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CHAPTER 5

CIRCULANT GRAPHS WITH ALGORITHMS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

field of graph theory. During the last three decades, total domination of graphs

have been studied extensively. The literature survey reveals that there is an

extensive study on total dominating set in various forms by many researchers.

et al. (1980) and is well studied in graph theory by Kulli & Sigarkanti (1991)

and Haynes et al. (1998).

summarized below. (Henning & Yeo 2007)

78

restrained domination numbers for certain Cayley graphs constructed on

with some generating set of . Henning & Kazemi (2010) investigated the

k - tuple total domination number for complete multipartite graphs. Kazemi

(2011) have given upper bounds on the k - tuple total domination number of

the m – Mycieleskian graph .

arises from the interconnection networks of parallel computers. Revathi et al.

(2013) introduced the perfect domination in fuzzy graphs. Perfect distance

closed domination in graphs and its properties are discussed by Sangeetha

(2014).

Chapter 4 . In this chapter, for the same collection of circulant graphs, the

perfect 2-tuple total domination number has been obtained. Some 2-tuple total

dominating 2-excellent circulant graphs, 2-tuple total dominating 2-restricted

circulant graphs are identified and also proved that any subgroup of can be

a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of for some generating set A.

An algorithm for 2-tuple total domination number and an algorithm for an

upper bound of 2-domination number in circulant graphs are given.

79

Lemma 5.2.L1

Proof

.Let ( ) and

. We prove that D is a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of G. Let

.

dominated by and not dominated by any other vertex

of D.

and not dominated by any other vertex of D.

. In this case, v is dominated by both ix and and not dominated

by any other vertex of D.

80

Lemma 5.2.L2

Proof

for some integers and j with .

0 and v dominated once by each other. Also the other vertices between 0 and x

are dominated twice by 0 and v. Now to dominate twice the vertex v, we have

to include atleast one of the vertex to D from the set

, which makes a vertex between 0 and

dominated thrice. Hence .

Hence to dominate the vertices twice, we should include the

vertex x in D. Similarly, we can have . Suppose ,

then we should have one of the vertex ,

which is not possible as we stated in the earlier part of the proof.

following result.

81

Theorem 5.2.T1

all ) is an efficient dominating set for the circulant graph

for some suitable generating set A of Z n if and only if either of

the following is true.

Chelvam & Mutharasu (2011) have proved that there are some

subgroups of , which are not efficient dominating sets for any circulant

graph. But, we prove that any subgroup of can be a perfect 2-

tuple total dominating set of by choosing a specific generating set A.

Lemma 5.2.L3

total dominating set for the circulant graph for some suitable

generating set A of .

82

Proof

. In this case, , where

by Lemma 5.2.L1, H is a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of the circulant

graph .

cycle on n vertices, is also a circulant graph , where .

In this case, the only perfect 2-tuple total dominating set is the vertex set.

Remark 5.2.R1

coset of H for all . Also, can be written as a disjoint union of left

cosets of H, and that each has the same number of elements. Since Cayley

graphs are vertex transitive, for each , we have is a perfect 2-

tuple total dominating set of whenever D is a perfect 2-tuple total

dominating set of . From these facts and by above Lemma 5.2.L3, we

can have the following result.

Theorem 5.2.T3

graph and some specific generating set A of such that V(G)

can be partitioned into perfect 2-tuple total dominating sets and each one is a

left co-set of H.

83

Lemma 5.2.L4

and ⌊ ⌋. Then ⌈ ⌉.

Proof

for some integers and j with .

⌈ ⌉.

Let and .

Case 2: .

Case 4: and or .

84

Theorem 5.3.T1

and ⌊ ⌋. If for

Proof

, let [ ], the set of integers from

to . Then . Note that for ,

the vertices of are dominated by both and . Also the vertices

of D are dominated twice by the vertices of D.

group , we need only to prove that for any ,

there exists a - set D1 such that .

required - set. Suppose . Since , there exists no

element between gx and 0. Thus d lies between ix and for some i with

. From this, for some j with .

85

prove that is a 2-tuple

total dominating set of G which contain 0 and d. Note that | | .

Hence G is 2-tuple total dominating 2-excellent.

Theorem 5.3.T2

Proof

enough to prove that for any ,there exists a - set D1

such that .

set D1 such that and

.

D1. Hence 0 is not a member of both sets and . Suppose

, then and hence . In this case,

is the required - set. Suppose , then

and hence . In this case, is the required - set.

86

cliques and independent sets, color graphs, find shortest paths, determine

connected components, etc. Since many problems involve large graphs, it is

important to develop efficient algorithms for solving them. Many problems

modelled by graphs have hundreds or even thousands of vertices. In 2006, a

digraph modelling the World Wide Web had 8,000,000,000 vertices and

80,000,000,000 edges!

domination algorithm with complexity results. The first domination algorithm

has been attempted by Daykin & Ng (1966) to compute the domination

number of an arbitrary tree. But their algorithm seems to have an error that

cannot be easily corrected. Cockayne et al. (1975) apparently constructed the

first domination algorithm for trees. Corniel & Stewart (1990), Chvátal &

Cook (1990), Grinstead & Slatter (1991), Bernhard et al. (1993) have given

algorithms to find domination parameters of graphs.

time algorithm on partial k - trees for computation of the Grundy Number.

Liao & Chang (2002) studied k - tuple domination number from an

algorithmic point of view. Guruprakash & Mallikarjunaswamy (2012)

investigated the total connected dominating set (TCDS) problem in circulant

Graphs. Lan & Chang (2013) have given polynomial - time algorithms on

graphs.

87

(2014), Lan & Chang (2014) etc have given algorithms to find domination

numbers in graphs.

domination number in based on the Lemma 5.2.L4.

Algorithm

Input: A circulant graph , integer g,x,j,

and ⌊ ⌋

begin

initialize

initialize /* Let

if /*Since belongs to D */

⌈ ⌉ /* */

else

for v in V(G) do

Switch

case and

v is dominated by ix and (i+1)x

case and

v is dominated by 0 and gx

case and /* */

88

v is dominated by both

case and

v is dominated by both x and

case and

v is dominated by both x, gx belongs to D / * x belongs to D * /

end switch

⌈ ⌉

end

if

⌈ ⌉

end

end

bound of 2-domination number in circulant graphs based on the Lemma

4.2.L2 is given.

89

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Algorithm

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Input: A circulant graph , integer a, x;

and ⌊ ⌋

begin

Switch

if

then /*

else

if /* */

then v is dominated by both and

end

end

end switch

end

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