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Method Statement for Fabrication of Concrete Stairs

Material

Material Description Picture

Fine sand and gravel, cement Used to make a concrete.

Wooden boards (2x4) Used for formworks

4x4 posts Used to support formworks

Nails and Screws Used for building formworks

Reinforcing bars Used to help concrete


withstand tension forces
TOOLS

TOOLS Description Picture

Safety gloves, glasses Used for safety purposes

Measuring tape, carpentry Used for carpentry works


pencil, l-square, spirit level

Concrete mixer To mix the concrete

Hammer and circular saw To build stairs formwork

Float To finish the concrete


Method Statement Procedure

Building concrete interior stairs formwork

Before building the wooden form for the concrete stairs, it is recommended to get accustomed to
the components of a regular star. Therefore you have to decide from the very beginning the
dimensions of the treads and risers, taking into account the slope and the run of the stairs.

Remember that the height of the risers and the width of the treads should remain the same along
the stairs.

Concrete stair

Maybe the most important step when building concrete stairs is to use a proper formwork.
Therefore, pay attention to optimal dimensions for interior concrete stairs and use solid wooden
boards. In addition, you have to observe the proper dimensions for the stair treads and risers, as to
be able to use it easily.
The boards must be at least 2” thick, as to support the weight of the concrete. The whole structure
of the form, must be supported by 4×4 posts.

Concrete stair formwork

In the image you can see the concrete stairs form, and the proper dimensions to use for the risers
and threads. The wooden boards creating the steps, must be fastened with several screws to the
lateral structure of the formwork.

Use a spirit level, as to make sure the form is level and plumb, if you want to obtain a neat look.

Wooden concrete stairs formwork


The form of the concrete stairs should be connected to the ceiling. It is recommended to pour the
concrete ceiling and stairs in the same day, as to create a strong bond between these components.

Work with patience and make sure the wooden form is level and plumb, otherwise the concrete
stairs would look misaligned. Use long screws and nails to lock together the wooden formwork and
make sure there are no gaps between the boards.

Concrete stair building

In this image, you can see that the wooden formwork must be locked together tightly, using
different boards and posts. While pouring the concrete in the form, it will create a great pressure
and might move the risers from their position.

A proper recipe for the concrete you have to pour in the formwork is the following: mix thoroughly
3 parts cement, 2 parts sand, 4 parts gravel and water. Nevertheless, the ideal option would be to
buy the concrete already mixed from your local concrete company and to pour it in the formwork
with a pomp.

Work with patience, as to make sure the structure of the wooden formwork is rigid and able to
sustain the rebars and the concrete. It is important to order the concrete only after you are
perfectly sure the form is able to support its weight and the form it is level and plumb.
Concrete stair split landing

In this image you can see the split landing of the concrete stairs. You should notice the structure of
the formwork and how the concrete has been poured. Just after you have filled the formwork with
concrete, you have to vibrate it thoroughly, as to distribute it evenly and prevent the creation of air
pockets.

Finish the stairs with a float, making sure they get a nice finish. Use a straight edge to spread the
concrete and them use circular moves to give a nice finish, by using a polystyrene float.

Concrete stairs formwork

If you are not able to level the stairs perfectly, then you will have to pour a thin layer of self-leveling
screed, after the stairs have dried out. Work with patience from the top to the bottom of the stairs,
making sure you vibrate the concrete (either with a concrete vibrator or by hitting the formwork
with a hammer).
The stairs need at least 4 weeks to dry out completely, so make sure you remove the forms only
after it dries properly. In addition, you have to water the concrete daily, as to make sure it won’t
crack. Remember that this step is essential, so use a hose to sprinkle water over the concrete at
least every morning (it it is hot outside, you have to water it at least three times a day).

After the 4 weeks, you can remove the formwork by using a hammer and a crowbar. Work with
patience, as to avoid damaging the concrete or the edges of the stairs. After you have removed the
wooden boards you have to clean thoroughly the concrete stairs. Wear a respiratory mask while
you remove the residues, as to avoid inhaling the dust.

Concrete stairs split landing

In the image you can see how the concrete stairs look, after we have removed the wooden form.
You should be able to notice that the concrete is uniform and even over the whole surface, and
that there are no holes, pockets of air or cracks.

As we have already highlighted, you must vibrate the concrete, otherwise it will crack easily and
might even not support your weight. In addition, the concrete stairs are at least 4-5” thick, as we
have installed the rebar structure, which will reinforce the concrete.
Interior concrete stairs

In addition, we must point out that the hight of the risers must be the same for every step, as well
as the dimensions of the treads. In addition, as you can easily see in the image, in our case we have
built a split landing, as we didn’t have enough space to construct a quarter space landing.

Building concrete stairs

building concrete stairs is complex and there are many aspects which require knowledge and
expertise in this field, therefore consult a qualified engineer before putting your life at risk.
Tiling stairs

After you have built the concrete stairs and completed the rest of your house, you have to finish it,
wither by installing tiles, carpet or by laying wooden treads. Each of these alternatives is good if it is
performed in a professional manner, so you should choose the one which fits your tastes and needs
best.
Safe-Work Procedure

1) Measure the height of the area where you will install the stairs. This is also called the total
rise. If you don’t plan to make the top step level with the area where the stairs begin, be
sure to account for this gap in your measurement.

2) Divide the total rise by the typical rise per step. This will give you the total number of steps
on your stairs. The typical rise per step is about 6.5-8 inches, but you’ll probably use a
slightly different height for the actual rise,

3) Divide the total rise by the number of steps to get the actual rise per step. Remember this
will probably be slightly different than the typical rise height. Finding the actual rise per step
will ensure that your steps are all the same height, no matter what your overall rise is.

4) Establish the run of each step. The run (tread width) of each step should be no less than 9
inches and realistically at least 10 inches. This allows enough space for the average foot to
step comfortably and safely.

5) Find the total run of the staircase. The total run is the horizontal distance the stairs will
travel from beginning to end. To find this, simply multiply the total number of steps by the
run of each steps.

6) Decide if your stairs need landings. The longest boards suitable for building stairs will
probably be 16 feet long. This means you will probably max out at about every 14 steps. If
your stairs have a long rise and run, you can install landings on any staircase, if you prefer.

7) Calculate the length of the stringers. The stringers are of wood, steel or stone that will run
diagonally underneath the length of the steps to hold them up. These are what your risers
and treads will eventually be attached to. Determine their length the same way you
determine the hypotenuse of right triangle in geometry.

8) Install the treads

9) Varnish, paint or seal your stairs if necessary.