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RISK ASSESSMENT CONFINED SPACE IN THE SHIP

REPAIR, PT BANDAR ABADI SHIPBUILDERS, AND


DRY-DOCKS, BATAM
Prima Fithri, MT1, Yola Octaviani Asri2
1
Dosen Jurusan Teknik Industri Fakultas Teknik Universitas Andalas
2
Mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Industri Universitas Andalas
Jurusan Teknik Industri, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Andalas, Padang

Email: ima@ft.unand.ac.id, yolaoctaviani97@gmail.com

Abstract

Risk Assessment is an attempt to quantify the risk and determine whether the risk is
acceptable or not. The specific objective of this study is to identify hazards and assess risks
K3 can happen to work in confined spaces, as well as identifying the hazard control has been
done. Confined space has a very high potential hazard, which could endanger the safety of
someone who goes into it so that the necessary precautions to avoid accidents. This study
was conducted by using a descriptive method. Collecting data on the implementation of
working in confined spaces is done through direct observation to the field, interviews to the
workers, and literature study. Based on risk assessments that have been made available as a
whole, there is 7 hazard. The risk assessment consists of two high risks, medium risk, and
one 4 low risks. Control conducted by PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Docks consists of
four methods of control that is a substitution, engineering controls, administrative and
personal protective equipment.

Keywords: Confined space, risk assessment, hazard, risk control.

Abstrak

Risk Assessment adalah upaya untuk menghitung besarnya suatu risiko dan menetapkan
apakah risiko tersebut dapat diterima atau tidak. Tujuan khusus penelitian ini adalah
mengidentifikasi bahaya K3 dan menilai resiko yang dapat terjadi pada pekerjaan di ruang
terbatas, serta mengidentifikasi pengendalian bahaya yang sudah dilakukan. Ruang terbatas
memiliki potensi bahaya yang sangat tinggi, yang dapat membahayakan keselamatan
seseorang yang masuk ke dalamnya, sehingga diperlukan upaya pencegahan untuk
menghindari terjadinya kecelakaan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan
metode deskriptif. Pengambilan data mengenai pelaksanaan bekerja di ruang terbatas
dilakukan melalui observasi langsung ke lapangan, wawancara kepada pekerja, dan studi
kepustakaan. Berdasarkan penilaian resiko yang telah dilakukan didapatkan secara
keseluruhan, terdapat 7 bahaya. Penilaian resiko terdiri dari 2 resiko tinggi, 4 resiko sedang
dan 1 resiko rendah. Pengendalian yang dilakukan oleh PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and
Docks terdiri dari 4 metode pengendalian yaitu subsitusi, engineering control, administrasi
dan alat pelindung diri.

Kata kunci : Ruang terbatas, risk assessment, bahaya, pengendalian resiko.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

The case study to be discussed in this report Each working environment containing a high
is to analyze the risk assessment on the hazard potential so we need a prevention
confined space in the ship repair. Case and control in order to avoid accidents.
studies were conducted at PT Bandar Abadi Workplace accidents can happen because of
Builders and Dry-Docks. the risk of occupational health and safety.
Broadly speaking, the causes of accidents
are caused by factors that actions which do
not comply with the safety and the state of

1
the environment or the processes and Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry-Docks is
systems that are not secure. how risk assessment on the work of the
confined space at the ship repair in PT
Occupational Health and Safety are Bandar Abadi-Ship Builders and Dry Docks?
paramount in every work, in order to avoid a
dangerous situation that could harm or 1.3 Objective of research
injure people working. One was when
working in confined spaces that could harm The purpose of the resolution of cases in the
someone when it is inside the space. implementation of this practice is to analyze
Working in confined spaces have a risk to the risk assessment on the work of the
the health and safety of workers. Therefore, confined space at the ship repair in PT
we need rules in order to guarantee the Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry-Docks
protection of workers and other assets,
either through laws, the program enters a 1.4 Limitation of problem
limited space and requirements or
procedures for entering and working in Limitation of problems in the completion of
confined spaces. this case are as follows:

One workplace that has the potential hazard 1. Workplace accident data used is the
is in the PT Bandar Abadi Shipyard. The historical data from January -
company is one of the shipyard company December 2017
engaged in ship building and ship repair as 2. The job was done only on a confined
Tag Boat, Deck Barge, Tanker, Cargo, and space at the ship repair in PT Bandar
others. In producing the ship or ship repair Abadi-Ship Builders and Dry Docks.
could not be separated with the activities
that are in confined spaces. On the job has a 2. THEORITICAL BASIS
high risk of accidents. Here is a picture of
the confined space in Figure 1 The cornerstone of the theory is a theory
that explains the solution to the problems
raised in practical work in PT Bandar Abadi
Shipyard, form theories about health and
safety, work in confined space, work
accidents, as well as risk control.

2.1. Work safety

Safety can be defined as a condition that


is free from the risk of accidents or
damage to or with very small relative risk
Figure 1 Confined space below a certain level. Safe working
conditions or survivors need the support
Based on observations made, it was found of the safety of facilities and
that workplace accidents occur as much as infrastructure in the form of safety
1-2 times in the confined space of each equipment, personal protective
month. This data includes all incidents that equipment, and signs. Safety equipment
result in serious injury or illness. The data and personal protective equipment needs
obtained from the interviews to the to be adapted to the function and
personnel of the first aider in PT Bandar purpose, which is to protect and or
Abadi. prevent employees from hazardous
conditions resulting from the work
Based on this it is necessary to identify performed[1].
hazards and risk assessment and controls to
prevent and reduce the potential for 2.2. Health
accidents on the job are limited space in the
PT Bandar Abadi. Occupational health is a condition that can
affect the health of the employees.
1.2 Formulation of the problem Workplace health disorders have a tangible
impact directly and indirectly. The direct
Formulation of the problem in the impact is perceived occupational health
manufacture of Job Training report (KP) PT disorders immediately by the employees.
While the indirect impact is health-related

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problems experienced by employees after a b. Unsafe Action
certain period of time. Health problems
experienced by these employees can be Where the accident occurred because of
non-permanent or not permanent, this will actions/measures that are not safe, as a
affect employee productivity[1]. result of:
- Lack of knowledge and skills
2.3. Interest Occupational Health and - Physical characteristics
Safety - Psychological mental characteristics
- Attitudes and behavior that is unsafe
Occupational health and safety objectives
are: 2.5. Risk

1. Preventing accidents. The risk is the possibility of danger, loss,


2. Prevent disease due to a job. due to less fun than a deed, business,
3. Prevent/reduce mortality. and so fort. The risk is a combination of
4. Prevent/reduce permanent disability. the likelihood and severity of an event.
5. Securing material, construction, use,
maintenance of buildings, work tools, Hierarchy of risk control is a level stages
machines, installations and so forth. sequential use in the prevention and
6. Increase labor productivity without control of possible risks. The risk control
extorting labor and ensure their consists of five stages:
productive life.
7. Prevent the waste of labor, capital, 1. Elimination
tools and other production sources. 2. Substitution
8. Guarantee a healthy workplace, 3. Engineering Control
clean, comfortable and safe so that it 4. Administration Control
can generate excitement morale. 5. Personal Protective Equipment
9. Streamlining, increasing and
securing industrial production and 2.6. Understanding the confined
construction. space

2.4. Work accident Confined space is not big enough space and
the possibility of people to go into it to do
An accident is defined as an event that is the work and have limitations for outgoing
unexpected, originally unintended disrupt or incoming. According to OSHA
the process that has been set up for an (Occupational Health and safety
activity and can lead to losses for both Administration), confined space is a room
human or property. While workplace that has three characteristics that have a
accidents are unforeseen events and limited area and in the configuration so that
unexpected and unplanned causing injury, the worker's body can go in and do its job,
sickness, loss of humans, goods and the have limited entrance and exit and is not
environment. designed to work continuously[2].

Basically, the background of the accident Examples of confined spaces include the
influenced by two factors, namely: following water storage tanks, fuel or
chemicals, bunkers, tunnels, water wells
a. Unsafe Condition conventionally, drains, sewers, septic tanks
or sewer, silo (Warehouse storage of certain
Where accidents occur due to unsafe materials), container and so forth.
working conditions, as a result of:
2.7. Occupational Health and Safety
- Machinery, Equipment, Materials, in Entering a Confined Space
etc.
- Work environment There K3 requirements for entering
- Work process confined spaces as follows[3]:
- Nature of Work
- Ways of working 1. If the access cover/entrance opened,
on the track should be installed
banisters, temporary coverings or
another temporary barrier to prevent
accidental entry of workers and to

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protect workers in the limited space 2. Sinks, due to rising water level
of the entry of foreign objects into 3. Loss of consciousness due to the rise
the room. in body temperature
4. Shortness of breath/suffocation
2. Before workers enter the room, the because it can not reach the place
air in the room should be tested first, contained air or air being trapped
to ensure the levels of oxygen, inside
gases, and vapors are flammable or
potentially hazardous air 2.9. Atmospheric Hazards and
contaminants, with a piece of Atmospheric Hazard
equipment called a calibrated gas
detector. Every worker who enters Danger atmospheric (Cal-OSHA, 1998) is the
the room or the workers' air that can cause interference in doing
representatives, shall be given the something normal, injury, debilitating self-
opportunity to oversee the test. defense workers to cause acute illness or
death. Some examples of these dangers is a
3. There should be no harmful combustible gas or explosive vapor or mist
substances in the room if there are (fog) at a concentration of more than 10
workers in it percent of the LFL (lower flammable limit) or
LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). In addition
4. Obliged to provide continuous airflow combustible dust in the air that can interfere
system with the following conditions: with vision at a distance of five feet or less.
a. Workers should not enter the Here is an example of the danger of the
room before the air condition in atmosphere:
which it declared safe for entry.
b. The air flow is directed such that 1. Flammable or blow up a gas, vapor,
it can reach the area where the or mist at concentrations greater
workers will be and should than 10 percent of the flammable
continue as long as workers are limit (LFL) or lower explosion limit
in it. (LEL).
c. Adjustable air flow must be 2. Combustible dust in the air, which
obtained from sources that are obscures visibility to five meters or
clean and should not increase less.
the danger in the room. 3. The level of atmospheric oxygen
concentrations below 19.5 percent
5. Indoor air should be tested regularly or above 23.5 percent.
as often as possible to ensure that 4. Atmospheric concentrations of
the airflow settings can prevent the substances with toxic effects on
accumulation of harmful indoor air. acute.

6. If detected hazardous air during the Normally the air is composed of 21 percent
activity, then: oxygen, lack of oxygen can occur when
a. Each worker must leave the oxygen levels fall below 19.5 percent. A lack
room as soon as possible of oxygen can occur due to combustion (fire,
limited welding, and machine burning inside so
b. The room must be evaluated consume all oxygen), the formation of rust
to determine how dangerous (oxygen consumption), the decomposition of
the air can occur organic material (to consume oxygen and
produce simple gas flame). Confined space
The examination should be done to protect often contain three harmful gases, ie gases
workers from the hazardous air before the Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulfide
next event takes place (H2S) and methane (CH4). If atmospheric
hazards not visible, more visible physical
2.8. Danger Working in Confined dangers. Hazards that fall into this category
Space is the mechanical hazard. Moving equipment
and electric-powered pressure system and
1. Serious risk of explosion can be dangerous, for example, shaft (rod),
1. Loss of consciousness due to clutch, gears, belts, conveyors, mixers, rotor
shortness of breath caused by the and compressing equipment.
gas, fumes, vapors, or lack of
oxygen.

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2.10. Personal Protective Equipment physician examiner that the officers do not
have a history (Directorate of Occupational
Workers should be able to choose and use Health Safety Norms, 2006):
the tools properly protecting cap before the
worker enters the confined space. Personal 1. Sick convulsions or epilepsy
protective equipment can be seen in Table 2. Heart disease or heart problems
1. 3. Asthma, bronchitis or shortness of
breath when fatigue
Table 1. Examples of PPE 4. Hearing disorders
5. Headaches such as a migraine or
vertigo can cause disorientation
6. Claustrophobia, or other mental
disorders
7. Disruption or spinal disease
8. Permanent visual impairments
9. Other diseases that may endanger
the safety of working in confined
spaces

2.12. Permitting System

Work permit limited space is an important


document which contains a description of
the work to be performed and precautions
against dangers that may arise during the
work as follows:

1. The permit is valid only for a period


or a specific time limit.
2. Permission must be prepared by an
authority (usually a supervisor or
designee)
3. Permits must be posted clearly at
the entrance of the limited space.
4. All licenses issued shall be recorded.

Permitting system in a confined place as


follows:

1. Before the activities were conducted,


officials are required to document
the completeness of the preventive
measures that have been adjusted.
2. Before the activity starts, experts K3
specified in the permit shall sign the
permit to authorize activities
3. The completed permit should be
2.11. Health Requirements to Work in given at the time of starting the
Confined Space activities to all main authorized
officer or representative, to put it in
the post activities or other equally
Working in confined spaces can provide
physical and psychological pressure. This is effective means so that the main
office to ensure that the initial
because the quality of the lighting is bad and
narrow room, can lead to impaired vision preparation before starting the
activity has been completed
and balance due to the declining function of
coordination and circulatory abnormalities.
2.13. Person Responsible
It shall ensure that personnel working in
confined spaces to be healthy physically and Personnel in charge of the work in the
declared by the occupational health confined space is:

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1. Supervisor b. Leave the room, without asking,
according to attendant warnings, no
The supervisor is responsible for matter the reason
coordinating the employee entered in the c. Following all the rules and
confined space. The task of the supervisor procedures applicable safety
is: d. Able to perform the isolation of the
identified sources of energy-source
a. Convincing the adequacy of before doing the work
protection provided for workers who e. Understanding the work to be done
enter the examination LOTO and all and the procedures applied for the
danger is safely isolated job
b. Supporting the watchman outside
authorized officer in the control 2.14. Fishbone Analysis
room entrance closed
c. Responsible for the process of Told Fishbone Diagram because it is shaped
working in confined spaces before like the snout fish bonehead facing to the
entry, at the time of being inside or right. This diagram will show an effect or a
after completion result of a problem, with various causes.
d. Convincing all personnel involved Securities or written as a result muzzle-
understand and care about the head. While the fish bones filled with causes
hazards and risks associated with a following the approach of the problem. Told
confined space Cause and Effect diagram as the diagram
e. Preventing the unauthorized entry shows the relationship between cause and
into confined spaces effect. In connection with statistical process
control, a cause-effect diagram is used for to
2. Attendant demonstrate the causal factors (causes) and
the characteristics of quality (due) caused
The attendant is an employee who remains by factors that cause it.
outside the closed room and watching the
workers who enter. Task attendant is: 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
a. Entrants monitor when the work
This section describes the sequence in
goes on and time of entry and exit
solving problems and how to perform
as well as assure their safety,
analysis of the existing problems. The
Attendant should not leave his post
research methodology consisted of
for any reason when workers are in
preliminary studies, literature studies,
unless overridden by a qualified
problem identification, data collection, data
attendant
processing, analysis, and problem-solving.
b. Monitor the condition of the
atmosphere in the room before and
at the entrance
c. Monitor the entrance/exit of the
confined space
d. Assistant to the emergency response
when needed
e. Assessing hazards in and around the
room, and take action at the same
time
f. Keeping records of work purposes
confined space, such as air test
results, personnel entry/exit, etc.

3. Entrance

Entrance is where the worker is physically


into the confined space to carry out the
work. Noteworthy by the entrance are:

a. Ensure that the closed space has


been ventilated, isolated, emptied,
or made safe for entry

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2) Preparation and Implementation of
Isolation

Confined space system should be isolated


from dangerous energy around the confined
space including the energy and electrical
energy. Identification of the insulation
system to be used, including a review of the
data in a confined space to enter. The data
include:

a. Number and location of


equipment/vessel
b. List of insulation / Log Out Tag-Out
c. Data product or material that will be
entered into the confined space.

3) Cleaning and Disposal of Gases and


Liquids in Confined Space

Once isolated dangerous energy to do a


cleanup of hazardous gases and liquids.

a. The pressure in the confined space


should be lowered Sampa reaching
atmospheric pressure through the
Figure 2. Flowchart of research sewer gas.
b. Discard the rest of the liquid through
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION the sewer system.
c. Then purge gas (purging) with an
inert gas (N2 or CO2) to be below
Results and discussion contain a description
the flammable region.
of the work performed on the limited space
d. Upon reaching the bottom,
Bandar Abadi PT Ship Builders and Dry
flammability (LEL), a new air may be
Docks.
blown.
The procedure of entering the room is
4) Air supply
limited to Bandar Abadi PT Ship Builders and
Dry Docks is:
Before workers allowed into the confined
space, it must examine the whole place is in
1) Preparation and Planning
the confined space. This is because of the
possibility of a trapped gas section is limited
a. Workers are allowed to enter into
space because methane is lighter than air.
the limited space must be trained
At PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry
and have attended training on how
Docks for testing oxygen levels, gas and
to work in a limited space. At PT
flammable vapors to use the gas detector
Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry
that has been calibrated. Normally the air
Docks workers entering confined
contained in the confined space is 19.5% to
spaces have been trained and given
23.5%. A lack of oxygen can occur when the
the authority to do the job retention
oxygen content is less than 19.5%. A lack of
by supervisor.
oxygen can occur due to the burning of
b. The supervisor tells the workers
combustible substances, fermentation, and
about the preparation for entering
chemical reactions. Excess oxygen also does
confined spaces and the hazards that
well in the confined space because it also
may occur in the confined space.
triggered a fire and explosion.
c. All employees of PT Bandar Abadi
Ship Builders and Dry Docks know
5) Personal protective equipment
what materials are contained in a
limited space and any hazards that
At work in confined space, PT Bandar Abadi
might be found and to know that
Ship Builders and Dry Docks sets of personal
show proper first aid.
protective equipment should be used such

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as gloves, hats headwear, work clothes or for all permits must be returned at the time
coverall, safety shoes, safety glasses and of completion of the work or when it ends.
more. The equipment is used to reduce the Working in Confined Space is dangerous,
impact of hazards that can be caused by this is because there are various hazards
workers who were in the confined space. that can cause injury and death to workers
Given the many dangers that can occur who perform work in the confined space,
when an employee working in confined therefore for the workers who will do the
spaces or confined space workers are workplace must obtain a Work Permit of HSE
required to have a work permit tau known Department and the knowledge of his
as a work permit. Workers can ask for a superiors.
work permit at K3 expert or supervisor
appointed in each factory or workplace. In 4.1. Hazard Identification
addition to a work permit workers also
touched wear Personal Protective Equipment Results of hazard identification on work in
(PPE) is complete, the required PPE include: the confined space at PT Bandar Abadi Ship
Builders and Dry Docks is:
a. Respirator (breathing apparatus)
 Gas mask 1. Inhalation of toxic gases
 Water supply system 2. Lack of oxygen or excess oxygen
b. Lifeline 3. Crushed material
c. Gloves 4. A fall or slip
d. sneakers 5. Caught
e. Safety helmet 6. Leaking pipes
f. Protective headgear with chin strap. 7. Explosion
g. Goggles or eye protection.
h. Ear protector. 4.2. Risk Assessment
i. Intrinsically safe flashlight.
j. Protective clothing The potential danger of further hazard
identification risk assessment using the
6) Supervision During Work in Confined criteria of likelihood and severity refers to
Space the risk assessment methods. The risk
assessment can be seen in Table 2.
At PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry
Docks surveillance conducted during work in Table 2. Risk assessment
confined spaces are:

a. Inspection equipment, PPE, gas


detector, a tools detector etc.
b. Inform about the way of dangers
and emergency response plans.
c. Correct placement and proper
equipment
Source: PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and
7) Work Permit Dry Docks

When working in a confined space, PT Risk area analysis is categorized using the
Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry Docks following approach:
provides licensing regulations should be
used to enter a confined space or potentially a. High risk level = Area is red
dangerous hazards. Licensing is an authority The risks at this level are the risks
for job placement location and type of work with the odds of occurring very often
to be carried out. It ensures that all the up to and occasionally and having an
conditions of potential danger have been impact value from very large to
evaluated by a qualified person and a large.
measure of protection to be applied or to b. Medium risk level = Green area
know to ensure the safety of all workers. The risks at this level are the risks
Licensing must be prepared and signed by a with the odds of occurring very often
supervisor who is responsible for the safe that are very rare and have an
operation and facilities. Copies of these impact effect from very small to very
licenses described with tape at the entrance large.
of the limited space. Records should be kept

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c. Low risk level = Area is yellow at work in the confined space in PT Bandar
The risks at this level are the risks Abadi Ship Builders and Dry Docks. Factors
with the odds of occurrence that are causing concern in the manufacture of
often very rare and have a fishbone diagram is a human, the methods,
significant impact effect from large equipment and work environment. The
to very small. following is a Fishbone diagram workplace
accidents at work in the confined space at
4.3. Risk Control PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry
Docks can be seen in Appendix.
Risk control conducted by PT Bandar Abadi
Ship Builders and Dry Docks is:
Based on the above diagram Fishbone is
1. Inhalation of toxic gases known that factors causing or affecting the
Controlling the risk: accidents that working environment factors,
a. Engineering controls : a gift from methods, equipment, and humans.
the circulatory system and
auxiliary exhaust fan a. Work environment
b. Administration : air quality
measurement The work environment work is very
c. PPE : gas detector, respirator or influential on accidents, such as the narrow
masks, self-rescue. room, hot conditions and the lack or excess
of oxygen. Therefore, workers must always
2. Lack of oxygen or excess oxygen be careful and ensure proper use of PPE and
Controlling the risk: appropriate work procedures and SOPs
a. Engineering controls : the exist, to avoid the danger posed by the state
provision of an air circulation of the working environment
system
b. Administration : air quality b. Method
measurement
c. PPE : gas detector, mask In their work, the worker did not use the
method to work properly and not in
3. Crushed material accordance with the SOP that has been
Controlling the risk: made by the company, which led to
a. PPE : safety helmet workplace accidents occur. As well as
workers' lack of understanding of the K3
4. A fall or slip also factored into labor in violation of SOP.
Controlling the risk: Therefore, the supervision and control
a. Administration :do housekeeping system of the company is necessary, in
after work order to reduce and prevent infringement K3
happens, by way of reprimand or
5. Caught commemorate each operator prior to the
Controlling the risk: emergence of workplace accidents.
a. PPE : safety helmet
c. Equipment
6. Leaking pipes
Controlling the risk: Equipment used when working in confined
a. The substitution : replace with space is not adequate. Such equipment
new pipe often lead to accidents to workers, such as
b. PPE : use respirators or masks, inhalation of toxic gases, and other material
wearpack stricken. Therefore, to avoid this, workers
are expected to use the PPE. PT Bandar
7. Explosion Abadi Ship Builders and Dry Docks have had
Controlling the risk: the PPE and has implemented procedures for
a. Engineering controls : checking use of PPE according to the SOP, but the
the area could cause an explosion amount of labor that much, causing the
b. PPE : use face shield, wearpack existing PPE does not correspond to the
amount of labor. In other words, it is not
4.4. Fishbone Analysis adequate PPE. Therefore it is necessary to
add PPE so that workers can work safely.
The fishbone diagram is a diagram used to
determine the factors that cause accidents

9
d. Human safety gloves, face shield, and
safety helmed.
Accidents that occur in the confined space in
PT Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and Dry 5.2. Suggestion
Docks are generally caused by the human
factor itself which acts as a worker. Hasty Based on the analysis of existing
action and neglect can cause potential problems that have been created, it can
workers to a work accident. In this case, the be recommended things as follows:
workers only pay attention to speed, without
considering the safety aspect for him. Most a. Workers should have been compliant
of the workers themselves have been companies using PPE which has been
accustomed to such work, so many prepared, given the importance of
operators who think the job is easy and the use of in protecting workers
safe. Factors affecting accidents that often against potential hazards.
occur is not paying attention to the work
area well, does not work according to SOP, b. Confined should be given access in
do not wear PPE properly, do not follow the order to know the number of existing
training that led to workers injured at work, workers in confined space.
such as falls, crushed material.
6. REFERENCES
5. CLOSING
[1] Andyansyah. 2000. Health and
This section contains the conclusions Safety at Work Welding in Confined
derived from observations that have been Space. STATUTE Safety Bulletin Vol.
made about the work being done on the 1, 52-55.
confined space in Bandar Abadi PT Ship [2] Arsyad, A. 2012. Overview of Risk
Builders and Dry Docks. Management Application of
Occupational Health and Safety at
5.1. Conclusion Work, Confined Space, PT Bakrie
Construction Serang,
1. A confined space is not big Banten.Internship report, Sebelas
enough space and the possibility Maret University.
of people go into it to do the work [3] Minister of Labor. 2013. Terms
and have limitations for outgoing Hygiene and Health in the Workplace
or incoming. Limited space has Lighting.
three characteristics that have a http://aswinsh.wordpress.com/2011
limited area and configuration so (citation, December 13, 2017)
that workers can enter the body
and perform their duties, have
limited the door for entry and exit
and is not designed to work on -
and on.

2. Potential hazards are in confined


space work in PT Bandar Abadi
Ship Builders and Dry Docks is
inhaled toxic gases, oxygen
deficiency or excess, crushed
material, fall or slip, trapped,
pipeline leaks and explosions.

3. Risk control has been done by PT


Bandar Abadi Ship Builders and
Docks consists of four methods of
control that is a substitution,
engineering controls,
administrative and personal
protective equipment. Wear
personal protective equipment,
namely masks, safety shoes,

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