Anda di halaman 1dari 11

Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

ENGINEERING ELECTROMAGNETICS
INTRODUCTION

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by


electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field.
The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the
electromagnetic interaction. The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a
magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field
by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. It is
seen that distribution of a quantity in a space is defined by a field. Hence to quantify the field,
three dimensional representational plays an important role. Such a three dimensional
representation can be made easy by the use of vector analysis. A good knowledge of vector
analysis is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of engineering electromagnetics.

Direction of electric field: The direction of electric field is always directed away from
positive source charges and towards negative source charges

Direction of magnetic field: The direction of magnetic field line is directed from north
pole to south pole outside the magnet and from south pole to north pole inside the magnet.

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 1


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

VECTORS AND SCALARS

We come into contact with many physical quantities in the natural world on a daily basis.
For example, things like time, mass, weight, force, and electric charge, are physical quantities
with which we are all familiar. We know that time passes and physical objects have mass. Things
have weight due to gravity. We exert forces when we open doors, walk along the street and kick
balls. We experience electric charge directly through static shocks in winter and through using
anything which runs on electricity.

There are many physical quantities in nature, and we can divide them up into two broad
groups called vectors and scalars

Scalar

A scalar is a physical quantity that has only a magnitude.

Ex: Temperature, Mass, Volume, Density, Speed.

Vector

A vector is a physical quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction.

Ex: Force, Velocity, Displacement, Acceleration, Electric field intensity, Magnetic field
intensity.

Representation of a vector

B [Terminating point]

A [Starting point]

=R

Where, = Vector = Direction

R= It is the distance between the starting point (A) and terminating point (B) of a vector.

= Letter is used to indicate the unit vector and its suffix indicates the direction of the unit
vector. It indicates the direction of unit vector along AB direction.

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 2


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Vector Multiplication

Let us discuss the multiplication of two or more vectors. The knowledge of vector
multiplication allows us to transform the vectors from one coordinate system to other.

Consider two vectors and . There are two types of products existing depending upon the
result of the multiplication. These two types of product are,

1. Scalar or Dot product.


2. Vector or Cross product.

Dot product : also known as the "scalar product", an operation that takes two vectors and
returns a scalar quantity. The dot product of two vectors can be defined as the product of the
magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between the two vectors.

. = cos ɵ

Properties of Dot product

1. The dot product obeys commutative law,


. = .
2. Dot product of unit vectors

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 3


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Cross product : also known as the "vector product", an operation that takes two vectors and
returns a vector quantity. The cross product of two vectors can be defined as the product of the
magnitudes of the two vectors and the sine of the angle between the two vectors and has a
direction perpendicular to the plane containing the two vectors and .

X = sin ɵ

Properties of Cross product

1. The cross product does not obeys commutative law,


X X

2. Cross product of unit vectors

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 4


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

The coordinate systems

To describe a vector accurately and to express a vector interms of its components, it is necessary
to have some directions. Such directions are represented interms of various coordinate systems.
There are various coordinate systems available in mathematics, out of which three coordinate
systems are discussed in this notes, which are

1. Cartesian or Rectangular coordinate system.


2. Cylindrical coordinate system.
3. Spherical coordinate system.

Cartesian or Rectangular coordinate system

Cartesian or Rectangular coordinate system has three coordinate axes represented as x, y and z
which are mutually at right angles to each other. These axes intersect at a common point called
origin of the system.

The ranges of coordinate axes are x , y , z

dsx = Differential vector surface area normal to x direction = dy dz ax

dsy = Differential vector surface area normal to y direction = dx dz ay

dsz = Differential vector surface area normal to z direction = dx dy az

dv = Differential volume = dx dy dz

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 5


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Position and Distance vectors

B (x2,y2,z2)

A (x1,y1,z1)

=Position vector of A = x1 y1 z1

= Position vector of B = x2 y2 z2

- = (x2 - x1) + (y2 - y1) (z2 - z1)

Example

1. Obtain the unit vector in the direction from the origin towards the point P (3,-3,-2).

O (0,0,0) P(3,-3,-2)

=R

= - = (3 – 0) + (-3 - 0) (-2 - 0) =3 -3 -2

= = 4.69 = R

= = = 0.6396 - 0.6396 – 0.4264

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 6


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

2. Two points A(2,2,1) and B(3,-4,2) are given in the Cartesian system. Obtain the
vector from A to B and a unit vector directed from A to B.
=2 +2 + =3 -4 +2

=R

= - = (3 – 2) + (-4 - 2) (2 - 1) = -6 +

= = 6.16 = R

= = = 0.1622 - 0.9733 + 0.1622

It can be cross checked that magnitude of this unit vector is unity i.e

=1

Cylindrical coordinate system

In cylindrical coordinate system, there are three unit vectors in the r , φ and z directions denoted
as ar , a φ and az .

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 7


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

The ranges of coordinate axes are r , φ , z

dsr = Differential vector surface area normal to r direction = r dφ dz ar

dsφ = Differential vector surface area normal to φ direction = dr dz a φ

dsz = Differential vector surface area normal to z direction = dr r dφ az

dv = Differential volume = dr r dφ dz = r dr dφ dz

Relation between Cartesian and Cylindrical systems

The relationship between the variables (x,y,z) of the Cartesian coordinate system and those of the
cylindrical coordinate system (r,φ,z) are given as

Transformation from cylindrical to Cartesian

x = r cos φ y = r sin φ z=z

Transformation from Cartesian to cylindrical

φ= z=z

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 8


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Spherical coordinate system

In spherical coordinate system, there are three unit vectors in the r , and φ directions denoted as ar ,
aθ and a φ .

The ranges of coordinate axes are r , , φ

dsr = Differential vector surface area normal to r direction = r dθ r sin θ dφ ar

dsθ = Differential vector surface area normal to direction = dr r sin θ dφ aθ

dsφ = Differential vector surface area normal to φ direction = dr r dθ aφ

dv = Differential volume = dr r dθ r sinθ dφ = r2 sinθ dr dθ dφ

Relation between Cartesian and Spherical systems

The relationship between the variables (x,y,z) of the Cartesian coordinate system and those of the
spherical coordinate system (r,θ,φ) are given as

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 9


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Transformation from Spherical to cartesian

x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ

Transformation from Cartesian to spherical

θ= φ=

Applications of Electromagnetic Waves

Source : http://www.t-lea.net/spectrumSURA.html

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 10


Engineering Electromagnetics(17EC36)

Source : https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/electromagnetic-spectrum-card-sort-6061189

Author: klawrie1107

Raviteja B, Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, GMIT,Davangere Page 11