through the inlet is 90 degree. With
dual input centrifugal fan , the air is siphoned from both sides which allows more air to be
ventilated and it will have a higher power depends on the condition.

Product specification:
The wheel is made of cold rolled sheet steel airfoil profile blades with polyester powder coating
finish. Welded frame also manufactured with sections of steel with polyester powder finish
coating giving increased stiffness and rigidity for higher operating performance. The shafts are
made from carbon steel are coated with an anti-corrosion varnish.

11
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

Figure 1.9 Centrifugal fan

1.3.1.4 In-line Fan

The heat resistant in-line fan is to resist high temperature up to 150’c and remove heat in air
from the ductwork. Inline fans are engineered to work with ducting . They will retain a greater
percentage of their advertised capacity compared to normal extraction fans. It is useful that in
large building such as Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus that span a great distance from
the extraction point to the outlet.

Figure 1.10 In -line Fan

1.3.2 Ductwork

Ductwork is used in mechanical ventilation in delivering and removing air.The needed airflow
included supply air,return air and exhaust air . As such ,air ducts are one method of ensuring
acceptable indoor air quality as well as thermal comfort.

The ductwork used in galvanised ductwork is made of steel . The purpose is to provide
insulation and fiberglass is inserted in the ductwork.

Ductwork can be differentiated into 2 categories which is rigid and flexible.

12
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

Rigid Air Ducts

Sheet Metal Ducts


Galvanized steel and aluminium are the most common materials for sheet metal ducts.
Aluminium in particular is relatively light and easy to install.They are also the least likely to
harbour dangerous molds or growth because they have non-porous surfaces.

Fiberglass Lined Ducts


These are sheet metal ducts that have internal or external fiberglass lining. This type of duct
is common in office and commercial buildings as it dampens the sound.

Fiberboard Ducts
Fiberboard is made from fiberglass strands that have been compressed and bonded with a
resin and then covered with a sheet of foil laminate to protect them from moisture .This type
of duct is good for cooling and heating systems because it is well insulated by itself.

PVC Duct
Resistant to microbacterial and cheap .Less noise but doesn't stand very high and low
temperatures.

Flexible air ducts


Flexible ducts are normally tube-shaped made of a wire coil covers with a bendable durable
plastic . The advantages of flexible ducts are that they are fairly quick and easy to install and
often cost less than rigid ductwork and often resistant to micro bacterial .

Figure 1.11 Ductwork at the electrical room Figure 1.12 Ductwork at the kitchen

13
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.3.3 Filter

Usually filters are located inside the ductwork to filter the inlet air from outdoor or filter the
outlet air before it goes into the atmosphere. This traps and prevent dust,smoke ,bacteria and
other micro elements from entering the room . Different filters have different functions.

Fiberglass Filter :
Manufactured using medium to heavy cardboard frame with layered fiberglass reinforced with
a metal mesh to avoid from collapsing.

Polyester Filter Media Pad:


Polyester offers high resistance and dust holding capabilities than most fiberglass filters.
Frequently used to replace fiberglass filters which can fragment and send fibers into the air
stream.

Electrostatic Filter
This filter create a self-generated charge helping to collect dust particles. Typically
manufactured using multiple layers of polypropylene media or similar within a galvanized
frame or cardboard frame.

From our site visit we learned that Taylor’s University uses fiberglass filters because it
insulates sound and considered environmentally friendly. Meanwhile for toilets activated
charcoal filters are being used due to it natural odor filter feature .

Figure 1.13 FiberGlass Filter Figure 1.14 Activated Carbon Filter

14
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.3.4 Grille and Diffuser

Diffuser is a mechanical ventilation device located at the end of the duct system, it serve to
control and manage the air velocity before entering the occupied space .Diffuser come in
various shapes ranging from round to rectangular diffusers .

The functions of the diffusers are to deliver both conditioning and ventilating air evenly ,
enhance mixing room air with the primary air being discharged ,create a low key velocity air
movement in the room occupied .

Types of diffusers used in Taylor’s University :-

4-way Louvre Bladed Diffuser


Supply air at ceiling level
The curved blades deflects air in four directions

Figure 1.15 4-way Louvre Bladed Diffuser at the Maintenance Office

Egg Crate Grille


Simplest and cheapest grille. Apply air to be removed by an extract ventilation system.

Fire Rated Transfer Grille


Used in doors and walls to provide ventilation but also stop the spread of smoke and
fire.

Figure 1.16 Egg Crate Grille Figure 1.17 Fire Rated Transfer Grille
at the Maintenance Office
15
CH 01 MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1.4 Uniform Building By-Laws 1984


Clause 41: Mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning

1. Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant


building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may
be waived at the discretion of the local authority.

2. Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in
addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved
means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half of the
air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified
hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the
air-conditioning system is not functioning.

3. The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are
mechanically ventilated or air-conditioned.

4. Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories,


water-closets,bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with
the requirements of the Third Schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these
By-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such
lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors.

1.5 Summary

The mechanical system used in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus is moderately planned .
All the system are arranged in an organized manner such as the ductwork are cleverly hidden
inside the ceiling .Besides the passive ventilation in Taylor’s is well design as there is no need
of mechanical devices at the basement and most of the natural walkways in every level as it is
cooled by the natural breeze which indirectly consumes less energy and saves cost.

16
2 Air Conditioning
System

BY LIM SIEW NI

17
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.1 INTRODUCTION

Thermal comfort and indoor quality of a building has become increasingly important which has
greatly emphasize on recent decade. The air conditioning system is the process of altering the
indoor temperature, humidity, air distribution and indoor air quality (IAC) to more favourable
conditions. The control of these conditions may be desirable to maintain the health and the
comfort of the occupants. Living in a hot and humid country, most of the houses in Malaysia
installed air conditioner to removes all the heat that is generated inside the room and maintains
the cool and comfortable temperature around 19 to 23 degree Celsius. It also removes the
excess amount of moisture from the air and maintain relative humidity of 50%. The air conditioner
has fan that produces necessary flow of air and the filter removes all the dust and dirt particles
from the air.

Air conditioning system, known as AC, is a device to alter the condition of a space, It provide
sheathing, cooling and ventilation requirements of a building over a range of ambient conditions
depending on the building location. It is designed to cope with the maximum value based on
these requirements:

- To provide cool environment control for equipment and processes


- To remove internal heat gain produced by building services and occupants
- To maintain the human thermal comfort level by controlling temperature and humidity in air
- To prevent smoke, haze and dust from the outdoor so as to protect the human health.

Air conditioning capacity requirements will influence the building design and the approach that will
be suitable for the implementation.Each building design may require a different control zone to
maintain their energy demand.It is also important to mention that even though a specific air
conditioning system might be more efficient than other type, it can only be utilised if it matches a
few requirements, such as the response to the building without causing discomfort to people.

18
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.2 Cycle of Air Conditioning System

2.2.1 Air Cooling Principle

Gas liquefied when it is compressed and a large amount of latent heat will be released. As the
pressure of liquid is lowered, it vaporizes back to gas, and as it boils through the vaporizing
process, it absorbs large amount of latent heat into liquid. All air-conditioning systems are made
up of two major cycles, air cycle and refrigerant cycle.

2.2.1.1 Air Cycle

Air cycle is a process to distribute treated air into the room that needs to be conditioned. Treated
air means the air supply to the room is filtered through air cleaners to remove dust and particles.
The heat inside the room is first absorbed and transferred it to the chilled water at the Air
Handling Unit (AHU). The air is then mixed with fresh air from outside and blow through the
cooling coil to provide a lower temperature and cooler air supply indoor.

Outside air Air Handling Reheat


Unit (AHU) (Optional)

Returned air

Exhausted Zone to be
air conditioned

Figure 2.1 Schematic diagrams shows the process of air cycle.

19
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.2.1.2 REFRIGERANT CYCLE

Refrigerant cycle is a process that remove heat through the evaporator to the condenser outside.
Air conditioner uses phrase conversion of liquid into gas which absorbs heat (A simple principle of
physics)

The principles of refrigeration are as follows:

1. Liquid absorbs heat when changing from liquid to gas


2. Gases gives off heat when changed from gas to liquid The refrigerant is applied to air
cooling cycle, compressed gas would liquefy at a certain point and release a large amount
of latent heat.
3. When pressure is lowered, liquid will vaporized back to gas as it is less compressed, large
amount of latent heat will then absorbed and eventually turn gas back into liquid.
4. In order to be economical in the use of air conditioning system, refrigerant is used
repeatedly.

Therefore, same cycle of compression, condensation, expansion and evaporation is used in all air
conditioners in a closed circuit. Refrigerant is consistently being reused to remove the heat from
the interior and expel the heat to the outdoor area.

Figure 2.2 Schematic diagrams shows the process of refrigerant cycle.

20
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.3 Components in Air Conditioning System


There are five main components in an automotive air conditioning system – an evaporator,
accumulator, compressor, condenser, and expansion valve.

2.3.1 Compressor
- Compressing the refrigerant vapour from evaporator and pumps the refrigerant throughout
the whole system.
- The refrigerant vapour enters the compressor through the suction valve and fills the
cylinder.
- The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low pressure gas, it is compressed and
then moves out of the compressor as a high pressure gas

2.3.2 Expansion valve


- A valve or small fixed size tubing which regulates the liquid refrigerant into the evaporator
- The liquid then moves to the expansion valve under high pressure. This valve restricts the
flow of the fluid, and lowers its pressure as it leaves the expansion valve
- Types of valves: Four way valve, electronic expansion valve, solenoid valve

2.3.3 Condenser
- Reject heat absorbed by the evaporator.
- Refrigerant change from the vapour form into the liquid state in the condenser and the
large amount of heat will be rejected.

2.3.5 Accumulator
- The primary function is to store liquid refrigerant that is exiting the evaporator, to prevent it
from reaching the compressor.

2.3.5 Evaporator
- Provide heat absorbing surface where the air blown over the pipe is cooled.
- The low-pressure liquid then moves to the evaporator, where heat from the inside air is
absorbed and changes it from a liquid to a gas. As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant
moves to the compressor where the entire cycle is repeated.

Figure 2.3 Shows the air conditioning system and its components

21
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.4 Types of Air Conditioning System


2.4.1 Room air-conditioner (window unit)

- It’s use in single room and all the component in the


system are enclosed in a single box. It fitted in a slot
made in the wall of the room, or in a window sill. Figure 2.4 Shows the example of
room air-conditioner

2.4.2 Split unit air-conditioning system

- Split air conditioner comprises into two parts:


indoor and outdoor unit. The outdoor unit
including the compressor, condenser and expansion
valve whereas the indoor unit consists of the
evaporator and the cooling fan. This system allow to
eliminate the need to make any slot in the wall of
the room. Figure 2.5 Shows the split unit
air-conditioning system

2.4.3 Packaged unit air conditioning system

- The packaged unit air conditioning system are


mainly used to cool more than two rooms or larger
space. There are two types of possible
arrangements with the package unit. First
arrangement is all the components are installed in a
single box while the second arrangement, only
compressor and condenser are placed in one Figure 2.6 Shows the example of
casing. packaged unit air-conditioning system

2.4.4 Centralized/plant air-conditioning system

- Centralized air conditioning system is for the larger


scale buildings when all the spaces are meant to be
conditioned. It consists a huge compressor that has
the capacity to produce hundred tons of air
conditioning.
Figure 2.7 Shows the example of split
unit air-conditioning system

22
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.5 Case Study


For our case study, we’ve chosen Taylor’s University as our case study, main site is located
within Block B. The sites consists of multiple area such as the grand hall, ADP classrooms,
faculty management office and LT21&22 that cater for different functions. Centralized
air-conditioning system and split air-conditioning system are used within Block B to provide a
comfortable environment,its occupants are able to stay for longer periods of time especially in the
grand hall and lecture theatre.

2.5.1 Centralized/plant air conditioning system

The systems serve multiple spaces in the building from a base where a chiller produces chilled
water and sends it towards the designated air-handling units (AHU) and fan-coil unit (FCU) in the
building through the air distribution ducts. Since the centralized air-conditioning systems are often
used in large building with the system mainly focused on conditioning the outdoor and achieving
the indoor temperature needs, it has proven to be a high energy efficiency system.

2.5.1.1 Air Handling Unit (AHU)

Air Handling Unit, also known as AHU serves as a device to condition and circulate air as a part
of Heating,Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. It is commonly a large metal box
which containing a blower, heating or cooling elements, filter racks, sound attenuators and
dampers. Air handlers usually connect to ductwork ventilation system that distributes the
conditioned air through the building and returns it to the AHU.

2.5.1.1.1 Components of AHU

(i) Air Filter


- It provides clean dust-free air to the building components. Filtration is placed first in AHU to
keep all the downstream components clean.

(ii) Heating/ Cooling Elements


- Cooling coil is used to cool and dehumidify the air. These coils are arranged in rows with
different fin spacing. Copper tubes and aluminium fins are used.

(iii) Humidifier
- When continuous cooling make the air drier, humidification takes place. This results in
uncomfortable air quality and increased static electricity.

(iv) Blower
- Air handlers utilises a large squirrel cage blower driven by AC induction electric motor to
move the air. The flow rate is controlled by inlet vanes or outlet dampers on the fan.

(v) Sound Attenuator


- The blower in the air handler will create ample vibration and the large area of the duct
system would transmit the noise and vibration to the occupants in the building. In order to
avoid this from happening, vibration insulator is inserted into the duct immediately before
and after the air handler.

23
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

Figure 2.8 Showing location of using centralized air conditioning system at Ground Floor

24
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

Figure 2.9 Showing location of Air Handling Unit (AHU) at First Floor

25
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.5 Case Study


2.5.1 Centralized/Plant Air Conditioning System

2.5.1.2 Fan Coil Unit (FCU)

A Fan Coil Unit (FCU) is a simpler air conditioning device compared to Air Handling Unit (AHU). It
consists of a heating or cooling coil and fan. It is part of HVAC system and normally it’s not
connected to a ductwork. FCU is flexible to be installed and it’s more economical to install
compare to those ducted air-conditioning system. It’s is used to control the temperature in the
multiple smaller spaces such as the classroom and faculty management office.

2.5.1.2.1 Components of FCU

(i) Fan
- Centrifugal fan is multi-bladed and the driven motor is enclosed so that air from an inlet is
compressed to a higher discharge pressure.

(ii) Motor
- An electrical component of an air movement device that provides work to turn the blade
assembly

(iii) Coils
- The coils are made from copper tubes and aluminium fans. There is only one coil which is
also called as heat exchanger where the liquid is circulated to provide heating or cooling to
the air which passes through the heat sink fins.

(iv) Drain Pan


- It is located under the coil to catch the condensate formed during cooling.

(v) Filter rack


- A tray where the filter can be pull out or replacement. Low pressure drop permanent filter
is used due to easy cleaning.

2.5.1.2.2 Types of FCU

There are few types of FCU,such as two-pipe fan coil unit or four-pipe fan coil unit. Based on our
site, the faculty management office used four-pipe fan unit.

Four-Pipe Fan Coil Unit

It has two supply pipes and two return pipes. This allows
both hot and cold water can enter the unit at any given time.
It is commonly used to encounter the problem based on the
differences of temperature for different areas of a building
might be different .

Figure 2.10 Showing the Four-Pipe


Fan Coil Unit
26
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.5.2 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System

2.5.2.1 Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), also known as variable


refrigerant volume (VFV) systems have limited space
requirements, particularly for the distribution system
inside the building. The cools and heat refrigerant
which is connected through piping to condition the
building. In this case study the system we found is the
ceiling cassette indoor unit. The VFV system consists
of two parts, which are the outdoor unit and indoor unit. Figure 2.11 Showing the components
in VRF systems

2.5.2.2.1 Components of VRF

(A) Indoor Unit

(i) Air Filter


- It removes all the dirt particles from the room air and supplying clean air. It is placed just
before the cooling coil. Thus the clean air at low temperature is supplied into the room by
the blower.

(ii) Cooling Coil


- Cooling coil is a copper coil which made of number of turns of the copper tubing and
covered with aluminium fins so the maximum amount of heat can be transferred from the
coil to the air inside the room.

(iii) Drain pipe


- When the room air is passed over the cooling, it condense and form dew on the surface of
the cooling coil. To remove the water, drain pipe is connected from this space extending to
where water can be disposed off.

(iv) Blower
- It is an induce type of clower which sucks the atmosphere. The blower sucks the hot and
unclean air from the room and supplies cool and clean air back.

(v) Louvers
- The cool air from the blower is passed into the room through louvers. The louvers help
changing the direction in which the air needs to be supplied into the room.

Types of indoor unit: Stand-alone/floor mounted, wall mounted & ceiling mounted/cassette type

27
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.5.2 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System

2.5.2.2.1 Components of VRF

(B) Outdoor Unit

(i) Compressor
- The compressor compresses the refrigerant and increases its pressure before sending it to
the condenser. External power has to be supplied to the compressor which is utilized for
compressing the refrigerant .

(ii) Condenser Cooling Fan


- As the blade of the fan rotate it absorbs the surrounding air from the open space and
blows it over the compressor and the condenser with the aluminium fins to cool them.

(iii) Expansion Valve


- Expansion valve maintains the pressure differential and also distribute the precise amount
of refrigerant to each indoor unit. It can stop the flow of refrigerant to the individual
evaporator until while meeting the targeted superheat.

(iv) Condenser Coil


- It is used in the outdoor unit of split unit air conditioning system called copper tubing. The
high temperature and pressure refrigerant from the compressor comes in the condenser
where it has to give up the heat at a faster rate that is covered with aluminium fins.

Figure 2.12 Showing VRF systems can deliver cooling to some zones and heating to
others, with no reheat needed

28
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

Figure 2.13Showing location of using split air conditioning system at Ground Floor

29
CH 02 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2.6 UBBL Requirement and Regulation

UBBL by Laws - Clause 41: Mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning

1. Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air conditioning is intended, the relevant


building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be
waived at the discretion of the local authority.

2. Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition
to the permanent air conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of
ventilating the air conditioning enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air
conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified
hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air
conditioning system is not functioning.

3. The Provisions of the Third Schedule to these by-laws shall apply to buildings which are
mechanically ventilated or air conditioned.

2.7 Summary

Through our observation and analysis in Block B Taylor’s University, it has wisely made the
choice by using centralized air-conditioning system and split unit air-conditioning system so there
is no waste of energy or inefficient use of the system and also the position of the machines are
thoughtful too because they want to avoid any disturbance in the grand hall or LT21&22.

Besides, air conditioning system filters the particles from the air which can harmful to the human
health. The better the air quality, the purer to breath because it is passed through the filter
system. Split unit system are chosen to install is because of its easy installation, cost
effectiveness and easy to maintain. They have washable filters and require only routine cleaning
periodically. For the centralized air conditioning system, they have a higher energy efficiency and
have a better control of comfort levels which can have larger coverage area but with a higher
installation cost.

30
3 Active Fire
Protection System

BY NG JER VAIN

31
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

CH 03. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Fire protection refers to the practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially
destructive fire. It includes the study of the behaviour of fire and its related emergency. The
application of fire protection systems are tested numerous time to ensure its functionality during
emergencies.
In every structure, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in
accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire
code. Before the construction, the building will be inspected with the version of building code that is
in effect when an application for a building permit is made. The building must be maintained in
accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the local fire department.
In the event of fire emergencies, Firefighters, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel
are called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the damage of a fire.

The purpose of fire protection system is to prevent building occupants and properties from coming
in the line of casualty as a result of a fire breakout. Fire protection system can be classified into
Active Fire Protection (AFP) and Passive Fire Protection (PFP).

3.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

3.2.1 Fire Triangle

The fire triangle illustrates the three elements a fire


needs to ignite: heat, fuel and oxygen. A fire
naturally occurs when the elements are present. A
fire can be prevented or extinguished by removing
any one of the elements in the fire triangle.

HEAT - A fire cannot ignite unless it has a


certain amount of heat, and it cannot grow without
heat either. To reduce heat, cooling agent is applied,
for instance water and chemical fire retardant.

Figure 3.1 The fire triangle.


OXYGEN - A fire needs oxygen to start and
continue.A decrease in the concentration of oxygen
retards the combustion process, for example
smothering the fire with fire blanket, sand and dirt.0

FUEL - The fuel source can be anything that


is flammable, such as wood, paper, fabric, or
chemicals. The fire will extinguish on its own when it
has consumed all of the fuel.
32
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.2 Classes of Fire

Fire is classified into five groups, in relation to the combustion materials which could be ignited.
This has onward impacts on the type of suppression or extinguishing materials which can be
used. Class letters are often assigned to the different types of fire, but these differ between
territories. There are 3 classes of common fire and 2 specialty classes.

Figure 3.2 Classes of fire, symbol and extinguish agents.

33
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3 Active Fire Protection System (AFP)

Active Fire Protection (AFP) is a group of systems that require some amount of action in order to
work efficiently in the event of a fire. These actions may be manually operated, like a fire
extinguisher or automatic, like a sprinkler.

In Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, numerous AFP systems are installed to ensure the safety
of staff and students. The AFP system installed includes heat detectors, smoke detectors, fire
sprinklers, hose reels, fire extinguisher, CO² system, smoke spill system etc. Services and
maintenance are performed annually or in a certain period of time to ensure the functionality of the
systems.

3.3.1 Detection Devices

3.3.1.1 Heat Detector

A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond


when the convected thermal energy of a fire increases the
temperature of a heat sensitive element. The thermal mass
and conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of
heat into the element. All heat detectors have thermal lag.
Heat detectors have two main classifications of operation,
"rate-of-rise" and "fixed temperature". The Heat detector is
used to help in the reduction of damaged property. It is
triggered when temperature increases.
Figure 3.3 Heat detector

There are two methods for detecting fire from the presence of heat :

- Fixed temperature heat detectors operate when the ambient temperature


increases sufficiently to predetermined level where the heat detector will
operate
- A rate-of-rise heat detectors operate when the ambient temperature
increases over time equal to or greater than the rate of change

Figure 3.4 Heat detector response to different conditions.

34
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.1.2 Smoke Detector

A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as


an indicator of fire. Smoke can be detected either optically
(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization). In
Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, photoelectric smoke detector is
ultilized.

A photoelectric, or optical smoke detector contains a source


of infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light (typically an
incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode), a lens, and a
photoelectric receiver (typically a photodiode). Figure 3.5 Photoelectric smoke
detector

Commercial Issue signal to a fire alarm


buildings control panel

Smoke
detector

Issue local audible of


Household visual alarm from the
How does smoke detector work? detector itself

Photodiode
An optical smoke detector works Optical chamber (Transducer)
using the light scatter principle.
The alarm contains a pulsed Infrared cover
LED which pulses a beam of light
into the sensor chamber every 10
seconds to check for smoke
particles.
Case moulding
When a fire breaks out smoke will
enter the optical chamber through
Infrared LED
the opening vents. Smoke alarms
from quality manufacturers have the Figure 3.6 Optical smoke detector main components
chamber protected with insect
screens to stop bugs entering and
causing false alarms.

As the smoke enters the optical


chamber, its particles cause the
Infrared light to be scattered onto the
photodiode light receptor.

Once the scattered light hits the


photodiode light receptor a signal is
sent to the integrated circuit which
Figure 3.7 Lights are scattered when smoke enters
causes the alarm to sound alerting
the detector, triggering the alarm.
the occupants to the fire.
35
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 153 : Smoke Detectors for Lift Lobbies


1. All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.
2. Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by
light beam or photo detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after
thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset
time

Section 225.
1. Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with
fire · alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as
specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

3.3.2 Fire Alarm System


Fire alarm system are made of fire detection equipment and fire alarm control panels. It is
designed to provide warning of the outbreak of fire through visual or audio appliances and allow
appropriate fire fighting action to be taken before the situation gets out of control.

These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke and heat detectors or may also be
activated manually via manual call points or pull stations.
3.3.2.1 Fire Alarm Bell
Fire alarm bell are activated by the smoke and heat
detectors or the break of the glass of the manual break
point. It is installed to alert people during the fire
emergency so that there would be sufficient time for
people to respond and escape from the building.

Fire alarm bell functions by means of an electromagnet.


When an electric current is applied, it produces a
repetitive buzzing or clanging sound. It consists of coils
of insulated wire wound round iron rods. When an
electric current flows through the coils, the rods became
magnetic and attract a piece of iron attached to a Figure 3.8 Fire Alarm Bell
clapper. The clapper hits the bell and makes it ring.

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 237
1. Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.
2. All premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and storage areas
exceeding 9290 square metres or exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided
with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given
immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be
given in adjoining section.
3. Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master
control.

36
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.2.2 Manual Call Point

Manual alarm call points are designed to raise an


alarm manually once verification of a fire or
emergency condition exists. The alarm can be raised
either through pushing button or break glass. In
Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, the alarm can be
triggered by breaking the frangible element on the
fascia of the manual break point. It is usually installed
1.4 m away from the floor at places that can be easily
seen. In Taylor’s, there is an average of 3 manual call
points located at the corridor of every level.
Figure 3.9 Manual call point

3.3.2.3 Fire Intercom System

Communication between firefighters is one of


the most crucial aspects of containing and
suppressing fires. This communication needs to
be instant and effective. One of the best ways
to accomplish this is to install a fireman
intercom system for any building structure.

Fire intercom system used in Taylor’s Lakeside


Campus is a two way emergency voice
communication system. It provides
communication between the master console
(Fire Command Centre) and the remote
handset stations.

At the master control panel, a call alert lamp Figure 3.10 Fire intercom in the
flashes with audible signal when there is electrical room
incoming call. Upon lifting the handset, the
audible signal is silenced. It is also equipped
with a fault indicator unit to indicate the type of
fault .

Figure 3.11 Main fire intercom panel

37
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 239 :
There shall be two separate approved continuously electrically supervised voice
communications systems, one a fire brigade communications system and the other a
public address system between the central control station and the following areas:
(a) lifts, lift lobbies, corridors and staircases;
(b) in every office area exceeding 92.9 square metres in area;
(c) in each dwelling unit and hotel guest room where the fire brigade system may be
combined with the public address system.

3.3.2.4 Fireman Switch

The fireman switch is a specialized switch


disconnector/isolator. It is located on the outside wall
of commercial buildings. They are used by firemen to
turn off the power supply to electrical equipment in
case of fire to prevent potential exploding in the event
of an emergency.

In Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, fireman switch is found


at the wall of emergency exit in every floor. If there is a
fire, the fireman uses a fireman axe to pull the handle
to isolate the utility supply of the building.

Figure 3.12 Fireman switch

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 240
1. Every floor or zone of any floor with a net area exceeding 929 square metres
shall be provided with an electrical isolation switch located within a staircase
enclosure permit the disconnection of electrical power supply to the relevant floor
or zone served.
2. The switch shall be of a type similar to the fireman's switch specified in the
Institution of Electrical Engineers Regulations then in force.

38
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.3 Water Based System

Water based suppression systems utilize the inexpensive and readily available
medium of water to discharge onto flames through a normally fixed piping system.

3.3.3.1 Sprinkler System

A fire sprinkler system consists of a water supply


system, providing adequate pressure and flowrate
to a water distribution piping system, onto which
fire sprinklers are connected. In Taylor’s Lakeside
Campus, upright and pendent are used. Basically,
a fire sprinkler system is made up from stop valve,
alarm valve, fire sprinkler, alarm test valve and
motorized alarm bell. In addition, there are
components including valve monitor, pressure
switch and flow switch.
Figure 3.13 Fire sprinkler head
Water shoot upwards and reflected by the water
deflector on top in upright fire sprinklers; while
water come out downward and the water flow
follow the pattern of deflector in decent fire
sprinklers. Upright fire sprinkler has better
coverage while decent fire sprinkler has higher
water flow speed.

Figure 3.14 Pendent and upright


fire sprinkler.

Figure 3.15 Fire sprinkler plan at Level 5.


39
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

How does fire sprinkler work?

A sprinkler system is a network of pipes running through the ceiling of a building holding
water under pressure.

1. Each sprinkler is a faucet—a hole in the pipe through which water can escape into
the building below. In a sprinkler, the hand-operated faucet is replaced by a
heat-sensitive plug designed to open automatically when fire breaks out. The plug is
made of an alloy called Wood's metal that melts at a relatively low temperature.
2. Each sprinkler has two spring-like metal arms held together by a slug of the Wood's
metal
3. When the Wood's metal is intact, the spring arms are locked together and clamp the
water pipe closed so no water can escape. Directly beneath each sprinkler, there's a
flower-shaped piece of metal called a deflector
4. If a fire breaks out beneath a sprinkler, hot gases swirl upward toward the ceiling.
5. When the temperature reaches about 70°C (160°F), the Wood's metal melts,
allowing the two metal arms to spring open.
6. Water can now escape from the pipe just as it does from an open faucet. It pours
down from the pipe in the ceiling, hits the flower-shaped deflector head directly
beneath, and falls to the ground in a gentle spray
7. If the fire is small, only the sprinkler directly above it will trigger and other nearby
sprinklers will remain switched off to limit water damage. However, if the fire
spreads, nearby sprinklers will soon be triggered as well until either the fire goes out
or the firefighters show up to help out.

Water pipe

Sprinkler

Water

Fire source

Figure 3.16 Fire sprinkler system

40
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 226
Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require
automatic sprinklers or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and
standard appropriate to extinguish fires in the hazardous materials stored or handled or
for the safety of the occupants.

Section 228
1. Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior
wall and shall be readily accessible to the Fire Authority
2. All sprinkler systems shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to
provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activated.

3.3.3.2 Fire Hose Reel System

A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water


or other fire retardant to a fire to extinguish it. In
Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, fire hose reel is located
near the emergency staircase and the bomba lift in
every floor, it discharges 30L/min of water within 6
meters coverage. The fire hose reel in Taylor’s is
swing type, 30 meter long, 25mm in diameter, jet
spray nozzle and isolating valve.
The usual working pressure of a firehose can vary
between 8 and 20 bar (800 and 2,000 kPa; 116 and
290 psi).
After use, a fire hose is usually hung to dry, because
standing water that remains in a hose for a long time
can deteriorate the material and render it unreliable or
unusable. Therefore, the typical fire station often has
a high structure to accommodate the length of a hose
for such preventative maintenance. Figure 3.17 Fire hose reel

41
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.3.3 Pump Room

Figure 3.18 Pump room plan.

The pump room, or known as the sprinkler room


provides fast and immediate means of fire control to
provide sufficient water flow during a fire event. In
Taylor’s Lakeside Campus, the pump room consists
of duty pump, standby pump and jockey pump.

A firefighting system consists of 2 main pumps, the


main pumps provide sufficient supply of pressurised
water to the fire fighting system, which is initiated
either manually or automatically. A sudden drop in
pressure cause the main pumps to supply water to the
fire fighting system automatically. However, the main
pumps can only be stopped manually. This is known
as packaged system. The pressure gauge function to
Figure 3.19. Water riser & hose
control the pressure so that the water pressure is reel tank.
accurate and appropriate. Water will be automatically
cut out at certain circumstances.

42
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Figure 3.20 Sprinkler pump panel Figure 3.21 The panel indicates
the water pressure of each tank.

Figure 3.22 Duty and standby pump in Taylor’s.

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984


Section 247
1. Water storage capacity and water flow rate for fire fighting systems and
installations· shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the .Tenth
Schedule to these By-laws.
2. Main water storage tanks within the building. other than for hose reel systems. shall
be located at ground. first or second basement levels. with fire brigade pumping
inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.
3. Storage tanks for automatic sprinkler installations where full capacity is provided
without need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their
location.

43
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.4 Non Water Based System

3.3.4.1 Fire Extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is used to extinguish or control


small fires, often in emergency situations.
However, it is not intended for use on an
out-of-control fire.Typically, a fire extinguisher
consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel
containing an agent which can be discharged to
extinguish a fire.

Taylor’s Lakeside Campus is well equipped with


ABC Fire Extinguishers as this type of extinguisher
is very versatile, due to its ability to put out various
type of fire. It can be used on class A, class B and
class C fires. ABC dry chemical is usually a mix of
monoammonium phosphate and ammonium
sulfate, with a ratio of 4:6. The fire extinguishers
are strategically located in the hallways and outside
lecture theatres.
Figure 3.18 : ABC extinguisher at the
hallway in Taylors.

Figure 3.19 Different type of extinguisher contains different material to handle fire from
various classes.

44
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

How to operate a fire extinguisher?

Most fire extinguishers operate using the following P.A.S.S. technique:

1. PULL Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper seal.
2. AIM Aim low, pointing the extinguisher nozzle (or its horn or hose) at the
base of the fire.
3. SQUEEZE Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.
4. SWEEP Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it appears to be
out. Watch the area. If the fire re-ignites, repeat steps 2 - 4.

NOTE: Do not touch the plastic discharge horn on CO2 extinguishers, it gets very cold and
may damage skin.

Figure 3.20 : P.A.S.S. technique diagram.

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 227
Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice
and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and
similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

45
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.3.4.2 CO₂ System

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, electrically


non-conductive gas that is highly efficient as a fire
suppression agent. When applied to a fire, CO2
provides a heavy blanket of gas that reduces the
oxygen level to a point where combustion cannot
occur. Since carbon dioxide is a gas, there is no
clean-up associated with a CO2 fire suppression
system discharge.

CO₂ system can be found in electrical rooms, if fire


and smoke detector are both activated, the CO₂
system will be activated too.

Figure 3.21 : CO₂ system found in the


genset room

Figure 3.22 : CO₂ system.

46
CH 03 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.4 Summary

The active fire protection system in Taylor’s Lakeside Campus is well equipped and well
maintained. Active Fire Protection systems require large amount of action or motion in
order to work efficiently in the event of a fire. There will be errors and obstructions,
however to prevent false message or delay, the maintenance and service is very vital. We
shall feel grateful that the facility management and technician play their role well to ensure
the active fire protection system are well functioned and effective especially during a fire
breakdown.

47
4 Passive Fire
Protection System

BY PAU JIN WEI

48
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

CH 04. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.1 Literature review

Passive fire protection is the primary measure integrated within the constructional fabric of a
building to provide inherent fire safety and protection by responding against flame, heat and
smoke to ensure the safety means in the building

4.2 Compartmentation

The purpose of compartmentation is to :


● Prevent spread of fire and smoke
● Subdivide buildings into manageable areas of risk
● Provide adequate Means of Escape
● Provisions in statutory guidance documents

From our investigation, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus is categorized as smaller


compartments so fire is captured within the cell of origin and not spreading the fire and
smoke through other cells.Compartmentation is also referred as fire separation which are
protected corridors, stairs, etc.

Figure 4.1
Horizontal compartmentation
with fire-resisting floor
construction to protect the
route above and below.

49
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.2.1 Fire Rated Door

Fire-Rated steel doors play a vital role in keeping people safe and minimizing property damage
during a fire. Labeled fire doors control the spread of fire and smoke for up to 3 hours. Metal fire
doors are an economical alternative to wood fire doors, when more than a 20 minute rating is
required. Steel is the sole door material to deliver a 3 hour fire-rating. Lecture theaters and
classroom in TULC are mostly fire rated to ensure the safety of the users in the building. The
fire rated door is designed to be pushed towards the exit direction for convenient escape in
emergency situation.

Figure 4.2 Single Leaf Door Figure 4.3 Double Leaf Door

4.2.2 Fire Safety Curtain

Fire Safety Curtain is designed on top of mechanical and electrical systems room Entrance/Exit.
It shall released systematically by the building fire control system when the alarm box is triggered
by any occupants. The purpose of the fire safety curtain is to resist fire and smoke to spread into
other places.It mainly creates a barrier between the interior and exterior spaces to avoid fire to
conduct electric wires when fire spreads into the respective system rooms.

Figure 4.4 Fire Safety Curtain before rolled Figure 4.5 Fire safety Curtain after rolled
down down

50
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.2.3 Fire Smoke Damper

A fire damper can be defined as “a device installed in ducts and air transfer opening of an air
distribution or smoke control system designed to close automatically upon detection of heat. It
also serves to interrupt migratory airflow, resist the passage of flame, and maintain the
integrity of the fire rated separation.” Its primary function is to prevent the passage of flame
from one side of a fire-rated separation to the other.

Figure 4.7 Fire Smoke Damper

Figure 4.6
Fire smoke dampers are operated by a fusible device, typically a melting link. It is designed
to maintain the integrity of the fire-rated separation. Fire dampers are equipped with a
fusible link (rated for 165°F up to 286°F), which holds the blades open until it the link melts.
Upon reaching the melting point, the blades then close and stop the flame from moving into
an adjoining compartment.

Figure 4.8 Circulation for Fire Smoke Damper on drawing plan

51
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.3 Fire Appliances Access

All access roads for Fire Service appliances should be kept clear of any obstructions. It may,
however, be considered necessary to restrict unauthorised entry and various arrangements
are set out below. The access that was mentioned could smoothen the flow on rescuing
occupants in the building without delaying the time.

Figure 4.9 6 meters wide for Bomba to access

Consideration for high reach appliances to occupied the space around the designated
rescue area stated below:

Turntable ladder - To reach occupants that required technical rescue

Hydraulic platform - To overcome obstacles, providing high level access

Tower ladder - To provide appliances for firefighter to operate the equipment

52
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.4 Fire Escape

A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a
building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. It provides
a method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells
inside a building inaccessible. However, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus provided
several design planning that consider the safety of occupants to exit from the building
during fire emergency situation accordingly which are stated below:

Fire emergency staircase - To evacuate the occupants out of the building safely
through the fire emergency staircase

Emergency escape route - To provide occupants to leave the building according to the
emergency escape planned route in case of fire

Emergency escape sign - To direct occupants to follow the direction of the signs toward the
safe zone

Assembly point - To gather occupants in a safe outdoor space according to the designated
assembly spot

Figure 4.10 In TULC, the fire lift lobby is designed behind the lift lobby for ease access
through the corridor at the respective blocks. When a fire occurs and the alarm is triggered,
the normal lifts will automatically head to the ground floor. However, the Bomba can still use
the Bomba lift to get them to their desired floor faster.

53
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.4.2 Fire escape staircase

TULC provide a fire escape staircase in each


blocks that is located towards the back part of the
building which allows the occupants to escape
continuously from the ninth floor to the ground
floor. The advantage of this fire escape stairs
neutrals the air ventilation and no obstruction
without delaying the escape route or time.

Figure 4.11 Fire Escape Staircase

4.4.3 Fire Escape Plan

To identify the escape route when fire occurs so occupant has a guide to lead them to
the safe zone. In a simple terms, the plan shows the layout of the floor plan and
highlights the circulation of the escape route. Informations such as Bomba Lift, Dry and
wet risers, manual alarm , hose reels and extinguishers are required to stated for safety
purposes.

Figure 4.12 Block B ground floor fire escape plan

54
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.4.4 Fire emergency Exit Signs

TULC ensures that emergency exits in the building are clearly marked with Exit Signs so it can
reduce confusion and injury in the event of an emergency. It is important that people in the
building are safe and can evacuate the building quickly and if necessary being guided by an
Emergency Exit Sign.

Figure 4.13 Sample appearance of an


Emergency Exit Sign

UBBL Section 172 - Emergency Exit Signs

1.Every exit signs shall have the word “KELUAR”in a


plainly legible not less than 15mm height with the
principal strokes of letters not less than 18mm wide.

2.The exit and access to such exits shall be marked


by readily visible signs and shall not be obscured by
and decoration.

3.The signs should indicate the direction.

4.All exit shall be illuminated continuously during


period of occupancy

5.The design and installation of every emergency exit


sign shall be in compliance with MS 983 and MS 619
Figure 4.14 Dimension of Exit signs

Figure 4.15 Exit Signs installed in TULC

55
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.4.5 Assembly Point

Assembly area is an area which is located outside the building in an open space where
everyone can be identified and gathered but the area should be clearing indicate by all
occupants before emergency arise. (UBBL 1984, 2011) Hence, TULC designed its assembly
point at Zone F which is in between the basketball court and Block E.

Figure 4.16 Assembly Point Located at Zone F car park

Meanwhile, fire evacuation drill gives a method of practicing how a building would be
evacuated in the event of a fire or other emergencies. Generally, the evacuation is timed
to ensure that it is fast enough, and problems with the emergency system or evacuation
procedures are identified to be remedied.

Instruction steps:

1) When alarm is activated, proceed to the nearest emergency exit / Fire staircase
2) Do not use the lifts
3) Proceed to the assembly point
4) Follow oder from the Fire Marshals
5) Do not re-enter the building until the announced is given

56
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.5 UBBL

4.2) Clauses 162-164


Fire Doors-162(2) Openings in compartment and separating walls to be protected by Fire
Doors in accordance with the FRP requirements of the relevant walls referred in the
Ninth Schedule 162(3) Openings in protected structures to be protected by Fire Doors
with FRP not less than ½ of the relevant walls referred in the Ninth Schedule 162(4)
Openings in protected corridor or lobby to be protected by Fire Doors having FRP of ½
hour.

4.2) Clause 173


All exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of keys or any special
knowledge

4.3) Clause 161


Any firestop required by the provisions of this part shall be so formed and positioned as
to prevent or retard the passage of flame.

4.3) Clause 111


Lightning and ventilation of staircases. All staircases shall be properly lighted and
ventilated according to the requirements of the local authority.

4.4) Clause 165


Measurement of travel distance to exit. The maximum travel distance to exits and
deadlines shall be as specified in the seventh schedule of these By-Laws.

4.4) Clauses 110


No obstruction in staircases. There shall be no projection, other than handrails in the
staircases, in any corridor, passage of staircase at level lower than 2 meters above the
floor or above any stairs.

4.4) Clause 172


Conditions for Emergency Exit [KELUAR] Signs

4.4) Clauses 168 - 169


Exit Staircases _ Every upper floor to have minimum 2 staircases except buildings lower
than 12m that comply with Clause 194, Number of Staircases should accommodate
highest occupancy load under Seventh Schedule even though one staircase is not
accessible/available, handrails may encroach into staircase width to a maximum 75mm,
widths of staircases and exit routes shall be maintained [not reduced in width] throughout
& door swings should not encroach the access width.

4.4) Clause 178


Exits for institutional and places of assembly to be located to avoid undue danger from
fire originating in other occupancy (areas)

57
CH 04 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

4.6 Summary

The Architect of Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus prepared a well planned passive fire
protection which occupants could still feel relieved when there is no electric or electronic
activation as PFP typically do not require electric or electronic activation or a degree of
motion. Exceptions to that particular rule of thumb are fire dampers and fire door closers,
which must move, open and shut in order to work. Passive fire protection measures are
intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin, thus limiting the spread of fire
and smoke for a limited period of time. Passive fire protection measures, such as firestops,
fire walls, and fire doors, are tested to determine the fire-resistance rating of the final
assembly

58
5 MECHANICAL
TRANSPORTATION

BY LAU HUI MING

59
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

CH 05 . MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION

Mechanical transportation is an integral part of modern buildings. It had been introduced in


buildings in the early 20th century. It automatically transport people and/or materials between
areas of a building. There are several types of mechanical transportation.

Mechanical Transportation

Lifts / Elevators Escalators Travelators

5.1.1.1 LIFTS / ELEVATORS


The definition of lift or elevators is a transport device used to move goods or people vertically.
It was to provide access for elderly & disable, modern offices and public buildings. It is used to
move goods and people vertically or horizontally. It also used to provide access for elderly and
disabled people in modern offices and public buildings. In a building more than 4 stories,
mechanical transportation should be implemented. Another function of elevator is providing
access for elderly and disable, modern offices and public buildings. The minimum standard of
service was one lift per four storey. The maximum walking distance to access a lift is 45 m.

The location of the elevator 8 Lift should be positioned at locations which provide easy access for
all building users, i.e. central entrance lobby of offices, hotels, apartments, etc. Grouping of lifts
are essential for user convenience. When a number of lifts are required, it is preferably to group
them together to reduce waiting time and cost of installation. Therefore lift lobby should be large
enough to allow traffic to move in two directions. There are two types of elevators.

Elevators

Transaction Hydraulic Traction - Climbing


Elevator Elevator Hydraulic elevator
Elevators

60
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.2 Types of hoist mechanisms

5.2.1 Transaction Elevator


Geared and gearless traction elevators Geared traction machines are driven by AC or DC electric
motors. Geared machines use gears to control mechanical movement of elevator cars by "rolling"
steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which is attached to a gearbox driven by a high speed
motor. These machines are generally the best option for basement or overhead traction use for
speeds up to 500 ft/min (2.5 m/s).

Gearless traction machines are low speed, high torque electric motors powered either by AC or
DC. In this case, the drive sheave is directly attached to the end of the motor. Gearless traction
elevators can reach speeds of up to 2,000 ft/min (10 m/s), or even higher. A brake is mounted
between the motor and drive sheave to hold the elevator stationary at a floor.

Figure5.1 shows the component of Transaction


Elevator

61
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.2.2 Hydraulic Elevator

The concept of an elevator is incredibly simple it's just a compartment attached to a lifting system.
Tie a piece of rope to a box, and you've got a basic elevator. Of course, modern passenger and
freight elevators are a lot more elaborate than this. They need advanced mechanical systems to
handle the substantial weight of the elevator car and its cargo.

Additionally, they need control mechanisms so passengers can operate the elevator, and they
need safety devices to keep everything running smoothly. Hydraulic elevator systems lift a person
or other using a hydraulic ram, a fluid-driven piston mounted inside a cylinder.
You can see how this system works in the diagram below.

Figure 5.2 shows the component of Hydraulic Elevator

62
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.2.3 Traction - Hydraulic Elevators

The traction-hydraulic elevator has overhead traction cables and counterweight, but is driven by
hydraulic power instead of an overhead traction motor. The weight of the car and its passengers,
plus an advantageous roping ratio, reduces the demand from the pump to raise the
counterweight, thereby reducing the size of the required machinery.

Figure shows the component of Hydraulic Elevator

Figure 5.3 shows the component of Traction-Hydraulic


Elevator

63
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.2.4 CLIMBING ELEVATOR

A climbing elevator is a self-ascending elevator with its own propulsion. The propulsion can be
done by an electric or a combustion engine. Climbing elevators are used in guyed masts or
towers, in order to make easy access to parts of these constructions, such as flight safety lamps
for maintenance.

Figure 5.4 shows the component of Hydraulic Elevator

64
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.3 CASE STUDY

5.3.1 INTRODUCTION

The elevators that are installed in our chosen building is Motor-Room-Less (MRL elevator). MRL
is type of either traction or hydraulic elevator which do not require a machine room for the
elevator. Their motor are placed beside but not on the top.
MRLs are a type of traction elevators that do not have a machine room on the top of the hoistway.
Instead, the traction hoisting machine is located on the top side wall of the hoistway or on the
bottom of the hoistway. The motor is installed with a permanent magnet and works with Variable
Voltage Variable Frequency drive. Some hoisting machines use gearless synchronous motors
instead of conventional induction motors.
MRLs use conventional steel cord rope for the hoisting cables. Some manufacturers use flat steel
rope belts to save space. MRL elevators are usually used in low- and mid-rise buildings up to 20
floors.
Almost all the traction MRL elevators are gearless traction. While the hoisting motor is installed
on the hoistway side wall, the main controller is installed on the top floor next to the landing
doors. This controller is situated behind a locked cabinet which have to be unlocked using a key
for maintenance, repair or emergency purposes. Most elevators have their controller installed on
the top floor but fewer elevators have their controller installed on the bottom-most floor. Some
elevators (like those in Japan) may have the hoisting motor located on the bottom of the elevator
shaft put, thus it is called as "bottom drive MRL" elevator. Some elevators (like Otis and
Schindler) have the controller cabinet installed within the door frame instead on the wall to save
space.

Like normal traction elevators, machine room less elevators uses the conventional steel cord
ropes used as the hoisting cables. Some elevator brands (such as Otis and Schindler) are using
flat steel rope belts instead of conventional ropes. Manufacturers using these technology claimed
that with flat steel belt ropes, it saves much space on the hoistway and to allow a minimum size of
the hoisting sheave. With flat steel belts also allows 30% lighter than conventional steel ropes.

Most machine room less elevators are used for low to mid rise buildings. Machine room less
elevators in mid-rise buildings usually serves up to 20 floors

65
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.3.2 Advantages:
• Substantially lower initial cost of equipment and its maintenance for a given capacity hydraulic
elevator equipment cost up to 40% less than traction equipment
• More building space utilization as the hydraulic elevator utilises up to 12% less space than an
equivalent traction elevator, as the hydraulic system imposes no load on the column the column
size can be reduced
• Effective for high load requirements such as freight elevators
• Lowest cost down speed amongst all elevators as gravity is utilized as the motive force

5.3.4 Detriments
•No code has been approved for the installation of MRLs as residential elevators.
•Loud, high frequency sound when the elevator is running (because of the Variable Voltage
•Life expectancy of MRL elevators is lower compared to other types of elevators.
•Equipment may be comparatively harder to maintain.
•Motor can be damaged in bottom drive MRLs in the event of pit flooding.

5.3.5 The Company


The mechanical transportation system in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus is provided by
KONE Pte Ltd was established in Singapore since 1978 and is now one of the fastest growing
elevator and escalator companies in Singapore.

Figure 5.5 the safety notice from KONE Figure 5.6 The logo of KONE

66
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

Figure 4.3.5.1 Taylor’s Ground Floor Plan

5.3.5 Location of the lift.


There is only one lift in Block B. It only go until the fourth floor. It was considered as private space
because it is used by officer and workers. Each floor access directly to storage room which
enable workers carrying stuff in and out. With the total of 5 floor along a block, there is one unit of
elevator, act as passenger and emergency lift together. This can be proven that successfully
accomplished the requirement. The type of elevator is called motor-room-less.

Figure 5.7 the view of storage room

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984


Section 225.
For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 storeys above or below the main access level at
least one lift shall be provided.

67
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.4 COMPONENTS OF ELEVATOR

5.4.1 BASIC COMPONENTS


Basic Elevator Components

1. Car.
2. Hoistway.
3. Machine/drive system.
4. Safety system.
5. Control system.

Figure 5.8 the view of storage room

68
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.4.2 DETAIL COMPONENTS REVIEW OF KONE MONOSPACE

Figure 5.9
1. Machine 8. Counterweight
2. Shaft Electrification Panel 9. Car guide rails
3. Maintenance Access Panel 10. Counterweight guide rails
4. Overspeed governor 11. Car buffer
5. Landing doors 12. Counterweight buffer
6. Elevator car 13. Rope suspension points
7. Car door 14. Overspeed governor rope

69
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.4.3 COMPONENTS OF MOTOR-ROOM-LESS

1. Machines
Geared machines use worm gears to control mechanical movement
of elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave
which is attached to a gearbox driven by a high-speed motor.

Figure 5.10

2. Shaft Electrification Panel


The space in which the car and the counterweight, if there is one,
travels; this space is usually bounded by the bottom of the pit, the
walls and the ceiling of the shaft

Figure 5.11

3. Maintenance Access Panel


A part of the elevator control system, including the user-interface
intended for serviceman and switches, fuses and brake release lever.

Figure 5.12

4. Overspeed governor
A device which, when the elevator attains a predetermined speed,
causes the elevator to stop, and if necessary causes the safety gear
to be applied

Figure 5.13

70
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5. Landing doors
A door in the opening of an elevator shaft. Provides safe access to
the elevator car.

Figure 5.14

6. Elevator car
A part of the elevator which carries the passengers and/or other
loads.

Figure 5.15

7. Car door
Cabin doors can be separated in three according to their
operation as follows :
1. Slam-doorsÆ opened and closed by hand
2. Semi-automatic doors Æ closed with the help of shock absorbers
3. Full-automatic doors Æ operate by electric motors

Figure 5.16

8. Counterweight
A component which ensures traction between the traction sheave and
the suspension ropes and which comprises a set of weights to
balance the weight of the car and a proportion of the load in the car
often taken as 50 % of the rated load.

Figure 5.17

9. Car guide rails


Guide rails used to direct the travel of an elevator car in an elevator
shaft.

Figure 5.18
71
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

10. Counterweight guide rails


Protects the counter weight along the vertical
direction and, it prevents any turning of cabin and counterweight. All
rails are used by the parachute arrangement to hold the cabin.

Figure 5.19

11. Car buffer


A device designed to stop a descending car beyond its normal limit of
travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of
the car.

Figure 5.20

12. Counterweight buffer


These devices are used to cushion the elevator and are most always
located in the elevator pit.

Figure 5.21

13. Rope suspension points


Guide rails used to direct the travel of an elevator car in an elevator
shaft.The ropes suspending the elevator car and counterweight. Not
the same as hoisting rope.

Figure 5.22

14. Overspeed governor rope


An essential functional element of the speed limitation process and
the safety gear.

Figure 5.23
72
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.5 ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM

4.5.1 Button Panel

1. Floor Request
Button

2. Hall Button

3. Emergency Bell
Button

4. Open and Close


Button
5. Key Control

Figure 5.25
Figure 5.24

1. Floor Request Button

The controller interacts with these buttons by receiving pressed signals indicating the desired
floor number which they were pressed from. It also sends light on/off signals to indicate the
status of the buttons.

2. Hall Button
These buttons are on a button panel on the outside of the elevator shafts. It used to call an
elevator to desire floor. There are two hall buttons on each floor which is one for up, another
for down, except for the top floor where there is only down and on the bottom floor where there
is only up.

3. Emergency Bell Button

The function of this button is to sound a bell to alert people outside of the elevator shaft that
someone is trapped inside the elevator cab in case of a malfunction.

73
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

4. Open And Close Door Button

The function of these button is to open or close the elevator doors or keep pressing it to keep
them open or close, but only when the elevator cab is stopped at a floor.

5. Key Control

Key controls may only be activated by the proper keys. Thus, it just restricted to repair people,
elevator operators or firemen. It is used in place of or in conjunction with a pushbutton to
restrict access to a floor.

Car Position
Display

Lift Supervisory
Panel

Figure 5.27

Figure 5.26

6. Car Position Display

The interior of each car has a display that indicates to its passengers which floor the car is
currently on. The elevator systems in PJ Trade Centre has floor number display on every floor
outside of the elevator doors. The controller interacts with this display by sending a signal that
tells it which floor number to display.

7. Lift Supervisory Panel

Key controls may only be activated by the proper keys. Thus, it just restricted to repair people,
elevator operators or firemen. It is used in place of or in conjunction with a pushbutton to
restrict access to a floor.

74
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.6 SAFETY EQUIPMENT

The elevator is provided with several safety equipment;

1. The brakes (two independently operating) keep the position of traction sheave when there is no
need to move the elevator car. The brakes close automatically when the control unit interrupts the
electrical power or if there is a power failure.

2. The overspeed governor stops the elevator with the help of brakes and safety gear if the
elevator car exceeds its maximum speed. Both, overspeed governor and safety gear are
mechanical equipment, thus fully functional even during power failure.

3.The safety gear is attached to the elevator car frame. If the elevator car starts moving too fast,
the governor locks the governor rope, which is attached to the safety gear. Then the safety gear
grips firmly the guide rails and stops the elevator car.

Figure 5.28 Figure 5.29

4. Doors are installed on every floor and on the elevator car to protect users from injuring
themselves during the elevator’s operation. Protective devices like photocells have been installed
on the car entrance to prevent the doors from closing if someone is entering or exiting the
elevator, or is standing too close to the doors. In addition to protective devices all automatic doors
have closing force limiter, which prevents the crashing of people between the door panels. If
construction of the door panels is planned to be changed, please ensure with KONE that the
changes are allowed and do not harm the functioning of doors. A special safety mechanism,
based on an electrical contact, prevents the elevator from moving if the doors are not fully closed.
The doors are also fitted with a special lock, which keeps the doors closed and locked if the
elevator car is not on a landing. Preventing the landing door opening by accident is necessary to
protect anybody falling to the elevator shaft.

75
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5. If the elevator would travel beyond the terminal floor levels, the buffers ensure the smooth
stopping. The overtravel is very improbable because there are many electric safety devices,
which will switch off the power of the motor and initiate braking in abnormal situation and so
prevent the car going too far beyond the lowest or topmost floor level.

5.7 EMERGENCY

5.7.1 Cut off in Electricity


It there is cut off electricity, the lift will automatically stop at the nearest level of the landing.
Genset will be generated immediately as a backup power supply, the car will land at the
ground floor and open to let people leave immediately.

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 153:
1. On failure of mains power all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated
floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any cat or landing calls and
park with doors open.
2. After all lifts are parked the lifts on emergency power shall resume normal operation:
Provided that where sufficient emergency power is available for operation of all lifts, this
mode of operation need not apply.

5.7.2 Fire Emergency

If fire happens, fire service indicator will illuminate, the buzzer will ring. Then the elevator
will move to ground floor, where the 24/7 control room at the back entrance of the building
located, allow users leave the building immediately. The smoke detector outside the
elevator in every level

IN REFERENCE TO UBBL 1984

Section 153:
1. (1) All lift lobbies shall be provided with Smoke detector.
(2) Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled
by light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which
after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a
preset time

76
CH 05 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

5.8 SUMMARY

In brief, there are four types of hoist mechanisms which are transaction elevators, hydraulic
elevators, traction - hydraulic elevators and climbing elevators. For my opinion, engineer and
architects had worked hards to create a good experience for the users by providing transportation
system for them travel to space vertically since all the buildings in Taylor’s University are high rise
buildings which can up to level 9. During peak hours, there will be a lot of students using the
elevators to higher levels.

Elevators are all constructed by KONE Sdn.Bhd. They are very famous on providing high-quality
elevators and escalators for all kinds of buildings. Their maintenance and modernization services
ensure your equipment is reliable and safe to use. They also consider a lot for safety system to
ensure people evacuation smoothly.

Taylor’s University use elevator machine-room-less drives. It represent current pinnacle of


elevator drive technology and have made other traction drives obsolete. MRL drives offer best
operating parameters including costs, energy efficiency, ride quality. When compared to other
types of drives for high rise applications and are being preferred to hydraulic drives in low rise
applications.

However MRL drives currently in use have few disadvantages including less seismic safety,
eccentric haulage of cabin, difficulty and increased costs of inspection and maintenance. Most of
these disadvantages occur due to older method of Supporting MRL drives on a Beam spanning
the Guide rails. Lower costs of inspection and maintenance over the elevator lifetime will also
encourage widespread use of the highly efficient MRL drives.

77
6 CONCLUSION

78
CH 06 CONCLUSION

CH 06 .CONCLUSION
Throughout the project, we had learnt that service systems which are necessary in a building
program for the safety and comfort of users, which is the ultimate goal of building. The study
outcome classified the availability, necessity and importance of building services. Now we know
how each system play its role in the building and how each component of the system serves its
function.

Furthermore, we could identify and understand the information related to mechanical ventilation,
air-conditioning system, mechanical transportation system and fire protection system. Building
services system has to be strategically planned in building as each system has its strength and
weakness, it serves particular functions which may not be relevant to another project.

The building has followed the rules and regulations set by the Department of Standards Malaysia
such as MS 1525 for most of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system) and
UBBL which stands for Uniform Building By Law. One of the suggestions will be the system
should be implied in a more creative and innovative way rather than the conservative and
traditional way.

A group photo with Mr Antony

79
7 REFERENCES

80
CH 07 REFERENCES

CH 07 REFERENCES
7.1 Mechanical Ventilation

1. Designing Buildings Wiki The construction industry knowledge base. (n.d.). Retrieved
October 12, 2017, from
https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Mechanical_ventilation_of_buildings.
2. (2017). Hometips.com. Retrieved 12 October 2017, from
https://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/ventilation-systems-exhaust.html
3. Mechanical Ventilation. (2017). New-learn.info. Retrieved 12 October 2017, from
http://new-learn.info/packages/clear/thermal/buildings/active_systems/mv/index.html
4. Decisions, F. M. (n.d.). The Three Types of Air Filters - Facility Management IAQ Feature.
Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
http://www.facilitiesnet.com/iaq/article/The-Three-Types-of-Air-Filters-Facility-Managemen
t-IAQ-Feature--11235

7.2 Air Conditioning System

1. Types of Air Conditioners - Which is right for you? (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2017,
from https://www.consumersearch.com/central-air-conditioners/types-of-air-conditioners
2. Chilled Water Central Air Conditioning Plants. (2009, September 26). Retrieved October
09, 2017, from
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/hvac/50160-chilled-water-central-air-conditioning-sy
stems/#imgn_1
3. Three important functions of the receiver/drier in your car’s A/C system. (2010, July 13).
Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
https://macsworldwide.wordpress.com/2010/07/13/three-important-functions-of-the-receiv
erdrier-in-your-cars-ac-system/
4. What is a Split Air Conditioner System? (n.d.). Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
http://www.networx.com/article/split-air-conditioner-system

7.3 Active Fire Protection System

1. How Optical Smoke Alarms Work. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from
https://www.safelincs.co.uk/smoke-alarm-types-optical-alarms-overview/
2. How Does Fire Alarm Systems Work? (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2017, from
http://www.advfireonline.com/fire-alarm-contractor-in-miami-info-center-how-does-fire-alar
m-systems-work.html
3. CO2 Fire Suppression System | Fire Suppression Solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved October 12,
2017, from http://www.fike.com/products/co2-fire-suppression-system/
4. (n.d.). Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
http://www.fainkorea.com/en/systems/sys_info.html?code=systems01
5. How do fire sprinklers work? (2016, November 07). Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
http://www.explainthatstuff.com/firesprinklers.html

81
CH 07 REFERENCES

7.4 Passive Fire Protection System

1. Carino, N. J. (2005). Passive fire protection. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
2. Wall, E., & OConnor, L. (1988). Fire escape. New York: Sunken-Isle Press.
3. Buckley, G. (1990). Ability of curtain-type fire dampers to close under high air velocities.
North Ryde, N.S.W.: National Building Technology Centre, CSIRO Division of Building
Construction and Engineering
4. The Building Regulations 1991: fire safety: approved document: B1 means of escape ; B2
internal fire spread (linings) ; B3 internal fire spread (structure) ; B4 external fire spread ;
B5 access and facilities for the fire service. (1991). Place of publication not identified:
H.M.S.O.
5. Bradshaw, V., & Bradshaw, V. (2006). The building environment: active and passive
control systems. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
6. Hall, F., & Greeno, R. (2015). Building services handbook. Oxon: Routledge
7. Abiko, Y., Ōtsuka, M., & Ōno, T. (2006). Kenchiku setsubi = Building service. Tōkyō:
Ichigaya Shuppansha.
8. Klote, J. H. (n.d.). Design manual for smoke control systems. Gaithersburg, MD: Building
and Fire Research Laboratory.

7.5 Mechanical Transportation System

1. Glossary. (2017). Kone.my. Retrieved 12 October 2017, from


https://www.kone.my/tools-downloads/glossary/
2. How do elevators and lifts work?. (2017). Explain that Stuff. Retrieved 12 October 2017,
from http://www.explainthatstuff.com/how-elevators-work.html
3. Hydraulic Elevators. (2017). Elevatorstudy.com. Retrieved 12 October 2017, from
http://www.elevatorstudy.com/2015/11/hydraulic-elevators.html
4. Nair R, A. (2017). A Critical Review and Investigation of Machine Room Less
(MRL)Elevators. Retrieved 11 October 2017, from
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/a-critical-review-and-investigation-of-machine-r
oom-less-mrlelevators-2168-9873-1000166.php?aid=56012
5. Machine room less elevator. (2017). Elevator Wiki. Retrieved 11 October 2017, from
http://elevation.wikia.com/wiki/Machine_room_less_elevator

82