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0 tayangan6 halamanVariable demand, dynamic electricity pricing and intermittent renewable energy are sources of variability and uncertainty in smart grid systems. Energy storage devices can be used to absorb these fluctuations and reduce the overall cost. The goal is to find the best policy for storing, buying, selling and using energy in the presence of this variability and uncertainty. This paper explores a comprehensive methodology to study the effect of integrating renewable sources and energy storage in reducing the cost of smart grid operation and the sizing and control of such systems. In this paper, we consider grid-connected dwellings with a solar panel and battery as an example scenario. Numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed methodology.

Feb 11, 2019

Sizing and Control of Residential Solar Panel and Battery

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Variable demand, dynamic electricity pricing and intermittent renewable energy are sources of variability and uncertainty in smart grid systems. Energy storage devices can be used to absorb these fluctuations and reduce the overall cost. The goal is to find the best policy for storing, buying, selling and using energy in the presence of this variability and uncertainty. This paper explores a comprehensive methodology to study the effect of integrating renewable sources and energy storage in reducing the cost of smart grid operation and the sizing and control of such systems. In this paper, we consider grid-connected dwellings with a solar panel and battery as an example scenario. Numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed methodology.

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Sizing and Control of Residential Solar Panel and Battery

Variable demand, dynamic electricity pricing and intermittent renewable energy are sources of variability and uncertainty in smart grid systems. Energy storage devices can be used to absorb these fluctuations and reduce the overall cost. The goal is to find the best policy for storing, buying, selling and using energy in the presence of this variability and uncertainty. This paper explores a comprehensive methodology to study the effect of integrating renewable sources and energy storage in reducing the cost of smart grid operation and the sizing and control of such systems. In this paper, we consider grid-connected dwellings with a solar panel and battery as an example scenario. Numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed methodology.

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Battery

Neda Edalat and Mehul Motani Jean Walrand

Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences

National University of Singapore University of California, Berkeley

Email: {neda, motani}@u.nus.edu Email: walrand@berkeley.edu

Abstract—Variable demand, dynamic electricity pricing and solar panel. This approach uses a small test panel to measure

intermittent renewable energy are sources of variability and the local availability of solar energy as a function of time and

uncertainty in smart grid systems. Energy storage devices can be the house smart meter readings to track the actual load. These

used to absorb these ﬂuctuations and reduce the overall cost. The

goal is to ﬁnd the best policy for storing, buying, selling and using measurements are made for some time prior to making the

energy in the presence of this variability and uncertainty. This investment decisions. An algorithm then simulates the system

paper explores a comprehensive methodology to study the effect for different values of policy parameters and sizes of the

of integrating renewable sources and energy storage in reducing battery and panel and evaluates the corresponding operating

the cost of smart grid operation and the sizing and control of and capital costs. The outcome of these measurement-driven

such systems. In this paper, we consider grid-connected dwellings

with a solar panel and battery as an example scenario. Numerical simulations is a choice of policy parameters and size of the

results illustrate the performance of our proposed methodology. battery and solar panel. Note that after the solar activity has

been collected, the measurements can be combined with the

I. I NTRODUCTION smart meter readings of other houses in a similar location to

select their appropriate system.

Uncertainties associated with renewable sources create a

We also analyze how well the PP performs by comparing

challenge for their integration into the grid [1]. Energy storage

them to the solution of a Markov decision problem that

can play an important role by mitigating the variable load,

assumes a genie who reveals hidden state information.

renewable source and electricity prices [2]-[5].

The goal of the proposed policies is to minimize the long-

The analysis of suitable policies for storing, buying, sell-

term average cost while fully meeting the variable demand.

ing and using energy in the presence of many sources of

The cost includes the capital cost of solar panels and batteries,

uncertainty is complex. Our main objective is to develop a

as well as the operating cost of buying energy from the grid.

simple approach that enables the study of various scenarios

for integrating energy storage and renewable energy sources A. Related Work

in smart grid systems.

Researchers have studied approaches for storage manage-

In this paper, we focus on grid-connected houses equipped

ment and control in order to optimize several features in

with a solar panel and a battery. The battery is useful for:

smart grid systems. They have explored using energy storage

• Reducing the variability of the demand from the grid. for minimizing energy imbalance (the differences between

This variability is undesirable for the utility company that demand and local energy). The authors of [7] proposed an

may impose a tariff that penalizes peak demand. approach to reduce reserve energy requirement in power

• Adjusting for the time-of-day variations of the renewable system dispatch. They formulate the power imbalance problem

source and load that are typically out of phase. for each timescale as an inﬁnite horizon stochastic control

• Exploiting time-of-day pricing by buying electricity when problem and show that a greedy policy minimizes the average

it is cheap. magnitude of the residual power imbalance. Their analysis

Classically, energy storage for solar panels is mostly designed applies to the case in which the utility company owns and op-

for stand-alone applications. This means that an amount of erates the storage. They use the prediction for multi time scale

energy must be stored to ﬁll at least the production gap of of renewable generation. The optimal power ﬂow problem with

several cloudy weather days. If the dwelling is connected to energy storage is formulated in [8] assuming deterministic load

the grid, an energy storage system should not necessarily cope with the objective of minimizing the total quadratic generation

with a long period of low solar panel production, as the grid cost. [9] addresses algorithms for minimizing the long-term

is available as a back-up. Hence, the storage and solar panel energy cost in the presence of large storages, using online

sizing criteria are different from autonomous systems. dynamic control approach. They assume that the prices and

First, we develop a methodology for selecting a good demands follow a ﬁxed but unknown distribution. Moreover,

parametric policy (PP) for storing, buying, selling and using they assume there are no renewable sources and the battery

energy and the corresponding optimum size of the battery and used only for the purpose of arbitrage. Similarly, in [10]

2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm): Architectures, Control and Operation for

Smart Grids and Microgrids

point of view of the grid operator, and propose a threshold

policy that is shown to be asymptotically optimal for the large

size of the storage unit. In [11], the algorithm leverages a

prediction model they develop, which forecasts future demand

using statistical machine learning techniques given the next- Fig. 1: System model.

day prices. There are some other relevant works such as

[12] for storage with demand response and [13] for operating

storage co-located with end-user demands which is a similar At time slot n, the difference between the available energy

approach used in data centers. The authors of [17] study the Gn + Rn S and the demand Ln is stored in the battery. Thus,

tradeoff between the use of reserves and the energy loss in a Wn+1 = [Wn + Gn + Rn S − Ln ]B

0

power grid and develop a scheduling algorithm for small or

moderate storage. where [x]B0 := max{0, min{x, B}}.

Controlling the residential energy storage has been proposed The main objective is to explore approaches for choosing

in [14] - [16]. The authors analyze the beneﬁts of buying Gn , the size of the battery B and the size of the renewable

energy when it is cheap and selling it later to the grid for higher source S such that the overall cost is minimized. The cost

price, assuming that the prices and statistics are known in a contains the capital cost of solar panel and energy storage

ﬁnite horizon. They formulate the deterministic optimization devices as well as the operating cost of buying energy from

problem and solve it by linear programing methods. the grid.

The above-mentioned algorithms are mainly designed for III. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION

large battery capacity and do not take into account the cost of Considering this model, one can precisely formulate the

both battery and solar panel. To the best of our knowledge, this advantage of using the battery for grid-connected systems

is the ﬁrst work that explores a comprehensive methodology to equipped with solar panels. Assuming that we want to meet

study the effect of using energy storage devices and renewable the load Ln all the time, the problem is to minimize the overall

energy on the overall cost reduction of operating the smart grid average capital and operating costs. This leads to the problem

systems. The output of proposed policy and analysis may be statement described below.

used for making the investment decisions. N

This paper is structured as follows. We introduce the system 1

Minimize γS + βB + lim E(cn (Gn )) (1)

model and problem formulation in Sections II and III. In N →∞ N

n=1

Section IV, we present the proposed PP for the problem over S, B, Gn

formulation. Numerical results for PP and DP are provided in

subject to Gn + Rn S + Wn ≥ Ln , ∀n ≥ 1

Section V. Section VI concludes and summarizes this paper.

where cn (.) denotes the cost of buying energy from the grid

II. S YSTEM M ODEL and it is strictly monotonic increasing on the amount of

energy and periodic as a function of time n. Here, γ and

We consider a grid-connected system with a renewable β are the amortized costs per time slot of a unit-size solar

source and a battery. The discrete time system model is panel and battery, respectively. The control policy is of the

sketched in Figure 1. The time unit of this model is one form Gn = fn (Rn , W n , Ln ), ∀n ≥ 1. In this expression,

hour and a time slot is denoted by n ∈ {1, 2, . . .}. In this Rn = {R1 , R2 , . . . , Rn } and similarly for W n and Ln .

model, solar energy is used as a renewable energy source. We study the effect of using energy storage in the different

S denotes the size of the solar panel and Rn is the energy scenarios:

that a unit-size solar panel produces. Hence, Rn S is the Scenario 1: In this scenario, the amount of the energy that

total amount of energy produced in time slot n. The energy one buys is independent of the time-of-day pricing. The goal is

bought from the grid at time n is Gn . The energy consumed to regulate the demand from the grid. In order to motivate the

at time n is denoted as Ln . The methodology does not user to smooth out the demand, one uses a convex increasing

assume that a model is known for the random sequences cost of energy such as cn (Gn ) = G2n .

{Rn , n ≥ 1} and {Ln , n ≥ 1}. We evaluate the performance Scenario 2: In this scenario, the cost function accounts for

of the methodology when these sequences are functions of the time-of-day pricing of electricity. The goal is to adjust

irreducible time-homogeneous Markov chains X and Y on for time-of-day variation of the price, renewable source and

some ﬁnite state space X and Y, respectively. This evaluation load. In this case, the cost of energy is a linear function of the

tells us by how much one could further reduce the cost if one amount of the energy that one buys that depends periodically

had a more precise stochastic model of the weather, demand, on time n, such as cn (Gn ) = an Gn where an is periodic.

and prices. It turns out that this additional reduction is small, Scenario 3: In this scenario, one includes the possibility of

so that our oblivious methodology is effective. selling back electricity to the grid. We assume that the selling

At time, n ≥ 1, the battery with capacity B has accumulated price is κE(n) during time slot n, where E(n) is the buying

an amount of energy denoted as Wn ∈ {0, 1, . . . , B}. price and κ ∈ [0, 1].

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IV. A PPROXIMATION λ(n) = λ1 if electricity is cheap during time slot n and let

One might formate the problem as a Markov decision λ(n) = λ2 otherwise. The policy buys Gn from the grid.

problem with incomplete observations that would then give the Deﬁne

optimal control policy Gn . This approach is not satisfactory An = W n + R n S − L n .

for a number of reasons:

Then, if An < 0,

• The optimal policy is complicated and depends on un-

known parameters. Since, the control policy Gn at each Gn = max{λ(n), −An }, Wn+1 = max{0, λ(n) − An }.

time is a function of (Rn , W n , Ln ), solving the DP

equations requires discretizing these distributions, which Also, if An > 0,

results in a very large state space.

• Lack of guidelines and insight. This approach is brute-

Gn = min{λ(n), max{B−An , 0}}, Bn+1 = min{B, An +λ(n)}.

force and provides numerical results with no insight into

For instance, if An > 0, then the renewable energy plus the

how they depend on various aspects of the system.

energy in the battery sufﬁce to serve the load. In that case,

For these various reasons, our goal is to develop a more the battery charge reaches the value max{B, An } without the

insightful and scalable methodology that may suggest practical grid. One then buys max{λ(n), B − max{B, An }} to further

learning mechanisms. recharge the battery. The other cases are similar.

The cost of the system at time n is then

A. Parametric Policies (PP)

In this section, we discuss a measurement-based approach Cn = E(n)Gn + γS + βB

to optimize the design and control of the system. First, we

collect measurement traces for the speciﬁc dwelling, or we use recall that E(n) is the unit price of the electricity during time

measurements previously made in the same neighborhood that slot n, γ is the amortized cost of a unit-size solar panel and β

we recalibrate. We describe the former case. One ﬁrst installs that of unit-size battery per time slot. We assume for simplicity

a small test solar panel on the roof of the house to record that the costs are linear in the size, but that assumption can

a time series of the solar power that such a panel produces. be relaxed easily to conform to actual prices.

In parallel, one uses the smart meter readings to record the For the third scenario, we include the possibility of selling

electrical consumption of the house over time. This monitoring back electricity to the grid. We assume that the selling price

produces two time series: Rn and Ln . is κE(n) during time slot n, where E(n) is the buying price

Given the traces (Rn , Ln ) ∀n ≥ 1, one performs parallel and κ ∈ [0, 1]. If κ = 0, then the optimal policy will not

trace-driven simulations for different solar panel and battery sell electricity. The policy sells electricity if the battery would

sizes and parameters of control policies. These simulations overﬂow otherwise and also if there is some available energy

track the operating costs of these different systems and allow and if λ(n) < 0. The policy buys G(n) from the grid.

to identify the values that result in the smallest cost. ⎧

⎪

⎪ min{B − An , λ(n)}, if An > B or

To implement this methodology, one must deﬁne parametric ⎪

⎪

⎨ 0 < An < B and λ(n) > 0;

control policies. For the ﬁrst scenario (as described in Section

Gn = max{−An , λ(n)}, if 0 < An < B and

III), the strategy for different values of α, S and B is as ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ λ(n) < 0;

follows: we buy electricity at constant rate Gn = α, ∀n ≥ 1 ⎩

−An , if An < 0.

except that we stop buying when the battery is full and we

buy Ln − Rn S when the battery is empty. We assume that the Also,

cost of buying electricity from the grid is a non-linear function Wn+1 = An + Gn

of the amount of energy. These simulations keep track of the

average cost of buying electricity for different values of B and and the cost of operating the system during time slot n is Cn

S. From these simulations, one can determine the best values where

of those parameters. This strategy corresponds to a simple

Cn = En Gn 1{Gn > 0} + κEn Gn 1{Gn < 0}

policy for buying energy from the grid.

+γS + βB.

For the second scenario, the PP is slightly different. Es-

sentially, the policy buys electricity at rate λ1 and λ2 during From the trace-driven simulation, one can then compute an

the night (off-peak) and day (on-peak), respectively. However, average cost per hour C(S, B, λ1 , λ2 ) as follows:

this policy is adjusted to meet the load and not overﬂow the

N −1

battery. 1

More precisely, the policy is deﬁned as follows. Let Wn be C(S, B, λ1 , λ2 ) = Cn .

N n=0

the charge of the battery at time n and B the capacity of the

battery. Assume that a solar panel of size S would produce Using these results, one can determine the values of

the power Rn S, where Rn is the power that the test (unit- (B, S, λ1 , λ2 ) that minimize the capital and operating costs

size) panel produces. Finally, recall that the load is Ln . Let of the system.

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2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm): Architectures, Control and Operation for

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Electricity, night κ1 ¢/kWh 20

Electricity, daytime κ2 ¢/kWh 30

Battery β ¢/kWh 7

Average Solar Panel γ ¢/kWh 15

Average Load l kWh/day 30

V. N UMERICAL R ESULTS

We now compare numerical results for both the PP and DP.

The traces (Rn , Ln ) are generated as follows. There are K so-

lar power and K load proﬁles, which indicate the solar power

and load, resp., during the 24 hours of the day.. The kth solar

power proﬁle and load proﬁle are (R(k, 1), . . . , R(k, 24)) and

(L(k, 1), . . . , L(k, 24)), resp. The solar power proﬁle and load

proﬁle for day d is X(d) and Y (d), resp. The sequences X(d)

and Y (d) are independent Markov chains with given transition (a) Daily load. (b) Daily renewable energy.

matrices. Recall that these models are used to evaluate the

policies, but that the policies are oblivious to these models. Fig. 3: Measurement traces.

Figure 2 shows the model (in which K = 3) used for the

simulation. This model is used to generate traces that have

certain features. For instance, there is typically a time offset Bellman’s equation for the long-term average cost is [22]:

between the peak solar power and peak load. Similarly, there

c∗ + H(x) = max[c(x, u) + P (x, x ; u)H(x )]. (2)

is a time offset between cheap electricity prices electricity and u∈U

x

peak consumption. Note that these proﬁles are used to generate

traces, but they are fairly arbitrary. The representative traces In this expression, c∗ is the optimum cost, H(x) is the

for the renewable energy and load are shown in Figure 3. differential cost starting from state x and c(x, u) is the cost for

The key parameters of the system are the various costs, taking action u in state x. We use value iteration for average

shown in Table I. The typical values are obtained as follows. cost to compute the optimal policy.

κ1 and κ2 are from [18]. For the battery cost, we consulted The system states for the ﬁrst scenario introduced in Section

catalogs and found that 12 Volt, 100 Ah battery costs about III are (Wn , Rn , Ln ). At each time slot n, the action is

$150. This means $150 for 1.2 kWh, or $120 per kWh. We made based on the states at that time. The action denoted

assume that this battery will last 1800 days, which gives a as Un indicates units of the energy drained from the battery

cost of 7 cents per kWh per day. Let’s consider a simple and the one dispatched from the grid to satisfy the load.

example with a battery and no solar panel to clarify this cost. This simulation runs for different values of B and S. Then,

With a small battery capacity of 1 kWh, one may buy 1 kWh the optimum action, B ∗ and S ∗ are calculated based on the

∗

electricity during a night and use it later during a day. Then, minimum average total cost CDP 1

.

κ1 − κ2 − β cents can be saved per day. For solar panels, The system states are slightly different for the second and

we use [20] that quotes a net cost of $10, 000 for a system third scenarios in Section III. The periodic time is also a part

that produces about 4, 000 kWh per year. We assume that the of states as (Tn , Wn , Rn , Ln ) where Tn = n mod 24. This is

system is paid at the rate of $600 per year, over 25 years, due to the time-of-day pricing in the model. The action is the

which gives an amortized cost equal to 15 cents per kWh per same as before. The average total costs for these scenarios are

day, including rebates. For the average load, we used [21] that denoted as CDP2 and CDP3 , respectively. The parameters of

quotes an average household use of 903 kWh per month, or 30 the system are from Table I. We initially consider the transition

kWh per day. For the sake of performance evaluation, different probability as a = b = c = d = e = f = 0.3, a = b = c =

ranges of these values might be used. d = e = f = 0.4.

For the ﬁrst scenario, Figure 4 shows the effect of the battery

A. Dynamic Programming (DP) size B on the different costs when S = 3. By increasing B,

To verify the effectiveness of the simple PP, we compare the cost of buying from the grid decreases and the battery cost

them to more complex policies derived using DP. These increases. The optimum value is the battery size that results

complex policies assume complete knowledge of the states in minimum total cost. Figure 5 shows the effect of S and

X(d) and Y (d), and the transition matrices and sequences B on the average total cost (in ¢/kWh). It can be seen that

R(d, n) and L(d, n). Thus, these complex policies represent by increasing the battery size, the optimum value of the solar

the best that one could do will full information. If our policies panel size S ∗ slightly increases. In other words, by harvesting

perform well compared to these ideal policies, we can be more energy, larger battery sizes may result in lower costs.

reassured that not much is lost because of the simplicity. Considering the ﬁrst scenario, it is observed in Table II that

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2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm): Architectures, Control and Operation for

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a d B∗ ∗

CDP 1

(¢/kWh)

0.3 0.3 8 19.1

0.5 0.6 10 20.2

0.6 0.7 12 22.4

0.6 0.8 12 23.6

B∗ S∗ α∗ C1∗ (cent/kWh)

β=5 8 1 4 26.1

β=7 7 2 3 28.5

β=9 5 2 2 30.4

β = 12 4 2 2 31.7

Fig. 4: Example: Cost (¢/kWh) vs. B when S = 3. β, the battery size decreases and the size of the solar panel is

almost the same. Moreover, α decreases and the average cost

increases as β increases. This is because, the smaller battery

can store a lower value of the constant electricity rate α.

The result for scenario 2 is presented in Table IV. The

decision variables for this problem are λ1 , λ2 , S and B. C2∗

denotes the optimum cost for this scenario. We set κ1 = 20

and evaluate the performance for varying (κ2 −κ1 ). Increasing

(κ2 −κ1 ) leads to larger battery sizes. This is because one may

be able to store more energy during the night when electricity

is comparably cheaper. Similarly, the value for λ1 increases

(and λ2 decreases) as (κ2 − κ1 ) increases.

Figure 7 shows the amount that one can save by having the

opportunity to sell back to the grid. Recall that one may sell

back at the cost κE(n), where E(n) is the rate for buying

Fig. 5: Example: Average total cost (¢/kWh) vs. S and B. electricity at time n. For simplicity, E(n) is κ1 and κ2 for

the electricity price at night and day, respectively. The costs

are deﬁned in Table I. The total cost decreases as κ increases,

if the probability of going to the cloudy state increases (by because the selling back rate increases. Hence, one may use

increasing a and d), the optimum battery size and average larger batteries to store more than the daily load to sell it back

∗ to the grid. Given these parameters of the system, the battery

total cost (CDP 1

) increase. This is because there is a higher

chance for larger battery sizes to store more during the sunny cannot be larger than a certain value.

state and save it for the cloudy state. However, by increasing Figure 8 shows that, as β varies, the costs of the PP are very

a and d, B ∗ may not increase from the certain level, because

there is insufﬁcient renewable energy to ﬁll up the battery.

Hence, one may not gain by using larger battery sizes.

Using the ﬁrst and second scenarios, the average total costs

∗ ∗

from DP (CDP 1

and CDP 2

) are compared with the no battery

∗ ∗

and no solar panel case (CN O1 and CN O2 ) (in Figure 6).

This shows how much one can earn by using solar panels and

batteries with different costs. The reason for the convergence

of the average total cost is that by increasing β, the battery

size approaches zero. Considering the effect of solar panel,

the costs from DP are always lower than the costs from the

no battery and no solar panel case.

We now present results for the the PP. The decision variables

for the scenario 1 are α, S and B. Table III shows these values

and the average total cost versus β (¢/kWh). C1∗ denotes the Fig. 6: Comparison between different costs over β.

optimum cost for this problem. Not surprisingly, by increasing

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2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm): Architectures, Control and Operation for

Smart Grids and Microgrids

(κ2 − κ1 )=5 8 2 3 2 17.1

(κ2 − κ1 )=8 10 3 4 1 19.3

(κ2 − κ1 )=10 12 3 4 0 20.4

(κ2 − κ1 )=12 13 3 5 0 23.6

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Does an American Home Use? http://goo.gl/R7ycMj

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Tuts., no. 1 (2013): 5-20.

[2] M.H. Albadi and E.F. El-Saadany, “A summary of demand response in

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