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FOOD ADDITIVES

KIMIA HASIL PERTANIAN


DEFINISI:!

• B a h a n ata u ca m p u ra n b e b e ra p a ba h a n ya n g
ditambahkan pada saat pengolahan pangan, tetapi
FOOD A DDI T I VES bukan sebagai bahan utama.

FUNGSI:!
1. Meningkatkan mempertahankan mutu, !

2. Meningkatkan nilai gizi, !

3. Memeperbaiki sifat fungsional, !

4. Mempermudah pengolahan, !

5. Meningkatkan penerimaan konsumer.


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Food Additives Food Additives

LARANGAN PENGGUNAAN FOOD ADDITIVE

FOOD ADDITVE DILARANG DIGUNAKAN, BILA:!

• Menutupi kesalahan pengolahan!


• Menyembunyikan kerusakan, pembusukan, atau inferior
products!
• Menipu konsumen!
• menyebabkan pengurangan substansial dalam nutrisi penting!
• Dalam jumlah yang lebih besar dari maksimum
Penambahan food additive tidak dianjurkan, bila efeknya dapat
dihasilkan melalui proses pengolahan yang baik (GMP) dan
lebih ekonomis.
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Food Additives Food Additives

JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE


JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: PRESERVATIVE . . .

A. PRESERVATIVES:! 3. Sulfites:!
• Su lfur dioxi de dan su lfites sebagai antimikroba
1. Benzoic Acid and Na-benzoate:! (menghambat mold, yeats, dan bacteria) dan sebagai
• Anti mikroba pada makan dengan kdar asam tinggi (juice, antioxidant.!
cider, pickle, soda). !
• Sebagai bahan pengawet pada produksi anggur (wine).
• Digunakana juga pada margarin, salad dressing, kecap, dan
selai buah. 4. Sodium Chloride:!
2. Asam Sorbate:! • Digunakan untuk mencegah pembusukan makanan. Ikan,
daging, dan sayuran.!
• Digunakan untuk mencegah pertumbuhan jamur dan ragi. !
• Aktivitas antimikroba garam berhubungan dengan
• Ditambahkan pada anggur, juice, buah kering, cheese, kemampuannya untuk mengurangi aktivitas air (aw),
daging, dan ikan.
sehingga mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroba.
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Food Additives Food Additives

JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: PRESERVATIVE . . . JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: PRESERVATIVE . . .

5. Nitrates and Nitrites:! 6. Bacteriocin:!


• Nitrates and nitrites bersifat antimikroba. ! • Bacteriocin adalah polipeptida anti bakteri yang
• Nitrate ditambahkan pada produksi Gouda cheese untuk dihasilkan oleh beberapa strain bakteri asam laktat
mencegah pembentukan gas oleh bakteri pembentuk asam (Lactococcus lactis).!
butirat.
• Dapat digunkan sebagai bahan pembantu pengolahan
• Nitrite ditambahkan pada daging untuk menghambat melawan bakteri gram positive.!
pertumbuhan Clostridium botulinum.! • Bakteri asam laktar tumbuh secara alamiah dalam susu.
• Masalah dengan Nitrite adalah bila beraksi dengan 7. Natamyacin:!
secondary amine membentuk nitrosamines, komponen
carcinogenik.
• Digunkan untuk mencegah pertu mbuhan jamur,
ditambahkan pada pembuatan cheese.
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Food Additives Food Additives

JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: . . .


JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: . . .

B. EMULSIFIER/STABILIZER! C. ANTIOXIDANT!

• Emulsifier digunakan untuk menstabilkan sistem emulsi Food antioxidants adalah semua komponen yang ditambahkan
dalam bahan pangan. are used for stabilize emulsion dalam pangan menyebabkan mencegah atau menghambat
system in food. ! kerusakan yang diakibatkan oleh reaksi oksidasi. !
• Dibedakan berdasarkan pada sifat ionic atau nonionic dan Terdiri dari:!
hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB).!
1. Phenolic antioxidant, baik yang natural maupun sistesis.
• Kecuali lecithin, semua emulsifier digunakan dalam pangan Meliputi; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated
adalah synthetic.!
hydroxytoluene (BHT ), tertiary butyl hydroquinone
• Lecithin is nama komersial untuk campuran the (TBHQ), alkylgalates, propylgallate (PG), tocopherols and
phospholipids sebai byproduct refining of soybean oil. tocotrienols.
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Food Additives Food Additives

JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: ANTIOXIDANT. . . JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: . . .

2. Oxygen scavengers, dapat mengikat oksigen dalam sitem D. SWEETENER!


tertutup. yang paling banyak digunakan adalah vitamin C dan
komponen-komponennya (ascorbyl palmitate dan erythorbic • Sweetener (low kalori dan non nutrisi) adalah komponen
acid).! yang menimbulkan rasa manis atau meningkatkan persepsi
rasa manis.
3. Chelating agents atau sequestrants, mengikat ion-ion
metal, seperti copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). Yang banyak
• Klasifikasi: !
digunakan yaitu Citric acid, Amino acids, dan ethylene diamine
tetraacetic acid (EDTA). ! 1. Non nutritive: Cyclamate, Saccharin, Aspartame,
Acesulfame K, Sucralose, Alitame.!
4. Enzymic antioxidants, dapat menghilangkan oksigen terlarut
atau di udara (head space). Contohnya glucose oxidase dan 2. Low/reduced calori: Manitol, Lactinol, Isomalt, Xylitol,
superoxide dismutase. Sorbitol, Maltinol, dan Hydrogenated corn syrup.
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cyclamate is permitted for use in low-calorie foods in 40 countries and Canada. Still, for various reasons, even though extensive
from glucose,data
maltitol from maltose, and various polymeric polyolsnor
from oligosaccharides. Historically, the energy value of simple polyols derived from sugars, like sugars, has been cons
supporting the conclusion that neither cyclamate cyclohexylamine areMany polyhydric
carcinogen alcohols
or genotoxic occur
[2], the U.S. Food and
naturally, butDrug
because of their limited concentrations, they usually do not exhibit functional (joules
roles in = For
food. calories × 4.1814)
example, free for labeling purposes in the United States. However, this view has c
Administration has chosen not to reapprove cyclamates for use in foods. -1
glycerol exists in wine and beer as a result of fermentation, and sorbitol occurs in fruits such as pears, apples, and prunes. of assigning an energy value of 10 kJ (2.4 kcal) g to polyols as a
a 1990 European Union lead
T ABLE 3 Relative Sweetness of Some Intensely Sweet Substances Administration has accepted caloric contents ranging from 6.7 to 12.5 kJ (1.6–3.0 kcal)
The polyhydroxy structures of these compounds provide water-binding properties that have been exploited in foods. Specific
functions of polyhydric alcohols include control of viscosity
Food Additives and texture,
Relative sweetness addition of bulk, retention
valuesª ofAdditives
TABLE
Food moisture,
4 Relativereduction
Sweetnessofand Energ y Values of Some Polyols and Sug ars
water activity,Substance
control of crystallization, improvement (sucrose = 1, weig ht basis)
or retention of softness, improvement of rehydration properties of
Relative sweetnessª (Sucrose = 1, Energ y value b
dehydrated foods, and use
Acesulfame K as a solvent for flavor compounds [21]. 200 Substance weig ht basis) (kJ g -1)

Sugars and polyhydric


Alitame alcohols are structurally similar, except that 2000sugars also contain aldo or keto groups (free or bound) that
Polyols
adversely affect their chemical stability, especially at high temperatures. Many applications of polyhydric alcohols in foods rely
Aspartame 180–200
on concurrent contributions of functional properties from sugars, proteins, starches and gums. Polyhydric alcohols generally are
Mannitol 0.6 6.69
sweet, but less so than sucrose (Table 4). Short-chain members, such
Cyclamate 30 as glycerol, are slightly bitter at high concentrations. When
Pag e 799
Lactitol 0.3 8.36
used in the dry form, sugar alcohols (polyols) contribute a pleasant cooling sensation because of their negative heat of solution.
from glucose, Glycyrrhizin
maltitol from maltose, and various polymeric polyols from oligosaccharides. Many polyhydric alcohols occur
50–100
Isomaltc 0.4–0.6 8.36
naturally, butthe
Historically, because ofvalue
energy their limited
of concentrations,
simple polyols theyfrom
derived usually do not
sugars, exhibit functional roles in food. For example, free -1
Monellin 3000 like sugars, has been considered to be 16.7 kJ (4 kcal) g
glycerol exists in wine and beer as a result of fermentation, and sorbitol occurs in fruits such
(joules = calories × 4.1814) for labeling purposes in the United States. However, this view has changed as pears, apples,
Xylitol and prunes.
very recently following 1.0 10.03
a 1990 EuropeanNeohesperitin
Union leaddihydrochalcone
of assigning an energy value of 1600–2000
10 kJ (2.4 kcal) g-1 to polyols as a group. The U.S. Food and Drug
The polyhydroxy structures of these compounds provide water-binding properties that have been exploited Sorbitol in foods. Specific 0.5 10.87
Administration has accepted caloric contents ranging from 6.7300–400
Saccharin to 12.5 kJ (1.6–3.0 kcal)
functions of polyhydric alcohols include control of viscosity and texture, addition of bulk, retention of moisture, reduction of
water activity, control of crystallization, improvement or retention Maltitol
of softness, improvement of rehydration properties of 0.8 12.54
TABLE Stevioside
4 Relative Sweetness and Energ y Values of Some Polyols and Sug300
ars
dehydrated foods, and use as a solvent for flavor compounds [21]. 0.3–0.75 12.54
Hydrog enated corn syrup
Sucralose Relative sweetnessª (Sucrose 600–800
= 1, Energ y value b
-1)
Sugars and polyhydric alcohols are structurally
Substance weig ht basis)similar, except that sugars (kJ g also contain aldo or keto groups (free or bound) that
Sug ars
Thaumatin 1600–2000
adversely
Polyols
affect their chemical stability, especially at high temperatures. Many applications
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on concurrentªCommonly
contributions
citedof functional
relative properties
sweetness
13
values from sugars,
are listed; proteins,
however, the starches and gums. Polyhydric alcohols generally are
Xylose 0.7 14
16.72
but lessconcentration
sweet,Mannitol and the
so than sucrose food or
(Table beverag e matrix may g reatly influence actual are slightly bitter at high concentrations. When
0.64). Short-chain members, such as glycerol, 6.69
relative sweetness values for sweeteners. 0.5–0.8 16.72
used in the dry form, sugar alcohols (polyols) contribute a pleasant cooling sensation because of their Glucose negative heat of solution.
Lactitol 0.3 8.36
1.2–1.5 16.72
Historically,cthe energy value of simple polyols derived from sugars, like sugars, has been consideredFructose
to be 16.7 kJ (4 kcal) g-1
0.4–0.6 8.36
(joulesIsomalt
= calories × 4.1814) for labeling purposes in the United States. However, this view has changed very recently following
Galactose 0.6 16.72
a 1990Xylitol
European Union lead of assigning
1.0 an energy value of 10 kJ (2.4 kcal) g-1 to polyols as a group. The U.S. Food and Drug
10.03
Administration has accepted caloric contents ranging from 6.7 to 12.5 kJ (1.6–3.0 kcal) Mannose 0.4 16.72
Sorbitol 0.5 10.87
Lactose 0.2 16.72
TABLE 4 Relative Sweetness and Energ y Values of Some Polyols and Sug ars
Food Additives
Maltitol 0.8 12.54 Food Additives
Relative sweetnessª (Sucrose = 1, Energ y value b Maltose 0.5 16.72
Hydrog enated corn syrup
Substance 0.3–0.75
weig ht basis) (kJ g -112.54
)
JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: . . .
Sucrose 1.0 16.72
Sug ars
Polyols E. FAT REPLACER!
ªCommonly cited relative sweetness values are listed; however, the concentration and the
Xylose
Mannitol 0.7
0.6 16.72
6.69 • Disebut
food or beverag jugamay
e matrix fat substitute,
g reatly adalah
influence actual komponen
relative bukan
sweetness values for lemak/
minyak, tetapi yang mempunyai sifat seperti lemak/minyak.
sweeteners.
Glucose
Lactitol 0.5–0.8
0.3 16.72
8.36
Jenis Fat Replacer:!
Fructose
Isomalt c 1.2–1.5
0.4–0.6 16.72
8.36

0.6 16.72
1. Carbohydrate Fat Mimetics.!
Galactose
Xylitol 1.0 10.03

Mannose
Sorbitol 0.4
0.5 16.72
10.87
• Modifikasi karbohidrat (starches, gums, hemicelluloses,
dan cellulose) dalam beebagai jenis yang dapat
Lactose
Maltitol 0.2
0.8 16.72
12.54 menyumbangkan sebagai dari sifat lemak/minyak pada
Maltoseenated corn syrup
Hydrog 0.5
0.3–0.75 16.72
12.54
makanan rendah lemak (ice cream, bakery products).!

Sucrose
Sug ars 1.0 16.72 • Produk komersial yang ada: Avicel, Oatrim, Kelcogel,
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Stellar, dan Slendid
ªCommonly cited relative sweetness values are listed; however, the concentration and the ! Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian !
Xylose 0.7 Fakultas Pertanian Universitas16.72
Lampung Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung
food or beverag e matrix may g reatly influence15actual relative sweetness values for 16
sweeteners.
Glucose 0.5–0.8 16.72

Fructose 1.2–1.5 16.72

Galactose 0.6 16.72

Mannose 0.4 16.72

Lactose 0.2 16.72


Food Additives Food Additives
Maltose 0.5 16.72

JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: FAT 1.0


Sucrose REPLACER. . . 16.72 JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: FAT REPLACER . . .

2. Protein
ªCommonly Fat sweetness
cited relative Mimetics .! are listed; however, the concentration and the
values
food or beverag e matrix may g reatly influence actual relative sweetness values for 3. Reduced-Calorie Triacylglycerol.!
• Produk dari protein yang diproses untuk menghasilkan
sweeteners.

sifat menyerupai lemak/minyak.! • Tr iglise r i da yang disinte sis m enggunakan prose s:


hidrogenasi, esterifications, atau interesterification,
• Modifikasi yang dilakukan: (a) hydrophobic interactions, (b) menghasilkan rendah kalori tetapi sifat tetap sama.!
isoelectric precipitation, (c) heat denaturation dan/atau
coagulation, (d) protein-protein complex formation, dan (e) • MCT (medium-chain triglycerides) digunakan dalam
pengobatan bagi penderita gangguan metabolisme lipid.!
protein-polysaccharide complex formation.!

• Produk komersial yang telah ada: Simplesse, Trailblazer, • Salatrim (Short and long acyltriglyceride molecule), yang
merupakan campuran asam stearat (C18) (as.lemak nabati
dan Lita
yang terhidrogenasi) dengan berbagai proporsi asam
asetat, propionat, dan butirat.
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17 18
n 37.6 kJ (9 kcal) g-1 [34].

ated short-chain fatty acids (C2 to C5) along with a long-chain saturated fatty acid (C14 to C24) in a
other strategy, and this greatly reduces the caloric value. The caloric reduction results in part because
vide fewer calories per unit weight than long-chain fatty acids. In addition, the position of the long-
cerol molecule greatly influences the absorption of the long-chain fatty acid. In some positional
d long-chain saturated fatty acids, the absorption of the long-chain fatty acid may be reduced by over
Food Additives Food Additives
JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: FAT REPLACER. . .
ased on the above principles, tradenamed Salatrim (Short and long acyltriglyceride molecule), has
JENIS FOOD ADDITIVE: FAT REPLACER . . .
• Caprenin
d petitioned for GRAS use in foodsadalah produk
[49]. Salatrim trigliserida
is a mixture yang
of triglycerides mengandung
composed of mainly asam
ong-chain fatty acid obtained from hydrogenated vegetable fats and various proportions of acetic,
lemak rantai
ds (C2, C 3, and C 4, respectively) sedang,fatty
as the short-chain seperti asam
acids (X). Humans kaprilat (C6) 19.6
realize between danandkaprat 4. Synthetic Fat.!
(C10),
g-1 from various Salatrim bersama
products, dengan
and the fatty asam lemak
acid composition rantaito panjang,
can be controlled provide the asam
behenic (C22).!
s, such as melting points. • K o m p o n e n m e n g a n d u n g st r u k t u r m e n y e r u p a i
-1
of a similarly synthesized, reduced-calorie triglyceride [about 20.9 kJ (5 kcal) g ] product that triasilgliserol.!
• Asam kaprilat dan along
kaprat
with thedari minyak kelapa
behenicdan
acid kelapa
• Trialkoxycarballates, mempunyai asam trikarboksilat yang
n fatty acids, caprylic (C6) and capric (C10) acids, long-chain fatty acid,
apric acids are obtaineds afrom
w it,coconut
d a nand apalm
sam b e behenic
oils, and h e n icaciddcan
ar be
i obtained
m i n yakfrom i ka n la ut
terhidrogenasi. menggantikan
Pag e 804 asam lemak). Karena sifatnya sintetik
mereka, senyawa ini tahan terhadap hidrolisis enzymic.
Tetapi USFDA belum menyetujui untuk dikonsumsi.!

• Polydextrose, diproduksi melalui proses polimerasasi


glukosa (90%), sorbitol, asam sitrat, dan 1,6 anhydrous
glukosa.

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oils, hydrogenated rapeseed oil, and peanut
19 oil. Peanut oil contains about 3% behenic acid whereas rapeseed oil contains about 20

35% erucic acid (C22:1), which is converted to behenic acid by hydrogenation. Marine oils often contain over 10% of
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which also is converted to behenic acid by hydrogenation. Caprenin has been used in candy
bars, and a petition has been made for its GRAS use in foods.
12.11.4 Synthetic Fat Replacers

A great number of synthetic compounds have been found to provide either fat mimetic or fat substitute properties [1]. Many of
them contain triacylglycerol-like structural and functional groups, such as the trialkoxycarballates, which in effect have the ester
groups reversed compared to conventional fats (i.e., a tricarboxylic acid is esterified to saturated alcohols rather than glycerol
being esterified to fatty acids). Because of their synthetic nature, these compounds are resistant to enzymic hydrolysis, and are
Food Additives Food Additives
Pag
largely undigested in the gut. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for many of these substances is proving to ebe805
difficult
JENIS
to obtain, and it remains to be seen whether some of these compounds will find an ultimate role in the food FOOD ADDITIVE: FAT REPLACER . . .
supply.
12.11.4.1 Polydextrose • Sucrose polyester (OLESTRA). Karbohidrat poliester asam lemak
yang bersifat lipofilik, nondigestible, nonabsorbable, sifat fisik
Although principally used as a reduced-calorie, carbohydrate bulking ingredient, polydextrose behaves as a fat mimetic in some
applications. Since polydextrose yields only 4.18 kJ (1kcal) g-1, it is especially attractive as a dual purposedan kimia
ingredient sama dengan lemak konvensional, diproduksi dengan
which
meng-esterifikasi
reduces calories from carbohydrates as well as fats. Contemporary polydextrose (tradename Litesse) is manufactured by sukrosa dengan asam lemak rantai panjang
randomly polymerizing glucose (minimum 90%), sorbitol (maximum 2%), and citric acid, and it contains minor dariamounts
lemakofnabati!
glucose monomer and 1,6-anhydroglucose [1] (Fig. 20). To maintain suitable water solubility, the molecular weights of
polydextrose polymers are controlled below 22,000. • Sukrosa poliester hasil dari proses esterifikasi lanjut digunakan
12.11.4.2 Sucrose Polyester pengganti lemak, sedangkan yang tingkat esterifikasi rendah
digunakan
Sucrose polyester (tradename Olestra) is a member of a family of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters that are lipophilic, untuk emulsifier.
nondigestible, nonabsorbable fat-like molecules with physical and chemical properties of conventional fats. Sucrose polyester is Olestra
manufactured by using various means of esterification of sucrose with long-chain fatty acids obtained from vegetable fats (XII).
Sucrose polyesters intended for fat substitute applications have a high degree of esterification, while those intended for emulsifier
applications have a lower degree ofFIGURE 20
esterification. Sucrose polyester emulsifiers have been approved in the United States since
Structural
1983. features
Sucrose of polydextrose;
polyester R = g studied
has been extensively lucose,forremainder
safety andofhealth
polymer,
aspects for over two decades and
Pag it has recently
e 805
(1996) beensorbitol,
approvedor for
citric acid;use
limited note that linkag
in foods es are random.
in the U.S.
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21 22

Food Additives

FIGURE 20
tory Substances Structural features of polydextrose; R = g lucose, remainder of polymer,
sorbitol, or citric acid; note that linkag es are random.

stances are employed to provide the long-lasting, pliable properties of chewing gum. These substances are either
or the result of organic synthesis, and both kinds are quite resistant to degradation. Synthetic masticatory
prepared by the Fischer-Tropsch process involving carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and a catalyst, and after further
move low-molecular-weight compounds, the product is hydrogenated to yield synthetic paraffin [7]. Chemically
atory substances are prepared by partially hydrogenating wood rosin, which is largely composed of diterpenes,
ying the products with pentaerythritol or glycerol. Other polymers similar to synthetic rubbers have also been
e as masticatory substances, and these substances are prepared from ethylene, butadiene, or vinyl monomers.

sticatory base employed in chewing gum is derived directly from plant gums. These gums are purified by
ents involving
Masticatory heating, centrifuging, and filtering. Chicle from plants in the Sapotaceae (Sapodilla) family, gums
Substances
au from Palaquium sp., and latex solids (natural rubber) from Henea brasiliensis are widely used, naturally
tory substances are employed to provide the long-lasting, pliable properties of chewing gum. These substances are either
atory substances.
products or the result of organic synthesis, and both kinds are quite resistant to degradation. Synthetic masticatory
ces are prepared by the Fischer-Tropsch process involving carbon monoxide,Jurusan hydrogen, and
Teknologi Hasil a catalyst,
Pertanian ! and after further
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ng to remove low-molecular-weight compounds, the product 23
is hydrogenated to yield synthetic paraffin [7]. Chemically
d masticatory substances are prepared by partially hydrogenating wood rosin, which is largely composed of diterpenes,
n esterifying the products with pentaerythritol or glycerol. Other polymers similar to synthetic rubbers have also been
d for use as masticatory substances, and these substances are prepared from ethylene, butadiene, or vinyl monomers.

f the masticatory base employed in chewing gum is derived directly from plant gums. These gums are purified by
e treatments involving heating, centrifuging, and filtering. Chicle from plants in the Sapotaceae (Sapodilla) family, gums
utta Katiau from Palaquium sp., and latex solids (natural rubber) from Henea brasiliensis are widely used, naturally