Anda di halaman 1dari 19

School of Mechanical Engineering

Laboratory Manual

CAD/CAM LAB
MEE 451P
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

List of Tutorials

S.No Title of Tutorials Page No.


1. Static Structural Analysis of Planar Truss 3-5
2. Static Structural Analysis of Beam under 6-8
different boundary conditions
3. Static Structural Analysis of Support 9-11
Plate used for bolted joints.
4. Fatigue Failure Analysis of Shaft 12-14
5. CNC Programming - Turning 15
6. CNC Programming– Taper Turning 16
7. CNC Programming - Milling 17
8. CNC Programming - Drilling 18

2
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Title of the Tutorial


Static Structural Analysis of Planar Truss

2. Aim of the Tutorial


To perform static structural Analysis of 2D truss using ANSYS Software and compare the results
obtained from simulation with the theoretical results obtained using method of section / method of joints.

3. Theory
A truss is a structure composed of slender members joined together at their end points. The members
commonly used in construction consist of of wooden struts or metal bars. In Particular, Planar truss lies in a
single plane and are often used to supports roofs and bridges. The truss shown in figure 1(a) is an example of
typical roof supporting truss. The analysis of force developed in the planar truss is two dimensional and
along the length of members. Figure 1 (b) shows the direction of various forces acting on truss due to weight
of roof.

3
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 1(a) Figure 1(a)

Figure 1 (c) and Figure 1 (d) Shows application of truss in bridge and direction of forces acting on its
members respectively.

Figure 1(c) Figure 1(d)

4. Details of Truss under Analysis.


Determine the maximum displacement and axial force in each member for the two bar stress as shown in
figure 1(e) using ANSYS software and method of section/joints. Take young modulus of elasticity as 210
GPa and Cross sectional of each member as 0.01 m2

4
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 1(e)

5. Results
Theoretical stress and displacement in member of above truss can be obtained using method of section /
method of joints.

Simulation Values Theoretical Value


Horizontal member Inclined member Horizontal member Inclined member
Axial Force (kN)
Max. Displacement
--------------- ---------------
(mm)
Reaction at supports
(kN)

6. Conclusion

7. Practice Problem
Considering the four member truss as shown in figure 1 (f). Assuming Young Modulus of elasticity as 85
GPa and area of each member as 0.1 m2. Determine the deformation, axial force and the reaction forces
in the truss.

Figure 1(f)

*Note – Attached hand calculation sheets for theoretical


calculations and screen shots of ANSYS results along
with tutorial sheet while submitting the tutorials.
Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory
Course code: MEE307P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem

5
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1 Title of the Experiment


Static Structural Analysis of Beam

2.2 Aim of the Experiment


To perform static structural Analysis of beam under single concentrated load; for different end conditions
using ANSYS Software and compare the results obtained from simulation with the theoretical results.

2.3 Theory
A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The
bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own
weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a moment. Beams are characterized by their
profile (shape of cross section) there length and there material.
Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but smaller
structures such as truck or automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural
systems contain beam structures that are designed and analyzed in a similar fashion.

In engineering, beams are of several types -


 Simply supported - a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment
resistance.
 Fixed - a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.
 Over hanging - a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.
 Double overhanging - a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends.
 Continuous - a beam extending over more than two supports.
 Cantilever - a projecting beam fixed only at one end.
 Trussed - a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss

6
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 2.1 (a)

Figure 2.1 (a) Shows beam with one end fixed & other roller supported, before and after application of
uniformly distributed load.

2.4 Details of beam under Analysis.


A 2 m long beam with rectangular section (60mm X 90mm) is subjected to concentrated load of 4 kN.
Assuming structural steel as beam material, determine the deflection, stress and shear force for following
end conditions,

 One end fixed and other end free, load applied at free end
 Both end fixed, load applied at mid of span
 One end fixed and other end is roller supported, load applied at mid of span

2.5 Results
Simulation Values Theoretical Value
Fixed fixed & Fixed beam fixed &
Cantilever Cantilever
beam roller roller
Beam Beam
support support
Total
Deformation
(mm)
Von misses stress

7
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

(Mpa)
Shear force (kN)

2.6 Conclusion

2.7 Practice Problem


A 2 m long I section beam shown in figure 2.2 (b) is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m. All
dimensions in figure 2.2 (b) are in mm. Assuming structural steel as beam material, determine the deflection,
stress and shear for following end conditions,

 One end fixed and other end free, load applied at free end
 One end fixed and other end is roller supported, load applied at mid of span
 Both end fixed, load applied at mid of span

Figure 2.2(b)

8
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

*Note – Attached hand calculation sheets for theoretical calculations and screen shots of ANSYS results along
with tutorial sheet while submitting the tutorials.
Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1 Title of the Tutorial


Static Structural Analysis of Support Plate used for bolted joints.

3.2 Aim of the Tutorial


To perform static structural Analysis of support plate under transverse load, using ANSYS Software and
compare the results obtained from simulation with the theoretical results.

3.3 Theory
Support plates are structural members used to transmit the static forces or weights of machines to the
grounds. When two or more plates are jointed using bolted or welded connections it becomes supporting
bracket. A support plate takes the reaction of a steel beam and distributes that force over a larger area that
is made of a material that is not as strong as steel. The action is essentially the same as a footing that
distributes a large load to softer soil. The bearing plate is necessary to avoid crushing of the weaker
material and to distribute the reaction force over a sufficient length of beam to prevent web yielding or
crippling. These support plates and bracket are subjected to shear and bending stress under transverse
loads. Some of the common arrangements of support plates and brackets are shown below.

9
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

3.4 Details of support plate under Analysis.


In the figure given below a structural steel support plate is used to transmit a force of 12 kN to ground,
through a vertical column. The plate is bolted to column using three M12 x 1.75 bolts as shown below.
Determine shear stress in each bolts and maximum bending stress in support plate.Assume missing
dimensions on the scale of figure.

3.5 Results

Shear Stress (MPa)


Maximum Bending Stress in support plate (MPa)
Top Bolt Mid Bolt Bottom Bolt
Simulation Values
Theoretical Value

10
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

3.6 Conclusion

3.7 Practice Problem


A vertical channel 152 x 76 has a cantilever beam bolted to it as shown below. The channel is hot rolled AISI
1006 Steel. The bar is of hot rolled AISI 1015 Steel. The Shoulder bolts are M12 x 1.75. A force F of
magnitude 20 kN is applied at bar as shown below. Determine factor of safety for bolts and bar. Assume
missing dimensions on the scale of figure.

11
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

*Note – Attached hand calculation sheets for theoretical calculations and screen shots of ANSYS results along
with tutorial sheet while submitting the tutorials.

Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.1 Title of the Tutorial
Fatigue Failure Analysis of Shaft

4.2 Aim of the Tutorial


To perform fatigue failure analysis of shaft resulting from variable loading, using ANSYS Software and
compare the results obtained from simulation with the theoretical results.

4.3 Theory
In real world conditions frequently arise, in which the stresses vary with time or they fluctuate between
different levels. For example, a particular fiber on the surface of a rotating shaft subjected to the action of

12
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

bending loads undergoes both tension and compression for each revolution of the shaft. If the shaft is
part of an electric motor rotating at 1000 rev/min, the fiber is stressed in tension and compression 1000
times each minute. If, in addition, the shaft is also axially loaded (as it would be, for example, by a
helical or worm gear), an axial component of stress is superposed upon the bending component. In this
case, some stress is always present in any one fiber, but now the level of stress is fluctuating. These and
other kinds of loading occurring in machine members produce Stresses that are called variable, repeated,
alternating, or fluctuating stresses. Often, machine members are found to have failed under the action of
repeated or fluctuating stresses; yet the most careful analysis reveals that the actual maximum stresses
were well below the ultimate strength of the material, and quite frequently even below the yield strength.
The most distinguishing characteristic of these failures is that the stresses have been repeated a very large
number of times. Hence the failure is called a fatigue failure. Different theories have been established to
predict the life cycle and factor of safety of component under variable loading. Figure 4.1 (a) shows
various fatigue failure lines/theories.

Figure 4.1 (a) Fatigue failure lines/theories.

4.4 Details of shaft under Analysis.


A 1 m long mild steel circular shaft of diameter 30 mm is simply supported at both the ends. A pulley of
mass 200 kg is located at the mid of shaft. If the shaft is running at 200 RPM, Determine the life of shaft in
Hrs. Also determine the von mises stress and factor of safety, for shaft using Goodman criteria for fatigue
failure. Neglect the mass of shaft. Assume any missing data suitably.

4.5 Results

13
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Simulation Values Theoretical Value

Life of Shaft (Hrs)


Factor of safety
Von mises stress (MPa)

4.6 Conclusion

4.7 Practice Problem


In the figure 4.2 (b), shaft A, made of AISI 1010 hot-rolled steel, is welded to a fixed support and is
Subjected to loading by equal and opposite forces F via shaft B.A theoretical stress concentration
Kt s of 1.6 is induced by the 3-mm fillet. The length of shaft A from the fixed support to the connection
at shaft B is 1 m. The load F cycles from 0 to 2 kN Determine for shaft A, find the factor of safety using the
modified Goodman fatigue failure

14
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 4.2(b)

*Note – Attached hand calculation sheets for theoretical calculations and screen shots of ANSYS results along
with tutorial sheet while submitting the tutorials.

Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tutorial sheet No. 5 – CNC Programming

Q1. Write a manual part program for finishing the component as shown in figure 5.1

15
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 5.1

Q2. Write a manual part program for finishing the component as shown in figure 5.2

Figure 5.2

*Note – Student can take help from CAD/CAM theory course book (P.N. Rao) to formulate the program.
-- Student will write the program on back side of this page

Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tutorial sheet No. 6 – CNC Programming


Q1. Write a manual part program for finishing the component as shown in figure 6.1
16
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 6.1
Q2. Write a manual part program for finishing a forged component as shown in figure 6.2.
Assume feed and speed of turning center as 0.35 mm/rev and 400 rpm respectively. Assume
1 mm material to be removed radially from external diameter.

Figure 6.2

*Note – Student can take help from CAD/CAM theory course book (P.N. Rao) to formulate the program.
-- Student will write the program on back side
Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tutorial sheet No. 7 – CNC Programming
Q1. Write a manual part program for finishing the component as shown in figure 7.1

17
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 7.1
Q2. Write a CNC program for finishing a forged component as shown in figure 7.2. Use an
end mill of 10 mm diameter. Assume suitable data for machining parmeters.

Figure 7.2
*Note – Student can take help from CAD/CAM theory course book (P.N. Rao) to formulate the program.
-- Student will write the program on back side of this page
Course Title: CAD/CAM Laboratory Course code: MEE451P

Programme: B. Tech, 7th Sem


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tutorial sheet No. 8 – CNC Programming


Q1. Write a part program to drill the holes in a component shown in figure 8.1 for CNC
machine. Take the work material as aluminum and tool material as HSS.

18
School of Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory Handout

Figure 8.1
*Note – Student can take help from CAD/CAM theory course book (P.N. Rao) to formulate the program.
-- Student will write the program on back side of this page

19