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NZS 3101-2006 Example 001


Shear and Flexural Reinforcement Design of a Singly Reinforced Rectangle

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
The purpose of this example is to verify the flexural and shear design. The load
level is adjusted for the case corresponding to the following conditions:

 The stress-block dimension, a, extends below, amax , which requires that


compression reinforcement be provided as permitted by NZS 3101-06.

 The average shear stress in the beam is below the maximum shear stress
allowed by NZS 3101-06, requiring design shear reinforcement.

A simple-span, 6-m-long, 300-mm-wide, and 560-mm-deep beam is modeled.


The beam is shown in Figure 1. The computational model uses a finite
element mesh of frame elements, automatically generated. The maximum
element size has been specified to be 200 mm. The beam is supported by joint
restraints that have no rotational stiffness. One end of the beam has no
longitudinal stiffness.

The beam is loaded with symmetric third-point loading. One dead load case
(DL50) and one live load case (LL130) with only symmetric third-point loads of
magnitudes 50, and 130 kN, respectively, are defined in the model. One load
combination (COMB130) is defined using the NZS 3101-06 load combination
factors of 1.2 for dead loads and 1.5 for live loads. The model is analyzed for
both of those load cases and the load combinations.

Table 1 shows the comparison of the design longitudinal reinforcements. Table 2


shows the comparison of the design shear reinforcements.

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 1


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Figure 1 The Model Beam for Flexural and Shear Design

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 2


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GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING


Clear span, L = 6000 mm
Overall depth, h = 560 mm
Width of beam, b = 300 mm
Effective depth, d = 500 mm
Depth of comp. reinf., d' = 60 mm
Concrete strength, f’c = 30 MPa
Yield strength of steel, fy = 460 MPa
Concrete unit weight, wc = 0 kN/m3
Modulus of elasticity, Ec = 25x105 MPa
Modulus of elasticity, Es = 2x105 MPa
Poisson’s ratio, v = 0.2

Dead load, Pd = 50 kN
Live load, Pl = 130 kN

TECHNICAL FEATURES TESTED


 Calculation of flexural and shear reinforcement
 Application of minimum flexural and shear reinforcement

RESULTS COMPARISON
Table 1 shows the comparison of the total factored moments in the design strip
with the moments obtained using the analytical method. They match exactly for
this problem. Table 1 also shows the comparison of design reinforcements.

Table 1 Comparison of Moments and Flexural Reinforcements

Reinforcement Area (sq-mm)


Moment
Method (kN-m) As+ As-

ETABS 510 3170 193

Calculated 510 3170 193

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 3


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Table 2 Comparison of Shear Reinforcements

Av
Reinforcement Area,
s
(sq-mm/m)

Shear Force (kN) ETABS Calculated

255 1192.5 1192.5

COMPUTER FILE: NZS 3101-2006 EX001

CONCLUSION
The computed results show an exact comparison with the independent results.

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 4


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HAND CALCULATION

Flexural Design
The following quantities are computed for the load combination:
φb = 0.85
=α1 0.85 for f ′c ≤ 55MPa
=β1 0.85 for f ′c ≤ 30,
εc
cb = d = 283.02 mm
ε c + f y Es
amax = 0.75β1cb= 180.42 mm
=
Ac b=
d 150, 000 mm 2

 f ′c
 Ac = 446.5
 4 fy
As ,min = max  mm2
 1.4 Ac = 456.5
 fy

= 456.5 mm2

COMB130
V* = (1.2Pd + 1.5Pl) = 255 kN

V *L
M* = = 510 kN-m
3

The depth of the compression block is given by:

2 M*
a =−
d d − 2
= 194.82 mm ; a > amax
α1 fc'φb b f

Since a ≥ amax , compression reinforcing is required.

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 5


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The compressive force, C, developed in the concrete alone is given by:


= 1 f ′c bamax
C α= 1,380.2 kN
The resisting moment by the concrete compression and tension reinforcement is:
 a 
M c* = C  d − max  φb = 480.8 kN-m
 2 
Therefore the moment required by concrete compression and tension
reinforcement is:
M s* = M * − M c* = 29.2 kN − m
The required compression reinforcing is given by:
M s*
=As′ = 193 mm 2 , where
( )
f s′ − α1 f 'c ( d − d ′ ) φb

amax
cb= = 0.75= = 212.26 mm
cb 0.75283.02
,max
β1
c − d '
=f s′ ε c ,max Es  b ,max  ≤ fy ;
 cb ,max 
 212.26 − 60 
f s′ 0.003200, 000 
= = 430 MPa =
≤ f y 460 MPa
 212.26 

f s′ = 430 MPa
The required tension reinforcing for balancing the compression in the concrete is:
M c*
=As1 = 3, 001 mm 2
 a 
f y  d − max  φb
 2 
And the tension required for balancing the compression reinforcement is given
by:
M s*
=As 2 = 169.9 mm 2
f y ( d − d ') φb

=
Therefore, the total tension reinforcement, As As1 + As 2 is given by:

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 6


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As = As1 + As 2 = 3001 + 169.9 = 3170.5 mm 2

Shear Design
The nominal shear strength provided by concrete is computed as:
VC = vC ACV , where

vC = kd ka vb , and
kd = 1.0 since shear reinforcement provided will be equal
to or greater than the nominal amount required.
ka = 1.0 (Program default)

 A 
=
vb  0.07 + 10 s  f 'C , except vb is neither less than
 bd 

0.08 f 'C nor greater than 0.2 f 'C and f 'C ≤ 50 MPa

vC = 0.4382
The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of,
vmax = min {0.2 f ′c , 8 MPa} = min{6, 8} = 6 MPa
For this example, the nominal shear strength provided by concrete is:
VC= vC ACV= 0.4382 • 300 • 500= 65.727 kN
*
V
=
v *
= 1.7 MPa < vmax , so there is no concrete crushing.
bw d

If ν* > νmax, a failure condition is declared.

For this example the required shear reinforcing strength is:


φs = 0.75
V* 255
V= − VC = − 65.727 = 274.3 kN
φS
S
0.75
The shear reinforcement is computed as follows:
560 mm > max {300 mm, 0.5bw =
Since h = 150 mm}
0.5300 =

φsνc = 0.328 MPa

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 7


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φsνmax = 4.5 MPa

So φsνc < ν* ≤ φsνmax, and shear reinforcement is required and calculate as:

Av VS 274.27 • 1E6
= = = 1192.5 mm 2
s f yt d 460 • 500

NZS 3101-2006 Example 001 - 8