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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Sangseom Jeong, Jaeyeon Cho ⇑

Department of Civil Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The load distribution and deformation of piled raft foundations subjected to axial and lateral loads were

Received 1 February 2013 investigated by a numerical analysis and ﬁeld case studies. Special attention is given to the improved ana-

Received in revised form 5 February 2014 lytical method (YSPR) proposed by considering raft ﬂexibility and soil nonlinearity. A load transfer

Accepted 25 February 2014

approach using p–y, t–z and q–z curves is used for the analysis of piles. An analytical method of the

Available online 28 March 2014

soil–structure interaction is developed by taking into account the soil spring coupling effects based on

the Filonenko-Borodich model. The proposed method has been veriﬁed by comparing the results with

Keywords:

other numerical methods and ﬁeld case studies on piled raft. Through comparative studies, it is found

Piled raft

Soil–structure interaction

that the proposed method in the present study is in good agreement with general trend observed by ﬁeld

Numerical analysis measurements and, thus, represents a signiﬁcant improvement in the prediction of piled raft load sharing

Field measurement and settlement behavior.

Load transfer approach Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

rigorous computer-based methods [12,17,18,45,48].

In recent years, a number of huge construction projects, such as The ﬁrst type of method is based on the linear elastic analysis of

high-rise buildings and long span bridges, are being undertaken. piled raft subjected to axial loading. Generally, the simpliﬁed

The piled raft foundations are especially being recognized as an calculation methods are most commonly used procedure for the

economical foundation system for high-rise buildings. Here, piles preliminary design of a piled raft foundation. However, it is noted

as settlement reducers have been discussed for over a quarter of that these analytical methods are limited to elastic problem.

a century [2] and some signiﬁcant applications have been reported Because this calculation procedure is developed for rigid raft and

[12,38,42]. Optimized design strategy is a major importance for an is assumed that the soil is perfectly elastic. Thus, it may not repre-

economic construction to be achieved. An optimized design of a sent the nonlinear behavior of actual piled raft in the ﬁeld: it does

piled raft can therefore be deﬁned as a design with minimum costs not take into account the actual behavior of ﬁnite ﬂexible raft and

for the installation of the foundation and satisfactory bearing pile–soil interaction, etc.

behavior for a given geometry and raft loading [35]. The piled raft The second type of method has been used to investigate the

is a composite foundation system consisting of three bearing ele- piled raft system, which is analyzed as a continuous elastic

ments: raft, piles and subsoil. Therefore, the behavior of a piled raft medium using ﬁnite element formulation. In these methods, the

is affected by the 3D interaction between the soil, piles and raft, research by Poulos [29], Clancy and Randolph [5], Poulos [30]

thus, a simple and convenient analytical method is needed to eval- and Russo [37] also have some disadvantages. It did not predict

uate these interactions. the membrane behavior of raft because the raft is generally mod-

Much work has been done to study load sharing and settlement eled as plate element. Therefore, the raft used in these methods

behavior of piled raft by many researchers. Numerical methods may not reﬂect the displacement due to membrane action of large

have been developed widely in the last two decades because size raft foundations for high-rise buildings. In addition, most of

numerical methods are less costly and may be used to consider the previous research is related to piled rafts subjected to vertical

many kinds of different soil and foundation geometries compared loading and only semi-inﬁnite homogeneous single soil layer was

to ﬁeld and model tests. Although these methods make slightly considered. The consideration of various loading condition and soil

different modeling techniques, they can generally be classiﬁed into layer will be more realistic in design practice.

three groups: (1) simpliﬁed calculation methods [30,32], (2) The third type of method is based on the three-dimensional

ﬁnite-element or ﬁnite-difference techniques. Poulos [31] noted

⇑ Corresponding author. that the most feasible method of analysis was the three-

E-mail address: jaeyeon82@hotmail.com (J. Cho). dimensional linear/nonlinear FE method. However, a rigorous

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2014.02.009

0266-352X/Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 113

numerical approach of the piled raft system is computationally to examine the validity of the proposed method, the analysis re-

expensive and requires extensive training because of the three- sults are compared with the available solutions from previous re-

dimensional and nonlinear nature of the problem. Therefore, a ﬁ- searches. In the ﬁeld case study, comparative analyses between

nite element analysis is more suitable for obtaining benchmark YSPR and a ﬁeld measurement data are carried out for the pile load

solutions against which to compare simpler analysis methods, or and settlement behavior.

for obtaining solutions of a detailed analysis for the ﬁnal design

of a foundation, rather than as a preliminary routine design tool

[15]. 2. Method of analysis

In this study, an improved analytical method (YSPR) for the de-

sign of piled raft has been proposed to overcome some limitations 2.1. Modeling of ﬂexible raft

of the existing methods. It is intermediate in complexity and theo-

retical accuracy between the second and third type of method. In Finite element techniques have often been used for the analysis

the present method, a numerical technique is used to combine of raft by different researchers such as Clancy and Randolph [5],

the soil and pile head stiffness with the stiffness of the raft. In order Zhang and Small [49], Kitiyodom and Matsumoto [14]. According

114 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

to the former methods [5,49], the raft can be treated as a plate and action, therefore it can be considered separately. For the bending

the soil can be treated as a series of interactive springs by using a action, the displacement ﬁeld for an individual element can be de-

Mindlin’s solutions [22], in which the contact pressure at any point scribed in terms of the vertical nodal displacement and the rota-

on the base of the raft is proportional to the deformation of the soil tions about the x and y axes. For the membrane action, the

at that point or as an elastic half-space in which the behavior of the displacement ﬁeld can be described in terms of the nodal displace-

soil can be obtained from a number of closed-form solutions. In the ments in the x and y directions.

later method, the raft is modeled as thin plates and the piles as

elastic beams and the soil is treated as interactive springs [14]. 2.2. Modeling of single and pile groups

The interactions between structural members are made by the

use of Mindlin’s solutions. The primary limitation of these methods In this study, piles are treated as beam-column elements. The

is that the membrane behavior of the ﬂexible raft cannot be con- behavior of soil surrounding the individual piles is represented

sidered because the nodal displacements (in the x- and y-direction) by load–transfer curves (t–z, q–z, and p–y curves), and the interac-

for the membrane action are not included. This limitation can be tion between piles is represented by p-multiplier (fm) and group

overcome by using a ﬂat-shell element. An improved four-node efﬁciency factor (Ge). The load–deformation relationship of individ-

ﬂat-shell element proposed by the authors [48], which combines ual pile heads may be derived by a single pile analysis based on

a Mindlin’s plate element and a membrane element with torsional beam-column method. In this method, a pile member is described

degrees of freedom, is adopted in this study. The ﬂat-shell element as a series of beam column elements with discrete springs to rep-

can be subjected to the membrane and bending actions that are resent the soil support condition as shown in Fig. 2. The governing

shown in Fig. 1. The displacement due to the membrane action is differential equations for the axially loaded and laterally loaded

considered independent of the displacement due to the bending pile can be expressed as:

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 115

2

P d w

Axially loaded pile : EA 2

Cbz w ¼ 0 ð1Þ

Iteration dz

2 2’

P2

Load increment

4 2

d y d y

(k t) 2

Laterally loaded pile : EI 4

þQ 2

þ q Ksy ¼ 0 ð2Þ

ΔP2 dz dz

(k s) 2

P1 1 where EA, EI are the axial stiffness and the ﬂexural rigidity the pile,

1’ w is the vertical deﬂection of the pile at point z, bz is the stiffness/

(kt) i : tangential slope

(k t) 1 circumference for the axial reaction represented by the modulus

(ks) i : secant slope ΔP1

of the soil-response (t–z or q–z or both), which depends on the

depth z and pile movement w, and C is circumference of the pile

0 at point z. Q is the axial load on the pile, q is the distributed load

u1 u’1 u2 u’2 u

along the length of the pile, and KS is the stiffness for the lateral soil

(a) reaction represented by the modulus of the soil-response (p–y)

curve.

(k i) j : i = load increment j=1 : tangential stiffness In the next step, ﬁnite difference technique is used to solve the

j = Iteration number j>1 : secant stiffness

Fu

differential equations governing the compatibility between the pile

displacement and the load transfer along a pile. These techniques

(k i) 1

are generally based on load tests on full-scale and parametric ﬁnite

f((u i) i) element analyses of pile–soil interactions, which are represented

Fu=f(u ) by load–transfer curves (t–z, q–z, and p–y curves).

(ki) j

f((u) i- 1)

2.3. Soil–structure interaction

Δuj

The load-bearing behavior of a piled raft is characterized by

complex soil–structure interaction between the piles, raft and the

subsoil, as shown in Fig. 3 [13]. The present method makes use

(u) i- 1 (ui) j u of pile–soil–pile and raft–soil–pile interaction to simulate the real

0

(b) piled raft–soil response under lateral and vertical loadings. Addi-

tionally, for the raft–soil–raft interaction, this study uses a semi-

Fig. 5. Increment secant modulus method [48]. (a) Concept of increment secant empirical parameters proposed by many researcher [7,39,40] as

modulus method. (b) Estimating stiffness at ith load increment. the modulus of soil reaction below the raft. The use of these

parameters as assumed in the derivation procedure, may be a lim-

itation. However, these interactions are incorporated in a calcula-

tion procedure that is computationally very efﬁcient.

116 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

Piles in such groups interact with one another through the sur- concerning the efﬁciency of the piles in a group is derived by many

rounding soil, resulting in the pile–soil–pile interactions. In this researchers [11,21,41]. In this study, load–transfer curves in side

study, a set of nonlinear p–y curves which can be modiﬁed by resistance (t–z curve) and in end bearing resistance (q–w curve)

reducing all of the p-values on each curve by a p-multiplier (fm) which can be modiﬁed by reducing all of the t- and q-values on

are used as input to study the behavior of the laterally loaded piles. each curve by a group efﬁciency factor (Ge) are used as input to

The p-multiplier can be calculated for each pile in the group study the behavior of the vertically loaded piles.

[3,6,19]. For each pile i in the group, the p-multiplier can be ex- In classical solution, the Winkler model [46] is used for analyz-

pressed as: ing raft foundation. However, the Winkler model could not predict

fmi ¼ b1i b2i b3i bji ð3Þ accurately the displacement of some solids, e.g. soil. The Winkler

model ignores the important interaction existing between adjacent

where bji is the p-reduction factor due to the effect of pile j on pile i. points in the soil continuum. In other words, the soil springs are

In a group of closely-spaced piles, the axial capacity of group is considered as isolated foundation elements. In order to overcome

also dominated by variation in settlement behavior of individual a limitation, much work has been performed to propose some

piles due to pile–soil–pile interaction. The most reliable data improved or reﬁned models [8,10,27,43]. For the raft–soil–pile

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 117

connecting the top ends of soil springs and pile elements with an

elastic ﬂat-shell element including membrane action. By using

ﬂat-shell element, a realistic representation of the subgrade reac-

tion can be established directly in terms of coupled soil resistance

in which the response at any point on the interface affects other

points. The authors believe that a combination of the soil spring

and the elastic ﬂat-shell element may be used to overcome the

restrictions associated with conventional methods, and thereby

also used to analyze appropriately axially loaded piled raft, in soil

deposits. Consequently, the proposed analytical method should be

based on the concept of soil–structure interaction under the lateral

and vertical loadings.

coordinate system was constructed through combining separately

the stiffness matrix of a plate element (Kplate) and that of a mem-

brane element (Kmembrane) as followings:

K plate 0

K flat-shell ¼ ð4Þ

0 K membrane

The stiffness matrix of a plate element Kplate is represented in

the following form:

Z Z

K plate ¼ BTb Db Bb dV þ BTs Ds Bs dV ð5Þ

V V

where Bb is the bending strain matrix and Bs is the shear strain ma-

trix. For an isotropic material, Db and Ds are given as follows:

2 3

3

1 m 0

Et 6 7

Db ¼ 4m 1 5 0 ð6aÞ

12ð1 m2 Þ

0 0 ð1 mÞ=2

WEt 1 0 5

Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of vertical and lateral loaded piled raft. (a) Pile Ds ¼ ; W¼ ð6bÞ

conﬁguration. (b) Section-view. 2ð1 þ mÞ 0 1 6

where E is Young’s modulus, m is Poisson’s ratio, and t is constant

interaction, in this study a membrane-spring system originally

thickness of the plate. On the other hand, the stiffness matrix of a

proposed by Filonenko-Borodich [8] was incorporated to involve

membrane element Kmembrane is represented in the following form:

the soil spring-coupling effects. This system can provide a mechan-

Z

ical interaction between the individual soil spring and pile 1 T

K membrane ¼ ½Bm GRT C ½Bm GRdV þ hh ð7aÞ

elements by using the ﬂat-shell element. As shown in Fig. 4, the v cV

118 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

IwV

CsH

0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2

0

0

2

2

Depth from G.L.(m)

4 4

6 6

8 PRAB PRAB

8

FEM (K&M, 2003) FEM (K&M, 2003)

PLAXIS 3D PLAXIS 3D

YSPR YSPR

10 10

(a) (c)

IuH CbH

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2

0 0

2 2

Depth from G.L.(m)

4 4

6 6

PRAB 8 PRAB

8

FEM (K&M, 2003) FEM (K&M, 2003)

PLAXIS 3D PLAXIS 3D

YSPR YSPR

10 10

(b) (d)

Fig. 10. Comparison of analysis result for piled raft: (a) Settlement and (b) lateral displacement, (c) shear force; and (d) bending moment.

Z

g dV; T for pile groups can be formed by sum of n single pile stiffness ma-

h¼ ½bg b ð7bÞ

v trix (Eq. (10)).

2 3

E K 11 0 0 0 K 15 0

c¼ ð7cÞ 6 0 K 22 0 K 24 0 0 7

2ð1 þ mÞ 6 7

6 7

6 0 0 K 33 0 0 0 7

where C is the constitutive modulus, c is taken as the shear modu- K pile ¼6

6 0

7 ð8Þ

6 K 42 0 K 44 0 0 7

7

lus. Bm, G, R are the strain matrices representing the relationship be- 6 7

4 K 51 0 0 0 K 55 0 5

tween the displacements (the membrane displacement, the

rotation, and midside incompatible displacement respectively) 0 0 0 0 0 K 66 i

and the strains. b, g, b, and g are also the strain matrices for the

inﬁnitesimal rotation ﬁelds. ½KpileðiÞ fdgi ¼ fF i g ð9Þ

The pile head stiffness (K11 K66) is assumed to be constant

within each load increment and each iteration and then superposi-

X

n

tion can be applied in order to develop a pile head stiffness matrix K pilegroups ¼ ½K pileðiÞ ð10Þ

(Eq. (8)) in individual piles. Using load–displacement relationships i¼1

representing pile behaviors according to pile head movements

[34], the relationship between the nodal force and nodal displace- where [K]pile(i) is an individual pile head stiffness matrix, {di} a dis-

ments can be expressed in Eq. (9). In addition, the stiffness matrix placement or rotation, and {Fi} force or moment at the ith pile head.

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 119

2.5D, 5.0D,

22 mm

and 7.5D

(variable) (variable)

15 mm 15 mm

600 mm 600 mm

Sand Sand

Pile Pile

Rock Rock

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. Test pile group conﬁgurations [4] (a) 2 2 pile groups (b) 3 3 pile groups.

A component (K11 K66) of pile head stiffness matrix is changed at The procedure for nonlinear solution in this study includes the

each load increment and iteration stage. following step. In total, 10 (ten) load–displacement curves (axial 1;

The soil support at various nodes of raft foundation is simulated lateral 8; torsional 1) are estimated per each pile head. Fig. 5(b)

by a series of equivalent and independent springs in three direc- shows the estimation method of stiffness at an ith load increment.

tions (x, y and z directions). The spring behavior can be linear or In this method, external forces are ﬁrst divided by N (number of

nonlinear. In linear case, soil behavior is deﬁned by soil stiffness load increment). The stiffness at ith load increment and jth itera-

(K11 K33) which is assumed to be constant within each load tion is represented (ki)j. In each load increment, tangential slope

increment and each iteration. The soil reactions at any point can is adopted at ﬁrst iteration (j = 1) and the secant modulus at j > 1

be expressed as for the stiffness of pile head, which is expressed as Eqs. (14) and

2 38 9 8 9 (15), respectively.

k11 0 0 0 0 0 > du > > Fu >

>

> >

> >

> >

>

6 07 > dv > > Fv >

6 0 k22 0 0 0 7>> >

> >

> >

>

6 7>>

<

>

>

=

>

>

<

>

> df ðuÞ

6 0 0 k33 0 0 0 7 dw Fw = ðki Þj ¼ ðj ¼ 1Þ ð14Þ

6 7 ¼ ð11Þ du u¼ðuÞi1

6 07

6 0 0 0 0 0 7>> >

> au >

>

> Mu >

>

> >

>

6 7> > > >

4 0 0 0 0 0 05 >>

> a

> ;v

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

> M v

>

>

>

>

: : ;

0 0 0 0 0 0 i aw i Mw i f ððui Þj Þ f ððuÞi1 Þ

ðki Þj ¼ ðj > 1Þ ð15Þ

ðui Þj ðuÞi1

½KsoilðiÞ fdgi ¼ fF i g ð12Þ

ðui Þj ¼ ðuÞi1 þ Duj ð16Þ

or rotation, and {Fi} = force of soil at point i. In nonlinear case, spring

behavior is deﬁned by giving pairs of load–relative displacement

values. At this point, soil stiffness is calculated by nonlinear solution where (u)i1 is an accumulated ﬁnal displacement at a previous

procedure. load increment and (ui)j is an accumulated displacement at the ith

Finally, the stiffness matrix of a piled raft can be deﬁned by the load increment and jth iteration.

combination of the foundation system and the supporting soil. At each load increment, displacements (Duj) are calculated

Therefore, the stiffness matrix formulations of a piled raft system through structural analysis and then accumulated displacements

can be written as the following: (ui)j are estimated using Eq. (16). If the convergence criteria,

Duj–Duj1 < e is satisﬁed, the accumulated ﬁnal displacements

½K piled raft ¼ ½K raft þ ½K soil þ ½K pilegroups ð13Þ

(u)i are calculated and continue to the next load increment. This

process iterates until the load increment number reaches N. In

2.5. Nonlinear solution procedure the structure analyses, the tangential slope (df(u)/du) and load

(f(u)) of individual piles are estimated using cubic spline method

To consider the nonlinear load–displacement relationship at [1]. The procedure described above is iterated until the error

each pile head and soil (below the raft), an incremental secant between the assumed and calculated displacements falls within a

modulus method developed by Won et al. [48] is used. When this tolerance limit.

‘‘incremental secant modulus method’’ is used, the displacement u2 As a ﬁnal outcome, an improved numerical method (YSPR) was

corresponding to load P2 is increased to u02 as shown in Fig. 5(a), so proposed to analyze the response of a raft and a piled raft consid-

that point (P2, u02 ) will be located on the curve and consequently ering raft ﬂexibility and soil nonlinearity (Fig. 6). Fig. 7 shows the

the displacement will be close to the exact solutions. ﬂow chart of present method.

120 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

Lateral load (kN)

which have been used in the preliminary design of piled raft. A

schematic diagram of a 2 2 piled raft is shown in Fig. 8. This

structure consists of a raft, and four identical vertical piles, which

0.02

are spaced by 1.5 m (=3.75D, where D is the pile diameter). The

piles have an embedded length of 10 m, a diameter of 0.4 m. Pile

head conditions are ﬁxed. A square raft of size 3 3 m with a

measured (2.5D)

measured (5.0D)

thickness of 0.9 m is rested on a homogeneous soil. The Young’s

0.01 modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the soil are 12,500 MPa and 0.3.

measured (7.5D)

predicted (2.5D) The raft and piles, with a Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of

predicted (5.0D) 125,000 MPa and 0.3 respectively, is subjected to a vertical and

predicted (7.5D) lateral load. Fig. 9 shows the spring constants were used for the

0 linear soil condition. The same axial spring constants were used

0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 along the pile depth, with a constant value of 7,527,867 kN/m2,

which includes the pile perimeter. The end-bearing spring was

Displacement (m)

8,692,180 kN/m2, and the tension part was neglected. The con-

(a) stants of the horizontal springs were increase from 0 to

4,682,274 kN/m2 along the pile depth. Since the soil is assumed

0.08

to be an elastic model, the p-reduction and group efﬁciency factor

of unity were used [6,18,41].

The response of piled raft is presented in settlement, lateral dis-

placement of pile, and in shear force and bending moment distri-

0.06 bution at various depths. Fig. 10(a–d) shows representative

Lateral load (kN)

tested by comparing them with well-known three existing numer-

ical methods: the PRAB [15]; the ﬁnite element method performed

0.04 by Kitiyodom and Matsumoto and PLAXIS 3D [28]. The results are

shown in terms of dimensionless parameters of IwV for the settle-

ment, IuH for the lateral displacement of a pile respectively, CsH,

CbH for the shear force, and the bending moment along the pile

0.02 respectively. These parameters can be calculated by Eqs. (17)–(20).

measured (2.5D)

measured (5.0D) Es Dw

IwV ¼ ð17Þ

predicted (2.5D) qz Br Lr

predicted (5.0D)

0 Es Du

IuH ¼ ð18Þ

0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.02 qx B r L r

Displacement (m)

S

(b) C sH ¼

qx Br Lr

ð19Þ

Fig. 12. Lateral load–displacement curves at pile head. (a) 2 2 pile groups. (b)

3 3 pile groups.

B

C bH ¼ ð20Þ

qx DBr Lr

Table 1

Material parameters used for this study (case studies).

Type Depth (m) E (MPa) m c (kN/m3) / (°) c (kPa) Modela

Japan case [15] Pile Steel pipe 0 to 5.5 2.1E08 0.2 75 – – L.E.

Raft Concrete 0 to 2.2 30,000 0.2 25 – – L.E.

Soil Sandy silt 0 to 1.7 13 0.3 18 0 25 M.C.

Silty clay 1.7 to 13.5 15 0.3 18 0 29.64 M.C.

Germany case [34] Pile Concrete 5.5 to 25.5 23,500 0.2 25 – – L.E.

Raft Concrete 3 to 5.5 34,000 0.2 25 – – L.E.

Soil Sand 3 to 8 75 0.25 18 32.5 0 M.C.

Frankfurt clay 8 to 113 47a 0.15 19 20 20 M.C.

Korea case Pile Concrete 0 to 30 28,000 0.2 – – – YSPR

Raft Concrete 0 to 6.0 33,234 0.15 – –

Soil Gneiss Soil spring stiffness (kPa/m)

0 to 204,250

a

Note: M.C. is Mohr Coulomb elasto-plastic model, L.E. is linear elastic model used in PLAXIS 3D Foundation Frankfurt clay: E = 45 + [tanh((z 30)/15) + 1] 0.7z.

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 121

Fig. 13. Field test of piled raft [16]. (a) Plan-view and (b) section-view.

Table 2

Load (MN)

Properties used for estimating load transfer curves (Japan case).

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Contents Sandy silt Silty

clay 0

t–z, q–z curves [39] Ultimate skin friction, s 40 40

(kPa)

Initial shear modulus, Gi 5000 5769

(kPa)

10

Poisson’s ratio, m 0.3 0.3

Settlement (mm)

capacity, Qf (kN)

20

p–y curves [19,20] Undrained shear strength 25 29.64

(kPa)

Unit weights (kN/m3) 18.0 18.0

p–y modulus, k (kN/m3) 27,150 27,150

30

Subgrade reaction Kx, Ky (kN/m3) 27,150 –

modulus Kz (kN/m3) 5291 –

where w, u are the settlement and lateral displacement at the pile 40 Measured (K&I, 1967)

head, qz and qx are uniform vertical and lateral load, the breadth, Calculated (R & E, 2006)

Br and length, Lr, S and B are the shear force and the bending mo- YSPR

ment along the pile. PLAXIS 3D

50

The calculated results of the proposed analysis method closely

approach the computed data from the other numerical methods. Fig. 14. Computed and measured response of piled raft settlement.

It should be noted that the present method provides a very satisfac-

tory prediction of the shear force and the bending moment in indi-

Jeong [4], a series of small scale model tests were carried out to

vidual piles, when the ﬂexibility of the raft is considered by using

study the behavior of pile groups subjected to lateral loadings on

the combination of the membrane and bending actions. Although

sand. The test soil used in this study was: the unit weight

a reasonably good agreement between the proposed and the exist-

15.3 kN/m3, cohesion 0 kN/m2 and drained friction angle 37°. The

ing methods was obtained, the proposed method has a larger settle-

model piles made from PVC tubes were 0.6 m in embedded length,

ment those of the existing methods at the same load. Conclusively,

22 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm wall thickness and 28,265 kN m2

it is thought that YSPR can be used with some conﬁdence in the pre-

ﬂexural rigidity(EI). Fig. 11 shows an idealization of the subsurface

liminary design of axially and laterally loaded piled raft.

proﬁle and pile embedment for test piles.

Using present method the behavior of pile groups are predicted

3.2. Chung and Jeong [4] with different group conﬁgurations and different center-to-center

pile spacing: 2.5D, 5.0D, and 7.0D. Back-ﬁtted hyperbolic p–y

In this section, the veriﬁcation of lateral response of the present curves that are calculated at 5, 10, and 20 cm along the pile depth

method against laboratory load test is discussed. By Chung and in model test of single pile are implemented. Initial tangent

Table 3

Calculated stiffness of single pile and piled raft (Japan case).

K11 (kN/m) K22 (kN/m) K33 (kN/m) K44 (kN/rad) K55 (kN/rad) K66 (kN/rad)

Single pile 0.4052E+02 0.4052E+02 0.3877E+05 0.3434E+03 0.3434E+03 0

Piled raft (w/o Ge) 0.2735E+05 0.2735E+05 0.3453E+06 0.2730E+06 0.2730E+06 0

Piled raft (w/Ge) 0.2735E+05 0.2735E+05 0.2492E+06 0.2208E+06 0.2208E+06 0

122 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

Fig. 15. Torhaus Der Messe: (a) proﬁle view and (b) conﬁguration of pile. stiffnesses (Ks) of the p–y curves at the depths of 0.05, 0.1, and

0.2 m are 11, 14.3, and 50 kN/m2, respectively. Also ultimate capac-

ities (Pu) of the p–y curves at the same depths are 0.0011, 0.0033,

Table 4 and 0.0033 kN/m, respectively.

Properties used for estimating load transfer curves (Germany case). To consider the detailed group effect, p-multipliers calculated

Contents Quaternary Frankfurt

from the Chung’s experiment are implemented. For the 2 2

silt clay group, p-multipliers are 0.86 for lead row and 0.45 for trail row

at 2.5D pile spacing; 0.95 for lead row and 0.67 for trail row at

t–z, q–z curves [39] Ultimate skin friction, sf 143 91.6

(kPa) 5.0D; 1.0, 0.83 for lead, trail row at 7.5D. For the 3 3 group,

Initial shear modulus, Gi 30,000 20,434 p-multipliers are 0.8, 0.3 and 0.4 for lead, middle, and trail rows

(kPa) at 2.5D pile spacing; 0.93, 0.48, and 0.6 at 5.0D pile spacing.

Poisson’s ratio, m 0.25 0.15

Fig. 12 shows the predicted and observed lateral load–settle-

Ultimate bearing – 90

capacity, Qf (kN)

ment curves. The analysis of pile groups was performed for a ﬁxed

p–y curves [24,33] Internal friction angle (°) 32.5 20 head condition and spacing-to-diameter ratios varying from 2.5 to

Unit weights (kN/m3) 18 19 7.5. The present method considering pile–soil–pile interaction rel-

p–y modulus, k (kN/m3) 16,300 136,000 atively well predicts the general trend of the measured lateral

Subgrade reaction Kx, Ky (kN/m3) 16,300 136,000

loads for the pile groups studied if the measured deﬂections are

modulus Kz (kN/m3) 294,000 –

relatively small (say less than 15 mm).

Table 5

Calculated stiffness of single pile and piled raft (Germany case).

K11 (kN/m) K22 (kN/m) K33 (kN/m) K44 (kN/rad) K55 (kN/rad) K66 (kN/rad)

Single pile 0.3979E+03 0.3979E+03 0.3020E+06 0.4482E+05 0.4482E+05 0

Piled raft (w/o Ge) 0.1118E+08 0.1138E+08 0.1300E+08 0.2583E+09 0.2115E+09 0

Piled raft (w/Ge) 0.1117E+08 0.1137E+08 0.1242E+08 0.2548E+09 0.2078E+09 0

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 123

Load (MN) predicted the general trend of the measured values reasonably

well. However, the calculated results by Roberto and Enrico [36]

0 50 100 150 200 250

have a relatively smaller settlement as the applied load increased

0 than the results of the proposed solution. This clearly demonstrates

PLAXIS 3D that for analysis result, YSPR gives more ﬂexible results for nonlin-

YSPR (w/o Ge) ear behavior of soil, because the Roberto and Enrico [36] use soil

20

YSPR (w/ Ge) ﬂexibility matrix(based on linear elastic analysis of pile groups)

Measured for soil–pile interaction and the proposed method does so using

40 settlement nonlinear load transfer curves and solution algorithm. These dis-

Settlement (mm)

60 load levels are because the assumptions of raft–soil relative stiff-

ness and group efﬁciency factor are inﬂuenced on the settlement

behavior of piled raft. In addition, computational time to run this

80 case saves 57 min of computer time, and is about 20 times faster

than the 3D FE analysis.

100

4.2. Germany case

Smax = 124mm large, piled raft installed in stiff clay was compared with the pre-

140 dicted values of the proposed and the FE analyses. Constructed be-

tween 1983 and 1986, the 130 m high Torhaus was the ﬁrst

Fig. 17. Settlement behavior of large piled raft foundation. building in Germany with a foundation designed as a piled raft. A

total number of 84 bored piles with a length of 20 m and diameter

of 0.9 m are located under two 17.5 24.5 m large rafts. The bot-

4. Comparison with other case histories tom of the 2.5 m thick raft lies just 3 m below ground level

(Fig. 15(a)). The subsoil comprises quaternary sand and gravel up

The validity of the proposed method was examined by compar- to 2.5 m below the bottom of the rafts, followed by the Frankfurt

ing the results from the present approach with some of the ﬁeld- clay [34]. And a schematic diagram of 7 6 piled raft structure is

measured results. The pile and soil properties employed with the shown in Fig. 15(b). The maximum load of Peff = 200 MN for each

YSPR and PLAXIS 3D analyses for the case histories were the same raft [37] minus the weight of the raft is successively applied by

properties mentioned in their research. In the ﬁeld, the soil stiff- means of a uniform load over the whole raft area. In the present

ness signiﬁcantly depends on the stress level, indicating that the method (YSPR), the soil around individual pile is modeled with

stiffness generally increases with depth. To account for the in- nonlinear load transfer curves. The axial load transfer curves (t–z,

crease of the stiffness with the depth, the Young’s modulus of soil q–z curves) are estimated using the equation developed by Wang

(Eincrement) value which is the increment of stiffness per unit of and Reese [44], the lateral load transfer curve (p–y curve) is used

depth was used in FE analyses. Table 1 summarizes the material as an API model [25,32]. The group efﬁciency factor, Ge, was set

properties used in the case studies. at 0.73 for the average value of pile spacing: 3D 4D [23,47].

The input parameter of soil used to generate the load transfer curve

and soil-spring are summarized in Table 4.

4.1. Japan case Table 5 summarizes the calculated stiffness for the single pile

and the piled raft foundation. A decrease in the group efﬁciency

The settlement behavior of axially loaded piled raft reported by factor from 1.0 to 0.73 results in about 4.5% decrease in stiffness

Koizumi and Ito [16] are compared with the predicted values of the of piled raft. It is also noted that the stiffness of piles inside the

proposed method. This test site was located near the 1-chome, Ote- group varied with a group effect. Fig. 16(a–b) shows a comparison

machi in Tokyo. A fully instrumented piled raft was installed in the of the measured and calculated pile loads. The prediction of the

clay soil, which consists of sandy silt with gravel and organic silty present method is much more conservative than that of 3D FE

clay. Fig. 13 shows the subsurface proﬁle and pile conﬁgurations of analyses and the measured one. However the proposed method

the test piled raft. All of the test piles are 300 mm in dia. and 5.5 m is in good agreement with general trend of pile load which increase

in length. The soil and material properties were determined by from a center pile (pile1) to the edge (piles 2, 4 and 6) and to the

back-analysis of ﬁeld load test results using PLAXIS 3D Foundation. corner pile (piles 3 and 5). The computed results for the center,

From full-scale tests in clay soil presented by O’Neill [23] and Whi- side, and corner piles show that the load distribution of the indi-

taker [47], the group efﬁciency factor, Ge, was set at 0.7 for the vidual piles in a group is highly inﬂuenced by the ﬂexibility of

reduction of side resistance (t–z curve) and end bearing resistance the raft. This ﬁnding was similar to what Won et al. [48] discussed

(q–w curve) of piles. The input parameter of soil used to generate about correlation between the pile member force and the ﬂexibil-

the load transfer curve and soil-spring are summarized in Table 2. ity of pile cap for a pile groups.

Table 3 shows the estimated stiffness of single pile and piled Fig. 17 shows a settlement behavior of the piled raft. The mea-

raft when a vertical load of unity is applied. Compared to the stiff- sured maximum settlement is about 124 mm, the calculated set-

ness in which the group efﬁciency factor was 1.0, the stiffness of tlements using YSPR and PLAXIS 3D are 106.7 (with Ge; 111.5)

piled raft showed a signiﬁcant decrease in K33 of about 28%. This mm and 117 mm respectively. This curve demonstrates the effect

is because the decrease of the pile resistance due to the pile– of pile–soil–pile interaction by considering group efﬁciency. The

soil–pile interaction (i.e. group efﬁciency factor), change the global proposed method with an interaction factor is more appropriate

stiffness of piled raft. and realistic to represent a pile–soil–pile interaction for closely-

The proposed analysis method (YSPR) and a ﬁnite element spaced piles than on that of no-interaction analysis. In Both values

program analysis (PLAXIS 3D) results were compared with the of YSPR and 3D FE analyses are smaller than the measured one.

measured load–settlement curves in Fig. 14. All the methods However, these two numerical methods provide an acceptable

124 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

Fig. 18. Preliminary design case of large piled raft: (a) plan view and (b) proﬁle view.

design prediction. Despite the approximate assumptions involved represent the stiffness of the ground. A schematic diagram of a raft

(i.e., loading condition, construction process, consolidation of clay), foundation with piles is shown in Fig. 18(b). This structure consists

the present method when used in nonlinear analysis is useful for of a raft, and 112 of ground strengthen piles. The piles have an

predicting the settlement behavior of a piled raft foundation taking embedded length of 30 m, a diameter of 1.0 m. A large raft size

account of soil nonlinearity, the ﬂexibility of the large raft, and the 71.7 71.7 m with a thickness of 6.0 m is resting on a banded

pile arrangement. The time taken for the computer to run this case gneiss. The raft and ground strengthen piles, with a Young’s mod-

saves 115 min of computer time, and is about 24 times faster than ulus of 30 GPa and 28 GPa respectively, is subjected to a vertical

the 3D FE analysis. For large problems this computational saving load (Ptotal = 6,701 MN).

can be very signiﬁcant. Fig. 19(a–d) shows the raft settlement at different sections pre-

dicted by GSRaft [26] and YSPR. Agreement between the GSRaft

4.3. Korea case and YSPR of settlement is generally good; however there is a slight

difference in prediction of settlement in the faulting zone where

As shown in Fig. 18, preliminary design case of a piled raft (OO the sudden drop of the magnitudes were occurred. This can be

super tower) conducted at high-rise building construction sites in attributed to the inappropriate assumption of material properties

Korea were representatively selected for the design application. due to no accurate ground investigation data on this section. The

The construction site is comprised mainly of normally banded calculated raft settlement has some difference between the

gneiss, brecciated gneiss and fault core zones. Based on the results proposed method and the existing solution, based on the same

of pressure meter, Goodman Jack and plate load tests carried out in analysis conditions. This is because the conceptual methodology

the ﬁeld, a nonlinear elastic modulus design line is established to of the present method is completely different from that of general

S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126 125

Fig. 19. Raft settlement distribution: (a) section 1, (b) section 2, (c) section 3; (d) section 4.

structural models. The raft is modeled as a grillage and the piles are representation of the settlement and load sharing behavior of

treated as bar element with axial stiffness only in GSRaft while piled raft foundation. It provides results that are in good agree-

YSPR is adopted ﬂat-shell element and 6 6 pile head stiffness. ment with the ﬁeld measurement and numerical analyses.

Although there are no measured proﬁles of raft settlement, the 2. Proposed analytical method produces a considerably larger set-

proposed analysis method showed reasonably good correspon- tlement of piled raft than the results obtained by the linear elas-

dence with well-known in-house program. tic analysis. Additionally, the analytical method is intermediate

in theoretical accuracy between general three-dimensional FE

5. Conclusions analysis and the linear elastic numerical method. The settle-

ment of piled raft obtained by the present method is similar

The primary objective of this study was to propose an improved to that obtained by the PLAXIS 3D, while it shows smaller val-

analytical method for a pile raft foundations. The conceptual meth- ues than those obtained by existing method based on linear

odology of the proposed method is completely different from that elastic analysis of pile groups.

of general continuum method. A series of analytical studies were 3. From the example case histories, the proposed method is shown

conducted. Through comparisons with case histories, it is clearly to be capable of predicting the behavior of a large piled raft.

demonstrated that the proposed method was found to be in good Nonlinear load–transfer curve and ﬂat-shell element can over-

agreement with measurement data. From the ﬁndings of this come the limitations of existing numerical methods, to some

study, the following conclusions can be drawn: extent, by considering the realistic nonlinear behavior of soil

and membrane action of ﬂexible raft.

1. By taking into account the raft ﬂexibility and soil nonlinearity, 4. Additionally, the comparative studies demonstrated that the

the proposed analytical method is an appropriate and realistic present method, when used in analysis of large scale piled raft,

126 S. Jeong, J. Cho / Computers and Geotechnics 59 (2014) 112–126

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