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swo12o17 ‘Ancian Grosk verbs - Wikipecsa Ancient Greek verbs From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ancient Greek verbs have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive and optative), three voices (active, middle and passive), as well as three persons (first, second and third) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). In the indicative mood there are seven tenses: present, imperfect, future, aorist (the equivalent of past simple), perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. (he last two, especially the future perfect, are rarely used). In the subjunctive and imperative mood, however, there are only three tenses (present, aorist, and perfect). The optative mood, infinitives and participles are found in four tenses (present, aorist, perfect, and future) and all three voices. The distinction of the "tenses" in moods other than the indicative is predominantly one of aspect rather than time. The different persons of a Greek verb are shown by changing the verb-endings; for example hia (lid) "I free", bers (lieis) "you free", 2bet (Iiei) "he or she frees", ete. There are three persons in the singular ("I", "you (singular)", "he, she, it"), and three in the plural ("we", "you (plural)", "they"). In addition there are endings for the 2nd and 3rd persons dual ("you two", "they both"), but these are only very rarely used, A distinction is traditionally made between the so-called athematic verbs (also called mi-verbs), with endings affixed directly to the root, and the thematic class of verbs which present a "thematic" vowel /o/ or /e/ before the ending, The endings are classified into primary (those used in the present, future, perfect and future perfect of the indicative, as well as in the subjunctive) and secondary (used in the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect of the indicative, as well as in the optative). To make the three past tenses of the indicative mood an "augment" (the vowel e- (¢-)) is prefixed to the verb stem, e.g. E-Avoa (é-/usa) "I freed", €-Avov (é-Iuon) "I was freeing". This augment is found only in the indicative, not in the other moods or in the infinitive or participle. To make the three perfect tenses the first consonant is reduplicated (.éAv«a (Iéluka) "I have freed", yéypapa (gégrapha) "I have written"), or in some cases an augment is used in lieu of reduplication (e.g. népyxa. (hetiréka) "I have found"). Unlike the past-tense augment, this reduplication or augment is retained in all the moods of the perfect tense as well as in the perfect infinitive and participle. The Ancient Greek verbal system preserves nearly all the complexities of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). Ancient Greek also preserves the PIE middle voice and adds a passive voice, with separate forms only in the future and aorist (elsewhere, the middle forms are used). Contents = 1 Thematic and athematic verbs = 1.1 Thematic verbs = 1.1.1 Active verbs = 1.1.2 Middle verbs = 1.1.3 Contracted verbs = 1.2. Athematic verbs = 1.2.1 Active = 1.2.2 Middle = 1.2.3 The verb of8a (oida) = 2 Tenses = 2.1 The tense system = 2.2 Formation of the tenses = 2.2.1 Principal parts of verbs = 2.2.2 Other tenses psn wikipodia rgwik/Ancint_ Greek verbs vas swotz017 Ancion Grek vets - Wikipacta 2.2.3 Less regular principal parts 2.2.4 Verbs using more than one stem 2.2.5 The past-tense augment 2.2.6 Perfect tenses. = 2.3 Meanings of the tenses = 2.3.1 The present tense = 2.3.2 Imperfect tense = 2.3.3 Future tense 2.3.4 Aorist tense 2.3.5 Perfect tense 2.3.6 Pluperfect tense 2.3.7 Future perfect tense = 3 Moods = 3.1 Indicative = 3.2 Subjunetive = 33 Optative = 3.4 Imperative = 4 Non-finite verb forms = 4.1 Infinitives = 4.1.1 Forms of the infinitive (active) = 4.1.2 Uses = 4.2 Participles = 4.2.1 Forms of the participle = 4.2.2 An example of usage 4.2.3 Different tenses of the pa 4.2.4 Agreement 4.2.5 Circumstantial participle 4.2.6 Participle with the article 4.2.7 Supplementary participle = 5 Voices = 5.1 Active voice = 5.2 Middle voice = 5.3 Deponent verbs 4 Passive voice Is0 ferences mY Thematic and athematic verbs “Ancient Greek verbs can be divided into two groups, the thematic (in which a thematic vowel /e/ or /o/ is added before the ending, e.g. 46-o-tev (/ri-o-men) "we free"), and the athematic (in which the endings are attached directly to the stem, e.g. £0-1év (es-mén) "we are" "] Thematic verbs are much more numerous. Thematic verbs Active verbs Thematic verbs, in the Ist person singular of the present tense active, end in ~ (-d). These are very numerous, for example, Réya (Jéga) "I say", pdpo (grapha) "I write", néymo (pémpa) "I send”, etc. The endings of these tend to be regular: = eyo, 1G, Aéyel, (AéyETOV, fyetov,) Reyopev, te, héyovor(v) lég6, légeis, légei, (légeton, légeton,) légomen, légete, légousi(n) Tsay, you say, he/she/it says, (you two say, they both say,) we say, you (pl.) say, they say htpslewikipdia rgwik/Ancint_ Greek verbs 24 swo12o17 ‘Ancian Grosk verbs - Wikipecsa The forms in brackets are the dual number, used for two people, and which exists only in the 2nd and 3rd person; itis rather rare, but still used sometimes by authors such as Aristophanes and Plato: = ‘Opnpés te Kai ‘Hoiodos tabra Aéyetov.27) Hémérés te kai Hésiodos tauta légeton. Homer and Hesiod both say the same things. The present infinitive active of thematic verbs is -ew (-ein), e.g. Méyewv ([égein) "to say" Middle verbs Thematic verbs are also found in the middle voice, with the ending -opou (-omai) e.g. amoxptvopor (apokrinomai) "I answer", yyvowon (gignomai) "I become”. The endings of the present tense go as follows: a0ov), -oj1200, -£006, -ovtat = ope, -zU-1, -etaL, (-2000v. -omai, -ei/-8i, -etai, (-esthon, -esthon), -ometha, -esthe, -ontai I, you (singular), he/she/it, (you two, the two of them), we, you (plural), they The middle or passive present infinitive is -eoen (-esthai), e.g. émcoxpiveotar (apokrinesthai) "to answer", Contracted verbs A special class of thematic verbs are the contracted verbs. In the dictionary these are entered as ending -4 (- 40), -840 (-80) or ~4ea (-60), for example dpa (hordd) "I see", noxéw (poiéd) "I do”, BndSe (deldd) "I show"; but in most cases when they are found in a text the vowel a, £, 0 (a, ¢, 0 contracts with the ending to make a single vowel. Thus the present tense of épée (hordd) "I see" goes as follows: = Ope, dpac, Opa, (op&rov, dp&rov,) dpOpev, dpate, opHovv) horé, horats, horai, (hordton, hordton,) horémen, hordte, hordsi(n) I see, you see, he/she/it sees, (you both sce, they both see,) we see, you (pl.) see, they see While the present tense of notéa (poiéa) "I do" is as follows: = nord, nowic, nore, (noritov, noreitov,) notodpev, noreite, RoVodo1(v) poi6, poiets, poiet, (poieiton, poieiton,) poiotimen, poieite, poiotisi(n) 1 do, you do, he/she/it does, (you both do, they both do,) we do, you (plural) do, they do And the present tense of 817.60 (deléa) "I show" is as follows = 8G, Sos, yo}, (SnAodtov, Sndodtov,) Sydodpey, Sydodre, Syovion(v) del6, delois, déloi, (délotiton, déloiiton,) délotimen, déloitte, délotisi(n) I show, you show, he/she/it shows, (you both show, they both show,) we show, you (plural) show, they show The present infinitive active of the three types of contracted verbs is pav (hordn) "to see", nousiv (poiein), "to do", nhodv (délotin) "to show". Athematic verbs Acti htpslewikipdia rgwik/Ancint_ Greek verbs a4