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Si] KMCS Excavation Brief KMCS Excavation Brief The following points provide some detail about the archaeological excavation at Dundas Street Kings Meadows: © An open area and controlled archacological excavation was completed between 25" of October and the 2" of November 2018 at the Dundas Street property to locate and record the extent of the Kings Meadows Convict Station (KMCS); * This excavation was successful in locating the KMCS; © Excavation followed the plan detailed in the SHAP and AMS provided to council prior to the dig with the major change being the use of a machine to uncover more area in the short time-frame allocated to the dig (the machine was employed for a total of 6 days as negotiated; © The excavation was completed after negotiation between the LCC, the land owner and Southern Archaeology; * A professional survey was completed and drone footage was taken of the site for mapping purposes; «Excavation was completed by opening a series of trenches using a machine and driver supplied by the land owner. Initially trenches focused on known features within the area where the KMCS was thought to be located and was expanded as more features were uncovered. The following points summarise the findings of the archaeological excavation at Dundas Street Kings Meadows: * The stone footings were located that correspond with the size, shape and location of the bakery oven known from the 1838 KIMCS plan. These footings extended at least 1200mm below the ground surface and this is consistent with a heavy structure (such as an oven); * Abrick lined reservoir was located to the north of the site which extended approx. 1800-2000mm below the ground surface. The structure has a brick base and is made from hand made bricks. It is thought to date to around or slightly later than the KMCS period of occupation and possibly supplied water to the station. It was not totally excavated due to safety issues; ‘© Acobbie stable/milking shed with yard-space was located to the west of the KMCS. This is not marked on the plan and artefactual evidence (such as possible Chinese hand-painted porcelain (pre-1840s), feather edged ceramic (pre- 1860), black bottle glass and old horseshoes (1800s}) suggest an early occupation. An associated spoon drain with government marked bricks (Broad Arrow] was located within the feature; + Awooden barrel/cask (complete with metal hoops (3) and surviving wood staves and base) was recorded along the wall alignment of the KMCS. Within this barrel was Document Set ID: 3981603 Version: 1, Version Date: 04/02/2019 2 SOUTHERN KMCS Excavation Brief a complete 1850s to 1880s bottie and other artefacts. This bottle was above sediment within the barrel indicating the barrel had been there for some time before the bottle was depositied. The barrel was aligned with a brick rubble step (with marked Broad Arrow bricks) providing further evidence that this was part of the KMS wall. The barrel was most likely used to collect water from the roof of the building and was dug into the ground which explains why it survived sub-sequent clearing of the site. The brick step was below a later formed road on the site and survived due to this; Artefacts from the 1800s to more modern times were uncovered at the site. These include black glass, ceramics, nails, metal, bone (butchered) and an old felt hat {possibly of convict or 1800s origin). This hat has been sent to the QVMAG for conservation and analysis. It should be pointed! out that organic items such as this rarely survive on archaeological sites and conservation is absolutely necessary as they deteriorate very quickly once exposed to air; A brick lined table drain was located at the KMCS site. This drain contained many Broad Arrow marked bricks and is believed to have been installed to drain the internal yard-space of the KMCS; * A ‘dump’ was located within a gully to the west of the KMCS. Within this ‘dump’ many marked bricks and older artefacts were recorded and it is believed that much of the station was used as fill for this gully once the station fell out of disuse and was demolished. The diversity of fill (.e. the age range) indicates that this gully has been filled with material from the site over many years in an effort to level and fill up this feature; A chimney base was located within the area of the Commandants Cottage providing strong evidence of a building in this area. Artefactual material from the 1800s was also uncovered in this area supporting the presence of an early building here; Shallow test pits were dug at other locations on the property to test the extent of features and artefact spread. Results indicated a concentration of artefacts in the area of the station and Commendant’s Cottage; Recommendations and considerations: © The excavation located the KMCS. There are few features remaining from the original structure due to robbing, demolition of the structure and removal to the gully below the station. Historical record indicates that much of the structure was, timber and foundations were also timber which would has deteriorated and disappeared over time leaving little of the original footprint. Ploughing and other farm activities have also occurred at the site and this has contributed to the destruction, movement and re-deposition material over the site; «Archaeological excavation has revealed as much information about the site as is possible within the time-frame allowed. No further archaeological investigation is, required at this time; Document Set ID: 3981603 Version: 1, Version Date: 04/02/2019 2 sol KMCS Excavation Brief © The artefact analysis and cataloguing needs to be completed for the site to add information about the site and assist in answering the questions raised in the SHAP and AMS; © Afinal report be completed for the site and sent to the LCC and the landowner; ©The sub-division can progress as planned without any further recommendations. Photos: Barrel and stables: Example of trench plan from Commandants Cottage: Document Set ID: 3981603, Version: 1, Version Date: 04/02/2019