Anda di halaman 1dari 45

17 TABLES of SPECIAL INDEFINITE

INTEGRALS

Here we provide tables of special indefinite integrals. As stated in the remarks on page 67, here a, b, p, q, n
are constants, restricted if indicated; e = 2.71828 . . . is the natural base of logarithms; ln u denotes the natural
logarithm of u, where it is assumed that u > 0 (in general, to extend formulas to cases where u < 0 as well, replace
ln u by ln |u|); all angles are in radians; and all constants of integration are omitted but implied. It is assumed in
all cases that division by zero is excluded.
Our integrals are divided into types which involve the following algebraic expressions and functions:
(1) ax + b (13) ax 2 + bx + c (25) eax
(2) ax + b (14) x3 + a3 (26) ln x
(3) ax + b and px + q (15) x 4 ± a4 (27) sinh ax
(4) ax + b and px + q (16) x n ± an (28) cosh ax
(5) ax + b and px + q (17) sin ax (29) sinh ax and cosh ax
(6) x2 + a2 (18) cos ax (30) tanh ax
(7) x2 – a2, with x2 > a2 (19) sin ax and cos ax (31) coth ax
(8) a2 – x2, with x2 < a2 (20) tan ax (32) sech ax
(9) x 2 + a2 (21) cot ax (33) csch ax
(10) x 2 − a2 (22) sec ax (34) inverse hyperbolic functions
(11) a2 − x 2 (23) csc ax
(12) ax2 + bx + c (24) inverse trigonometric functions
Some integrals contain the Bernouilli numbers Bn and the Euler numbers En defined in Chapter 23.

(1) Integrals Involving ax ⴙ b


dx 1
17.1.1. ∫ ax + b = a ln (ax + b)
x dx x b
17.1.2. ∫ ax + b = a − a 2 ln (ax + b)

x 2dx (ax + b)2 2b(ax + b) b 2


17.1.3. ∫ ax + b =
2a 3

a3
+ 3 ln (ax + b)
a
dx 1 ⎛ x ⎞
17.1.4. ∫ x (ax + b) = b ln ⎜⎝ ax + b⎟⎠
dx 1 a ⎛ ax + b⎞
17.1.5. ∫x 2
(ax + b)
=− + ln
bx b 2 ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠
dx −1
17.1.6. ∫ (ax + b) =
a(ax + b)
2

x dx b 1
17.1.7. ∫ (ax + b)2 = a 2 (ax + b) + a 2 ln (ax + b)
x 2 dx ax + b b2 2b
17.1.8. ∫ (ax + b) 2 =
a 3 − 3 −
a (ax + b) a 3
ln (ax + b)

dx 1 1 ⎛ x ⎞
17.1.9. ∫ x (ax + b) 2 = + ln
b(ax + b) b 2 ⎜⎝ ax + b⎟⎠
71
72 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx −a 1 2a ⎛ ax + b⎞
17.1.10. ∫x 2
(ax + b) 2 = − 2 + 3 ln ⎜
b (ax + b) b x b
2
⎝ x ⎟⎠
dx −1
17.1.11. ∫ (ax + b) 3 =
2(ax + b)2
x dx −1 b
17.1.12. ∫ (ax + b) 3 = +
a 2 (ax + b) 2a 2 (ax + b)2
x 2 dx 2b b2 1
17.1.13. ∫ (ax + b) 3 = − 3 + ln (ax + b)
a (ax + b) 2a (ax + b)2 a 3
3

(ax + b)n+1
17.1.14. ∫ (ax + b) n
dx =
(n + 1)a
. If n = −1, see 17.1.1.

(ax + b)n+ 2 b(ax + b)n+1


17.1.15. ∫ x (ax + b) dx = n
(n + 2)a 2

(n + 1))a 2
, n ≠ −1, − 2

If n = –1, –2, see 17.1.2 and 17.1.7.

(ax + b)n+3 2b(ax + b)n+ 2 b 2 (ax + b)n+1


17.1.16. ∫x 2
(ax + b)n dx =
(n + 3)a 3

(n + 2)a 3
+
(n + 1)a 3
If n = –1, –2, –3, see 17.1.3, 17.1.8, and 17.1.13.

⎧ x m +1 (ax + b)n nb
⎪ m + n + 1 + m + n + 1 ∫ x (ax + b) dx
m n −1

⎪⎪ x m (ax + b)n+1 mb
17.1.17. ∫ x m
( ax + b ) n
dx = ⎨ (m + n + 1)a − (m + n + 1)a ∫ x (ax + b) dx
m −1 n

⎪ m +1
⎪− x (ax + b) + m + n + 2 x m (ax + b)n+1 dx
n +1

⎪⎩ (n + 1)b (n + 1)b ∫

(2) Integrals Involving ax ⴙ b


dx 2 ax + b
17.2.1. ∫ ax + b
=
a

x dx 2(ax − 2b)
17.2.2. ∫ ax + b
=
3a 2
ax + b

x 2 dx 2(3a 2 x 2 − 4 abx + 8b 2 )
17.2.3. ∫ ax + b
=
15a 3
ax + b

⎧ 1 ⎛ ax + b − b ⎞
⎪ ln ⎜ ⎟
dx ⎪ b ⎝ ax + b + b ⎠
17.2.4. ∫ =⎨
x ax + b ⎪ 2 ax + b
⎪ tan −1
⎩ −b −b
dx ax + b a dx
17.2.5. ∫x 2
ax + b
=−
bx

2b ∫x ax + b
(see 17.2.12.)

2 (ax + b)3
17.2.6. ∫ ax + b dx =
3a

2(3ax − 2b)
17.2.7. ∫x ax + b dx =
15a 2
(ax + b)3
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 73

2(15a 2 x 2 − 12abx + 8b 2 )
17.2.8. ∫x 2
ax + b dx =
105a 3
(ax + b)3

ax + b dx
17.2.9. ∫ x
dx = 2 ax + b + b ∫x ax + b
(See 17.2.12.)

ax + b ax + b a dx
17.2.10. ∫ x 2
dx = −
x
+
2 ∫x ax + b
(See 17.2.12.)

xm 2 x m ax + b 2mb x m −1
17.2.11. ∫ ax + b
dx =
( 2 m + 1) a

( 2 m + 1)a ∫ ax + b
dx

dx ax + b (2m − 3)a dx
17.2.12. ∫x m
ax + b
=−
(m − 1)bx m −1 −
( 2m − 2)b ∫x m −1
ax + b

2x m 2mb
17.2.13. ∫x m
ax + b dx =
(2m + 3)a
(ax + b)3/ 2 −
(2m + 3)a ∫x m −1
ax + b dx

ax + b ax + b a dx
17.2.14. ∫ xm
dx = − +
(m − 1) x m −1 2(m − 1) ∫x m −1
ax + b

ax + b −(ax + b)3/ 2 (2m − 5)a ax + b


17.2.15. ∫ x m dx = −
(m − 1)bx m −1 (2m − 2)b ∫ x m −1
dx

2(ax + b)( m + 2)/ 2


17.2.16. ∫ (ax + b)m / 2 dx = a 2 (m + 2)

2(ax + b)( m + 4 )/ 2 2b(ax + b)( m + 2)/ 2


17.2.17. ∫ x (ax + b)m / 2 dx = a 2 (m + 4)

a 2 (m + 2)

2(ax + b)( m +6)/ 2 4 b(ax + b)( m + 4 )/ 2 2b 2 (ax + b)( m + 2)/ 2


17.2.18. ∫x 2
(ax + b)m / 2 dx =
a 3 (m + 6)

a 3 (m + 4)
+
a 3 (m + 2)

(ax + b)m / 2 2(ax + b)m / 2 (ax + b)( m − 2)/ 2


17.2.19. ∫ x dx =
m
+b ∫ x
dx

(ax + b)m / 2 (ax + b)( m + 2)/ 2 ma (ax + b)m / 2


17.2.20. ∫ x 2 dx = −
bx
+
2b ∫ x dx
dx 2 1 dx
17.2.21. ∫ x (ax + b) m/2 = +
(m − 2)b(ax + b)( m − 2)/ 2 b ∫ x(ax + b) ( m − 2 )/ 2

(3) Integrals Involving ax ⴙ b and px ⴙ q


dx 1 ⎛ px + q⎞
17.3.1. ∫ (ax + b)( px + q) = bp − aq ln ⎜⎝ ax + b ⎟⎠
x dx 1 ⎧b q ⎫
17.3.2. ∫ (ax + b)( px + q) = bp − aq ⎨⎩a ln (ax + b) − p ln ( px + q)⎬⎭
74 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx 1 ⎧ 1 p ⎛ px + q⎞ ⎫
17.3.3. ∫ (ax + b) ( px + q) = bp − aq ⎨⎩ax + b + bp − aq ln ⎜⎝ ax + b ⎟⎠ ⎬⎭
2

x dx 1 ⎧ q ⎛ ax + b ⎞ b ⎫
17.3.4. ∫ (ax + b) ( px + q) = bp − aq ⎨⎩bp − aq ln ⎜⎝ px + q⎟⎠ − a(ax + b) ⎬⎭
2

x 2 dx b2 1 ⎧q2 b(bp − 2aq) ⎫


17.3.5. ∫ (ax + b) ( px + q) = (bp − aq)a (ax + b) + (bp − aq)
2 2 2 ⎨ ln ( px + q) +
⎩ p a 2
ln (ax + b)⎬

17.3.6. ∫ (ax + b)
dx
m =
−1
{
1
( px + q)n (n − 1)(bp − aq) (ax + b)m −1 ( px + q)n−1

+ a(m + n − 2) ∫ (ax + b)
dx
( px + q)n−1
m }
ax + b ax bp − aq
17.3.7. ∫ px + q dx = p
+
p2
ln( px + q)

⎧ −1 ⎧(ax + b)m +1 (ax + b)m ⎫


⎪ ⎨ + ( n − m − 2) a ∫ dx⎬
⎪(n − 1)(bp − aq) ⎩ ( px + q) ( px + q)
n −1 n −1

(ax + b) m ⎪ −1 ⎧ (ax + b) m
(ax + b) m −1

17.3.8. ∫ ( px + q)n dx = ⎨(n − m − 1) p ⎨⎩( px + q)n−1 + m(bp − aq) ∫ ( px + q)n dx⎬⎭

⎪ −1 ⎧ (ax + b)m (ax + b)m −1 ⎫
⎪ ⎨ − m a ∫ dx⎬
⎩(n − 1) p ⎩( px + q) ( px + q)n −1 ⎭
n −1

(4) Integrals Involving ax ⴙ b and px ⴙ q


px + q 2(apx + 3aq − 2bp)
17.4.1. ∫ ax + b
dx =
3a 2
ax + b

⎧ 1 ⎛ p(ax + b) − bp − aq ⎞
⎪ ln ⎜ ⎟
dx ⎪ bp − aq p ⎝ p(ax + b) + bp − aq ⎠
17.4.2. ∫ ( px + q) ax + b ⎨
=
p(ax + b)
⎪ 2
⎪ tan −1
aq − bp
⎩ aq − bp p
⎧ 2 ax + b bp − aq ⎛ p(ax + b) − bp − aq ⎞
⎪ + ln ⎜ ⎟
ax + b ⎪ p p p ⎝ p(ax + b) + bp − aq ⎠
17.4.3. ∫ px + q
dx = ⎨
⎪ 2 ax + b 2 aq − bp p(ax + b)
⎪ − tan −1
p p p aq − bp

2( px + q)n+1 ax + b bp − aq ( px + q)n
17.4.4. ∫ ( px + q)n ax + b dx = (2n + 3) p
+
(2n + 3) p ∫ ax + b
dx ax + b (2n − 3)a dx
17.4.5. ∫ ( px + q) n
ax + b
=
(n − 1)(aq − bp)( px + q) n −1 +
2( n − 1)(aq − bp) ∫ ( px + q) n −1
ax + b

( px + q)n 2( px + q)n ax + b 2n(aq − bp) ( px + q)n−1 dx


17.4.6. ∫ ax + b dx =
(2n + 1)a
+
(2n + 1)a ∫ ax + b
ax + b − ax + b a dx
17.4.7. ∫ ( px + q) n dx = +
(n − 1) p( px + q)n−1 2(n − 1) p ∫ ( px + q) n −1
ax + b
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 75

(5) Integrals Involving ax ⴙ b and px + q




2
ln ( a( px + q ) + p(ax + b) )
dx ⎪ ap
17.5.1. ∫ =⎨
(ax + b)( px + q) ⎪ 2 − p(ax + b)
tan −1
⎪ − ap a( px + q)

x dx (ax + b)( px + q) bp + aq dx
17.5.2. ∫ (ax + b)( px + q)
=
ap

2ap ∫ (ax + b)( px + q)

2apx + bp + aq (bp − aq)2 dx


17.5.3. ∫ (ax + b)( px + q) dx =
4ap
(ax + b)( px + q) −
8ap ∫ (ax + b)( px + q)

px + q (ax + b)( px + q) aq − bp dx
17.5.4. ∫ ax + b
dx =
a
+
2a ∫ (ax + b)( px + q)

dx 2 ax + b
17.5.5. ∫ ( px + q) =
(ax + b)( px + q) (aq − bp) px + q

(6) Integrals Involving x2 ⴙ a2


dx 1 x
17.6.1. ∫x 2 = tan −1
+ a2 a a
x dx 1
17.6.2. ∫x 2
+a 2
= ln ( x 2 + a 2 )
2
x 2 dx −1 x
17.6.3. ∫x 2
+a 2 = x − a tan
a

x 3 dx x 2 a2
17.6.4. ∫x 2
+a 2 =
2
− ln ( x 2 + a 2 )
2

dx 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.6.5. ∫ x(x 2
= ln ⎜ ⎟
+ a 2 ) 2a 2 ⎝ x 2 + a 2 ⎠
dx 1 1 x
17.6.6. ∫x 2
(x 2 + a2 )
= − 2 − 3 tan −1
a x a a

dx 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.6.7. ∫ x (x3 2
+ a2 )
= − − ln ⎜ ⎟
2a 2 x 2 2a 4 ⎝ x 2 + a 2 ⎠
dx x 1 x
17.6.8. ∫ (x 2 = +
+ a 2 ) 2 2a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 ) 2a 3
tan −1
a

x dx −1
17.6.9. ∫ (x 2
+a )2 2 =
2( x + a 2 )
2

x 2 dx −x 1 x
17.6.10. ∫ (x 2 = +
+ a 2 )2 2( x 2 + a 2 ) 2a
tan −1
a
76 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x 3dx a2 1
17.6.11. ∫ ( x 2 + a 2 )2 2( x 2 + a 2 ) + 2 ln ( x 2 + a 2 )
=

dx 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.6.12. ∫ = +
x ( x 2 + a 2 )2 2a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 ) 2a 4 ⎜⎝ x 2 + a 2 ⎟⎠
ln

dx 1 x 3 x
17.6.13. ∫x 2
( x 2 + a 2 )2
=− 4 − 4 2 −
a x 2a ( x + a 2 ) 2a 5
tan −1
a

dx 1 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.6.14. ∫ 2 2 = −
x (x + a )
3 2 4 2 −
2a x 2 − 6 ln ⎜ 2
2a ( x + a ) a
4 2
⎝ x + a 2 ⎟⎠

dx x 2n − 3 dx
17.6.15. ∫ (x 2 = +
+ a 2 )n 2(n − 1)a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n−1 (2n − 2)a 2 ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )n−1
x dx −1
17.6.16. ∫ (x 2 =
+ a 2 )n 2(n − 1)( x 2 + a 2 )n−1
dx 1 1 dx
17.6.17. ∫ x(x 2 = +
+ a 2 )n 2(n − 1)a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )n−1 a 2 ∫ x(x 2
+ a 2 )n−1

x m dx x m − 2 dx x m − 2 dx
17.6.18. ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )n
= ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )n−1
− a2 ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )n

dx 1 dx 1 dx
17.6.19. ∫x m =
( x 2 + a 2 )n a 2 ∫x m −
( x 2 + a 2 )n−1 a 2 ∫x m−2
( x 2 + a 2 )n

(7) Integrals Involving x2 ⴚ a2, x2 > a2


dx 1 ⎛ x − a⎞ 1 x
17.7.1. ∫x 2 =
− a 2 2a ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
ln or −
a
coth −1
a

x dx 1
17.7.2. ∫x 2 = ln ( x 2 − a 2 )
− a2 2

x 2 dx a ⎛ x − a⎞
17.7.3. ∫ x −a
2 2 = x +
2 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
ln

x 3dx x 2 a2
17.7.4. ∫x 2
−a 2
=
2
+ ln ( x 2 − a 2 )
2

dx 1 ⎛ x 2 − a2 ⎞
17.7.5. ∫ =
x ( x 2 − a 2 ) 2a 2 ⎜⎝ x 2 ⎟⎠
ln

dx 1 1 ⎛ x − a⎞
17.7.6. ∫ x (x 2 2 = +
− a 2 ) a 2 x 2a 3 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
ln

dx 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.7.7. ∫ = −
x 3( x 2 − a 2 ) 2a 2 x 2 2a 4 ⎜⎝ x 2 − a 2 ⎟⎠
ln

dx −x 1 ⎛ x − a⎞
17.7.8. ∫ (x 2 = −
− a 2 )2 2a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 ) 4 a 3 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
ln
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 77

x dx −1
17.7.9. ∫ (x 2 =
− a 2 )2 2( x 2 − a 2 )

x 2 dx −x 1 ⎛ x − a⎞
17.7.10. ∫ ( x − a 2 )2 = 2( x 2 − a 2 ) + 4a ln ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
2

x 3dx −a2 1
17.7.11. ∫ (x 2
−a )2 2
= + ln ( x 2 − a 2 )
2( x 2 − a 2 ) 2

dx −1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.7.12. ∫ = +
x ( x 2 − a 2 )2 2a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 ) 2a 4 ⎜⎝ x 2 − a 2 ⎟⎠
ln

dx 1 x 3 ⎛ x − a⎞
17.7.13. ∫ x (x 2 2
− a 2 )2
=− 4 − 4 2 −
a x 2a ( x − a 2 ) 4 a 5 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠
ln

dx 1 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.7.14. ∫ 2 2 = −
x (x − a )
3 2 4 2 −
2a x 2 + 6 ln ⎜ 2
2a ( x − a ) a
4 2
⎝ x − a 2 ⎟⎠

dx −x 2n − 3 dx
17.7.15. ∫ (x 2 = −
− a 2 )n 2(n − 1)a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )n−1 (2n − 2)a 2 ∫ (x 2
− a 2 )n−1

x dx −1
17.7.16. ∫ (x 2 =
− a 2 )n 2(n − 1)( x 2 − a 2 )n−1

dx −1 1 dx
17.7.17. ∫ x(x 2 = −
− a 2 )n 2(n − 1)a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )n−1 a 2 ∫ x(x 2
− a 2 )n−1
x m dx x m − 2 dx x m − 2 dx
17.7.18. ∫ ( x − a 2 )n =
2 ∫ ( x − a 2 )n−1 + a 2
2 ∫ ( x 2 − a 2 )n
dx 1 dx 1 dx
17.7.19. ∫x m 2 n =
(x − a )2
a2 ∫x m−2 2 2 n − 2
(x − a ) a ∫x m
( x − a 2 )n−1
2

(8) Integrals Involving x2 ⴚ a2, x2 < a2


dx 1 ⎛ a + x⎞ 1 x
17.8.1. ∫a 2
−x 2 =
2 a ⎜⎝ a − x ⎟⎠
ln or
a
tanh −1
a

x dx 1
17.8.2. ∫a 2
− x2
= − ln (a 2 − x 2 )
2

x 2 dx a ⎛ a + x⎞
17.8.3. ∫a 2
− x2
= − x + ln ⎜
2 ⎝ a − x ⎟⎠

x 3dx x 2 a2
17.8.4. ∫a 2
−x 2
= − − ln (a 2 − x 2 )
2 2

dx 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.8.5. ∫ 2 =
x (a − x ) 2a
2 2 ln ⎜ 2
⎝ a − x 2 ⎟⎠

dx 1 1 ⎛ a + x⎞
17.8.6. ∫x 2
(a 2 − x 2 )
= − 2 + 3 ln ⎜
a x 2a ⎝ a − x ⎟⎠
78 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.8.7. ∫ 2 = −
x (a − x )
3 2 2 2 +
2a x 2a 4 ln ⎜ 2
⎝ a − x 2 ⎟⎠

dx x 1 ⎛ a + x⎞
17.8.8. ∫ (a 2 = +
− x 2 )2 2a 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) 4a 3 ⎜⎝ a − x ⎟⎠
ln

x dx 1
17.8.9. ∫ (a 2 =
− x 2 )2 2(a 2 − x 2 )

x 2 dx x 1 ⎛ a + x⎞
17.8.10. ∫ (a 2 − x 2 )2 = 2(a 2 − x 2 ) − 4a ln ⎜⎝ a − x ⎟⎠
x 3dx a2 1
17.8.11. ∫ (a 2 − x 2 )2 2(a 2 − x 2 ) + 2 ln (a 2 − x 2 )
=

dx 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.8.12. ∫ = +
x (a 2 − x 2 )2 2a 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) 2a 4 ⎜⎝ a 2 − x 2 ⎟⎠
ln

dx −1 x 3 ⎛ a + x⎞
17.8.13. ∫ x (a
2 2 2 2 =
−x )
+ 4 2 2 +
a x 2a (a − x ) 4 a
4 5 ln ⎜
⎝ a − x ⎟⎠

dx −1 1 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞
17.8.14. ∫ x (a
3 2 2 2 =
−x ) 4 2 +
2a x 2 + 6 ln ⎜ 2
2a (a − x ) a
4 2
⎝ a − x 2 ⎟⎠

dx x 2n − 3 dx
17.8.15. ∫ (a 2 2 n =
−x ) 2 n −1 +
2(n − 1)a (a − x )
2 2
(2n − 2)a 2 ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )n−1

x dx 1
17.8.16. ∫ (a 2 =
− x 2 )n 2(n − 1)(a 2 − x 2 )n−1

dx 1 1 dx
17.8.17. ∫ x (a 2 = +
− x 2 )n 2(n − 1)a 2 (a 2 − x 2 )n−1 a 2 ∫ x (a 2
− x 2 )n−1

x m dx x m − 2 dx x m − 2 dx
17.8.18. ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )n
= a2 ∫ (a2
− x 2 )n
− ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )n−1

dx 1 dx 1 dx
17.8.19. ∫x m =
(a 2 − x 2 ) n a 2 ∫x m +
(a 2 − x 2 )n−1 a 2 ∫x m−2
(a 2 − x 2 ) n

(9) Integrals Involving x 2 + a2


dx x
17.9.1. ∫ x +a
2 2
= ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 ) or sinh −1
a
x dx
17.9.2. ∫ x 2 + a2
= x 2 + a2

x 2 dx x x 2 + a2 a2
17.9.3. ∫ x 2 + a2
=
2
− ln( x + x 2 + a 2 )
2

x 3 dx ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2
17.9.4. ∫ x 2 + a2
=
3
− a2 x 2 + a2
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 79

dx 1 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.5. ∫x x 2 + a2
= − ln
a ⎜⎝ x ⎟

dx x 2 + a2
17.9.6. ∫x 2
x +a
2 2
=−
a2 x

dx x 2 + a2 1 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.7. ∫x 3
x +a
2 2
=−
2a x2 2 + 3 ln ⎜
2a ⎝ x ⎟

x x 2
+ a 2
a 2
17.9.8. ∫ x 2 + a 2 dx = 2 + 2 ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )
( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2
17.9.9. ∫ x x 2 + a 2 dx = 3
x ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 a 2 x x 2 + a 2 a 4
17.9.10. ∫ x 2 x 2 + a 2 dx = 4

8
− ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )
8
( x 2 + a 2 )5 / 2 a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2
17.9.11. ∫x 3
x 2 + a 2 dx =
5

3

x 2 + a2 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.12. ∫ x
dx = x 2 + a 2 − a ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

x 2 + a2 x 2 + a2
17.9.13. ∫ x2
dx = −
x
+ ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )

x 2 + a2 x 2 + a2 1 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.14. ∫ x 3 dx = −
2x 2 − ln
2a ⎜⎝ x ⎟

dx x
17.9.15. ∫ (x 2 =
+ a 2 )3 / 2 a 2 x 2 + a 2

x dx −1
17.9.16. ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )3 / 2
=
x 2 + a2
x 2 dx −x
17.9.17. ∫ ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 = x + a2
2
+ ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )

x 3 dx a2
17.9.18. ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )3 / 2
= x 2 + a2 +
x + a2
2

dx 1 1 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.19. ∫ 2 3/ 2 =
x(x + a )2 −
a2 x 2 + a2 a
3 ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

dx x 2 + a2 x
17.9.20. ∫ x (x + a )
2 2 2 3/ 2 = − 4
a x
− 4 2
a x + a2

dx −1 3 3 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.21. ∫ = − + ln
x 3( x 2 + a 2 )3/ 2 2a 2 x 2 x 2 + a 2 2a 4 x 2 + a 2 2a 5 ⎜⎝ x ⎟

x ( x 2 + a 2 )3/ 2 3a 2 x x 2 + a 2 3 4
17.9.22. ∫ (x 2
+ a 2 )3/ 2 dx =
4
+
8
+ a ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )
8
( x 2 + a 2 )5 / 2
17.9.23. ∫ x ( x 2 + a 2 )3/ 2 dx = 5
80 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x ( x 2 + a 2 )5 / 2 a 2 x ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 a 4 x x 2 + a 2 a 6
17.9.24. ∫ x (x 2 2
+ a 2 )3/ 2 dx =
6

24

16
− ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )
16
( x 2 + a 2 ) 7 / 2 a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )5 / 2
17.9.25. ∫ x (x 3 2
+ a 2 )3/ 2 dx =
7

5

( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.26. ∫ x
dx =
3
+ a 2 x 2 + a 2 − a 3 ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 3 x x 2 + a 2 3 2
17.9.27. ∫ x 2
dx = −
x
+
2
+ a ln ( x + x 2 + a 2 )
2

( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )3 / 2 3 2 3 ⎛ a + x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.9.28. ∫ x 3 dx = −
2x 2 +
2
x + a 2 − a ln ⎜
2 ⎝ x ⎟

(10) Integrals Involving x 2 − a2

dx x dx
17.10.1. ∫ x −a2 2
= ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ), ∫ x −a
2 2
= x 2 − a2

x 2 dx x x 2 − a2 a2
17.10.2. ∫ x −a
2 2
=
2
+ ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
2

x 3 dx ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2
17.10.3. ∫ x 2 − a2
=
3
+ a2 x 2 − a2

dx 1 x
17.10.4. ∫x x 2 − a2
=
a
sec −1
a

dx x 2 − a2
17.10.5. ∫x 2
x 2 − a2
=
a2 x

dx x 2 − a2 1 x
17.10.6. ∫x 3
x 2 − a2
=
2a 2 x 2
+ 3 sec −1
2a a

x x 2 − a2 a2
17.10.7. ∫ x 2 − a 2 dx =
2
− ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
2

( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2
17.10.8. ∫x x 2 − a 2 dx =
3

x ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 a 2 x x 2 − a 2 a 4
17.10.9. ∫x 2
x 2 − a 2 dx =
4
+
8

8
ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )

( x 2 − a 2 )5 / 2 a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2
17.10.10. ∫x 3
x 2 − a 2 dx =
5
+
3

x 2 − a2 x
17.10.11. ∫ x
dx = x 2 − a 2 − a sec −1
a

x 2 − a2 x 2 − a2
17.10.12. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x
+ ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 81

x 2 − a2 x 2 − a2 1 x
17.10.13. ∫ x 3
dx = −
2x 2
+
2a
sec −1
a
dx x
17.10.14. ∫ (x 2
− a 2 )3 / 2
=− 2 2
a x − a2
x dx −1
17.10.15. ∫ (x 2
− a 2 )3 / 2
=
x 2 − a2

x 2dx x
17.10.16. ∫ ( x 2 − a 2 )3/ 2 = − x 2 − a 2 + ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
x 3 dx a2
17.10.17. ∫ (x 2
− a 2 )3 / 2
= x 2 − a2 −
x 2 − a2

dx −1 1 x
17.10.18. ∫ x(x 2
−a )
2 3/ 2
=
a x −a
2 2 2
− 3 sec −1
a a

dx x 2 − a2 x
17.10.19. ∫x 2 2 3/ 2 = −
(x − a )2
a4 x
− 4 2
a x − a2

dx 1 3 3 x
17.10.20. ∫x 3
(x − a )2
2 3/ 2
=
2a x x − a
2 2 2 2

2a x − a
4 2 2
− 5 sec −1
2a a

x ( x 2 − a 2 )3/ 2 3a 2 x x 2 − a 2 3 4
17.10.21. ∫ (x 2
− a 2 )3/ 2 dx =
4

8
+ a ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
8
( x 2 − a 2 )5 / 2
17.10.22. ∫ x ( x 2 − a 2 )3/ 2 dx = 5

x ( x 2 − a 2 )5 / 2 a 2 x ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 a 4 x x 2 − a 2 a 6
17.10.23. ∫ x 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )3/ 2 dx = 6
+
24

16
+ ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
16

( x 2 − a 2 ) 7 / 2 a 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )5 / 2
17.10.24. ∫x 3
( x 2 − a 2 )3/ 2 dx =
7
+
5

( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 x
17.10.25. ∫ x
dx =
3
− a 2 x 2 − a 2 + a 3 sec −1
a

( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 3 x x 2 − a 2 3 2
17.10.26. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x
+
2
− a ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 )
2

( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 ( x 2 − a 2 )3 / 2 3 x 2 − a 2 3 x
17.10.27. ∫ x3 dx = −
2x 2
+
2
− a sec −1
2 a

(11) Integrals Involving a2 − x 2


dx x
17.11.1. ∫ a −x
2 2
= sin −1
a

x dx
17.11.2. ∫ a2 − x 2
= − a2 − x 2
82 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x 2 dx x a2 − x 2 a2 x
17.11.3. ∫ a −x
2 2
= −
2
+ sin −1
2 a

x 3 dx (a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2
17.11.4. ∫ a −x
2 2
=
3
− a2 a2 − x 2

dx 1 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.5. ∫ x a2 − x 2
= − ln
a ⎜⎝ x ⎟

dx a2 − x 2
17.11.6. ∫x 2
a2 − x 2
= −
a2 x

dx a2 − x 2 1 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.7. ∫x 3
a2 − x 2
= − 2
2a x 2 −
2a 3 ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

x a2 − x 2 a2 x
17.11.8. ∫ a 2 − x 2 dx =
2
+ sin −1
2 a
(a 2 − x 2 ) 3 / 2
17.11.9. ∫x a 2 − x 2 dx = −
3
x (a 2 − x 2 ) 3 / 2 a 2 x a 2 − x 2 a 4 x
17.11.10. ∫x 2
a 2 − x 2 dx = −
4
+
8
+ sin −1
8 a
(a 2 − x 2 ) 5 / 2 a 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) 3 / 2
17.11.11. ∫x 3
a 2 − x 2 dx =
5

3

a2 − x 2 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.12. ∫ x
dx = a 2 − x 2 − a ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

a2 − x 2 a2 − x 2 x
17.11.13. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x
− sin −1
a

a2 − x 2 a2 − x 2 1 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.14. ∫ x 3 dx = −
2x 2 + ln
2a ⎜⎝ x ⎟

dx x
17.11.15. ∫ (a 2 2 3/ 2 =
−x ) a a2 − x 2
2

x dx 1
17.11.16. ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )3 / 2
=
a − x2
2

x 2 dx x x
17.11.17. ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )3 / 2
=
a −x
2 2
− sin −1
a

x 3 dx a2
17.11.18. ∫ (a − x )
22 3 / 2 = a 2
− x 2
+
a2 − x 2

dx 1 1 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.19. ∫ x (a 2 2 3/ 2 =
−x ) a a −x
2 2 2
− 3 ln ⎜
a ⎝ x ⎟

dx a2 − x 2 x
17.11.20. ∫ x (a − x )
2 2 2 3/ 2 = − 4
a x
+ 4 2
a a − x2

dx −1 3 3 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.21. ∫x 3 2 3/ 2 =
(a − x )2 + −
2a 2 x 2 a 2 − x 2 2a 4 a 2 − x 2 2a
5 ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 83

x (a 2 − x 2 )3/ 2 3a 2 x a 2 − x 2 3 4 −1 x
17.11.22. ∫ (a 2
− x 2 )3/ 2 dx =
4
+
8
+ a sin
8 a
(a 2 − x 2 )5 / 2
17.11.23. ∫ x (a 2
− x 2 )3/ 2 dx = −
5

x (a 2 − x 2 ) 5 / 2 a 2 x (a 2 − x 2 ) 3 / 2 a 4 x a 2 − x 2 a 6 x
17.11.24. ∫ x 2 (a 2 − x 2 )3/ 2 dx = − 6
+
24
+
16
+ sin −1
16 a

(a 2 − x 2 ) 7 / 2 a 2 (a 2 − x 2 ) 5 / 2
17.11.25. ∫x 3
(a 2 − x 2 )3/ 2 dx =
7

5

(a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2 (a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.26. ∫ x dx =
3
+ a 2
a 2
− x 2
− a 3
ln ⎜
⎝ x ⎟

(a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2 (a 2 − x 2 )3/ 2 3x a 2 − x 2 3 2 −1 x
17.11.27. ∫ x 2
dx = −
x

2
− a sin
2 a

(a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2 (a 2 − x 2 )3 / 2 3 a 2 − x 2 3 ⎛ a + a2 − x 2 ⎞
17.11.28. ∫ x 3 dx = −
2x 2 −
2
+ a ln ⎜
2 ⎝ x ⎟

(12) Integrals Involving ax2 ⴙ bx ⴙ c


⎧ 2 2ax + b
⎪ tan −1
dx ⎪ 4 ac − b 2
4 ac − b 2
17.12.1. ∫ ax 2 + bx + c ⎨ 1
= ⎛ 2ax + b − b 2 − 4 ac ⎞

⎪ b 2 − 4 ac ⎝ 2ax + b + b 2 − 4 ac ⎟⎠
ln ⎜

If b 2 = 4 ac, ax 2 + bx + c = a( x + b / 2a)2 and the results 17.1.6 to 17.1.10 and 17.1.14 to 17.1.17 can be used.
If b = 0 use results on page 75. If a or c = 0 use results on pages 71–72.
x dx 1 b dx
17.12.2. ∫ ax 2 =
+ bx + c 2a
ln (ax 2 + bx + c) −
2a ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c

x 2 dx x b b 2 − 2ac dx
17.12.3. ∫ ax 2 + bx + c a 2a 2
= − ln ( ax 2
+ bx + c ) +
2a 2 ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c

x m dx x m −1 c x m − 2 dx b x m−1dx
17.12.4. ∫ ax + bx + c (m − 1)a − a
2 = ∫ ax + bx + c − a
2 ∫ ax + bx + c
2

dx 1 ⎛ x2 ⎞ b dx
17.12.5. ∫ x (ax 2 = ln ⎜ 2 −
+ bx + c) 2c ⎝ ax + bx + c⎟⎠ 2c ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c

dx b ⎛ ax 2 + bx + c⎞ 1 b 2 − 2ac dx
17.12.6. ∫x 2 2= 2 ln ⎜
(ax + bx + c) 2c ⎝ x2 ⎟⎠ − cx + 2c 2 ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c

dx 1 b dx a dx
17.12.7. ∫x n
(ax + bx + c)
2 =−
(n − 1)cx n −1 −
c ∫x n −1 −
(ax + bx + c) c
2 ∫x n− 2
(ax + bx + c)
2

dx 2ax + b 2a dx
17.12.8. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c) 2 = +
(4 ac − b )(ax + bx + c) 4 ac − b 2
2 2 ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c
x dx bx + 2c b dx
17.12.9. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)2
=− −
(4 ac − b 2 )(ax 2 + bx + c) 4 ac − b 2 ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c
84 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x 2 dx (b 2 − 2ac) x + bc 2c dx
17.12.10. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c) 2 = +
a(4 ac − b 2 )(ax 2 + bx + c) 4 ac − b 2 ∫ ax 2
+ bx + c

x m dx x m −1 (m − 1)c x m − 2 dx
17.12.11. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c) n = − +
(2n − m − 1)a(ax 2 + bx + c)n−1 (2n − m − 1)a ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)n
(n − m )b x m −1dx

(2n − m − 1)a ∫ (ax + bx + c)n
2

x 2 n−1dx 1 x 2 n−3 dx c x 2 n−3 dx b x 2 n− 2 dx


17.12.12. ∫ (ax 2 + bx + c)n = a ∫ (ax 2 + bx + c)n−1 − a ∫ (ax 2 + bx + c)n − a ∫ (ax 2 + bx + c)n
dx 1 b dx 1 dx
17.12.13. ∫ x (ax 2 = −
+ bx + c)2 2c(ax 2 + bx + c) 2c ∫ (ax 2 +
+ bx + c)2 c ∫ x (ax 2
+ bx + c)

dx 1 3a dx 2b dx
17.12.14. ∫x 2
(ax 2 + bx + c)2
=− −
cx (ax 2 + bx + c) c ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)2

c ∫ x (ax 2
+ bx + c)2

dx 1 (m + 2n − 3)a dx
17.12.15. ∫x m
(ax + bx + c)
2 n = −
(m − 1)cx (ax + bx + c)
m −1 2 n −1 −
(m − 1)c ∫x m−2
(ax + bx + c)n
2

(m + n − 2)b dx

(m − 1)c ∫x m −1
(ax + bx + c)n
2

(13) Integrals Involving ax 2 ⴙ bx ⴙ c


In the following results if b 2 = 4 ac, ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x + b / 2a) and the results 17.1 can be used. If b = 0
use the results 17.9. If a = 0 or c = 0 use the results 17.2 and 17.5.

⎧ 1
⎪⎪ a ln (2 a ax + bx + c + 2ax + b)
2

dx
17.13.1. ∫ =⎨
ax 2 + bx + c ⎪− 1 sin −1 ⎛ 2ax + b ⎞ or 1 sinh −1 ⎛ 2ax + b ⎞
⎪⎩ − a ⎜⎝ b 2 − 4 ac ⎟⎠ a ⎜⎝ 4 ac − b 2 ⎟⎠

x dx ax 2 + bx + c b dx
17.13.2. ∫ ax + bx + c
2
=
a

2a ∫ ax + bx + c
2

x 2 dx 2ax − 3b 3b 2 − 4 ac dx
17.13.3. ∫ ax 2 + bx + c
=
4a 2
ax 2
+ bx + c +
8a 2 ∫ ax + bx + c
2

⎧ 1 ⎛ 2 c ax 2 + bx + c + bx + 2c⎞
⎪− ln ⎜
x ⎟
dx ⎪ c ⎝ ⎠
17.13.4. ∫ 2
= ⎨
x ax + bx + c ⎪ 1 ⎛ bx + 2c ⎞ 1 ⎛ bx + 2c ⎞
⎪ −c sin ⎜⎝ | x | b 2 − 4 ac ⎟⎠ or − c sinh ⎜⎝ | x | 4 ac − b 2 ⎟⎠
−1 −1

dx ax 2 + bx + c b dx
17.13.5. ∫x 2
ax + bx + c
2
=−
cx

2c ∫x ax 2 + bx + c

(2ax + b) ax 2 + bx + c 4 ac − b 2 dx
17.13.6. ∫ ax 2 + bx + c dx =
4a
+
8a ∫ ax 2 + bx + c
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 85

(ax 2 + bx + c)3/ 2 b(2ax + b)


17.13.7. ∫x ax 2 + bx + c dx =
3a

8a 2
ax 2 + bx + c

b(4 ac − b 2 ) dx

16a 2 ∫ ax 2 + bx + c

6ax − 5b 5b 2 − 4 ac
17.13.8. ∫ x 2 ax 2 + bx + c dx = 24 a 2
( ax 2
+ bx + c ) 3/ 2
+
16a 2 ∫ ax 2 + bx + c dx

ax 2 + bx + c b dx dx
17.13.9. ∫ x
dx = ax 2 + bx + c +
2 ∫ ax + bx + c
2
+c ∫x ax + bx + c
2

ax 2 + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c dx b dx
17.13.10. ∫ x 2
dx = −
x
+a ∫ ax + bx + c
2
+
2 ∫x ax + bx + c
2

dx 2(2ax + b)
17.13.11. ∫ (ax 2 =
+ bx + c)3/ 2 (4 ac − b 2 ) ax 2 + bx + c

x dx 2(bx + 2c)
17.13.12. ∫ (ax 2 =
+ bx + c)3/ 2 (b 2 − 4 ac) ax 2 + bx + c

x 2 dx (2b 2 − 4 ac) x + 2bc 1 dx


17.13.13. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c) 3/ 2 = +
a(4 ac − b 2 ) ax 2 + bx + c a ∫ ax 2 + bx + c

dx 1 1 dx b dx
17.13.14. ∫ x (ax 2 = +
+ bx + c)3/ 2 c ax 2 + bx + c c ∫x ax + bx + c
2

2c ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)3/ 2

dx ax 2 + 2bx + c b 2 − 2ac dx
17.13.15. ∫ x (ax + bx + c)
2 2 3/ 2 = − 2
c x ax 2 + bx + c
+
2c 2 ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)3/ 2

3b dx

2c 2 ∫x ax 2 + bx + c

(2ax + b)(ax 2 + bx + c)n+1/ 2 (2n + 1)(4 ac − b 2 )


17.13.16. ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)n+1/ 2 dx =
4 a(n + 1)
+
8a(n + 1) ∫ (ax 2 + bx + c)n−1/ 2 dx

(ax 2 + bx + c)n+3/ 2 b
17.13.17. ∫ x (ax 2 + bx + c)n+1/ 2 dx = a(2n + 3)

2a ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)n+1/ 2 dx

dx 2(2ax + b)
17.13.18. ∫ (ax 2 =
+ bx + c)n+1/ 2 (2n − 1)(4 ac − b 2 )(ax 2 + bx + c)n−1/ 2
8a(n − 1) dx
+
(2n − 1)(4 ac − b 2 ) ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)n−1/ 2

dx 1
17.13.19. ∫ x (ax 2 =
+ bx + c)n+1/ 2 (2n − 1)c(ax 2 + bx + c)n−1/ 2
1 dx b dx
+
c ∫ x (ax 2 −
+ bx + c)n−1/ 2 2c ∫ (ax 2
+ bx + c)n+1/22
86 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

(14) Integrals Involving x3 ⴙ a3


Note that for formulas involving x3 – a3 replace a with –a.
dx 1 ⎛ ( x + a) 2 ⎞ 1 2x − a
17.14.1. ∫ x +a
3 3
=
6a 2
ln ⎜⎝ 2
x − ax + a 2⎟

+
2
a 3
tan −1
a 3
x dx 1 ⎛ x 2 − ax + a 2 ⎞ 1 2x − a
17.14.2. ∫ x +a
3 3
=
6a
ln ⎜
⎝ ( x + a) 2 ⎟

+
a 3
tan −1
a 3
x 2 dx 1
17.14.3. ∫ = ln ( x 3 + a 3 )
x 3 + a3 3

dx 1 ⎛ x3 ⎞
17.14.4. ∫ x(x 3 3 =
+ a ) 3a 3 ln ⎜ 3
⎝ x + a 3 ⎟⎠

dx 1 1 ⎛ x 2 − ax + a 2 ⎞ 1 2x − a
17.14.5. ∫ x (x + a )
2 3 3
= − 3

a x 6a 4
ln ⎜
⎝ ( x + a) ⎠ a 3
2 ⎟ −
4
tan −1
a 3

dx x 1 ⎛ ( x + a) 2 ⎞ 2 2x − a
17.14.6. ∫ (x 3
+a )
3 2
= 3 3 + 5 ln ⎜ 2
3a ( x + a ) 9a
3
+
⎝ x − ax + a 2 ⎟⎠ 3a 5 3
tan −1
a 3
x dx x2 1 ⎛ x 2 − ax + a 2 ⎞ 1 2x − a
17.14.7. ∫ (x 3
+a )3 2
= 3 3 +
3a ( x + a ) 18a
3 4
ln ⎜ +
⎝ ( x + a)2 ⎟⎠ 3a 4 3
tan −1
a 3
x 2 dx 1
17.14.8. ∫ ( x 3 + a3 )2 = − 3( x 3 + a3 )
dx 1 1 ⎛ x3 ⎞
17.14.9. ∫ x(x 3 3 2 =
+a ) 3 +
3a ( x + a ) 3a
3 3 6 ln ⎜ 3
⎝ x + a 3 ⎟⎠

dx 1 x2 4 x dx
17.14.10. ∫ x (x + a )
2 3 3 2
= − − − 6
a x 3a ( x + a ) 3a
6 6 3 3 ∫x 3
+ a3
(See 17.14.2.)

x m dx x m−2 x m −3dx
17.14.11. ∫ =
x 3 + a3 m − 2
− a 3
∫ x 3 + a3
dx −1 1 dx
17.14.12. ∫x n = −
( x 3 + a 3 ) a 3 (n − 1) x n−1 a 3 ∫x n−3
( x 3 + a3 )

(15) Integrals Involving x4 ⴞ a4

dx 1 ⎛ x 2 + ax 2 + a 2 ⎞ 1 ⎡ −1 ⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎛ x 2⎞⎤
17.15.1. ∫x 4
+a 4 = 3
ln ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ − 3
4 a 2 ⎝ x − ax 2 + a ⎠ 2a 2 ⎣⎢
⎢tan ⎜1 −
⎝ ⎟
a ⎠
− tan −1 ⎜1 +
⎝ a ⎟⎠ ⎥⎥

2
x dx 1 −1 x
17.15.2. ∫x 4
+a 4 =
2a 2 tan
a 2

x 2 dx 1 ⎛ x 2 − ax 2 + a 2 ⎞ 1 ⎡ −1 ⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎛ x 2⎞⎤
17.15.3. ∫ x +a
4 4 = ln ⎜ 2 2⎟

4 a 2 ⎝ x + ax 2 + a ⎠ 2a 2 ⎢⎣
⎢tan ⎜1 − a ⎟ − tan −1 ⎜1 + a ⎟ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 87

x 3 dx 1
17.15.4. ∫x 4 = ln ( x 4 + a 4 )
+ a4 4

dx 1 ⎛ x4 ⎞
17.15.5. ∫ x(x 4 4 =
+ a ) 4a 4 ln ⎜ 4
⎝ x + a 4 ⎟⎠

dx 1 1 ⎛ x 2 − ax 2 + a 2 ⎞
17.15.6. ∫ 4 = − 4
x (x + a )
2
4 − 5 ln ⎜ 2
a x 4 a 2 ⎝ x + ax 2 + a 2 ⎟⎠

1 ⎡ −1 ⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎛ x 2⎞⎤
+ ⎢tan ⎜1 − a ⎟ − tan −1 ⎜1 + a ⎟ ⎥
2a 5
2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
2
dx 1 1 −1 x
17.15.7. ∫x 3 4 4 = −
(x + a ) 4 2 −
2a x 2a 6 tan
a 2

dx 1 ⎛ x − a⎞ 1 x
17.15.8. ∫x 4 = −
− a 4 4 a 3 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠ 2a 3
ln tan −1
a

x dx 1 ⎛ x 2 − a2 ⎞
17.15.9. ∫x 4
−a 4 =
4a 2 ln ⎜ 2
⎝ x + a 2 ⎟⎠

x 2 dx 1 ⎛ x − a⎞ 1 x
17.15.10. ∫ = +
x 4 − a 4 4 a ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠ 2a
ln tan −1
a

x 3dx 1
17.15.11. ∫x 4
= ln ( x 4 − a 4 )
− a4 4
dx 1 ⎛ x 4 − a4 ⎞
17.15.12. ∫ 4 =
x ( x − a ) 4a
4 4 ln ⎜
⎝ x 4 ⎟⎠

dx 1 1 ⎛ x − a⎞ 1 x
17.15.13. ∫x 3 = + +
( x 4 − a 4 ) a 4 x 4 a 5 ⎜⎝ x + a⎟⎠ 2a 5
ln tan −1
a

dx 1 1 ⎛ x 2 − a2 ⎞
17.15.14. ∫ 4 = 4 2 +
x ( x − a ) 2a x
34
4a 6 ln ⎜ 2
⎝ x + a 2 ⎟⎠

(16) Integrals Involving xn ⴞ an


dx 1 ⎛ xn ⎞
17.16.1. ∫ = ln ⎜ ⎟
x ( x n + a n ) na n ⎝ x n + a n ⎠
x n−1dx 1
17.16.2. ∫ = ln ( x n + a n )
x n + an n
x m dx x m − n dx x m − n dx
17.16.3. ∫ ( x + a n )r =
n ∫ ( x + a n )r −1 − a n
n ∫ ( x n + a n )r
dx 1 dx 1 dx
17.16.4. ∫x m =
( x n + a n )r a n ∫x m −
( x n + a n )r −1 a n ∫x m−n
( x n + a n )r

dx 1 ⎛ x n + an − an ⎞
17.16.5. ∫x = ln
x n + a n n a n ⎜⎝ x n + a n + a n ⎟⎠
dx 1 ⎛ x n − an ⎞
17.16.6. ∫ n =
x ( x − a ) na
n n ln ⎜
⎝ x n ⎟⎠
88 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x n −1dx 1
17.16.7. ∫x n
= ln ( x n − a n )
− an n
x m dx x m − n dx x m − n dx
17.16.8. ∫ (x − a )
n n r = a n
∫ ( x − a ) ∫ ( x − a n )r −1
n n r + n

dx 1 dx 1 dx
17.16.9. ∫x m
(x − a )
n n r
= n
a ∫x m−n
(x − a )
n n r
− n
a ∫x m
( x − a n )r −
n

dx 2 an
17.16.10. ∫x x n − an
=
n an
cos −1
xn

x p−1dx 1 m
(2k − 1) pπ ⎛ x + a cos[(2k − 1)π /2m]⎞
∫x 2m− p ∑
17.16.11. = sin tan −1 ⎜
2m
+a 2m
ma k =1 2 m ⎝ a sin[(2k − 1)π /2m] ⎟⎠

1 m
(2k − 1) pπ ⎛ 2 (2k − 1)π ⎞
− ∑
2ma 2 m − p k =1
cos
2m
ln ⎜ x + 2ax cos
⎝ 2 m
+ a 2⎟

where 0 < p  2m.

x p−1dx 1 m −1
kpπ ⎛ 2 kπ ⎞
∫x 2m− p ∑
17.16.12. = cos ln ⎜ x − 2ax cos + a 2⎟
2m
−a 2m
2ma k =1 m ⎝ m ⎠

1 m −1 kpπ ⎛ x − a cos (kπ /m)⎞


ma 2 m − p ∑
− sin tan −1 ⎜
k =1 m ⎝ a sin (kπ /m) ⎟⎠

1
+ {ln ( x − a) + (−1) p ln ( x + a)}
2ma 2 m − p
where 0 < p  2m.

x p−1dx 2(−1) p−1 m


2kpπ ⎛ x + a cos[2kπ /(2m + 1)]⎞
∫ 2 m − p+1 ∑
17.16.13. = sin tan −1 ⎜
x 2 m +1
+a 2 m +1
(2m + 1)a k =1 2m + 1 ⎝ a sin[2kπ /(2m + 1)] ⎟⎠

(−1) p−1 m
pπ ⎛ 2
2kp 2kπ ⎞
2 m − p+1 ∑
− cos ln ⎜ x + 2ax cos + a 2⎟
(2m + 1)a k =1 2m + 1 ⎝ 2m + 1 ⎠

(−1) p−1 ln( x + a)


+
(2m + 1)a 2 m − p+1

where 0 < p  2m + 1.

x p−1dx −2 m
2kpπ ⎛ x − a cos[2kπ /(2m + 1)]⎞
17.16.14. ∫ x 2 m +1
−a 2 m +1
=
(2m + 1)a 2 m − p+1 ∑
k =1
sin
2m + 1
tan −1 ⎜
⎝ a sin[2kπ /(2m + 1)] ⎟⎠

1 m
2kpπ ⎛ 2 2kπ ⎞
+
(2m + 1)a 2 m − p+1 ∑
k =1
cos ln ⎜ x − 2ax cos
2m + 1 ⎝ 2m + 1
+ a 2⎟

ln ( x − a)
+
(2m + 1)a 2 m − p+1

where 0 < p  2m + 1.
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 89

(17) Integrals Involving sin ax


cos ax
17.17.1. ∫ sin ax dx = − a
sin ax x cos ax
17.17.2. ∫ x sin ax dx = a2

a

2x ⎛ 2 x2 ⎞
17.17.3. ∫x 2
sin ax dx =
a 2 sin ax + ⎜ 3 −
⎝a a ⎟⎠
cos ax

⎛ 3x 2 6 ⎞ ⎛ 6x x 3 ⎞
17.17.4. ∫x 3
sin ax dx = ⎜ 2 − 4 ⎟ sin ax + ⎜ 3 − ⎟ cos ax
⎝a a ⎠ ⎝a a⎠

sin ax (ax )3 (ax )5


17.17.5. ∫ x dx = ax − +
3 ⋅ 3! 5 ⋅ 5!
− ⋅⋅⋅

sin ax sin ax cos ax


17.17.6. ∫ x2
dx = −
x
+ a∫
x
dx (See 17.18.5.)

dx 1 1 ax
17.17.7. ∫ sin ax = α ln(csc ax − cot ax ) = α ln tan 2

x dx 1 ⎧⎪ (ax )3 7(ax )5 2(22 n −1 − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫⎪


17.17.8. ∫ sin ax = a 2 ⎨
ax + + ++
(2n + 1)!
+ ⎬
⎩⎪ 18 1800 ⎪⎭
x sin 2ax
17.17.9. ∫ sin 2 ax dx = 2 − 4a
x 2 x sin 2ax cos 2ax
17.17.10. ∫ x sin 2
ax dx =
4

4a

8a 2
cos ax cos3 ax
17.17.11. ∫ sin 3
ax dx = −
a
+
3a

3x sin 2ax sin 4 ax


17.17.12. ∫ sin ax dx =
4
8

4a
+
32a

dx 1
17.17.13. ∫ sin 2
ax
= − cot ax
a

dx cos ax 1 ax
17.17.14. ∫ sin 3
ax
=− +
2a sin 2 ax 2a
ln tan
2

sin ( p − q) x sin ( p + q) x
17.17.15. ∫ sin px sin qx dx = 2( p − q)

2( p + q)
(If p = ± q, see 17.17.9.)

dx 1 ⎛π ax ⎞
17.17.16. ∫ 1 − sin ax = a tan ⎜⎝ 4 + 2 ⎟⎠

x dx x ⎛π ax ⎞ 2 ⎛ π ax ⎞
17.17.17. ∫ 1 − sin ax = a tan ⎜⎝ 4 + + ln sin ⎜ − ⎟
2 ⎟⎠ a 2 ⎝4 2 ⎠
dx 1 ⎛π ax ⎞
17.17.18. ∫ 1 + sin ax = − α tan ⎜⎝ 4 − 2 ⎟⎠

x dx x ⎛π ax ⎞ 2 ⎛ π ax ⎞
17.17.19. ∫ 1 + sin ax = − a tan ⎜⎝ 4 − + ln sin ⎜ + ⎟
2 ⎟⎠ a 2 ⎝4 2 ⎠
90 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞ 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞
17.17.20. ∫ (1 − sin ax) 2 =
2a
tan ⎜ + ⎟ +
⎝ 4 2 ⎠ 6 a
tan 3 ⎜ + ⎟
⎝4 2 ⎠

dx 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞ 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞
17.17.21. ∫ (1 + sin ax ) 2
=−
2a
tan ⎜ − ⎟ −
⎝ 4 2 ⎠ 6a
tan 3 ⎜ − ⎟
⎝4 2 ⎠

⎧ −1 p tan 2 ax + q
1
2
⎪a p2 − q 2 tan
p2 − q 2
dx ⎪
17.17.22. ∫ =
p + q sin ax ⎨ ⎛ p tan 12 ax + q − q 2 − p2 ⎞
⎪ 1
⎪ ln ⎜ ⎟
⎩a q − p ⎝ p tan 12 ax + q + q 2 − p2 ⎠
2 2

(If p = ± q, see 17.17.16 and 17.17.18.)

dx q cos ax p dx
17.17.23. ∫ ( p + q sin ax) 2 = +
a( p2 − q 2 )( p + q sin ax ) p2 − q 2 ∫ p + q sin ax
(If p = ± q, see 17.17.20 and 17.17.21.)

dx 1 p2 + q 2 tan ax
17.17.24. ∫p 2 =
+ q 2 sin 2 ax ap p2 + q 2
tan −1
p

⎧ 1 −1
p2 − q 2 tan ax
⎪ tan
p
⎪ ap p − q
2 2
dx
17.17.25. ∫ p − q sin ax
2 2 2 =⎨
⎛ q 2 − p2 tan ax + p⎞
⎪ 1
ln
⎪ ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎩2ap q − p ⎝ q − p2 tan ax − p⎠
2 2

x m cos ax mx m −1 sin ax m(m − 1)


17.17.26. ∫x m
sin ax dx = −
a
+
a2

a2 ∫x m−2
sin ax dx

sin ax sin ax a cos ax


17.17.27. ∫ xn
dx = − +
(n − 1) x n −1 n − 1 ∫ x n −1
dx (See 17.18.30.)

sin n−1 ax cos ax n − 1


17.17.28. ∫ sin n
ax dx = −
an
+
n ∫ sin n− 2
ax dx

dx − cos ax n−2 dx
17.17.29. ∫ sin n = +
ax a(n − 1) sin ax n − 1
n −1 ∫ sin n− 2
ax
x dx − x cos ax 1 n−2 x dx
17.17.30. ∫ sin n = − +
ax a(n − 1) sin n−1 ax a 2 (n − 1)(n − 2) sin n− 2 ax n − 1 ∫ sin n− 2
ax

(18) Integrals Involving cos ax


sin ax
17.18.1. ∫ cos ax dx = a
cos ax x sin ax
17.18.2. ∫ x cos ax dx = a2
+
a
2x ⎛ x2 2 ⎞
17.18.3. ∫ x 2 cos ax dx = a2
cos ax + ⎜⎝ a − a 3 ⎟⎠ sin ax
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 91

⎛ 3x 2 6 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 6x⎞
17.18.4. ∫ x 3
cos ax dx = ⎜
⎝a 2 −
a ⎠
4 ⎟ cos ax + ⎜⎝ a − a 3 ⎟⎠ sin ax

cos ax (ax )2 (ax )4 (ax )6


17.18.5.
∫ x dx = ln x − + −
2 ⋅ 2! 4 ⋅ 4 ! 6 ⋅ 6!
+

cos ax cos ax sin ax


17.18.6. ∫ x2
dx = −
x
−a ∫ x
dx (See 17.17.5.)

dx 1 1 ⎛π ax ⎞
17.18.7. ∫ cos ax = a ln (sec ax + tan ax ) = a ln tan ⎜⎝ 4 + 2 ⎟⎠

x dx 1 ⎧(ax )2 (ax )4 5(ax )6 En (ax )2 n+ 2 ⎫


17.18.8. ∫ cos ax a 2 ⎩ 2
= ⎨ +
8
+
144
+  +
(2n + 2)(2n)!
+ ⎬

x sin 2ax
17.18.9. ∫ cos 2
ax dx =
2
+
4a
x 2 x sin 2ax cos 2ax
17.18.10. ∫ x cos2 ax dx = 4
+
4a
+
8a 2
sin ax sin 3 ax
17.18.11. ∫ cos3 ax dx = a

3a
3x sin 2ax sin 4 ax
17.18.12. ∫ cos 4
ax dx =
8
+
4a
+
32a

dx tan ax
17.18.13. ∫ cos 2
ax
=
a

dx sin ax 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞
17.18.14. ∫ cos 3 = +
ax 2a cos 2 ax 2a
ln tan ⎜ + ⎟
⎝4 2 ⎠

sin(a − p) x sin(a + p) x
17.18.15. ∫ cos ax cos px dx = 2(a − p)
+
2(a + p)
(If a = ± p, see 17.18.9.)

dx 1 ax
17.18.16. ∫ 1 − cos ax = − a cot 2

x dx x ax 2 ax
17.18.17. ∫ 1 − cos ax = − a cot + ln sin
2 a2 2
dx 1 ax
17.18.18. ∫ 1 + cos ax = a tan 2
x dx x ax 2 ax
17.18.19. ∫ 1 + cos ax = a tan + ln cos
2 a2 2

dx 1 ax 1 ax
17.18.20. ∫ (1 − cos ax) 2 =−
2a
cot −
2 6a
cot 3
2

dx 1 ax 1 ax
17.18.21. ∫ (1 + cos ax) 2 =
2a
tan +
2 6a
tan 3
2
⎧ 2 1
⎪ tan −1 ( p − q) / ( p + q) tan ax
⎪ a p −q
dx
2 2 2
17.18.22. ∫ =⎨
p + q cos ax ⎪ 1 ⎛ tan 1 ax + (q + p) / (q − p) ⎞
2 (If p = ± q, see 17.18.16
⎪ a q 2 − p2 ⎝ tan 1 ax − (q + p) / (q − p) ⎟⎠
ln ⎜
⎩ 2 and 17.18.18.)
92 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx q sin ax p dx (If p = ± q see 17.18.19


17.18.23. ∫ ( p + q cos ax ) 2 = −
a(q 2 − p2 )( p + q cos ax ) q 2 − p2 ∫ p + q cos ax and 17.18.20.)

dx 1 p tan ax
17.18.24. ∫p 2 =
+ q 2 cos 2 ax ap p2 + q 2
tan −1
p2 + q 2
⎧ 1 −1 p tan ax
⎪ap p2 − q 2 tan p2 − q 2
dx ⎪
17.18.25. ∫ =
p2 − q 2 cos 2 ax ⎨ 1 ⎛ p tan ax − q 2 − p2 ⎞
⎪ ln
⎪2ap q 2 − p2 ⎜⎝ p tan ax + q 2 − p2 ⎟⎠

x m sin ax mx m −1 m(m − 1)
17.18.26. ∫ x m cos ax dx = a
+
a2
cos ax −
a2 ∫x m−2
cos ax dx

cos ax cos ax a sin ax


17.18.27. ∫ x n
dx = −
(n − 1) x n −1

n −1 ∫ x n −1
dx (Seee 17.17.27.)

sin ax cos n−1 ax n − 1


17.18.28. ∫ cosn ax dx = an
+
n ∫ cos n− 2
ax dx

dx sin ax n−2 dx
17.18.29. ∫ cos n
ax
= +
a(n − 1) cos n−1 ax b − 1 ∫ cos n− 2
ax

x dx x sin ax 1 n−2 x dx
17.18.30. ∫ cos n = − +
ax a(n − 1) cos n−1 ax a 2 (n − 1)(n − 2) cos n− 2 ax n − 1 ∫ cos n− 2
ax

(19) Integrals Involving sin ax and cos ax


sin 2 ax
17.19.1. ∫ sin ax cos ax dx = 2a
cos( p − q) x cos( p + q) x
17.19.2. sin px cos qx dx = − −
2( p − q) 2( p + q)

sin n+1 ax
17.19.3. ∫ sin n ax cos ax dx = (n + 1)a
(If n = −1, see 17.21.1.)

cos n+1 ax
17.19.4. ∫ cos ax sin ax dx = −
n
(n + 1)a
(If n = −1, see 17.20.1.)

x sin 4 ax
17.19.5. ∫ sin 2
ax cos 2 ax dx =
8

32a

dx 1
17.19.6. ∫ sin ax cos ax = a ln tan ax
dx 1 ⎛ π ax ⎞ 1
17.19.7. ∫ sin 2 = ln tan ⎜ + ⎟ −
ax cos ax a ⎝ 4 2 ⎠ a sin ax

dx 1 ax 1
17.19.8. ∫ sin ax cos 2
ax
=
a
ln tan +
2 a cos ax

dx 2 cot 2ax
17.19.9. ∫ sin 2
ax cos 2 ax
=−
a
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 93

sin 2 ax sin ax 1 ⎛ ax π ⎞
17.19.10. ∫ cos ax dx = − a + a ln tan ⎜⎝ 2 + 4 ⎟⎠
cos 2 ax cos ax 1 ax
17.19.11. ∫ sin ax
dx =
a
+ ln tan
a 2

dx 1 1 ⎛ ax π⎞
17.19.12. ∫ cos ax (1 ± sin ax ) = ∓ 2a(1 ± sin ax ) + 2a ln tan ⎜⎝ 2 + ⎟
4⎠

dx 1 1 ax
17.19.13. ∫ sin ax (1 ± cos ax ) = ± 2a(1 ± cos ax ) + 2a ln tan 2

dx 1 ⎛ ax π ⎞
17.19.14. ∫ sin ax ± cos ax = a 2
ln tan ⎜ ± ⎟
⎝ 2 8⎠
sin ax dx x 1
17.19.15. ∫ sin ax ± cos ax = 2 ∓ 2a ln (sin ax ± cos ax )
cos ax dx x 1
17.19.16. ∫ sin ax ± cos ax = ± 2 + 2a ln (sin ax ± cos ax )
sin ax dx 1
17.19.17. ∫ p + q cos ax = − aq ln ( p + q cos ax)
cos ax dx 1
17.19.18. ∫ p + q sin ax = aq ln ( p + q sin ax)
sin ax dx 1
17.19.19. ∫ ( p + q cos ax ) n =
aq(n − 1)( p + q cos ax )n−1

cos ax dx −1
17.19.20. ∫ ( p + q sin ax) n =
aq(n − 1)( p + q sin ax )n−1

dx 1 ⎛ ax + tan −1 (q / p) ⎞
17.19.21. ∫ =
p sin ax + q cos ax a p2 + q 2
ln tan ⎜
⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

⎧ 2 ⎛ p + (r − q) tan(ax / 2 ) ⎞
⎪ tan −1 ⎜ ⎟
dx ⎪ a r 2 − p2 − q 2 ⎝ r 2 − p2 − q 2 ⎠
17.19.22. ∫ =⎨
p sin ax + q cos ax + r ⎪ 1 ⎛ p − p2 + q 2 − r 2 + (r − q) tan (ax / 2 ) ⎞
⎪ ln ⎜ ⎟
⎩a p + q − r
2 2 2
⎝ p + p2 + q 2 − r 2 + (r − q) tan (ax / 2 ) ⎠

(If r = q see 17.19.23. If r2 = p2 + q2 see 17.19.24.)

dx 1 ⎛ ax ⎞
17.19.23. ∫ p sin ax + q(1 + cos ax ) = ap ln ⎜⎝q + p tan 2 ⎟⎠

dx −1 ⎛ π ax + tan −1 (q / p)⎞
17.19.24. ∫ =
p sin ax + q cos ax ± p2 + q 2 a p2 + q 2
tan ⎜⎝ 4 ∓ 2 ⎟⎠

dx 1 ⎛ p tan ax ⎞
17.19.25. ∫p 2 =
sin 2 ax + q 2 cos 2 ax apq
tan −1 ⎜
⎝ q ⎟⎠

dx 1 ⎛ p tan ax − q⎞
17.19.26. ∫p 2
sin ax − q cos ax
2 2 2 =
2 apq
ln ⎜
⎝ p tan ax + q⎟⎠
94 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

⎧ sin m −1 ax cos n+1 ax m − 1


⎪− m+n ∫
+ sin m − 2 ax cos n ax dx
a(m + n)
17.19.27. ∫ sin m
ax cos n
ax dx = ⎨
⎪ sin ax cos ax + n − 1 sin m ax cos n− 2 ax dx
m +1 n −1

⎩ a (m + n ) m+n ∫

⎧ sin m −1 ax m − 1 sin m − 2 ax
⎪ a(n − 1) cos ax n − 1 ∫ cos n− 2 ax dx
n − 1 −
⎪ m−n+2
m
sin ax ⎪ sin m +1 ax sin m ax
17.19.28. ∫ cosn ax dx = ⎨ a(n − 1) cos n−1 ax

n −1 ∫ cosn−2 ax dx

⎪ − sin m −1 ax m − 1 sin m − 2 ax
os ax m − n ∫ cos n ax
+ dx
⎪⎩ a(m − n) co n −1

⎧ − cos m −1 ax m − 1 cos m − 2 ax
⎪ a(n − 1) sin n−1 ax − n − 1 ∫ sin n− 2 ax dx
⎪ − cos m +1 ax m−n+2
cos m ax ⎪ cos m ax
17.19.29. ∫ sin ax
n dx = ⎨ a(n − 1) sin ax
n −1 −
n −1 ∫ sin n−2 ax dx

⎪ cos m −1 ax m − 1 cos m − 2 ax
⎩⎪ a(m − n) sin ax m − n
n −1 + ∫ sin n ax dx
⎧ 1 m+n−2 dx
dx ⎪ a(n − 1) sin m −1 ax cos n−1 ax + n − 1 ∫ sin ax cos n− 2 ax
m
17.19.30. ∫ sin m ax cosn ax = ⎨ −1 m+n−2 dx

⎪⎩a(m − 1) sin m −1 ax cos n−1 ax
+
m −1 ∫ sin m−2 ax cosn ax

(20) Integrals Involving tan ax


1 1
17.20.1. ∫ tan ax dx = − a ln cos ax = a ln sec ax
tan ax
17.20.2. ∫ tan 2
ax dx =
a
−x

tan 2 ax 1
17.20.3. ∫ tan3 ax dx = 2a
+ ln cos ax
a

tan n+1 ax
17.20.4. ∫ tan n
ax sec 2 ax dx =
(n + 1)a
sec 2 ax 1
17.20.5. ∫ tan ax
dx = ln tan ax
a
dx 1
17.20.6. ∫ tan ax = a ln sin ax
1 ⎧(ax )3 (ax )5 2(ax )7 22 n (22 n − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫
17.20.7. ∫ x tan ax dx = 2
a ⎩⎨ 3
+
15
+
105
+  +
( 2 n + 1)!
+ ⎬

tan ax (ax )3 2(ax )5 22 n (22 n − 1) Bn (ax )2 n−1


17.20.8. ∫ x
dx = ax +
9
+
75
++
(2n − 1)(2n)!
+

x tan ax 1 x2
17.20.9. ∫ x tan 2
ax dx =
a
+ 2 ln cos ax −
a 2
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 95

dx px q
17.20.10. ∫ p + q tan ax = +
p 2 + q 2 a( p 2 + q 2 )
ln (q sin ax + p cos ax )

tan n −1 ax
17.20.11. ∫ tan n
ax dx =
(n − 1)a ∫
− tan n − 2 ax dx

(21) Integrals Involving cot ax


1
17.21.1. ∫ cot ax dx = a ln sin ax
cot ax
17.21.2. ∫ cot 2
ax dx = −
a
−x

cot 2 ax 1
17.21.3. ∫ cot ax dx = −
3
2a
− ln sin ax
a
cot n+1 ax
17.21.4. ∫ cot n ax csc2 ax dx = − (n + 1)a
csc 2 ax 1
17.21.5. ∫ cot ax
dx = − ln cot ax
a
dx 1
17.21.6. ∫ cot ax = − a ln cos ax
1 ⎪⎧ (ax )3 (ax )5 22 n Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎪⎫
17.21.7. ∫ x cot ax dx = a2
⎨ax −
⎪⎩ 9

225
− −
(2n + 1)!
− ⎬
⎪⎭

cot ax 1 ax (ax )3 22 n Bn (ax )2 n −1


17.21.8. ∫ x
dx = − −
ax 3

135
− −
(2n − 1)(2n)!
−

x cot ax 1 x2
17.21.9. ∫ x cot 2
ax dx = −
a
+ 2 ln sin ax −
a 2

dx px q
17.21.10. ∫ p + q cot ax = −
p 2 + q 2 a( p 2 + q 2 )
ln (q sin ax + q cos ax )

cot n −1 ax
17.21.11. ∫ cot n ax dx = − (n − 1)a ∫
− cot n − 2 ax dx

(22) Integrals Involving sec ax


1 1 ⎛ ax π⎞
17.22.1. ∫ sec ax dx = a ln (sec ax + tan ax) = a ln tan ⎜⎝ 2 + ⎟
4⎠
tan ax
17.22.2. ∫ sec ax dx =
2
a
sec ax tan ax 1
17.22.3. ∫ sec ax dx =
3
2a
+
2a
ln (sec ax + tan ax )
96 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

sec n ax
17.22.4. ∫ secn ax tan ax dx = na
dx sin ax
17.22.5. ∫ sec ax = a

1 ⎪⎧(ax )2 (ax )4 5(ax )6 E (ax )2 n+ 2 ⎪⎫


17.22.6. ∫ x sec ax dx = a2

⎪⎩ 2
+
8
+
144
++ n
(2n + 2)(2n)!
+ ⎬
⎪⎭

sec ax (ax )2 5(ax )4 61(ax )6 En (ax )2 n


17.22.7. ∫ x dx = ln x +
4
+
96
+
4320
+  +
2n(2n)!
+

x 1
17.22.8. ∫ x sec ax dx = a tan ax + a
2
2
ln cos ax

dx x p dx
17.22.9. ∫ q + p sec ax = q − q ∫ p + q cos ax
sec n − 2 ax tan ax n − 2
17.22.10. ∫ sec n
ax dx =
a(n − 1)
+
n −1 ∫ sec n−2
ax dx

(23) Integrals Involving csc ax


1 1 ax
17.23.1. ∫ csc ax dx = a ln (csc ax − cot ax) = a ln tan 2
cot ax
17.23.2. ∫ csc ax dx = −
2
a
csc ax cot ax 1 ax
17.23.3. ∫ csc ax dx = −
3
2a
+
2a
ln tan
2
csc n ax
17.23.4. ∫ cscn ax cot ax dx = − na
dx cos ax
17.23.5. ∫ csc ax = − a

1 ⎪⎧ (ax )3 7(ax )5 2(22 n −1 − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎪⎫


17.23.6. ∫ x csc ax dx = a2
⎨ax +
⎪⎩ 18
+
1800
++
(2n + 1)!
+ ⎬
⎪⎭

csc ax 1 ax 7(ax )3 2(22 n −1 − 1) Bn (ax )2 n −1


17.23.7. ∫ x
dx = − +
ax 6
+
1080
++
(2n − 1)(2n)!
+

x cot ax 1
17.23.8. ∫ x csc ax dx = −
2
a
+ 2 ln sin ax
a

dx x p dx
17.23.9. ∫ q + p csc ax = q − q ∫ p + q sin ax (See 17.17.22.)

csc n − 2 ax cot ax n − 2
17.23.10. ∫ cscn ax dx = − a(n − 1)
+
n −1 ∫ csc n−2
ax dx
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 97

(24) Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions


x x
17.24.1. ∫ sin −1
a
dx = x sin −1 + a 2 − x 2
a

x ⎛ x 2 a2 ⎞ x x a2 − x 2
17.24.2. ∫ x sin −1 a
dx = ⎜ − ⎟ sin −1 +
⎝2 4⎠ a 4

x x3 x ( x 2 + 2a 2 ) a 2 − x 2
17.24.3. ∫ x 2 sin −1 a
dx =
3
sin −1 +
a 9

sin −1 ( x /a) x ( x/a)3 1 i 3( x/a)5 1 i 3 i 5( x /a)7


17.24.4. ∫ x
dx = + + +
a 2i 3i 3 2i 4 i 5i 5 2i 4 i 6i 7i 7
+

sin −1 ( x /a) sin −1 ( x/a) 1 ⎛ a + a 2 − x 2 ⎞


17.24.5. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x
− ln ⎜
a ⎝ x ⎟

2 2
⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ x
17.24.6. ∫ ⎜⎝sin −1 a⎟⎠
dx = x ⎜sin −1 ⎟ − 2 x + 2 a 2 − x 2 sin −1
⎝ a ⎠ a
x x
17.24.7. ∫ cos −1
a
dx = x cos −1 − a 2 − x 2
a

x ⎛ x 2 a2 ⎞ x x a2 − x 2
17.24.8. ∫ x cos−1 a
dx = ⎜ − ⎟ cos −1 −
⎝2 4⎠ a 4

x x3 x ( x 2 + 2a 2 ) a 2 − x 2
17.24.9. ∫x 2
cos −1
a
dx =
3
cos −1 −
a 9

cos −1 ( x/a) π sin −1 ( x/a)


17.24.10. ∫ x dx =
2
ln x − ∫ x dx (See 17.224.4.)

cos −1 ( x /a) cos −1 ( x/a) 1 ⎛ a + a 2 − x 2 ⎞


17.24.11. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x
+ ln ⎜
a ⎝ x ⎟

2 2
⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ x
17.24.12. ∫ ⎜⎝cos−1 a⎟⎠
dx = x ⎜ cos −1 ⎟ − 2 x − 2 a 2 − x 2 cos −1
⎝ a ⎠ a

x x a
17.24.13. ∫ tan −1
a
dx = x tan −1 − ln ( x 2 + a 2 )
a 2
x 1 x ax
17.24.14. ∫ x tan −1
a
dx = ( x 2 + a 2 ) tan −1 −
2 a 2
x x3 x ax 2 a 3
17.24.15. ∫x 2
tan −1
a
dx =
3
tan −1 −
a 6
+ ln ( x 2 + a 2 )
6

tan −1 ( x/a) x ( x/a)3 ( x/a)5 ( x/a)7


17.24.16. ∫ x
dx = −
a 32
+
52

72
+

tan −1 ( x/a) 1 x 1 ⎛ x 2 + a2 ⎞
17.24.17. ∫ x 2
dx = − tan −1 −
x
ln
a 2a ⎜⎝ x 2 ⎠⎟
98 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

x x a
17.24.18. ∫ cot −1
a
dx = x cot −1 + ln (x 2 + a 2 )
a 2
x 1 x ax
17.24.19. ∫ x cot −1
a
dx = ( x 2 + a 2 ) cot −1
2 a
+
2
x x3 x ax 2 a3
17.24.20. ∫ x 2 cot −1 a
dx =
3
cot −1
a
+
6

6
ln ( x 2 + a 2 )

cot −1 ( x/a) π tan −1 ( x /a)


17.24.21. ∫ x dx =
2
ln x − ∫ x dx (See 17.24.16.)

cot −1 ( x/a) cot −1 ( x /a) 1 ⎛ x 2 + a 2 ⎞


17.24.22. ∫ x2 dx =
x
+ ln
2a ⎜⎝ x 2 ⎟⎠

⎧ x x π
x ⎪x sec
−1
− a ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ) 0 < sec −1 <
17.24.23. ∫ sec −1
a
=
dx ⎨ a
x π
a 2
x
⎪x sec −1 + a ln (x + x 2 − a 2 ) < sec −1 < π
⎩ a 2 a

⎧ x2 a x 2 − a2 x π
−1 x
x ⎪
⎪ sec − 0 < sec −1 <
17.24.24. ∫ x sec −1 a dx = ⎨ x22 a 2
2
− a2 π
a 2
⎪ sec −1 + x a x x
< sec −1 < π
⎪⎩ 2 a 2 2 a
⎧ x3 ax x 2 − a 2 a 3 x π
−1 x

⎪3 sec − − ln(x + x 2 − a 2 ) 0 < sec −1 <
−1 x
17.24.25. ∫ x sec a dx = ⎨ x 3
2 a 6
2
− 2
6
3
π
a 2
⎪ sec −1 + x ax x a a
+ ln(x + x 2 − a 2 )
x
< sec −1 < π
⎪⎩ 3 a 6 6 2 a
sec −1 ( x/a) π a (a/x )3 1i3(a/x )5 1 i 3 i 5(a/x )7
17.24.26. ∫ x dx =
2
ln x + + + +
x 2 i 3 i 3 2 i 4 i 5i 5 2 i 4 i 6 i 7i 7
+ ⋅⋅⋅

⎧ sec −1 ( x /a) x 2 − a2 x π
⎪− + 0 < sec −1 <
⎪ x ax a 2
−1
sec ( x/a) ⎪
17.24.27. ∫ x 2 dx = ⎨ sec −1 ( x/a) x 2 − a2 π x
⎪− − < sec −1 < π
⎪ x ax 2 a
⎩⎪
⎧ x x π
x ⎪ x csc −1 + a ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ) 0 < csc −1 <
17.24.28. ∫ csc −1 a dx = ⎨ −1 xa π
a 2
x
⎪x csc − a ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ) − < csc −1 < 0
⎩ a 2 a

⎧ x2 x a x 2 − a2 x π
⎪⎪ csc −1 + 0 < csc −1 <
−1 x
17.24.29. ∫ x csc a dx = ⎨ x22 a 2
x a x 2 − a2 π
a 2
⎪ csc −1 − − < csc −1
x
<0
⎪⎩ 2 a 2 2 a
⎧x3 x ax x 2 − a 2 a 3 x π
⎪ csc −1 + + ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ) 0 < csc −1 <
x ⎪ 3 a 6 6 a 2
17.24.30. ∫ x 2 csc −1 a dx = ⎨ 3
⎪x −1 x ax x 2 − a 2 a 3 π x
⎪ csc − − ln ( x + x 2 − a 2 ) − < csc −1 < 0
⎩3 a 6 6 2 a
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 99

csc −1 ( x /a) ⎛ a (a /x )3 1 i 3(a /x )5 1 i 3 i 5(a /x )7 ⎞


17.24.31. ∫ x
dx = − ⎜ + +
⎝ x 2i 3 i 3 2i 4 i 5 i 5
+
2i 4 i 6 i 7i 7
+ ⋅⋅⋅ ⎟

⎧ csc −1 ( x /a) x 2 − a2 x π
⎪− − 0 < csc −1 <
csc −1 ( x /a) ⎪ x ax a 2
17.24.32. ∫ x2 dx = ⎨
⎪ csc −1 ( x /a) x 2 − a2 π x
⎪− + − < csc −1 < 0
⎩ x ax 2 a
x x m +1 x 1 x m +1
17.24.33. ∫ x m sin −1 a
dx =
m +1
sin −1 −
a m +1 ∫ a2 − x 2
dx

x x m +1 x 1 x m +1
17.24.34. ∫x m
cos −1
a
dx =
m +1
cos −1 +
a m +1 ∫ a2 − x 2
dx

x x m +1 x a x m +1
17.24.35. ∫x m
tan −1
a
dx =
m +1
tan −1 −
a m +1 ∫ x + a2
2
dx

x x m +1 x a x m +1
17.24.36. ∫x m
cot −1
a
dx =
m +1
cot −1 +
a m +1 ∫ x + a2
2
dx

⎧ x m +1 sec −1 ( x/a) a x m dx x π
⎪ m +1

m +1 ∫ x −a
2 2
0 < sec −1 <
a 2
x ⎪
17.24.37. ∫ x m sec −1 a dx = ⎨ x m+1 sec −1 ( x/a) a π
⎪ x m dx x

⎩ m +1
+
m +1 ∫ x −a
2 2 2
< sec −1 < π
a

⎧ x m +1 sec −1 ( x /a) a x m dx x π
⎪ m +1
+
m +1 ∫ x −a
2 2
0 < csc −1
a
<
2
x ⎪
17.24.38. ∫ x m csc −1 a dx = ⎨ x m+1 csc −1 ( x /a) a π
⎪ x m dx x

⎩ m +1

m +1 ∫ x −a
2 2

2
< csc −1 < 0
a

(25) Integrals Involving eax


e ax
17.25.1. ∫e ax
dx =
a
e ax ⎛ 1⎞
17.25.2. ∫ xeax dx = a ⎜⎝ x − a ⎟⎠

e ax ⎛ 2 2 x 2 ⎞
17.25.3. ∫x e 2 ax
dx =
a ⎜⎝
x − +
a a 2 ⎟⎠
x n e ax n
17.25.4. ∫ x neax dx = a

a ∫x n −1 ax
e dx

e ax ⎛ n nx n−1 n(n − 1) x n− 2 (−1)n n !⎞


= ⎜⎝ − + − ⋅⋅⋅ if n = positivee integer
a n ⎟⎠
x
a a a2

e ax ax (ax )2 (ax )3
17.25.5. ∫ x dx = ln x + + +
1 i 1! 2 i 2! 3 i3!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

e ax −e ax a e ax
17.25.6. ∫x n dx =
(n − 1) x n−1
+
n −1 ∫x n −1 dx
100 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx x 1
17.25.7. ∫ p + qe ax
= −
p ap
ln (p + qe ax )

dx x 1 1
17.25.8. ∫ ( p + qe ax )2
= 2 +
p

ap( p + qe ax ) ap2
ln (p + qe ax )

⎧ 1 ⎛ p ax ⎞
⎪ tan −1 ⎜ e
dx ⎪⎪a pq ⎝ q ⎟⎠
17.25.9. ∫ pe ax
+ qe − ax
=⎨
⎪ 1 ⎛ e ax − − q /p ⎞
⎪ ln ⎜ ax ⎟
⎪⎩2a − pq ⎝ e + − q /p ⎠
e ax (a sin bx − b cos bx )
17.25.10. ∫e ax
sin bx dx =
a2 + b2
e ax (a cos bx + b sin bx )
17.25.11. ∫e ax
cos bx dx =
a2 + b2
xe ax (a sin bx − b cos bx ) e ax {(a 2 − b 2 ) sin bx − 2ab cos bx}
17.25.12. ∫ xe ax
sin bx dx =
a2 + b2

(a 2 + b 2 ) 2
xe ax (a cos bx + b sin bx ) e ax {(a 2 − b 2 ) cos bx + 2ab sin bx}
17.25.13. ∫ xe ax
cos bx dx =
a2 + b2

(a 2 + b 2 ) 2

e ax ln x 1 e ax
17.25.14. ∫ eax ln x dx = a

a ∫ x dx
e ax sin n−1 bx n(n − 1)b 2 ax n− 2
17.25.15. ∫ eax sin n bx dx = a2 + n2b2
( a sin bx − nb cos bx ) +
a2 + n2b2 ∫
e sin bx dx

e ax cos n−1 bx n(n − 1)b 2 ax


17.25.16. ∫ eax cosn bx dx = a +n b
2 2 2
a + n2b2 ∫
(a cos bx + nb sin bx ) + 2 e cos n− 2 bx dx

(26) Integrals Involving ln x


17.26.1. ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x
x2 ⎛ 1⎞
17.26.2. ∫ x ln x dx = 2
⎜⎝ ln x − ⎟⎠
2

x m +1 ⎛ 1 ⎞
17.26.3. ∫x m
ln x dx =
m + 1 ⎜⎝
ln x −
m + 1⎟⎠
( If m = −1, see 17.26.4.)

ln x 1
17.26.4.
∫ x
dx = ln 2 x
2
ln x ln x 1
17.26.5. ∫ x 2 dx = −
x

x

17.26.6. ∫ ln 2
x dx = x ln 2 x − 2 x ln x + 2 x

ln n x dx ln n+1 x
17.26.7. ∫ x = n +1 (If n = −1, see 17.26.8.)

dx
17.26.8. ∫ x ln x
= ln (ln x )
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 101

dx ln 2 x ln 3 x
17.26.9. ∫ ln x
= ln (ln x ) + ln x + +
2 i 2 ! 3 i 3!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

x m dx (m + 1)2 ln 2 x (m + 1)3 ln 3 x
17.26.10. ∫ ln x
= ln (ln x ) + (m + 1) ln x +
2 i 2!
+
3 i 3!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

17.26.11.
∫ ln x dx = x ln
n n
x−n ∫ ln n −1
x dx

x m +1 ln n x n
17.26.12. ∫x m
ln n x dx =
m +1

m +1 ∫x m
ln n −1 xdx

If m = –1, see 17.26.7.

x
17.26.13. ∫ ln (x 2
+ a 2 ) dx = x ln (x 2 + a 2 ) − 2 x + 2a tan −1
a

⎛ x + a⎞
17.26.14. ∫ ln ( x 2
− a 2 ) dx = x ln ( x 2 − a 2 ) − 2 x + a ln ⎜
⎝ x − a ⎟⎠

x m +1 ln ( x 2 ± a 2 ) 2 x m+2
17.26.15. ∫ x m ln (x 2 ± a 2 ) dx =
m +1

m +1 ∫ x ± a2
2 dx

(27) Integrals Involving sinh ax


cosh ax
17.27.1. ∫ sinh ax dx = a

x cosh ax sinh ax
17.27.2. ∫ x sinh ax dx = a

a2

⎛ x2 2⎞ 2x
17.27.3. ∫ x 2
sinh ax dx = ⎜⎝ a + a 3 ⎟⎠ cosh ax − a 2 sinh ax

sinh ax (ax )3 (ax )5


17.27.4. ∫ x
dx = ax +
3 i3!
+
5 i5!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

sinh ax sinh ax cosh ax


17.27.5. ∫ x2
dx = −
x
+a ∫ x
dx (See 17.28.4.)

dx 1 ax
17.27.6. ∫ sinh ax =
a
ln tanh
2

x dx 1 ⎧ (ax )3 7(ax )5 2(−1)n (22 n − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫


17.27.7. ∫ sinh ax a 2 ⎩
= ⎨ax −
18
+
1800
− ⋅⋅⋅ +
(2n + 1)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬

sinh ax cosh ax x
17.27.8. ∫ sinh 2
ax dx =
2a

2

x sinh 2ax cosh 2ax x 2


17.27.9. ∫ x sinh 2
ax dx =
4a

8a 2

4
102 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

dx coth ax
17.27.10. ∫ sinh 2
ax
=−
a

sinh (a + p) x sinh (a − p) x
17.27.11. ∫ sinh ax sinh px dx = 2(a + p)

2(a − p)
For a = ± p see 17.27.8.

x m cosh ax m m −1
17.27.12. ∫x m
sinh ax dx =
a

a ∫
x cosh ax dx (See 17.28.12.)

sinh n−1 ax cosh ax n −1


17.27.13. ∫ sinh n ax dx = an

n ∫ sinh n− 2
ax dx

sinh ax − sinh ax a cosh ax


17.27.14.
∫ xn
dx =
(n − 1) x n −1
+
n −1 ∫ x n −1
dx (See 17.28.14.)

dx − cosh ax n−2 dx
17.27.15. ∫ n
sinh ax
=
a(n − 1) sinh ax
n −1

n −1 ∫ sinh n−2
ax

x dx − x cosh ax 1 n−2 x dx
17.27.16. ∫ sinh n
= − 2 −
ax a(n − 1)sinh ax a (n − 1)(n − 2)sinh ax n − 1
n −1 n−2 ∫ sinh n−2
ax

(28) Integrals Involving cosh ax


sinh ax
17.28.1. ∫ cosh ax dx = a
x sinh ax cosh ax
17.28.2. ∫ x cosh ax dx = a

a2

2 x cosh ax ⎛ x 2 2⎞
17.28.3. ∫ x 2 cosh ax dx = − a 2
+⎜
⎝a a ⎠
+ 3 ⎟ sinh ax

cosh ax (ax )2 (ax )4 (ax )6


17.28.4. ∫ x dx = ln x + + +
2 i 2! 4 i 4 ! 6 i 6!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

cosh ax cosh ax sinh ax


17.28.5. ∫ x2
dx = −
x
+a ∫ x
dx (See 17.27.4.)

dx 2
17.28.6. ∫ cosh ax =
a
tan −1 e ax

x dx 1 ⎧(ax )2 (ax )4 5(ax )6 (−1)n En (ax )2 n+ 2 ⎫


17.28.7. ∫ = 2 ⎨
cosh ax a ⎩ 2

8
+
144
+ ⋅⋅⋅ +
(2n + 2)(2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬

x sinh ax cosh ax
17.28.8. ∫ cosh 2
ax dx =
2
+
2a

x 2 x sinh 2ax cosh 2ax


17.28.9. ∫ x cosh 2 ax dx = 4
+
4a

8a 2
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 103

dx tanh ax
17.28.10. ∫ cosh 2
ax
=
a

sinh (a − p) x sinh (a + p) x
17.28.11. ∫ cosh ax cosh px dx = 2(a − p)
+
2(a + p)

x m sinh ax m m −1
17.28.12. ∫x m
cosh ax dx =
a

a ∫
x sinh ax dx (See 17.27.12.)

cosh n −1 ax sinh ax n −1
17.28.13. ∫ cosh n
ax dx =
an
+
n ∫ cosh n−2
ax dx

cosh ax − cosh ax a sinh ax


17.28.14. ∫ xn
dx =
(n − 1) x n −1
+
n −1 ∫ x n −1
dx (See 17.27.14.)

dx sinh ax n−2 dx
17.28.15. ∫ n
cosh ax
=
a(n − 1) cosh ax
n −1
+
n −1 ∫ cosh n−2
ax

x dx x sinh ax 1 n−2 x dx
17.28.16. ∫ n
cosh ax
= n −1
+ 2 n−2
+
a(n − 1) cosh ax (n − 1) (n − 2)a cosh ax n − 1 ∫ cosh n−2
ax

(29) Integrals Involving sinh ax and cosh ax


sinh 2 ax
17.29.1. ∫ sinh ax cosh ax dx = 2a

cosh ( p + q) x cosh ( p − q) x
17.29.2. ∫ sinh px cosh qx dx = 2( p + q)
+
2( p − q)

sinh 4 ax x
17.29.3. ∫ sinh 2
ax cosh 2 ax dx =
32a

8

dx 1
17.29.4. ∫ sinh ax cosh ax =
a
ln tanh ax

dx 2 coth 2ax
17.29.5. ∫ sinh 2
ax cosh 2 ax
=−
a

sinh 2 ax sinh ax 1 −1
17.29.6. ∫ cosh ax dx = a a
tan sinh ax

cosh 2 ax cosh ax 1 ax
17.29.7. ∫ sinh ax
dx =
a
+ ln tanh
a 2
104 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

(30) Integrals Involving tanh ax


1
17.30.1. ∫ tanh ax dx =
a
ln cosh ax

tanh ax
17.30.2. ∫ tanh 2
ax dx = x −
a
1 tanh 2 ax
17.30.3. ∫ tanh3 ax dx = a
ln cosh ax −
2a

1 ⎧⎪ (ax )3 (ax )5 2(ax )7 (−1)n −1 22 n (22 n − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫⎪


17.30.4. ∫ x tanh ax dx = a 2 ⎨
− + − ⋅⋅⋅
(2n + 1)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬
⎩⎪ 3 15 105 ⎪⎭
2
x x tanh ax 1
17.30.5. ∫ x tanh 2 ax dx = 2 − a + a 2 ln cosh ax
tanh ax (ax )3 2(ax )5 (−1)n −1 22 n (22 n − 1) Bn (ax )2 n −1
17.30.6. ∫ x
dx = ax −
9
+
75
− ⋅⋅⋅
(2n − 1)(2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

dx px q
17.30.7. ∫ p + q tanh ax = −
p 2 − q 2 a( p 2 − q 2 )
ln (q sinh ax + p cosh ax )

− tanh n−1 ax
17.30.8. ∫ tanh n ax dx = a(a − 1)
+ ∫ tanh n− 2 ax dx

(31) Integrals Involving coth ax


1
17.31.1. ∫ coth ax dx = a
ln sinh ax

coth ax
17.31.2. ∫ coth 2
ax dx = x −
a

1 coth 2 ax
17.31.3. ∫ coth3 ax dx = a
ln sinh ax −
2a

1 ⎧ (ax )3 (ax )5 (−1)n−1 22 n Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫


17.31.4. ∫ x coth ax dx = 2 ⎨ax +
a ⎩ 9

225
+ ⋅⋅⋅
(2n + 1)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬

x 2 x coth ax 1
17.31.5. ∫ x coth 2
ax dx =
2

a
+ 2 ln sinh ax
a

coth ax 1 ax (ax )3 (−1)n 22 n Bn (ax )2 n−1


17.31.6. ∫ x
dx = − +
ax 3

135
+ ⋅⋅⋅
(2n − 1)(2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

dx px q
17.31.7. ∫ p + q coth ax = −
p 2 − q 2 a( p 2 − q 2 )
ln ( p sinh ax + q cosh ax )

coth n−1 ax
17.31.8. ∫ coth n ax dx = − a(n − 1)
+ ∫ coth n− 2
ax dx
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 105

(32) Integrals Involving sech ax


2
17.32.1. ∫ sech ax dx = a tan −1
e ax

tanh ax
17.32.2. ∫ sech 2
ax dx =
a

sech ax tanh ax 1
17.32.3. ∫ sech 3
ax dx =
2a
+
2a
tan −1 sinh ax

1 ⎧ (ax )2 (ax )4 5(ax )6 (−1)n En (ax )2 n+ 2 ⎫


17.32.4. ∫ x sech ax dx = 2 ⎨
a ⎩ 2

8
+
144
+ ⋅⋅⋅
(2n + 2)(2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬

x tanh ax 1
17.32.5. ∫ x sech 2
ax dx =
a
− 2 ln cosh ax
a

sech ax (ax )2 5(ax )4 61(ax )6 (−1)n En (ax )2 n


17.32.6. ∫ x
dx = ln x −
4
+
96

4320
+ ⋅⋅⋅
2n(2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

sech n− 2 ax tanh ax n − 2
17.32.7. ∫ sech n ax dx = a(n − 1)
+
n −1 ∫ sech n− 2
ax dx

(33) Integrals Involving csch ax


1 ax
17.33.1. ∫ csch ax dx = a ln tanh 2

coth ax
17.33.2. ∫ csch 2
ax dx = −
a

csch ax coth ax 1 ax
17.33.3. ∫ csch 3
ax dx = −
2a

2a
ln tanh
2

1 ⎧ (ax )3 7(ax )5 2(−1)n (22 n−1 − 1) Bn (ax )2 n+1 ⎫


17.33.4. ∫ x csch ax dx = a 2 ⎨ ax −
⎩ 18
+
1800
+ ⋅⋅⋅ +
( 2 n + 1)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎬

x coth ax 1
17.33.5. ∫ x csch 2
ax dx = −
a
+ 2 ln sinh ax
a

csch ax 1 ax 7(ax )3 (−1)n 2(22 n−1 − 1) Bn (ax )2 n−1


17.33.6. ∫ x
dx = −
ax

6
+
1080
+ ⋅⋅⋅
(2n − 1) (2n)!
+ ⋅⋅⋅

− csch n− 2 ax coth ax n − 2
17.33.7. ∫ csch n
ax dx =
a(n − 1)

n −1 ∫ csch n− 2
ax dx
106 TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

(34) Integrals Involving Inverse Hyperbolic Functions


x x
17.34.1. ∫ sinh −1
a
dx = x sinh −1 − x 2 + a 2
a

x ⎛ x 2 a2 ⎞ x x 2 + a2
17.34.2. ∫ x sinh −1
a
dx = ⎜ + ⎟ sinh −1 − x
⎝2 4⎠ a 4

⎧ x ( x /a)3 1 i 3( x /a)5 1 i 3 i 5( x /a)7


⎪ a − 2 i3 i3 + 2 i 4 i 5 i 5 − 2 i 4 i 6 i 7i7 + ⋅⋅⋅ |x| < a

sinh −1 ( x /a) ⎪⎪ ln 2 (2 x /a) (a /x )2 1 i 3(a /x )4 1 i3 i5(a /x )6
17.34.3. ∫ x
dx = ⎨
2
− + −
2i2i2 2 i 4 i 4 i 4 2i 4 i 6 i 6 i 6
+ ⋅⋅⋅ x>a


⎪− ln (−2 x /a) + (a /x ) − 1 i 3(a /x ) + 1 i3 i5(a /x ) − ⋅⋅⋅
2 2 4 6
x < −a
⎪⎩ 2 2i2i2 2 i 4 i 4 i 4 2i 4 i 6 i 6 i 6

⎧x cosh −1 ( x /a) − x 2 − a 2 , cosh −1 ( x /a) > 0


x ⎪
17.34.4. ∫ cosh a dx = ⎨
−1

⎩⎪x cosh ( x /a) + x − a , cosh ( x /a) < 0


−1 2 2 −1

⎧1 1
⎪ (2 x 2 − a 2 ) cosh −1 ( x /a) − x x 2 − a 2 , cosh −1 ( x /a) > 0
x ⎪ 4 4
17.34.5. ∫ x cosh −1 a dx = ⎨1
⎪ (2 x 2 − a 2 ) cosh −1 ( x /a) + 1 x x 2 − a 2 , cosh −1 ( x /a) < 0
⎪⎩4 4
cosh −1 ( x /a) ⎡1 2 (a /x )2 1 i 3(a /x )4 1 i 3 i 5(a /x )6 ⎤
∫ x
dx = ± ⎢⎣ 2 ln ( 2 x /a ) + + +
2i2i2 2i4i4i4 2i4i6i6i6
+ ⋅⋅⋅⎥

17.34.6.
+ if cosh −1 ( x /a) > 0, − if cosh −1 ( x /a) < 0

x x a
17.34.7. ∫ tanh −1
a
dx = x tanh −1 + ln (a 2 − x 2 )
a 2
x ax 1 2 x
17.34.8. ∫ x tanh −1
a
dx = + ( x − a 2 ) tanh −1
2 2 a
tanh −1 ( x /a) x ( x /a)3 ( x /a)5
17.34.9. ∫ x
dx = +
a 32
+
52
+ ⋅⋅⋅

x a
17.34.10. ∫ coth −1
a
dx = x coth −1 x + ln ( x 2 − a 2 )
2

x ax 1 2 x
17.34.11. ∫ x coth −1
a
dx = + ( x − a 2 ) coth −1
2 2 a

coth −1 ( x /a) ⎛ a (a /x )3 (a /x )5 ⎞
17.34.12. ∫ x
dx = − ⎜⎝ x + 32 + 52 + ⋅⋅⋅⎟⎠

⎪⎧x sech ( x /a) + a sin ( x /a), sech ( x /a) > 0


−1 −1 −1
x
17.34.13. ∫ sech a dx = ⎨⎪x sech −1 ( x /a) − a sin −1 ( x /a), sech −1 ( x /a) < 0
−1

x x x
17.34.14. ∫ csch −1
a
dx = x csch −1 ± a sinh −1
a a
(+ if x > 0, − if x < 0)
TABLES OF SPECIAL INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 107

x x m +1 x 1 x m +1
17.34.15. ∫ x m sinh −1 a
dx =
m +1
sinh −1 −
a m +1 ∫ x 2 + a2
dx

⎧ x m +1 x 1 x m +1
⎪ m + 1 cosh
−1

a m +1 ∫ x 2 − a2
dx cosh −1 ( x /a) > 0
x ⎪
17.34.16. ∫ x m cosh −1 a dx = ⎨ x m+1 x m +1
⎪ x 1
⎪ m + 1 cosh

−1
+
a m +1 ∫ x −a
2 2
dx cosh −1 ( x /a) < 0

x x m +1 x a x m +1
17.34.17. ∫ x m tanh −1 a
dx =
m +1
tanh −1 −
a m +1 ∫ a 2 − x 2 dx
x x m +1 x 1 x m +1
17.34.18. ∫x m
coth −1
a
dx =
m +1
coth −1 −
a m +1 ∫a 2
− x2
dx

⎧ x m +1 x a x m dx
⎪ m + 1 sech
−1
+
a m +1 ∫ a −x
2 2
sech −1 ( x /a) > 0
x ⎪
17.34.19. ∫ x m sech −1 a dx = ⎨ x m+1
⎪ x 1 x m dx
⎪ m + 1 sech

−1

a m +1 ∫ a2 − x 2
sech −1 ( x /a) < 0

x x m +1 x a x m dx
17.34.20. ∫ x m csch −1 a
dx =
m +1
csch −1 ±
a m +1 ∫ x 2 + a2
(+ if x > 0, − if x < 0)
18 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

Definition of a Definite Integral


Let f(x) be defined in an interval a  x  b. Divide the interval into n equal parts of length x = (b − a)/n. Then
the definite integral of f(x) between x = a and x = b is defined as

b
18.1. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = lim{ f (a) Δx + f (a + Δx ) Δx + f (a + 2Δx ) Δx +  + f (a + (n − 1) Δx ) Δx}
n→∞

The limit will certainly exist if f(x) is piecewise continuous.


d
If f ( x ) = g( x ), then by the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus the above definite integral can
dx
be evaluated by using the result

b b d b
18.2. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = ∫
a dx
g( x ) dx = g( x ) = g(b) − g(a)
a

If the interval is infinite or if f(x) has a singularity at some point in the interval, the definite integral is called
an improper integral and can be defined by using appropriate limiting procedures. For example,

∞ b
18.3. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = lim ∫ f ( x ) dx
b→∞ a

∞ b
18.4. ∫ −∞
f ( x ) dx = lim ∫ f ( x ) dx
a→−∞ a
b→∞

b b −∈
18.5. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = lim ∫
∈→ 0 α
f ( x ) dx if b is a singular point..

b b
18.6. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = lim ∫
∈→ 0 a +∈
f ( x ) dx if a is a singulaar point.

General Formulas Involving Definite Integrals


b b b b
18.7. ∫ a
{ f ( x ) ± g( x ) ± h( x ) ± } dx = ∫ a
f ( x ) dx ± ∫ a
g( x ) dx ± ∫ h( x ) dx ± 
a

b b
18.8. ∫ a
cf ( x ) dx = c ∫ f ( x ) dx where c is any constant.
a

a
18.9. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = 0

b a
18.10. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = − ∫ f ( x ) dx
b

b c b
18.11. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx
a c

108
DEFINITE INTEGRALS 109

b
18.12. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx = (b − a) f (c) where c is between a and b.

This is called the mean value theorem for definite integrals and is valid if f(x) is continuous in
a  x  b.
b b
18.13. ∫ a
f ( x ) g( x ) dx = f (c) ∫ g( x ) dx
a
where c is between a and b

This is a generalization of 18.12 and is valid if f(x) and g(x) are continuous in a  x  b and g(x)  0.

Leibnitz’s Rules for Differentiation of Integrals


d φ 2 (α ) φ 2 (α ) ∂F dφ dφ
18.14.
dα ∫φ 1 (α )
F ( x , α ) dx = ∫
φ 1(α ) dα
dx + F (φ2 , α ) 2 − F (φ1 , α ) 1
dα dα

Approximate Formulas for Definite Integrals


In the following the interval from x = a to x = b is subdivided into n equal parts by the points
a = x0, x1, x2, …, xn–1, xn = b and we let y0 = f(x0), y1 = f(x1), y2 = f(x2), …, yn = f(xn), h = (b – a)/n.

Rectangular formula:
b
18.15. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx ≈ h( y0 + y1 + y2 +  + yn−1 )

Trapezoidal formula:
b h
18.16. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx ≈ ( y + 2 y1 + 2 y2 +  + 2 yn−1 + yn )
2 0

Simpson’s formula (or parabolic formula) for n even:


b h
18.17. ∫ a
f ( x ) dx ≈ ( y + 4 y1 + 2 y2 + 4 y3 +  + 2 yn− 2 + 4 yn−1 + yn )
3 0

Definite Integrals Involving Rational or Irrational Expressions


∞ dx π
18.18. ∫ 0
=
x 2 + a 2 2a
∞ x p−1dx π
18.19. ∫ 0 1+ x
=
sin pπ
, 0 < p<1

∞ x m dx π a m+1− n
18.20. ∫ 0
=
x n + a n n sin[(m + 1)π /n]
, 0 < m +1< n

∞ x m dx π sin mβ
18.21. ∫ 0 1 + 2 x cos β + x 2
=
sin mπ sin β
a dx π
18.22. ∫ 0 a −x22
=
2

a π a2
18.23. ∫ 0
a 2 − x 2 dx =
4
110 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

a a m +1+ np Γ [(m + 1)/n] Γ ( p + 1)


18.24. ∫ 0
x m (a n − x n ) p dx =
nΓ [(m + 1)/n + p + 1]
∞ x m dx (−1)r −1 π a m +1− nr Γ [(m + 1)/n]
18.25. ∫ 0
=
( x n + a n )r n sin[(m + 1)π /n](r − 1)! Γ[(m + 1) /n − r + 1]
, 0 < m + 1 < nr

Definite Integrals Involving Trigonometric Functions


All letters are considered positive unless otherwise indicated.

π ⎪⎧ 0 m, n integers and m ≠ n
18.26. ∫ 0
sin mx sin nx dx = ⎨
⎪⎩π /2 m, n integers and m = n

π ⎧⎪ 0 m, n integers and m ≠ n
18.27. ∫ cos mx cos nx dx = ⎨
⎩⎪π /2 m, n in
ntegers and m = n
0

π ⎧⎪ 0 m, n integers and m + n even


18.28. ∫ 0
sin mx cos nx dx = ⎨
⎪⎩2m/ (m 2 − n 2 ) m, n integers and m + n odd

π /2 π /2 π
18.29. ∫ 0
sin 2 x dx = ∫ 0
cos 2 x dx =
4
π /2 π /2 1 i 3 i 5 2 m − 1 π
18.30. ∫ 0
sin 2 m x dx = ∫ 0
cos 2 m x dx =
2 i 4 i 6  2m 2
, m = 1, 2,…

π /2 π /2 2 i 4 i 6  2m
18.31. ∫ 0
sin 2 m +1 x dx = ∫ 0
cos 2 m +1 x dx =
1 i 3 i 5 2 m + 1
, m = 1, 2,…

π /2 Γ ( p) Γ (q)
18.32. ∫ 0
sin 2p−1 x cos 2 q−1 x dx =
2Γ ( p + q)

⎧ π /2 p > 0
∞ sin px ⎪⎪
18.33. ∫ 0 x
dx = ⎨ 0 p = 0

⎪⎩−π /2 p < 0

⎧ 0 p>q>0
∞ sin px cos qx ⎪⎪
18.34. ∫ 0 x
dx = ⎨π /2 0< p<q

⎩⎪π /4 p=q>0

∞ sin px sin qx ⎧⎪π p/2 0 < pq


18.35. ∫ 0 x 2 dx = ⎨
⎪⎩π q/2 pq > 0

∞ sin 2 px πp
18.36. ∫ 0 x2
dx =
2

∞ 1 − cos px πp
18.37. ∫ 0 x2
dx =
2
DEFINITE INTEGRALS 111

∞ cos px − cos qx q
18.38. ∫ 0 x
dx = ln
p

∞ cos px − cos qx π (q − p)
18.39. ∫ 0 x 2 dx =
2
∞ cos mx π − ma
18.40. ∫ 0 x +a
2 2 dx =
2 a
e

∞ x sin mx π − ma
18.41. ∫ 0 x +a
2 2 dx =
2
e

∞ sin mx π
18.42. ∫ 0 x(x 2 + a2 )
dx = 2 (1 − e − ma )
2a
2π dx 2π
18.43. ∫ 0 a + b sin x
=
a2 − b2
2π dx 2π
18.44. ∫ 0 a + b cos x
=
a2 − b2
π /2 dx cos −1 (b / a)
18.45. ∫ 0 a + b cos x
=
a2 − b2
2π dx 2π dx 2π a
18.46. ∫ 0 (a + b sin x )2
= ∫ 0
=
(a + b cos x )2 (a 2 − b 2 )3/2
2π dx 2π
18.47. ∫ 0
=
1 − 2a cos x + a 2 1 − a 2
, 0 < a <1

π x sin x dx ⎧⎪(π /a) ln (1 + a), a <1


18.48. ∫ 0
=
1 − 2a cos x + a 2 ⎨π ln (1 + 1/a),
⎪⎩ a >1

π cos mx dx π am
18.49. ∫ 0 1 − 2a cos x + a 2 =
1 − a2
, a 2 < 1, m = 0, 1, 2,…

∞ ∞ 1 π
18.50. ∫ 0
sin ax 2 dx = ∫ 0
cos ax 2 dx =
2 2a
∞ 1 π
18.51. ∫ 0
sin ax n dx =
na1/n
Γ (1/n) sin ,
2n
n >1

∞ 1 π
18.52. ∫ 0
cos ax n dx =
na1/n
Γ (1/n) cos ,
2n
n >1

∞ sin x ∞ cos x π
18.53. ∫ 0 x
dx = ∫ 0 x
dx =
2
∞ sin x π
18.54. ∫ 0 xp
dx =
2Γ ( p) sin ( pπ /2)
, 0 < p<1

∞ cos x π
18.55. ∫ 0 xp
dx =
2Γ ( p) cos ( pπ /2)
, 0 < p<1

∞ 1 π ⎛ b2 b2 ⎞
18.56. ∫ 0
sin ax 2 cos 2bx dx =
2 2a ⎜⎝ cos
a
− sin
a ⎟⎠
112 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

∞ 1 π ⎛ b2 b2 ⎞
18.57. ∫ 0
cos ax 2 cos 2bx dx =
2 2a ⎜⎝ cos
a
+ sin
a ⎟⎠

∞ sin 3 x 3π
18.58. ∫ 0 x3
dx =
8
∞ sin 4 x π
18.59. ∫ 0 x4
dx =
3
∞ tan x π
18.60. ∫ 0 x
dx =
2
π /2 dx π
18.61. ∫ 0
=
1 + tan m x 4

18.62. ∫
π /2

0
x
sin x
1 1
{ 1 1
dx = 2 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 + 
1 3 5 7 }
1 tan −1 x 1 1 1 1
18.63. ∫ 0 x
dx = 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 + 
1 3 5 7

1 sin −1 x π
18.64. ∫ 0 x
dx = ln 2
2
1 1 − cos x ∞ cos x
18.65. ∫ 0 x
dx − ∫
1 x
dx = γ

∞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ dx
18.66. ∫ 0 ⎜⎝ 1 + x 2 − cos x⎟⎠ x = γ

∞ tan −1 px − tan −1 qx π p
18.67. ∫ 0 x
dx = ln
2 q

Definite Integrals Involving Exponential Functions


Some integrals contain Euler’s constant g = 0.5772156 . . . (see 1.3, page 3).
∞ a
18.68. ∫ e − ax cos bx dx = 2
0 a + b2
∞ b
18.69. ∫ 0
e − ax sin bx dx =
a2 + b2

∞ − ax
e sin bx b
18.70. ∫ 0 x
dx = tan −1
a

∞ − ax
e − e − bx b
18.71. ∫ 0 x
dx = ln
a

∞ 1 π
∫ e − ax dx =
2
18.72.
0 2 a

∞ 1 π − b /4 a
∫ e − ax cos bx dx =
2 2
18.73. e
0 2 a
DEFINITE INTEGRALS 113

∞ 1 π ( b − 4 ac )/4 a b
∫ e − ( ax + bx +c ) dx =
2 2
18.74. e erfc
0 2 a 2 a
2 ∞
where erfc (p) = ∫ e − x dx
2

π p

∞ π ( b − 4 ac )/4 a
∫ e − ( ax + bx +c ) dx =
2 2
18.75. e
−∞ a
∞ Γ(n + 1)
18.76. ∫ 0
x n e − ax dx =
a n+1
∞ Γ[(m + 1)/2]
∫ x m e − ax dx =
2
18.77. 0 2a ( m +1)/2

∞ 1 π −2
∫ e − ( ax + b/x ) dx =
2 2
ab
18.78. e
0 2 a
∞ x dx 1 1 1 1 π2
18.79. ∫ 0
= + + +
e x − 1 12 22 32 4 2
+  =
6
∞ x n−1 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞
18.80. ∫ 0 ex − 1
dx = Γ(n) ⎜ n + n + n + ⎟
⎝1 2 3 ⎠

For even n this can be summed in terms of Bernoulli numbers (see pages 142–143).

∞ x dx 1 1 1 1 π2
18.81. ∫ 0 e +1 1
x = 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 + =
2 3 4 12
∞ x n−1 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞
18.82. ∫ 0 e +1
x dx = Γ(n) ⎜ n − n + n − ⎟
⎝1 2 3 ⎠
For some positive integer values of n the series can be summed (see 23.10).

∞ sin mx 1 m 1
18.83. ∫ 0 e 2π x − 1
dx = coth −
4 2 2m

∞ ⎛ 1 − x ⎞ dx
18.84. ∫ 0
⎜⎝ 1 + x − e ⎟⎠ x = γ

∞ −x − e− x
2
e
18.85. ∫ 0 x
dx = 12 γ

⎛ 1
∞ e− x ⎞
18.86. ∫0 ⎜⎝ e x − 1 x ⎟⎠ dx = γ

∞ − ax
e − e − bx 1 ⎛ b 2 + p2 ⎞
18.87. ∫ 0 x sec px
dx = ln ⎜ 2
2 ⎝ a + p2 ⎟⎠

∞ − ax
e − e − bx b a
18.88. ∫ 0 x csc px
dx = tan −1 − tan −1
p p

∞ − ax
e (1 − cos x ) a
18.89. ∫ 0 x2
dx = cot −1 a − ln (a 2 + 1)
2
114 DEFINITE INTEGRALS

Definite Integrals Involving Logarithmic Functions


1 (−1)n n !
18.90. ∫ 0
x m (ln x )n dx =
(m + 1)n+1
m > −1, n = 0, 1, 2,…

If n ≠ 0, 1, 2, … replace n! by Γ(n + 1).

ln x
1 π2
18.91. ∫0 1 + x dx = −
12
ln x
1 π2
18.92. ∫0 1 − x dx = −
6
1 ln (1 + x ) π2
18.93. ∫ 0 x
dx =
12
1 ln (1 − x ) π2
18.94. ∫ 0 x
dx = −
6
1 π2
18.95. ∫ 0
ln x ln (1 + x ) dx = 2 − 2 ln 2 −
12
1 π2
18.96. ∫ 0
ln x ln (1 − x ) dx = 2 −
6
∞ x p−1 ln x
18.97. ∫ 0 1+ x
dx = −π 2 csc pπ cot pπ 0 < p<1

1 xm − xn m +1
18.98. ∫ 0 ln x
dx = ln
n +1

18.99. ∫ 0
e − x ln x dx = −γ

∞ π
∫ e − x ln x dx = − (γ + 2 ln 2)
2
18.100.
0 4
∞⎛ e x + 1⎞ π2
18.101. ∫0 ⎜⎝ e x − 1⎟⎠
ln dx =
4

π /2 π /2 π
18.102. ∫ 0
ln sin x dx = ∫ 0
ln cos x dx = −
2
ln 2

π /2 π /2 π π3
18.103. ∫ 0
(ln sin x )2 dx = ∫ 0
(ln cos x )2 dx =
2
(ln 2)2 +
24
π π2
18.104. ∫ 0
x ln sin x dx = −
2
ln 2

π /2
18.105. ∫ 0
sin x ln sin x dx = ln 2 − 1

2π 2π
18.106. ∫ 0
ln (a + b sin x ) dx = ∫ 0
ln (a + b cos x ) dx = 2π ln (a + a 2 − b 2 )

π ⎛ a + a2 − b2 ⎞
18.107. ∫ 0
ln(a + b cos x ) dx = π ln ⎜
⎝ 2 ⎟

DEFINITE INTEGRALS 115

π ⎧⎪2π ln a, a  b > 0
18.108. ∫ 0
ln (a 2 − 2ab cos x + b 2 ) dx = ⎨
⎪⎩2π ln b, b  a > 0

π /4 π
18.109. ∫ 0
ln (1 + tan x ) dx =
8
ln 2

π /2 ⎛ 1 + b cos x ⎞ 1
18.110. ∫ 0
sec x ln ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 + a cos x ⎠
dx = {(cos −1 a)2 − (cos −1 b)2}
2
a ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ sin a sin 2a sin 3a ⎞
18.111. ∫ 0
ln ⎜ 2 sin ⎟ dx = − ⎜ 2 +
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 22
+ 2 + ⎟
3 ⎠
See also 18.102.

Definite Integrals Involving Hyperbolic Functions


∞ sin ax π aπ
18.112. ∫ 0 sinh bx
dx =
2b
tanh
2b
∞ cos ax π aπ
18.113. ∫ 0 cosh bx
dx =
2b
sech
2b
∞ x dx π2
18.114. ∫ 0
= 2
sinh ax 4 a

18.115. ∫

0
x n dx 2n+1 − 1 1 1
{ 1
= n n+1 Γ (n + 1) n+1 + n+1 + n+1 + 
sinh ax 2 a 1 2 3 }
If n is an odd positive integer, the series can be summed.
∞ sinh ax π aπ 1
18.116. ∫ 0 e bx + 1
dx =
2b
csc −
b 2a
∞ sinh ax 1 π aπ
18.117. ∫ 0 e bx − 1
dx = −
2a 2b
cot
b

Miscellaneous Definite Integrals

∞ f (ax ) − f (bx ) b
18.118. ∫ 0 x
dx = { f (0) − f (∞)}ln
a
∞ f ( x ) − f (∞)
This is called Frullani’s integral. It holds if f ′(x) is continuous and ∫ 0 x
dx converges.

1 dx 1 1 1
18.119. ∫ 0 x x = 1 + 2 + 3 +
1 2 3
a Γ (m ) Γ (n)
18.120. ∫ −a
(a + x )m −1 (a − x )n−1 dx = (2a)m + n−1
Γ (m + n)