Anda di halaman 1dari 254
HESPERIA: SUPPLEMENT XXI EXCAVATIONS AT PYLOS IN ELIS BY JOHN E. COLEMAN WITH A CONTRIBUTION BY KATHERINE ABRAMOVITZ AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 1986 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Coleman, John E., 1940+ Excavations at Pylos in Blis. (Hesperia. Supplement ; 21) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Pylos Site (Eleia, Greece) 2. Greece—Antiquities. 3. Eleia (Greece)—Antiquities. 4. Excavations (Archaeology) —Greece— Eleia. 1. Abramovitz, Katherine. II. Title. IIL. Series: Hesperia (Princeton, N.J.). Supplement ;21 DF261.P94C64 1986 938.8 86-20562 ISBN 0-87661-521-3 PREFACE The project described here was a rescue operation undertaken at very short notice. The excavators were not even aware of the existence of Pylos in Elis six months before the expedition took to the field. Limitations of time and funds necessitated some hard choices, not only during actual excavation but also subsequently during study of the finds and prep- aration of this final report. A guiding aim throughout was to provide a summary picture of all periods of occupation so that as complete as possible a history of the site would be avail- able to the scholarly world. At an early stage of the work we also judged that the remains of the Classical period were worthy of the greatest and most detailed attention, since it was undoubtedly at that time that Elean Pylos was at its most flourishing. Given the need for such selectivity, it is some consolation that, although much of the site is now underwater, all the movable finds of any importance are still available for further study in the new Archaeo- logical Museum at Olympia. Hence, some material omitted from the present report, such as the human and animal bones, may yet receive the attention it deserves. In addition, other material given cursory or inadequate treatment for lack of scholarly expertise, such as the artifacts of flaked stone, may be further studied by specialists if occasion arises. The basic records of all the work are on file at Cornell University, where they may be freely consulted. A duplicate set of the original excavation inventory cards of pottery and objects, which give information on some artifacts mentioned in this report but not described in detail, is also available at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The inven- tory numbers of the pieces described on these cards are given in parentheses in the cata- logues published below: items of pottery are prefaced by AP, other objects by AO. Identification and study of finds was a collaborative effort, and the excavation coins were no exception. Almost all were first identified and described by Elizabeth G. Caskey in 1968. Subsequently, Joan E. Fisher looked at photographs of the Greek and Roman coins included in the publication (D1-D6, E1-E4, E11-E14, E43-E47), identified and described some of them, corrécted the identifications and descriptions of others, and provided further information on comparative material, including references to specimens in the collections of the American Numismatic Society in New York. Orestes H. Zervos also gave an opinion on two Greek coins (D2, D5), and Philip Grierson provided identifications and descriptions of the Frankish and Byzantine coins (F1-F4), again from photographs. The coins have not been weighed, and some of them, particularly the rare E47, might repay further examina- tion at first hand by a numismatist. The form of the catalogue entries of coins has been made to conform as far as possible to that of the other artifacts as an aid to the general reader. The project would not have been successfully completed without the participation, as- sistance, and financial support of many institutions and people. Details of many of these contributions are given in the Introduction (Chapter I). I should like to take the opportunity here to mention the names of and offer special thanks to the following: the University of Colorado, and particularly its Department of Classics, for sponsorship and support; the National Endowment for the Humanities for making the project possible at all; the Ameri- can Philosophical Society, the American Council of Learned Societies, and Cornell Univer- sity for grants-in-aid at various times; the staff of the American School of Classical Studies