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2009-01-1232

Plastic Parts (A-Pillar Trim) Considering

Heat-Resistant and Mechanical Characteristics

Sungkyunkwan University

HYUNDAI·KIA MOTORS

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

Interior parts that are composed of plastic usually Most automobile interior parts consist of plastic

deform under various temperature conditions. It is components. These components must satisfy several

necessary to obtain the material properties for an criteria, including the thermal-cycle resistance, vibration

analysis of the thermal deformation under the heat cycle resistance, and impact resistance. The automobile

test. Specifically, creep data of plastic material was industry is working to reduce the thermal deformation

introduced for studying the time-dependent that occurs through periodical, seasonal changes. Of

deformational behavior of the pillar trim in the heat cycle late, these efforts have culminated in a plan to reduce

test. The time-hardening version of the power-law creep thermal deformation and increase the marketability of

model was applied to account for the permanent product in overseas markets.

deformation following the heat cycle test, which was

verified through a comparison of the test results with the To predict the thermal deformation, it is customary to

result of finite-element analysis for a simple model. In perform an experiment by using a test vehicle and to

this study, a methodology was developed for the optimal conduct simulation by running a finite-element analysis

design of the A-pillar trim in terms of the positions of the program on a computer. Nowadays, the movement of

mounts. The analyzed results were used to approximate vehicle components under constraints can be predicted

a function that was constructed by the response-surface by the rapid development of computing power and the

method. Design procedures were repeated to minimize continuing advances in the methodology for analysis.

the thermal deformation at the areas of interest. We also Also, studies of plastic deformation are underway in a

developed a methodology for designing the rib pattern of variety of ways. Choi[1] derived the residual stress

A-pillar trims. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been through the injection-molding analysis of a plastic

implemented and integrated with a method of sensitivity fender, and elaborated the means of predicting the

analysis for minimizing the thermal deformation at the thermal deformation by the assembly of the product that

areas of interest. is undergoing the stress. Using two-dimensional,

triangular elements, Yang[2] studied the strain,

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ISSN 0148-7191

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the paper.

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arise from the cooling of an injection-molded product

within the mold.

Park[3] conducted an analysis of the residual stress and

strain of injection-molded product. These studies had

limitations with regard to the prediction of the movement

of material[4], such as plastic, which experiences large

variations in the mechanical properties with the

temperature. The reasons for the limitations are that Figure 1 Conditions of the heat cycle test

these studies involve analytical methods that predict the

residual stress in injection-molded product and that the FUNDAMENTAL EXPERIMENT AND CREEP

theoretical approach for analyzing the thermal strain is MODEL

based on a mathematical model about material

movement.[5] The front-pillar trim, which is the relevant component

in this study, is Polypropylene with 20% talc. The heat-

In this study, we acquired data on material properties resistant properties are manifested during the heat cycle

by performing a tensile test and a creep test, and by test. For developing an analytical method that

measuring the coefficient of linear expansion. Using corresponds to Figure 1, the heat cycle and material

these data on material properties, we defined the properties that are appropriate to each range of

process of analysis for predicting the thermal strain. temperature are needed. For acquiring such data in this

Through this process, in this study, we suggest a study, we divided the overall region into a transient

method of optimizing the reduction in the thermal strain. region and a steady-state region and then acquired data

on properties. In other words, for acquiring the elastic

HEAT CYCLE TEST and plastic properties, both the tensile test and the

measurement of the coefficient of linear expansion are

The following heat-cycle gives us the conditions of executed in the transient region. For acquiring creep

the experiment and sequentially describes the heat- data of the steady-state region, a winding creep test was

resistance test, the cold-resistance test, and the wet- performed.

resistance test.

The tensile test was performed by using the

Each procedure is as follows. specimen, ASTM D638 NO.1. Both Figure 2 and Table 1

explain the main properties that are to be acquired

through the tensile test. Since the main loading condition

1. In the heat-resistance test, the temperature of the of the experiment that is relevant to the heat cycle test is

atmosphere in the chamber rises up to 80℃ from the temperature, the coefficient of linear expansion,

23℃. After we maintain the high temperature by which explains the variation of the length per unit length

using a light bulb or a lamp, we take down the owing to the temperature, is measured and expressed as

temperature to 23℃. in Figure 3. Finally, the winding creep test is performed

2. The cold-resistance test starts at the normal for acquiring data on properties of the steady-state

temperature of 23℃ and rises back to the normal region. In line with ASTM D2990, the winding creep test

temperature after descending to -40℃. is performed with respect to three loads under diverse

3. In the wet-resistance test, the temperature is 50℃ temperatures (23℃, 50℃, 90℃, and 100℃).

and the relative humidity is 90%. After maintaining

such conditions, we let the temperature of the

chamber come back to the normal temperature. Figure 4 describes the experimental equipment for

the winding creep test. Figure 5 describes the result for a

temperature of 100℃.

The test for ascertaining the properties of the heat

cycle mentioned in section 1 involves three iterations of

the heat cycle, as shown in Figure 1. We can evaluate CREEP MODEL

compatibility by applying the criteria of generated

displacement. In this study, for applying the winding creep data that

are acquired as reported in subsection, the behavior of

creep is mathematically expressed by using the time-

hardening version of the power-law creep that is

appropriate to the static load condition.

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ε creep = Aσ n t m (1)

suitability variation stress and t is the time

Tensile Yield υ

Temperature strength strength E (GPa) (Poisson’ s

(MPa) (MPa) ratio)

-40℃ 52.4 43.8 7.060 0.34

50℃ 26.9 15.5 2.174 0.47

90℃ 19.2 11.4 1.413 0.52

100℃ 15.9 9.8 1.216 0.54

plastic material

temperature of 100℃

Figure 2 Equipment for the tensile test

n, and m, are derived from the nonlinear curve that fits

the experimental data of the creep test. These

coefficient values have to meet the following conditions:

both A and n must be positive numbers and m must be a

real number between -1 and 0. Table 2 shown material

properties for heat-transfer analysis.

process for reducing the thermal displacement, we

analyze the thermal displacement for the front-pillar trim

and examine the appropriateness of the process of

analysis through a comparison with the experimental

Figure 3 Thermal expansion curve of the specimen results of the real car.

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The model for analysis is a front-pillar trim that is Figure 8 depicts a flowchart that roughly expresses

composed of 30 ribs and 3 mounts. The mesh of the FE the process of analysis of the thermal displacement. The

model is generated by using the Hypermesh[6]. Figure 6 process of analysis is segmented into heat-transfer

shows the FE model that is generated. The number of analysis for acquiring the temperature distribution and

elements is 3,691. The number of nodes is 1,874. As heat-stress analysis for acquiring the distributions of the

expressed in the following figure (Figure 7), the displacement and the stress. In other words, we acquire

boundary conditions entail fixing: the translational motion the temperature distribution of the whole FE model and

for the three mount; the perpendicular displacement of the data that are used to analyze the heat transfer. The

the element that is in contact with the chassis; and the heat-stress analysis is completed by repeating the static

perpendicular displacement of the element that is in analysis for the transient-state of the thermal cycle and

contact with glass the creep analysis for the steady-state. Figure 9

illustrates the results of the experiment on the real car.

Figure 10 presents the result, which is obtained from FE

analysis, on the displacement of the region of interest.

There is the difference of pillar trim for displacement of

headliner from displacement of contiguity in headliner.

However, the overall form of displacement is very

similar.

conductivity specific heat density

Figure 6 Finite-element model of the A-pillar trim

0.25 1,932 1,040

Figure 7 Loads and boundary conditions Figure 8 Flowchart of the procedure for analysis

thermal cycle and a load for contact with the weather

strip and the headliner. The FE model is made up 3-

node shell elements. The program for analysis is

ABAQUS Version 6.5[7].

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process

pattern by using a program that is developed on the

basis of the Hypermesh that is used in this study. Using

the results of analysis for the model that is generated as

shown in Figure 12, we decide the appropriate interval of

the rib.

THERMAL DISPLACEMENT

thermal displacement, based on the advice of a designer

who has had considerable experience in the design of

pillar trims, we treat the rib pattern as the design

variable. The process of designing the rib pattern is

described in Figure 11.

the displacement in the region of interest, we can

acquire a report for explaining the sensitivity of each rib,

as shown in Figure 13. After we remove those ribs that

do not affect the displacement of the region of interest,

we acquire a rib pattern that is similar to that shown in

Figure 14. For the current and new models, Table 3

describes the displacement of the region of interest and

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the maximum displacement of the overall model. design of pillar trims, we consider the design variable to

Through these results, we confirmed the suitability of the be the locations of three mounts. The factors are the

methodology for the present study. locations of mounts, as depicted in Figure 16. The levels

are described in Table 4. The objective function is the

sum of displacements, as shown in Figure 16. Moving

direction of mount is long way of pillar.

design for 3 factors and 3 levels. Table 5 describes the

displacement that is derived from analysis.

design of the mount position

between the current and new models

Model Deformation of the Maximum

area of interest deformation

Current 1.378 5.887

New 0.957 (-30.55%) 5.592 (-5.01%)

MOUNT

is suggested in this study. Based on the advice of a

designer who has had considerable experience in the

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Table 4 Factors and levels The regression function that is derived by using the

Factor Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 values in Table 5 is presented in Eq. (2). The R-squared

value of the regression function is 0.97, which means

A -20 mm -10 mm 0 mm the regression function is reliable.

− 0.15618 X1 X 3 − 1.2764 X 2 X 3

(2)

Table 5 Full factorial table and results The variables X 1 , X 2 , X 3 that are used in the

Disp. in the

Maximum regression function are changed to the scaled values by

area of

No A B C disp.

interest

(mm)

using Eq. (3). The equation that relates A, B, C (the real

(mm) values of the translation of mounts) and X 1 , X 2 , X 3 is as

1 -20 -10 -50 5.3383 6.887 follows (Eq. (4)).

2 -20 -10 20 5.8660 9.908

⎛ 2 x i − {( x i ) upper + ( x i ) lower } ⎞

3 -20 -10 90 5.4645 14.190 Xi = ⎜ ⎟, i = 1, L ,3

⎜ ( x ) + ( x ) ⎟

4 -20 85 -50 4.0581 6.455 ⎝ i upper i lower ⎠

(3)

5 -20 85 20 4.8492 6.900

6 -20 85 90 4.6045 11.800 Where, Xi is ,X1, X2, X3 and Xiupper is upper boundary

of X1, X2, X3 and Xilower is lower boundary of X1, X2, X3.

7 -20 180 -50 3.5670 7.818

8 -20 180 20 3.7244 7.292 A = 10 X 1 − 10

9 -20 180 90 3.8671 10.490 B = 95 X 2 + 85

10 -10 -10 -50 5.2369 6.879 C = 70 X 3 + 20

(4)

11 -10 -10 20 5.8102 9.710

12 -10 -10 90 5.5716 14.080 As with Eq. (2), the regression function is a simple

13 -10 85 -50 3.9407 6.577 mathematical model. Hence, by using mathematical

optimization techniques, we acquire the following.

14 -10 85 20 4.3662 7.071

15 -10 85 90 4.4533 11.650 X 1 = −0.5163, X 2 = 0.3162, X 3 = −0.8253

16 -10 180 -50 3.3336 8.267

17 -10 180 20 3.3491 7.481 The above values are changed to the following

values by using Eq. (4).

18 -10 180 90 3.6566 10.420

19 0 -10 -50 5.2973 7.064 A = −15.163, B = 115.039, C = −37.771

20 0 -10 20 5.9401 9.545

The physical meaning of the above values is that

21 0 -10 90 5.6369 13.850 each A and C mount is relocated downwards from the

22 0 85 -50 3.8672 6.841 existing locations by 15.163mm and 37.771mm,

respectively, and the B mount is relocated upwards from

23 0 85 20 4.3874 7.012 the existing location by 115.039mm.

24 0 85 90 4.5004 11.470

Table 6 compares the result of the regression

25 0 180 -50 3.3134 8.615

function with the results of analysis, with regard to the

26 0 180 20 3.4856 7.444 optimal values. The values in parentheses describe the

27 0 180 90 3.6091 10.350 percentage reduction with reference to the displacement

of the original model. The error between the result of the

regression function and the result of analysis is 2.3%,

which implies that the regression function is reliable.

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Original Regression Analysis

model function result

3.893 4.098 1. S. S. Yang and T. H. Kwon, "Deformation analysis of

Disp. of interest 5.958

(34.6%) (31.2%) injection molded articles due to in-mold residual

6.555 6.595 stress and subsequent cooling after ejection",

Maximum disp. 8.674

(24.4%) (24.0%) transaction of the KSME(A), Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 240-

Disp. of interest

10.448 10.692 348, 2002.

+ Maximum 14.632

(28.6%) (26.9%) 2. K. Park, J. H. Ahn and C. H. Yim, "Residual stress

disp

estimation and deformation analysis for injection

molded plastic parts using three-dimensional solid

elements", transaction of the KSME(A), Vol. 27, No.

CONCLUSION

4, pp. 507-514, 2003.

3. H. C. Lee, H. M. Park, S. H. Ji, I. K. Jang, "The

In this study, we conducted fundamental experiments

optimal rib design considering thermal deformation

(heat cycle test, creep test, tensile test, etc.) and finite

and dynamic stiffness of automotive interior pillar

element analysis for predicting the thermal deformation

trim", spring conference proceedings of the KSAE,

of A-pillar trims. Next, we developed a design process

pp. 1163-1168, 2006.

for reducing the empirical thermal deformation.

4. H. Y. Kim, J. J. Kim, J. S. Kim, "A study on the

warpage and post-deformation in heat resistance

This research has the following conclusions.

test of automotive plastic components", Journal of

the Korean society of precision engineering, Vol. 13,

(1) We acquired the data on material properties that

No. 5, pp. 44-52, 1996.

are relevant to the thermal cycle and confirmed that the

5. K. H. Yoon, "Plastics in automotive components",

result of the analysis of thermal displacement

Advanced materials and manufacturing in

approximately conformed to the experimental result of a

automotive engineering, No. 2, pp. 33-38, 2006.

real car (the error was within 5%).

6. Hypermesh User's manual, Altair, 2006.

7. ABAQUS User's manual 6.5, HKS, Inc.

(2) Through computer simulation and an experiment

with a real car, we developed the process of design for

CONTACT

reducing the thermal displacement. We confirmed that

these results can be applied to front-pillar trims. The MYUNG-WON SUH (Corresponding author)

displacement of the optimal model is reduced by 10%

when compared to the displacement of the existing Professor / School of Mechanical Engineering /

model. Sungkyunkwan University

(3) We confirmed that the total displacement of the 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746,

optimal model is reduced by 28.6%, as compared with South Korea

the displacement of the existing model, as the result of

the optimization of the mount positions. Phone: +82-31-290-7447 Fax: +82-31-290-7447

E-mail: suhmw@skku.edu

(4) By computerizing the design process for relying

on experience and exploiting techniques of optimization,

we laid the foundation for a systematic method of

design..

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

HYUNDAI-KIA MOTORS.

Author:Gilligan-SID:12994-GUID:29283648-203.250.65.181

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