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Basic Computer Skills Laboratory programs

Basic Computer Skills Laboratory


Manual

EXERCISES BASED ON

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Basic Computer Skills Laboratory programs

Unit – I
Computer hardware and software
1. Identify and understand the models of Computers

Models of Computers:

Desktop Model : Fig 1a shows the figure A desktop computer is a personal computer in a form intended
for regular use at a single location desk/table due to its size and power requirements. The most common
configuration is a computer monitor, keyboard and mouse, and a case that houses the main
components of the PC, namely the power supply, motherboard, hard drive, optical drive, and previously
the floppy drive. The form factor of the case is typically an upright tower or (horizontal) desktop.

Laptop : As shown in fig 1b, It is a portable computer, which can sit on the user’s lap. It has a pop-up
screen and batteries power in it. Laptops are useful to send information while traveling from one place
to another.

PDA: Fig 1c shows PDA stands for Short for Personal Digital Assistant, it is of the size ofuser’s palm. It is
used as personal organizer and provides user with the ability to store namesand address, play games,
access the internet and acts as a calculator.A typical PDA can function as a cellular phone, fax sender,
and personal organizer. Unlike portable computers, most PDAs are pen-based, using a stylus rather than
a keyboard for input. PDAs are also called palmtops, hand-held computers and pocket computers.

Notebook computer : Fig 1d shows Notebook Computer. An extremely lightweight personal computer.
Notebook computers typically weigh less than 6 pounds and are small enough to fit easily in a briefcase.
Aside from size, the principal difference between a notebook computer and a personal computer is the
display screen. Notebook computers use a variety of techniques, known as flat-panel technologies, to
produce a lightweight and non-bulky display screen. The quality of notebook display screens varies
considerably. In terms of computing power, modern notebook computers are nearly equivalent to
personal computers. They have the same CPUs, memory capacity, and disk drives. However, all this
power in a small package is expensive. Notebook computers cost about twice as much as equivalent
regular-sized computers. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to run them
without plugging them in. However, the batteries need to be recharged every few hours

Subnotebook computer: Fig 1e shows subnotebook computer.A portable computer that is slightly
lighter and smaller than a full-sized notebook computer. Typically, subnotebook computers have a
smaller keyboard and screen, but are otherwise equivalent to notebook computers.

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Basic Computer Skills Laboratory programs

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Basic Computer Skills Laboratory programs

2. Identify and understand front paneswitches and back panel connections of a Computer
system.

Front Panel Switches:

The computer front panel is manufactured keeping mind that it is kept facing in front of users
face to give a good look it is made up of an good looking plastic fiber and is molded and
designed nicely. It has CD/DVD/Read/Write , Floppy disk drive , ON/OFF button and RESET
button on its Front side. Figure 2a.shows front panel of Switches.

Back Panel Connectors:

Behind the computer back panel connectors are used to connect the computer to its
peripherals like Monitor , Keyboard , Mouse Printer (parallel port) serial port USB port , Sound
(speaker , mic ,lineOut/ line In ) and game port , Ethernet(LAN card) etc. Figure 2b.shows back
panel of computer & connectors.

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3. Identify & Understand Physical Components of Computers.


PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF COMPUTERS:

The physical components of the computer are its Hardware parts. The hardware of the
computer is divided in to 2 types of components

INTERNAL PHYSICAL COMPONENTS

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INTERNAL PHYSICAL COMPONENTS : Fixed and connected in side of the computer. They are as
follows :

1.Mother board : Main (PCB) Printed Circuit Board consists CPU ,RAM , POWER CONNECTOR ,
CMOS BATTERY (CMOS is short for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. CMOS is an
on-board, battery powered semiconductor chip inside computers that stores information. This
information ranges from the system time and date to system hardware settings for your
computer.) , SLOTS ,HDD, AND Many Electronics components

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CPU Processor: Stands for Central Processing Unit. It is brain of computer. It contains a
processing unit and a control unit

RAM : A memory module, commonly called RAM, memory, or a RAM chip, is a dynamic random
access memory integrated circuit module mounted on a printed circuit board and designed for
use in personal computers, workstations, and servers. 4.

Hard Disk: A Hard disk is made up of magnetic storage device. It is used for storing and
retrieving digital information. 5.

Power Supply : SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply ) is used to supply DC step down that is +5,
-5, +12 -12 Voltages to the computer system.Wire connectors, sockets, signal bus
connectorsare used to connect all components inside the computer..

Computer fan :is any fan inside, or attached to, a computer case used for active cooling, and
may refer to fans that draw cooler air into the case from the outside, expel warm air from
inside, or move air across a heat sink to cool a particular component.

Heat sink : is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a
mechanical device into a coolant fluid in motion.

EXTERNAL PHYSICAL COMPONENTS :


Connected externally to each other .

1. CPU (SYSTEM BOX): It is Metallic box which contains all INTERNAL COMPONENTS of the
computer system.

2. Keyboard

3. Mouse

4. Speaker

5. Monitor

6. Printer

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4. Conduct computer system connection and understand the booting


process.
Connect all input and output devices to Computer System (CPU) and switch on the Power
Button , now computer starts after configuration screen , Operating system starts loading on
the memory, Loading of operating system files and by this we get icons on the desktop screen
known as user screen and the above process is known as booting process. Locate the monitor
cable. Connect one end of the cable to the monitor porton the back of thecomputer case and
the other end to the monitor. Hand tighten the plastic-covered screws on the monitor cable to
secure it.

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Next connectkeyboardand determine whether it uses aUSB(rectangular) connector or a PS/2


(round) connector. If it uses a USB connector, plug it into any of the USB ports on the back of
the computer. If it uses a PS/2 connector, plug it into the purple keyboard port on the back of
the computer.

Locate the twopower supply cables that came with your computer. Plug the first power supply
cable into the back of the computer case, and then into asurge protector. Then, using the other
cable, connect the monitor to the surge protector . Finally, plug the surge protector into a wall
outlet. You may also need to turn on thesurge protector if it has a power switch.

BOOTING PROCESS
In order for a computer to successfullyboot, its BIOS(Basic Input Output System), operating
system and hardware components must all be working properly; failure of any one of these
three elements will likely result in a failed boot sequence. When the computer's power is first
turned on, the CPU initializes itself, which is triggered by a series of clock ticks generated by the
system clock. Part of the CPU's initialization is to look to the system's ROM BIOS for its first
instruction in the startup program. The ROM BIOS stores the first instruction, which is the
instruction to run the power-on self test (POST), in a predetermined memory address. POST
begins by checking the BIOS chip and then tests CMOS RAM. If the POST does not detect a
battery failure, it then continues to initialize the CPU, checking the inventoried hardware
devices (such as the video card), secondary storage devices, such as hard drives and floppy
drives, ports and other hardware devices, such as the keyboard and mouse, to ensure they are
functioning properly. Once the POST has determined that all components are functioning
properly and the CPU has successfully initialized, the BIOS looks for an OS to load. The BIOS
typically looks to the CMOS chip to tell it where to find the OS, and in most PCs, the OS loads
from the C drive on the hard drive even though the BIOS has the capability to load the OS from
a floppy disk, CD or ZIP drive. The order of drives that the CMOS looks to in order to locate the
OS is called the boot sequence, which can be changed by altering the CMOS setup. Looking to
the appropriate boot drive, the BIOS will first encounter the boot record, which tells it where to

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find the beginning of the OS and the subsequent program file that will initialize the OS. Once
the OS initializes, the BIOS copies its files into memory and the OS basically takes over control
of the boot process. Now in control, the OS performs another inventory of the system's
memory and memory availability (which the BIOS already checked) and loads the device drivers
that it needs to control the peripheral devices, such as a printer, scanner, optical drive, mouse
and keyboard. This is the final stage in the boot process, after which the user can access the
system’s applications to perform tasks.

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