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CHAPTER 5

5 2-TUPLE TOTAL DOMINATION NUMBER IN


CIRCULANT GRAPHS WITH ALGORITHMS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The study of total dominating set plays a prominent role in the


field of graph theory. During the last three decades, total domination of graphs
have been studied extensively. The literature survey reveals that there is an
extensive study on total dominating set in various forms by many researchers.

Total domination in graphs have been familiarized by Cockayne


et al. (1980) and is well studied in graph theory by Kulli & Sigarkanti (1991)
and Haynes et al. (1998).

The known upper bounds on in terms of δ and n are


summarized below. (Henning & Yeo 2007)



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Chelvam & Rani (2009) obtained the total, connected and


restrained domination numbers for certain Cayley graphs constructed on
with some generating set of . Henning & Kazemi (2010) investigated the
k - tuple total domination number for complete multipartite graphs. Kazemi
(2011) have given upper bounds on the k - tuple total domination number of
the m – Mycieleskian graph .

The existence of perfect dominating sets in families of graphs


arises from the interconnection networks of parallel computers. Revathi et al.
(2013) introduced the perfect domination in fuzzy graphs. Perfect distance
closed domination in graphs and its properties are discussed by Sangeetha
(2014).

The efficient 2-dominating sets for the circulant graphs ,

where and ⌊ ⌋ is given in

Chapter 4 . In this chapter, for the same collection of circulant graphs, the
perfect 2-tuple total domination number has been obtained. Some 2-tuple total
dominating 2-excellent circulant graphs, 2-tuple total dominating 2-restricted
circulant graphs are identified and also proved that any subgroup of can be
a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of for some generating set A.
An algorithm for 2-tuple total domination number and an algorithm for an
upper bound of 2-domination number in circulant graphs are given.
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5.2 PERFECT 2- TUPLE TOTAL DOMINATION

Lemma 5.2.L1

Let be integers. Let be a circulant graph

with and ⌊ ⌋. If divides , then

G has a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set.

Proof

Suppose, divides . Then n can be written as for some


.Let ( ) and
. We prove that D is a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of G. Let
.

case 1: If for some . In this case, v is


dominated by and not dominated by any other vertex
of D.

case 2: If . In this case, v is dominated by


and not dominated by any other vertex of D.

case 3: If for some integer i with


. In this case, v is dominated by both ix and and not dominated
by any other vertex of D.
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Lemma 5.2.L2

Let be integers. Let be a circulant graph

with and ⌊ ⌋. If G has a

perfect 2 - tuple total dominating set, then divides .

Proof

Suppose G has a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set D. Let


for some integers and j with .

With out loss of generality, assume that .

Suppose and . Then in this case, the vertices


0 and v dominated once by each other. Also the other vertices between 0 and x
are dominated twice by 0 and v. Now to dominate twice the vertex v, we have
to include atleast one of the vertex to D from the set
, which makes a vertex between 0 and
dominated thrice. Hence  .

Similarly, we can prove that  .


Hence to dominate the vertices twice, we should include the
vertex x in D. Similarly, we can have . Suppose ,
then we should have one of the vertex ,
which is not possible as we stated in the earlier part of the proof.

From Lemma 5.2.L1 and Lemma 5.2.L2, we can conclude the


following result.
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Theorem 5.2.T1

Let be a circulant graph with

and ⌊ ⌋. Then G has a perfect 2-tuple total

dominating set if and only if divides .

Theorem 5.2.T2 (Chelvam & Mutharasu 2011)

Let H be a proper subgroup of Z n . Then H (as well as H + x for


all ) is an efficient dominating set for the circulant graph
for some suitable generating set A of Z n if and only if either of
the following is true.

(i) | | for some .

(ii) | | for some and |H| is odd.

Chelvam & Mutharasu (2011) have proved that there are some
subgroups of , which are not efficient dominating sets for any circulant
graph. But, we prove that any subgroup of can be a perfect 2-
tuple total dominating set of by choosing a specific generating set A.

Lemma 5.2.L3

Let H ( {e}) be a subgroup of . Then H is a perfect 2-tuple


total dominating set for the circulant graph for some suitable
generating set A of .
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Proof

Let H be a proper subgroup of . Then | | for some


. In this case, , where

| |. Let , where . Then


by Lemma 5.2.L1, H is a perfect 2-tuple total dominating set of the circulant
graph .

If H is not a proper subgroup of Z n , then Note that the


cycle on n vertices, is also a circulant graph , where .
In this case, the only perfect 2-tuple total dominating set is the vertex set.

Remark 5.2.R1

In the group , for every subgroup, H the set is a left


coset of H for all . Also, can be written as a disjoint union of left
cosets of H, and that each has the same number of elements. Since Cayley
graphs are vertex transitive, for each , we have is a perfect 2-
tuple total dominating set of whenever D is a perfect 2-tuple total
dominating set of . From these facts and by above Lemma 5.2.L3, we
can have the following result.

Theorem 5.2.T3

Let H be a proper subgroup of . Then there exists a circulant


graph and some specific generating set A of such that V(G)
can be partitioned into perfect 2-tuple total dominating sets and each one is a
left co-set of H.
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Lemma 5.2.L4

Let be a circulant graph with

and ⌊ ⌋. Then ⌈ ⌉.

Proof

Suppose G has a 2 -tuple total dominating set D. Let


for some integers and j with .

With out loss of generality, assume that . From Lemma

5.2.L2, we have , where ⌈ ⌉. Hence

⌈ ⌉.

Let and .

Case 1: for some integer i with .

In this case, v is dominated by both ix and .

Case 2: .

In this case, v is dominated by both 0 and gx.

Case 3: and for some .

In this case, v is dominated by both .

Case 4: and or .

If , then it is dominated by both .

If , then it is dominated by both .


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Hence | | ⌈ ⌉ and hence ⌈ ⌉.

5.3 2 - TUPLE TOTAL DOMINATION

Theorem 5.3.T1

Let be integers and , where

and ⌊ ⌋. If for

some integer then G is 2-tuple total dominating 2-excellent.

Proof

Given ⌈ ⌉. Then by Lemma 5.2.L4, .

Further, , is a - set of G and | | . For


, let [ ], the set of integers from
to . Then . Note that for ,
the vertices of are dominated by both and . Also the vertices
of D are dominated twice by the vertices of D.

Since the cancellation law is applicable for the elements of the


group , we need only to prove that for any ,
there exists a - set D1 such that  .

Let . If , then nothing to prove and D is the


required - set. Suppose  . Since , there exists no
element between gx and 0. Thus d lies between ix and for some i with
. From this, for some j with .
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By fixing the integer i, as in the proof of Lemma 5.2.L4, we can


prove that is a 2-tuple
total dominating set of G which contain 0 and d. Note that | | .
Hence G is 2-tuple total dominating 2-excellent.

Theorem 5.3.T2

Let be integers and , where

and ⌊ ⌋. If for some

integer then G is 2-tuple total dominating 2-restricted.

Proof

Given ⌈ ⌉. As discussed in Lemma 5.2.L4,

. Further, , is a set of G and | | . It is


enough to prove that for any ,there exists a - set D1
such that .

Let . Then by Lemma 5.2.L4, there exists a -


set D1 such that  and
.

It is easy to observe that both the vertices n – 1 and 1 are not in


D1. Hence 0 is not a member of both sets and . Suppose
, then  and hence  . In this case,
is the required - set. Suppose , then 
and hence  . In this case, is the required - set.
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5.4 GRAPH ALGORITHMS

Graph algorithms have been developed to search graphs, find


cliques and independent sets, color graphs, find shortest paths, determine
connected components, etc. Since many problems involve large graphs, it is
important to develop efficient algorithms for solving them. Many problems
modelled by graphs have hundreds or even thousands of vertices. In 2006, a
digraph modelling the World Wide Web had 8,000,000,000 vertices and
80,000,000,000 edges!

Nearly 100 papers have been published in the last 10 years in


domination algorithm with complexity results. The first domination algorithm
has been attempted by Daykin & Ng (1966) to compute the domination
number of an arbitrary tree. But their algorithm seems to have an error that
cannot be easily corrected. Cockayne et al. (1975) apparently constructed the
first domination algorithm for trees. Corniel & Stewart (1990), Chvátal &
Cook (1990), Grinstead & Slatter (1991), Bernhard et al. (1993) have given
algorithms to find domination parameters of graphs.

Telle & Proskurowski (1997) presented the first polynomial -


time algorithm on partial k - trees for computation of the Grundy Number.
Liao & Chang (2002) studied k - tuple domination number from an
algorithmic point of view. Guruprakash & Mallikarjunaswamy (2012)
investigated the total connected dominating set (TCDS) problem in circulant
Graphs. Lan & Chang (2013) have given polynomial - time algorithms on
graphs.
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Pramanik et al. (2011), Chaluvaraju & Vidya (2012), Sinha et al.


(2014), Lan & Chang (2014) etc have given algorithms to find domination
numbers in graphs.

5.4.1 Algorithm For 2-Tuple Total Domination Number

The main result of this section is an algorithm for the 2-tuple


domination number in based on the Lemma 5.2.L4.


Algorithm


Input: A circulant graph , integer g,x,j,

and ⌊ ⌋

Output: A 2-tuple total dominating set H of G


begin
initialize
initialize /* Let
if /*Since belongs to D */

⌈ ⌉ /* */

else
for v in V(G) do
Switch
case and
v is dominated by ix and (i+1)x
case and
v is dominated by 0 and gx
case and /* */
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v is dominated by both
case and
v is dominated by both x and
case and
v is dominated by both x, gx belongs to D / * x belongs to D * /
end switch

⌈ ⌉

end
if

⌈ ⌉

end
end

5.4.2 Algorithm For An Upper Bound Of 2- Domination Number

In this section, an algorithm for an upper


bound of 2-domination number in circulant graphs based on the Lemma
4.2.L2 is given.
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algorithm
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Input: A circulant graph , integer a, x;

and ⌊ ⌋

Output: An upper bound for 2-dominating set H of G.


begin

Define ⋃ /*| | ⌈ ⌉*/

Switch
if
then /*
else
if /* */
then v is dominated by both and
end
end
end switch

⌈ ⌉ /*H is the dominating set of G*/

end