Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Conditional Sentences

Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan


kegiatan yang lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalah Real Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal,
kadang-kadang disebut juga if-clauses.

Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan tentang
mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta.

Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang
pengandaian yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi.

Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional Tipe III, digunakan sebagai
penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional, digunakan untuk mengekspresikan
sesuatu yang sudah pasti benar.

Catatan: Jika klausa "if" diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan �koma�. Sebaliknya
jika klausa "if" berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

Zero Conditional

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan kebenaran umum. Tense yang digunakan biasanya Present Simple
Tense

Rumus

(Klausa IF) (Induk Kalimat)


If you heat water to 100�C, it boils.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat) (Klausa IF)


Water boils if you heat it to 100�C,

Contoh:

• If you drop an apple, it falls. = An apple falls, if you drop it.


• If you don't do your homework, I will be disappointed. = I will be disappointed, if you don't do your homework.

Catatan: Pada tipe ini, �if� sering digantikan dengan "when"

Conditional I

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan pengandaian yang dibuat berdasarkan fakta di masa sekarang
atau masa yang akan datang dan pengandaian ini bisa saja terjadi. Klausa �if� biasanya dalam
bentuk Present Simple Tense.

Rumus
(Klausa IF) (Induk Kalimat)
If I see you tomorrow, I will buy you a drink.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat) (Klausa IF)


I will buy you a drink if I see you tomorrow.

Kita sering menggunakan unless yang artinya 'jika... tidak�.

Rumus

(Klausa IF) (Induk Kalimat)


Unless you hand in your homework, I won't mark it.
Artinya
If you don't hand in your homework, I won't mark it.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat) (Klausa IF)


I won't mark your homework unless you hand it in.
Artinya
I won't mark your homework if you don't hand it in.

Catatan: Kita tidak pernah menggunakan will, atau won't dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

• If I have time today, I will phone my friend. = I will phone my friend, if I have time today.
• If I go to England, I will buy some Cheddar cheese. = I will buy some Cheddar cheese, if I go to England.

Conditional Tipe II

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan situasi yang tidak nyata di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan
datang. Tipe ini digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah harapan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam
klausa IF adalah Past Simple Tense.

Rumus

(Klausa IF) (Induk Kalimat)


If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat) (Klausa IF)


I would buy a new house if I won the lottery.
Catatan: Jangan gunakan would atau wouldn't dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

� If I were you, I wouldn't do that. = I wouldn't do that, if I were you.

� If I had more time, I would do more on my websites. = I would do more on my websites, if I


had more time.

Conditional Tipe III

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah kondisi di masa yang lampau yang tidak mungkin akan
terjadi lagi. Sering digunakan untuk mengkritik atau penyesalan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam
Klausa IF adalah Past Perfect Tense.

Rumus

(Klausa IF) (Induk Kalimat)


If I had worked harder, I would have passed my exam.
If I had worked harder, I could have passed my exam.
If I had worked harder, I should have passed my exam.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat) (Klausa IF)


I would have passed my exam if I had worked harder.
I could have passed my exam if I had worked harder.
I should have passed my exam if I had worked harder.

Catatan: Jangan gunakan would have atau wouldn't have, dll dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

• If I hadn't helped you, you would have failed. = You would have failed, if I hadn't helped you.
• If it had been sunny, we could have gone out. = We could have gone out, if it had been.

Conditional Sentences

BENTUK UMUM :

MAIN CLAUSE + IF CLAUSE


DI MANA :

Main clause selalu mempunyai modal auxiliary


If clause selalu berupa : simple present, simple past, atau past perfect

1. conditional sentences type 1 : true in the present or future

S + MODAL V1 + V1 . . IF + S + V1 ATAU TO BE V1

FACT :
Mengubah kata if dengan on condition that, provided, atau unless

contoh :
conditional : I may study in university if i graduate from senior high school
fact : i may study in university on condition that i graduate from senior high school

2. conditional sentences type 2 : untrue in the present

S + MODAL V2 + V2 . . IF + S + V2 ATAU TO BE V2

FACT :
1. Ubah kata if menjadi because
2. Ubah tense menjadi simple present dan hilangkan modal
3. Ubah kalimat negatif menjadi positif dan sebaliknya

contoh :
conditional : I might study in university if i graduated from senior high school
fact : I don't study in university because i don't graduate from senior high schoo

Conditional Sentences

3. conditional sentences type 3 : untrue in the past

S + MODAL V2 + HAVE + V3 . . IF + S + HAD + V3 ATAU HAD BEEN

FACT :
1. Ubah kata if menjadi because
2. Ubah tense menjadi simple present dan hilangkan modal
3. Ubah kalimat negatif menjadi positif dan sebaliknya
contoh :
conditional : I might have studied in university if i had graduated from senior high school
fact : I didn't study in university because i didn't graduate from senior high school

IF Clause Type 1

Form
if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.


The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on
how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a
certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually
will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to
happen.

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however,
that I will find it.

Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I
think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.

IF Clause Type 2

Form
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on
how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.


Were instead of Was

In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.

Example: If I were you, I would not do this.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the
present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just
imagine „what would happen if …“

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I
cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.

Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He
would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the
money to buy one in the near future.

IF Clause Type 3

Form
if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on
how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in
the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just
imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address,
however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.

Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He
would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.