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International Nickel Co. Inc., New York, N.Y.

HIS paper will summarize the prop- simple atmosphere exposure to highly cor-

T erties, design considerations and uses

of cast heat and corrosion-resistant
alloys. Obviously, it is not possible to cover
rosive conditions found in the chemical in-
The Alloy Casting Institute' standard de-
in detail the almost limitless fields involved signations and corresponding chemical com-
and, therefore, it must be borne in mind that positions of the heat and corrosion-resistant
the purpose of this paper is to point out alloys are given in Table 1.
the more important aspects of the overall Before an alloy is assigned a standard de-
problem of material selection. signation, it must individually account for
Heat-resistant alloys may be defined as at least one-half of one per cent of the total
alloys of iron and chromium or iron-chro- high-alloy production in its own category.
mium and nickel to which other elements are Hence, some other compositions are produc-
added for the improvement of chemical, ed, but only in relatively small quantities.
physical and mechanical properties. This Fig. 1 shows the position of the heat-
definition is accepted even though the addi- resistant alloys on an iron-chrome-nickel
tion element may be more than 50 per cent. ternary diagram. Although the correspond-
Consequently, in the heat-resistant alloys the ing corrosion-resistant alloys do not neces-
chromium content may be approximately sarily have the same carbon content or range
from 10 to 30 per cent and the nickel may be of nickel and chromium, their positions on
as high as 70 per cent. the ternary diagram are essentially the same.
The heat-resistant alloys are those which
are normally used, either continuously or Heat -resistant Alloys
intermittently, at temperatures usually above
1000 °F. These alloys include the chromium- Classification and Structure - The chro-
iron, the chromium - nickel - iron and the mium-iron alloys, containing from 8 to 14
nickel - chromium - iron types. The alloys per cent chromium and significant amounts
must meet two requirements: they must have of carbon, are similar to steel in that their
satisfactory surface film stability ( that is, mechanical properties may be altered by
high temperature corrosion or oxidation re- suitable heat treatment. Alloys of higher
sistance) and satisfactory high temperature chromium content do not exhibit phase
mechanical strength and ductility. changes; hence, they are non-hardenable by
The corrosion-resistant alloys are those heat treatment and their mechanical prop-
which are normally used at room temperature erties depend principally upon their composi-
or slightly above or below. These include tion. The addition of nickel, 8 per cent or
the chromium-iron , the chromium-nickel-iron more, to chromium-iron alloys results in the
and, in some cases, the nickel-chromium-iron stabilization of the gamma-phase at tempe-
types. In these alloys the chromium con- ratures well below -100°F.
tent ranges from about 12 to 30 per cent and Role of Individual Elements - Chromium is
the nickel content up to 30 per cent. These important in that it imparts resistance to
alloys play a very important role in com- I. An association of high alloy castings producers
bating corrosion ranging in severity from in the United States and Canada.





r$ /V VVV V VV VV V V V V V`✓ VVV Nl

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80


oxidation and, in some alloys , helps the Nitrogen is sometimes used to promote
carburization resistance. Structurally speak- grain refinement in the Cr-Fe alloys ; it usually
ing, it is a ferrite-forming element. has beneficial effects on strength at elevated
Nickel in sufficient quantity imparts high temperatures. It is an austenite-former.
temperature strength and creep resistance, Tungsten, which improves the high tem-
and provides resistance to carburizing and perature strength, has little effect upon the
nitriding atmospheres and thermal fatigue. resistance to scaling. It is a ferrite-pro-
Its function is accepted to be that of an moting element.
austenite- forming element Other additions have been studied, but are
Carbon is also an austenite -forming ele- not as yet incorporated into ' standard '
ment and has a marked effect on strength heat-resistant alloys.
and creep resistance . At high temperatures To summarize, the effects of the individual
there is a tendency for oxidation to be more elements on the structural characteristics of
severe as the carbon content increases. commercial alloys are as follows: the austeni-
Manganese , though important in the melt- tizing elements are carbon, nitrogen, nickel,
ing operations , has little or no effect on the manganese, copper and possibly cobalt.
mechanical properties when present in mod- The elements which promote the formation
erate amounts. It is an austenite - forming of ferrite are chromium, molybdenum, nio-
element. bium, silicon, titanium, vanadium, alumi-
Silicon has a pronounced beneficial effect num, tungsten and tantalum. It should be
on the oxidation and carburization resistance noted that the effects of these elements are
and is very effective in providing high tem- not the same. For example, the most power-
perature corrosion resistance to alloys having ful austenite-forming elements are carbon
an otherwise inadequate chromium content. and nitrogen. A tabulation of the relative
It is a ferrite-forming element. effects of various elements on the formation
Molybdenum improves high temperature of either austenite or ferrite is given below:
strength and in some instances increases the Austenite-forming :
high temperature corrosion resistance. In a Ni C N2 Mn Cu
stagnant oxidizing atmosphere at very high
1 30-35 10=26 0.5 0.5
temperatures it may , in high percentages,
Ferrite-forming :
cause `catastrophic ' failure due to the high
vapour pressure of molybdic oxide. Molyb- Cr Mo Si V Al Ti Nb Ta W
denum is a ferrite-promoting element. 1 4-6 5-6 10-11 12-15 6-8 4-5 2 2

This indicates that silicon is five to six times recuperators, roasting furnaces, and tube
as potent a ferrite -former as chromium. The supports in the petroleum industry.
above figures are not absolute equivalent HH grade is one of the most widely used
factors. The total amount of all elements furnace alloys. It has good strength and
present as well as their ratios have a notice- surface stability at elevated temperatures in
able effect. For example , certain elements such applications as oil still tube supports,
(chromium, tantalum , niobium , titanium, kiln parts, furnace rolls, hearths, link belts,
etc.) have a great affinity for carbon and the dampers and pots. This alloy is made in
variation in carbon thus governs the amounts two types. Type I alloy is partially ferritic
of the above elements left available for the and has higher ductility but lower creep
promotion of ferrite. strength than Type II which is fully auste-
Alloy Classification - Commercial heat- nitic. This is accomplished by varying the
resistant alloys are classified according to carbon-nickel-chromium ratio within the
composition and metallurgical structure composition limits.
into three broad groups ( see Table 1) : HF - The uses of the HF grade are paral-
1. Chromium-iron lel to those of the HH grade, but the top
2. Chromium-nickel-iron service temperature limit is much lower.
3. Nickel-chromium-iron. The HI, HK and HL grades have relatively
Chromium -iron Alloys: HA, HC, HD- high creep resistance and good resistance
The chromium -iron group is made up of alloys to industrial atmospheres. Because of the
of high chromium and little or no nickel. higher chromium contents, HI and HL may
They are predominantly ferritic in structure. be used in atmospheres containing consider-
HA - This alloy is used primarily to able amounts of sulfur. The uses of these
resist corrosive effects of hot petroleum pro- alloys are similar to those of grade HH, but
ducts up to about 650°C. ( 1200°F.). also include some gas turbine applications.
HC and HD - These two relatively low- All these alloys have a top temperature limit
priced alloys are used in high sulfur -bearing of about 1100°C. ( 2010°F.) except HF which
atmospheres up to about 1040 ° C. ( 1900°F.) is used only up to about 870°C. ( 1600°F.).
where high creep strength is not a factor. Nickel-chromium-iron Alloys: HN, HT,
They are used in applications such as rabble HU, HW, HX -- The alloys in this group
arms and blades in ore-roasting furnaces, are all austenitic. They have good creep
dampers, sintering bars, grates, tuyeres and strength, oxidation and carburization re-
salt pots where uniform temperatures are sistance and thermal fatigue properties.
encountered. Their use in high sulfur atmospheres is not
Chromium - nickel-iron Alloys: HE, HF, usually recommended.
HH, HK, HL, HI - The chromium-nickel- They have a top operating temperature of
iron group comprises alloys which are essen- about 1100°C. (2010°F.) and are used for
tially austenitic . These alloys are charac- muffles, carburizing retorts, trays and boxes,
terized by better creep strength than the lead and salt pots and enameling fixtures.
chromium -iron types . They have good cold The HW and HX grades are also used in
and hot ductility and resistance to oxidizing nitriding furnace parts.
and reducing atmospheres. Industries that Use Heal-resistant Alloy
HE grade has better creep resistance than Castings - Industries in which heat-resistant
HD, but not as good as the more highly alloy castings are used include:
alloyed grades . It can be used under con- Aeronautical
ditions of fairly high sulfur atmospheres Atomic energy
in such applications as furnace conveyers, Automotive

" IT'"T'''r

Brazing ( copper, etc.) cipated. This is particularly true in the case

Cement of sulfur-bearing flue gases.
Ceramic - glass, enameling, pottery There is, further, the effect of ' tempera-
Chemical ture differentials ' which may result in
Electrical heating thermal fatigue and thermal shock failures.
Furnace This phase of the service limitations will be
Heating and heat-treating dealt with in a later section devoted to the
Non-ferrous rolling mills consideration of design and application.
Petroleum Alloy Selection - The selection of the
Power ( steam ) proper alloy for a given high temperature
Pulp and paper appilcation is not a simple matter. The fol-
Pyrometry lowing is a list of some of the factors that
Smelting and refining must be considered:
Steel mills 1. Anticipated service and maximum
Basic Service Limitations -The service temperatures of operation.
limitations of heat-resisting castings are 2. Temperature cycling:
established, basically, by temperature since (a) Range of temperature cycling.
it is evident that any structure must be made (b) Frequency of temperature cycling.
from materials with a melting point sub- (c) Rate of temperature change.
stantially higher than the operating tempera- 3. Type and size of maximum load.
ture. The temperature of operation also in- 4. Type of atmosphere or other corrosive
fluences quite markedly the strength of the conditions.
material and it is, therefore, equally obvious 5. Abrasive or wear conditions.
that any materials selected for high tempera- 6. Size and shape of part.
ture use must have sufficient strength at the 7. Manner of support.
temperature of operation to support their 8. Ease of replacement.
own weight plus any applied mechanical load 9. Further processing, such as welding or
and the inevitable thermal loading. machining.
Of almost equal importance, the material 10. Cost.
must be resistant to the corrosive effects of In designing heat-resistant alloy castings
the atmosphere in which it operates. If the the significant properties which must be con-
casting is to be continuously subjected only sidered are as follows:
to the oxidation effects of air at elevated 1. High temperature mechanical prop-
temperatures, it is possible to predict with erties:
considerable accuracy the usefulness of any (a) Ultimate strength.
given alloy for such service. If the tempera- (b) Creep strength.
ture is cyclic, there is less certainty as to the (c) Stress-rupture strength.
expected life, largely because of the physical (d) Ductility.
characteristics, at different temperatures, of 2. Resistance to thermal fatigue and
the protective oxide films. This may result thermal shock.
in the different ' spalling ' tendencies in dif- 3. Room temperature mechanical prop-
ferent alloys. Alloys containing less than a erties ( especially toughness ).
total of 50 per cent nickel plus chromium are 4. Physical properties:
particularly subject to this spalling effect. (a) Thermal conductivity.
Should the atmosphere, instead of being air, (b) Thermal capacity.
be flue gas, somewhat shorter life at any (c) Coefficient of thermal expansion.
given temperature must generally he anti- (d) Density.

5. Surface film stability as evidencedbyre- are moderate. Under more severe conditions
sistance to oxidation, carburization, etc. where there are changes in temperature and
6. Castability. load during service or where parts are not
7. Weldability and machinability. readily accessible, a smaller proportion, as
Tables 2, 3 and 4 contain data on the low as 25 per cent, should be used. Wher-
room temperature mechanical properties, high ever possible, previous service experience is
temperature properties and physical prop- used as a guide.
erties of the standard heat-resistant alloys. Stress-rupture - Stress-rupture values de-
Thermal Fatigue -- In many heat-resistant termined at constant temperature and under
applications widely fluctuating or intermit- constant load are useful in approximating the
tent temperatures are encountered and under life of the alloy under such conditions and
such conditions the castings are subjected to also for comparing alloys which are subject
very high internal stresses. Thermal fatigue to loading which might produce failure in a
failures are indicated by warpage, partial or relatively short time.
complete cracking. An example of the type Heat-resistant Alloy Design - In the de-
of service in which thermal fatigue failures sign of high temperature components and
are encountered is in carburizing processes mechanisms there are a number of factors
where the tray is quenched with the work. which must be given careful consideration
Creep Resistance - The conventional room that are not encountered in the design of
temperature mechanical properties cannot be similar items which are to operate at or near
used in the design of high temperature equip- room temperature. It has been noted that
ment. Under stress at elevated tempera- changes in ambient temperature and sub-
tures metals behave elastically as at room sequent temperature differentials will result
temperature, but also deform plastically at a in stresses within the casting as a result of
very slow rate. For this reason, time be- non-uniform dimensional change. These
comes a critical factor. This slow deforma- stresses will be accompanied, particularly at
tion is known as creep and involves four high temperatures, by some degree of plastic
factors - time, stress, temperature and de- deformation. The magnitude of the stress
format ion. and the amount of the plastic deformation
In the design of furnace parts experience will depend on the temperature differential
indicates that a creep rate of 0.0001 per cent within the casting.
per hour is satisfactory for comparison of It is also necessary that the designer take
alloy s. This is sometimes expressed as 1 per into consideration the thermal conductivity,
cent creep in 10,000 hr. It should he kept the thermal capacity and the coefficient of
in mind that when creep is expressed in thermal expansion of the alloys with which
the latter terms it does not mean that this he is working.
rate of creep can be expected to continue for It has been shown that roughly the maxi-
10,000 hr. without failure. mum stress may be calculated as follows:
Creep values which are obtained from tests
o max.= E}3( At )
made under constant temperature and load
conditions are not directly applicable for where u is stress ; E, modulus of elasticity;
design use. The allowable design stress is fi, coefficient of thermal expansion; and t,
usually about 50 per cent of the creep value temperature.
under constant load and temperature (or Mathematical considerations show that the
where the parts are readily accessible for re- actual temperature, as a function of time,
placement) where changes of service condi- temperature-differential and geometry, is
tions are not severe and where the stresses dependent on the thickness of the casting

R^ I^IPNI^^ limp " ,^Ii^ 1 I r u;i I


wall and is nearly proportional to this thick- Chromium in excess of 11 per cent imparts
ness. It is obvious, therefore, that all designs substantial passivity to ferrous alloys. Since
should be made for the minimum sections all of these alloys contain considerable
which can he produced by the foundry. amounts of chromium, they possess good
Parenthetically it may be said that, as wall resistance to oxidizing acids and oxidizing
thickness of the casting increases, it also be- solutions generally.
comes more difficult for the foundry to pro- Alloys with substantial amounts of nickel
duce a completely sound casting. exhibit a greater amount of passivity than
Solutions of the basic stress equation for do the nickel-free or low-nickel alloys. This
all geometries show that maximum articula- increased passivity permits the use of these
tion of the components of any device for use alloys in a wide variety of corrosive en-
at elevated temperatures will result in mini- vironments including those of a reducing
mum thermal stresses. It is, therefore, desir- nature such as dilute sulfuric acid.
able, if not imperative, that all castings for Alloy Classification - The corrosion-resis-
elevated temperature service, particularly tant alloys may be classified in four groups:
where cyclic conditions of temperature are 1. Chromium-iron, hardenable (Type CA).
to be encountered, be designed so that they 2. Chromium-iron, non-hardenable ( Types
will ` float ' rather than be held rigid. It CB and CC).
can he shown that At is dependent on 3. Chromium-nickel-iron ( Types CE, CF,
thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and CH and CK ).
density, and that the coefficient of thermal 4. Nickel-chromium-iron (Type CN ).
expansion becomes important as soon as Chromium-iron, Hardenable: CA - The CA
stress calculations are involved. alloys ( CA-15 and CA-40) fall within this
To summarize, all sharp corners and group. They are martensitic in structure,
changes in section are to be avoided as much hence the mechanical properties may be
as possible. Wherever possible the basic varied by suitable heat treatment.
units should be broken up into a number These grades are used in mildly corrosive
of free-floating components. The designer conditions in the chemical, glass and petro-
must take into consideration in his stress leum industries and in steam power plants
analysis the effect of thermal expansion, and where the favourable mechanical properties
in the case of cyclic temperatures, thermal can be used to advantage.
conductivity and thermal capacity. Chromium-iron, Non-hardenable: CB, CC-
Alloys CB and CC have somewhat greater
Corrosion- resistant Alloys resistance than CA to most corrosive environ-
ments. Typical applications are in the
Role of Individual Elements - The balance mining, chemical, petro-chemical and allied
between the major elements ( nickel, chro- industries.
mium and iron ) and the minor elements Chromium-nickel-iron Alloys: CE, CF, CH
(such as molybdenum , niobium , copper, and CK -The addition of nickel to the
silicon, etc.) is very important . They may chromium-iron alloys improves the ductility
exert a strong influence on the structure and and impact strength and greatly enhances
corrosion resistance of the alloy. The cast- the corrosion resistance of the alloy in most
ability may also be affected by this balance. media. CE and CH are more highly alloyed
For this reason , the chemical composition and have better strength and ductility than
range for the wrought alloys may not, and CC. These alloys have found extensive use
in most cases does not, apply to the cast in the chemical, mining, electrical power and
materials. petroleum industries, as well as in the pulp

and paper industry where they are used for still necessary, is the consideration of strength
resistance to sulfurous acid solutions con- and ductility (see Table 5 ). Selection of
taining sulfur dioxide. the proper alloy type for any given use must
CF, which is considered an all-purpose be made only with full and complete informa-
alloy, is used extensively in the chemical, tion, either in the form of specific data, or as
textile, paper, dairy and food handling indus- pertinent background and experience on the
tries; it is also used in architectural trim. part of the engineer.
A modification of this alloy, CF-8M, con- The corrosive conditions under which a
taining 2 to 3 per cent molybdenum, reduces given group of alloys provide satisfactory
pitting corrosion frequently encountered in resistance cannot be simply stated. In
some industrial applications and in sea-water. industrial processes a number of factors may
Other common additions to the CF alloy are influence the formation and maintenance
niobium, as a stabilizing element, and sele- of a passive surface film. Some of the im-
nium, to improve machinability and reduce portant factors are concentration, tempera-
porosity. ture, aeration, velocity and contaminants
CK is the most highly alloyed material in in the corrosive.
this group. It is used in the aircraft,
chemical and pulp and paper industries, as
Production Methods
well as some hot oil applications in the
petroleum industry. Melting - Heat-resisting alloys are, in
Nickel-chromium-iron: CN-7M-This alloy general, produced in the United States by
is used chiefly for its resistance to various two melting methods. The greatest tonnage
concentrations of hot sulfuric acid. It is of castings is probably made in the three-
more resistant to reducing acids than the phase electric arc furnace using either acid
chromium-rich alloys. There are several or basic practice. If acid practice is used,
variations of this alloy, all covered by patents. the scrap, iron and nickel are charged in
This alloy, which is used chiefly in the whole or in part prior to striking the arc.
chemical industry, contains copper and Melt-down i done as quickly as possible
molybdenum. The copper is added to pro- using the maximum voltage available from
vide resistance to sulfuric acid and the the transformer secondary. After the melt-
molybdenum to resist the pitting effect of down a boil is induced, usually by the addi-
specific media such as the halogens and tion of iron oxide or nickel oxide. Some
sulfites. foundries today, instead of using an oxide
boil, are using an oxygen lance. This has
Basic Service Limitations the disadvantage, unless temperatures are
very carefully controlled, of burning out
The basic service limitations of the corro- chromium which, in acid practice, is not
sion-resistant alloys are determined primarily readily recoverable from the slag. Gene-
by the ability of the casting to withstand the rally speaking, oxygen boiling of the heat-
corrosive effects of the system fluids to such resistant alloys results in lower carbon
an extent that the rate of loss of cross-section content than is desirable and hence recarburi-
is acceptable. The contamination of the zation of the bath is often necessary.
system fluid by the corrosion product may The boil is blocked with ferro-silicon; the
adversely affect the quality of the end- ferro-chrome and ferro-manganese are added;
product; may result in clogging of small final deoxidation with calcium, aluminum
pipes and orifices; or may lower heat transfer or silicon is accomplished; the heat is tapped
coefficients. Of secondary importance, but and the castings poured. If the melt size





1000 p.S.i. O'2 % OFFSET °,./ NUM73ER KEYHOLE,

1000 p.s.i. ft.-lb.

CA-15 AC from 1800°F., 100 75 30 185 35

temper at 1450°F.
AC from 1800°F., 115 100 22 225 20
temper at 1200°F.
AC from 1800°F., 135 115 17 260 10
temper at 1100°F.
AC from 1800°F., 200 150 7 390 15
temper at 600°F.
CA-40 AC from 1800 °F., 110 67 18 212 3
temper at 1400°F.
AC from 1800 °F., 140 113 14 267 4
temper at 1200°F.
AC from 1800°F., 150 125 10 310 2
temper at 1100°F.
AC from 1800°F., 220 165 1 470 1
temper at 600°F.
CB-30 Anneal 1450°F., 95 60 15 195 2
FC to 1000°F., AC
CC-50 (Under 1% Ni) 70 65 2 212 2
(Over 2% Ni, 0.15% 95 60 15 1")3 45
N min.) as-cast
(Over 2% Ni, 0.15°'0 97 65 18 210
N min.) AC from 1900°F.
CE-30 As-cast 95 60 15 170
WQ from 1950° to 2050°F. 97 63 18 170 -
CF-8 WQ from 1950° to 2050°F. 77 37 55 140 75
CF-20 WQ from above 2000°F. 77 36 50 163 60
CF-8M, CF-12M WQ from 1950° to 2100°F. 80 42 50 156-170 70
CF-8C WQ from 1950° to 2050°F. 77 38 39 149 . 30
CF-16F WQ from above 2000°F. 77 40 52 150 75
CH-20 WQ from above 2000°F. 88 50 38 190 30
CK-20 WQ from above 2100°F. 76 38 37 144 50
CN-7JM WQ from above 1950°- 69 31 48 130 70

*Representative room temperature properties; not specification values.

permits, tapping is usually done into a bull slag method is used. Basic melting has the
ladle and the smaller flasks are poured with advantage of better chromium and manga-
hand shanks from the bull ladle. No stan- nese recovery, but the disadvantage of being
dardized slag treatment is used, though somewhat slower, and there is the feeling
some tnelters maintain an optimum slag among foundrymen that basic heats are
fluidity by the judicious use of lime. somewhat less fluid than those produced by
Basic arc melting is practised by a number acid practice . Deoxidation is accomplished
of foundries and almost invariably the single in the same way by either method.

The other principal method of producing oxygen lance on corrosion-resistant alloy

heat-resistant alloy castings is by the use of casting melts is almost universally practised.
high-frequency induction furnaces. Here no Care should be taken to insure complete
attempt is made to control chemistry or slag deoxidation.
except through the additions to the melt. Molding - Molding practice is essentially
The furnaces are usually lined with a mag- the same for both heat-resistant and corro-
nesia-alumina mixture, or in some cases with sion-resistant alloy castings. Until recently
gannister, and are used as a neutral lining. molding materials were almost universally
At present no one is utilizing either the oxide of the synthetic sand type. In the early
boil or the oxygen lance on the heat- resisting days of this industry a number of producers
alloys in induction furnaces. used core, or dry sand molds exclusively.
It should be pointed out that there have With better synthetics green sand practice
been a large quantity of satisfactory heat- was found to be not only cheaper but in many
resistant alloy castings made in the past cases more satisfactory. Very careful pre-
using open-hearth furnaces. This practice paration of the sand is necessary in order to
has practically been discontinued in the insure uniformity and permeability. In
United States except in such rare instances general the backing sands are coarse and
where a casting must be made which is too ' open ' while the facing sands are somewhat
large for the electric furnaces available. It finer, are hard-rammed and are often skin-
should be mentioned that satisfactory cast- dried. Moisture contents should be kept at
ings have been made by one of the authors a minimum consistent with satisfactory
utilizing reduction by aluminothermic re- ramming. A typical facing sand analysis
actions. for general work is as follows:
The melting of the cast corrosion-resistant
Sand (AFA40 ) 1125 lb.
alloys is today done almost exclusively in
Organic binder 4j qt.
induction furnaces. Since there is little, if
Bentonite 405 qt.
any, refining possible when melting by this
Moisture 31 per cent
method, extreme care must be taken in the
selection of the charge materials, particularly The erosive effect of the molten metal is
since the trend is toward lower carbon con- great and care must be taken both in the
tents. Carefully selected scrap, Armco iron ramming procedure and in the design of the
or its equivalent, and very low carbon ferro- ingates to avoid sand cutting. Pouring
chrome must be used . It has been suggested temperatures should be kept at an absolute
that less care would be necessary if oxygen minimum not only to prevent cutting of the
blowing were practised. Unfortunately, this mold and burning in of the sand, but to avoid
technique does not lend itself well to induc- excessive shrinkage and grain size in the
tion furnace practices and only one foundry casting itself . The liquid-to-solid volumetric
in the United States follows this practice as contraction is high and good practice requires
a routine procedure. either special feeding or heavy chilling at
Where melting practices other than the points of significant section change. While
high-frequency induction furnace methods chilling is more expensive, it is to be pre-
are used ( as in the case of metal quantities ferred because of the tendency of risers to
too great for the induction furnaces or in the create excessive grain size at the points of
absence of such equipment ) arc furnace feeding.
melting, following essentially the practice In very recent years the 'C' process, or
for heat- resistant castings, is utilized. In shell molding method, has gained favour
arc-melting practice today the use of the with a number of producers where repetitive

17 ,'• IV ll

castings of moderate size (up to about of castings, the samples are usually made
10 lb.) are to be made, This process in- from heavy keel-block castings which have
volves the production of mold halves by no relation geometrically to the casting itself
applying a thin layer (or `shell ') of a and which in most cases will have markedly
mixture of sand and a thermosetting plastic different grain size distribution and, hence,
onto a highly polished, heated metal pattern. ductility. Further, the mechanical prop-
After the plastic has ` set ', the pattern is erties in the case of heat-resistant alloys will
stripped, the two halves are cemented to- have little to do with the actual service condi-
gether and the `shell' is backed-up with tions and may be difficult, if not impossible,
molding sand, insulation such as sil-o-cel, to interpret since , as pointed out above, the
or. metal shot depending on the cooling rate physical properties may well be of greater
desired. importance, particularly where cyclic heating
Others are working quite successfully on is involved.
the use of true ceramic molds, or on sand In the case of corrosion-resistant alloys the
bonded with ceramic, rather than organic room temperature mechanical properties may
binders. These methods have the advantage mean but little, while corrosion resistance,
of producing better finish and closer dimen- grain size, machinability or weldability may
sional tolerances than are readily attained by be the controlling factors. A number of
more conventional methods. They also have standard corrosion tests are used in the
the advantage of preventing wash of mold corrosion-resistant alloys, the most important
material in the mold cavity, which creates being the Huey and Strauss tests. The one
non-metallic inclusions in the castings. most commonly specified is the Huey test
which involves subjecting a sample of the
casting to boiling 65 per cent nitric acid for
Evaluation Criteria and Test Methods
several periods of 48 hr. each. Positive
reaction to this test indicates carbides in
In general, castings purchased are based
the grain boundaries, which in turn really
on either confidence in the integrity of the
only indicates whether or not the sample
producer or on formal specifications, Un-
was properly heat-treated. Certainly care
fortunately, specifications often are unreal-
must be taken in the interpretation of
sitic. This does not necessarily mean that
results, though admittedly some test is re-
they are too strict. It is entirely possible
quired and the Huey test has been largely
that specifications may be unduly restrictive
accepted. It can be assumed, however, that
and still result in the acceptance of castings
properly heat-treated material of the correct
which are unsuitable for the purpose in-
analysis will successfully pass any of the
tended. There can, of course, be no quarrel
with radiographic testing providing that the
standards are thoroughly understood and are
suitable for the application, There can be Economics
no quarrel with analytical specifications
which are within the composition limits Heat and corrosion-resistant alloy castings
established by groups such as ASTMI, APIs, must justify their use from the standpoint
or ACI3. Mechanical property tests, how- of economics. Important as is the price per
ever, are often most misleading. In the case pound, the expected life must be taken into
consideration when economic analyses are
1. ASTM - American Society for Testing Mate- being made. In the case of the heat-resisting
2. API - American Petroleum Institute.
alloys, furnace downtime, which may be as
3. ACI - Alloy Casting Institute. much as two weeks while a muffle is being

changed, can result in loss of production far resistant alloy castings is a ` must ' in the
more costly than the alloy involved. The food and pharmaceutical industries and has
same is true in chemical equipment, and in been shown to be economically desirable in
this case there is the added possibility of a great many other fields as evidenced by the
product contamination which the use of the increase in the use of stainless steels in the
corrosion-resistant alloys may well eliminate. United States,
In the selection of the alloy to be specified,
thought must be given to such factors as Acknowledgements
equipment life, cost of downtime in produc-
tion loss, labor cost of replacement, effect The authors are indebted to the Alloy
of product contamination, weldability, and Casting Institute for much of the data pre-
many other factors. sented and to the International Nickel
With rare exception, the use of the heat- Company for permission to present this
resisting alloys at temperatures above 1000°F. paper. The helpful consultation of V. N.
is always justified. The use of corrosion- Krivobok is gratefully acknowledged.


1. The Application of Alloy and Special Steels in erties. Alloy conservation is essential if the world
Railway Work, by H. O'NEILL. expansion of alloy steel production in the next few
2. Silicon Steel Sheets - An Outline of Properties, years is to take place.
Applications and Recent Developments, by

3. Application of Alloy Steels to Aircraft Industry, MR. R. A. P. MISRA ( Indian Wild -Barfield
by V. CADAMBE. Ltd., Bombay)
4. Application of Stainless Steel in Nuclear Techno-
logy, by N. B. I'RASAD & G. S. TENDOLKAR. It has been stated with some sense of an apology
5. Heat and Corrosion-resistant Alloy Castings of that more alloy steels are not used in railways
the United States of America, by C. R. SUTTON because of their lack of availability in India. It
& G. F. GEIGER. should be realized that replacement of carbon steels
by alloy steels must be justified on technical and
MR. J. F. SEWELL ( Samuel Fox & Co. Ltd., economic grounds.
Alr. Cadambe appears to think that special alloy
Stocksbridge )
steels will not be available in India due to their
Hundred-ton U.T.S. 4 per cent N
,i-Cr-blo for aircraft small demand. Until recently the demand for air-
master rods has to be made to closely controlled craft alloy steels has been small. The electric
limits to obtain satisfactory impact properties, but furnace which can produce small casts of high-alloy
many difficulties are experienced through over- steels will meet the situation.
heating in processes subsequent to steel-making. Regarding hardening of aero-cranksha.its nitriding
Has the use of the case-hardening variety of this is much preferable to induction-hardening which is
steel, just oil-hardened and tempered, been con- only suitable for lightly stressed crankshafts such as
sidered for this application ? those required for tractors and diesel engines.
While sympathizing with the' plea that the air- Only one German aero-engine has used induction-
craft industry should not he subjected to pressure hardening of journals. An induction-hardened
to employ inferior quality steels the implication journal has discontinuities at the end of the
that steels termed substitutes are inferior is most hardened portion where maximum stress occurs and
unfortunate. It should also he stressed that low- failures are common on highly stressed components.
alloy steels do not necessarily have inferior prop- Induction-hardened surfaces also have residual


tensile stresses which reduce their effective fatigue MR. R. A. P. MISRA ( Indian Wild-Barfield,
stress. Bombay)
Mr. Sundaracharlu may have left the impression
DR. B. R . NIJHAWAN ( Dy. Director , National that 'Carbodrip' gas-carburizing fluid may have
Metallurgical Laboratory ) to be imported. I am pleased to inform him that
In India, grain-controlled steels are rarely avail- arrangements have now been made to manufacture
able in sections in which they will be required for this material from indigenous raw materials and
connecting rods and so on. In fact, I think it comes supplies can be guaranteed.
down to this that the Indian railways use silicon- DR. B. R . NIJHAWAN ( Dy. Director, National
manganese spring steels and virtually use no other Metallurgical Laboratory )
alloy steels at all except when a big job comes up,
like a major bridge project. I feel that Prof. The third paper by Mr. Cadambe on the Applica-
O'Neill's paper could be studied with great profit tion of Alloy Steels to Aircraft Industry in which
by the Railway Board. Mr. Cadambe asked a question as to how he came in
the picture. I would like to reply him on his
behalf that he comes in the picture because before
MR. E. H. BUCKNALL (Director)
joining the N.P.L. he was a designer in the aircraft
In connection with the next paper Mr. McFarlane industry itself and I suppose his interest in the
probably will be interested to know that at the aircraft field has not lagged since joining the
National Metallurgical Laboratory we have been Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. He
trying to extend the range of usable silicon steels has given a very able survey of the aircraft material
beyond 4 per cent by carrying out all the cold- in relation to the metallurgical improvements that
working operations hot, but so far without very happened in that end and which could be achieved.
great success. I think the possibility of a 100-times' The next paper on the Application of Stainless Steel
increase in resistance giving a 10-times' increase in in Nuclear Technology is a very important paper
lamination thickness is just beyond the realm of all in the sense that it is the only paper which has dealt
physical possibility. I do not like to be direc- with the use of alloy steels for the nuclear technology
tive about the matter, but I think a 4-times' in- fields, fields which are going to stay -- specially
crease in resistance giving double thickness in lami- structural materials for nuclear reactor's com-
nation is just within the realm of possibility and ponents which are going to form the most difficult
no more. field for research and development in different
Regarding Mr. Cadambe's paper that in England, countries for the metallurgists, depending on the
apart from the engine, the engine mountings, the raw materials situation and the chemical en-
underframepart, wing attachments, etc., are made in gineering developments and technical personnel in
alloy steels, usually in the form of forgings. In- each country. The subject is going to hold a very
cidentally, I wonder whether it is generally realized prominent figure so far as the metallurgists are
by people flying in Dakota aircraft that in the concerned.
Pratt-Whiteney double-wasp engine the cylinder wall The last paper by Sutton and Geiger on Heat
thickness is 0'11 in. Quite a number of accidents and Corrosion-resistant Alloy Castings of the
have, in fact, involved tensile failure of the cylinder United States is a very masterly survey of the
wall. situation which prevails in that country today.