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Anika Huang

6 February 2019

Annotated Source List

American Psychology Association. “When the Boss Is a Woman.” ​American Psychological


Association​, American Psychological Association, 22 Mar. 2006,
www.apa.org/research/action/boss.aspx.

Summary: Research Summary


This is a ​summary of a research project​ about the effectiveness of the differing
leadership styles of men and women. It describes that women generally tend to have a
more nurturing leadership style, utilizing a more coach like mentoring to develop and
motivate their employees. Men, however, choose to have a more commandeering and
controlling leadership style. It warns against a total stereotyping of these leadership
styles, however, because this research does not mean that women or men have a natural
leadership style. Men in large corporations receive more experience earlier on in their
lives. A bias against women in leadership positions could lead to them not achieving
management positions, therefore eliminating them for higher management positions. It
advises that the type of coworkers is greatly important to the impact of the leadership
type. The more “feminine” leadership approach works well for female majority
companies while “masculine” leadership works well for a mainly male audience.

Application to Research
This is helpful for my research because it identifies a hardship for women when climbing
the corporate ladder and makes a suggestion for how to overcome it. One flaw however is
that this article is somewhat outdated.

Balderrama, Anthony. "Gender Perceptions at Work." ​CNN​, 28 Apr. 2010,


www.cnn.com/2010/LIVING/worklife/04/28/cb.gender.perceptions.at.work/index.ht
ml. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Summary: Article
This article is about perceptions of gender in the workplace and suggestions to
combat this. When it comes to leadership traits, there are many double standards
for women versus men. The article provides a list of characteristics in female and
male bosses that are perceived differently by employees. It then cites the perceptions
of the different genders for the reason behind these emotional biases. It concludes
that the workplace tends to be far more forgiving of a man than a woman. The
stereotypes and perceptions do not only come from men but women as well. As ways
to improve, the article suggests speaking up. Input when necessary and know when
to stand up for yourself.

Application to Research
This is applicable to my research because it shows the perceptions of employees
about their bosses depending on gender.

Bernstein, Amy. “Why Are We So Hard on Female CEOs?” ​Harvard Business Review,​ Harvard
Business Review, 18 June 2015, hbr.org/2015/05/why-are-we-so-hard-on-female-ceos.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​is about the harshness of our critiques of female CEOs. It gives two
examples from two different books. One is of the CEO of Yahoo, Marissa Mayer, titled
Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo​ by Nicholas Carlson. In the book, Carlson
criticizes and highlights hypocrisies within Mayer’s performance as CEO. It details her
bad hiring decisions, tardiness, inability to communicate, etc. The author of this article is
suspicious that this criticism, if about a man, would not be as harsh. The author believes
that Mayer deserves far more respect than that given in the book. For one, Mayer has
added transparency to Yahoo and it is growing drastically as compared to before. The
other book is called ​Road to Power: How GM’s Mary Barra Shattered the Class Ceiling
by Laura Colby. This book takes on a far different tone. It uses the female CEO as a way
to inspire others. It details Barra’s journey to the CEO position and the improvements she
has made. The author ends the article by stating that both Mayer and Barra deserve the
same amount of support and respect.

Application to Research
This is a somewhat biased article, but it is helpful in showing two different views of how
two women CEO’s of two large corporate businesses are seen. This is useful to me
because my topic is all about the perception of women in these leadership positions.

Brown, Anna. “The Data on Women Leaders.” ​Pew Research Center's Social & Demographic
Trends Project,​ Pew Research Center's Social & Demographic Trends Project, 13 Sept.
2018, www.pewsocialtrends.org/fact-sheet/the-data-on-women-leaders/.

Summary: Website
This ​website ​contains a multitude of charts and graphs that display current and past
women leaders in eight categories: U.S. Senate, U.S. House, state legislatures, governors,
cabinet level positions, Fortune 500 CEOs, Fortune 500 board members, and university
presidents. For the senate positions, the number of senators rose from 2% in the 1960s to
23% currently. The numbers for the house positions are somewhat similar, going from
2.3% in the 1960s to roughly 19.3% now. The number of state legislatures increased from
4.5% in the early 1970s to 25.4% currently. Female governors is an interesting case,
because it went from 2% in the mid 1970s to a high of 18% in 2004 and 2007, and has
fallen back down to 12% at the moment. The number of cabinet positions greatly varies,
but has shown an increase to President Clinton’s second term in office with 40.9% of
staff being female, to now with only 26.9% under President Trump. Fortune 500 CEOs
has seen the least improvement, from none in 1995 to a high of 6.4% in 2017, and back
down to 4.8%. The number of board members has, however, seen an increase from 9.6%
to 22.2%. University presidents have increased greatly from 9.5% in 1986 to 30.1%
currently.

Application to Research
This site is applicable to my research because it shows overall statistics of female leaders
and the improvements that have been made, but that still need to be done.

Casella, Karen. E-mail interview. By Anika Huang. 2 Jan. 2019.

Summary: Interview
I interviewed a software manager at Netflix named Karen Casella. I asked her a
series of questions about her current career and her future plans. Casella started
working at Netflix three years ago as an engineering manager and was just recently
promoted to Director of Engineering. She does not plan to move further up the
corporate ladder and hopes to retire in the director position in five years. She also
attached an excerpt from an essay about her journey in which she describes
discriminatory experiences she had in the job prior to her current one. She was
passed over for a promotion that she was far qualified for than the person who
received it. The environment itself was also fairly discriminatory due to the general
attitude of her male coworkers.

Application to Research
This was extremely helpful to my research because it provides a first hand
perspective to my topic and discrimination in the workplace.

Castillo, Monique. E-mail interview. By Anika Huang. 30 Oct. 2018.

Summary: Interview
I ​interviewed ​a financial advisor named Monique Castillo. She used to work at one of the
world’s largest money managers. At her firm, there were only ever around five female
brokers at a time, the only consistencies being herself and an older lady. They faced a lot
of gender discrimination within their workplace. Many male brokers attempted to steal
their clients and they were unable to access the same resources and materials. A
comparison she mentioned was when one of the male employees and his wife
experienced a serious health problem, they received a lot of support from his co-workers
while when the other female employee’s husband passed away, little to no support was
offered to her. Castillo also experienced a lot of push back from her directions and
decisions. All of these factors of discrimination and general discomfort at work lead her
to create her own independent practice where she feels that the general work environment
has much improved and she is now respected and treated well.

Application to Research
This interview is very useful for my research because it shows a different past experience
than one of my other interviews. Castillo has experienced gender discrimination within
the business and discussed her experiences with me.

“Catalyst Study Exposes How Gender-Based Stereotyping Sabotages Women in the


Workplace.” ​Catalyst​,
www.catalyst.org/media/catalyst-study-exposes-how-gender-based-stereotyping-sab
otages-women-workplace. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Summary: Research Summary


This is a summary of a research project done by Catalyst. The project was titled
Women “Take Care,” and Men “Take Charge” ​and it detailed the perceptions of
female and male leaders within a workplace. It was perceived that employees, male
and female alike, tended to view the more traditional leadership skills of “taking
charge” such as influencing superiors and delegating responsibilities as something
that men were better at, while women were better at rewarding and supporting. In
actuality, women and men tended to be fairly equal amounts of “take charge” and
“take care” but the perceptions made them to the extremes. It also mentions how
gender inclusion programs and more women doesn’t necessarily mean more women
in the highest positions. It is necessary to entirely eliminate the bias otherwise this
stagnancy will remain.

Application to Research
This research summary is applicable to my research because it shows the
perceptions about female and male bosses and explains reasons for the stagnancy in
the number of high up females.

Chen, Ling. E-mail interview. 30 Oct. 2018.

Summary: Interview
In this email, I ​interviewed ​Ling Chen, a senior scrum master and project manager at
College Board. College Board is a rather large company because of their standardized
tests. Chen’s job is to facilitate the working environment for the teams, to communicate
in order to improve transparency, to coach teams on how they can improve, and more.
She began working at College Board in 2010. In her experience, she has not been
discriminated based on gender, even though her sector (IT) is a majority male. In general
she does not wish to move up the corporate ladder because of her family. With a more
powerful position, more time must be given to the office which would take away from the
time she gets to spend with her family. In the workplace, she feels that her directions are
very well followed and that she is not questioned too often, but has had experience with a
manager who questioned all of a team’s actions and consequently the team fell apart.
When it comes to decision making, Chen finds herself to be a more logical decision
maker, but will trust her gut at times.

Application to Research
This interview provides a very informational first hand experience of a woman working
in a large corporate business. It shows that there are some women who are not
discriminated against and not questioned.

Colantuono, Susan. "The Career Advice You Probably Didn't Get." Sept. 2014. ​TED,​
www.ted.com/talks/susan_colantuono_the_career_advice_you_probably_didn_t_get.
Accessed 15 Nov. 2018. Speech.

Summary: TED Talk


This ​TED Talk​ is about the last bit of advice that should be given to women, or anyone,
attempting to move up the corporate ladder. The speaker, Susan Colantuono breaks the
ability to climb the corporate ladder into three parts. One must use their own greatness to
achieve and sustain extraordinary outcomes by engaging the greatness in others.
Colantuono believes that the career advice given to women, and many others for that
matter, only focuses on the greatness within themselves and engaging greatness in other
people, when in reality the more important, and often overlooked, aspect is achieving and
sustaining results, what she refers to as business, strategic, and financial acumen. She
describes this acumen as the missing piece for which women are not moving up.
Colantuono also advises company boards to ensure that there is an about equal pool of
candidates for both genders for a position. If it is not equal, then there is something off
about the company and the advice it is giving women.

Application to Research
This is very useful for my research because it provides advice for women to move up the
corporate ladder. It helps give an interesting perspective to a woman’s ability to move up
the corporate ladder.

Department of Industry. “Sell Your Business.” ​How to Set Goals and Objectives for Your
Business​, Australian Government, 22 June 2018,
www.business.gov.au/closing/selling-or-closing/sell-your-business.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​goes through the steps of selling one’s business. First, one must make sure to
think about all of the options instead of selling. Next, one should decide if they will use a
professional to help sell the business, help manage all of the taxes, finances. Afterwards,
one must discover the value of their business. This is important so they can give potential
buyers an approximate price for the business. Going along with that, it is necessary to
find and attract potential buyers. One can do this by advertising online or in a
newspaper/magazine, by hiring a professional, and many other options. After obtaining a
buyer, one must discuss price, the arrangements for staff, etc. After this negotiation,
begin creating a contract that highlights everything that was talked about. Always ensure
that the employees are taken care of, so make sure to communicate with them about what
is going on, and that all taxes and legal matters are taken care of before transferring to the
new business owner.

Application to Research
This article is applicable to my research because it provides me with a general overview
of my topic and what happens if you decide to sell, but some technicalities about taxes
and such might not be entirely accurate as it is from the Australian government.

Department of Industry. “Selling or Closing.” ​How to Set Goals and Objectives for Your
Business​, Australian Government, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, 25
June 2018, www.business.gov.au/Closing/Selling-or-closing.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​is about deciding whether or not to sell/close your business. It gives several
points to think about before selling to ensure that the right decision is being made. There
are two categories of decisions: personal and technical. Before selling, one must ask
themself why they are selling? Consider other options like taking a break, giving
ownership to family or a friend, or even handing it off to outside management. The article
also advises seeking advice from others. For the technical part, one of the most important
considerations is if the business is still profitable. If the business is not making a profit
and likely will not be in the future, it might be wise to sell. Government regulations are
also an important factor. It also highlights the value of making sure to read the contract
before selling because there are often some fine print details such as not allowing the
owner to trade in the same area as the business.

Application to Research
This article is very useful to my research because it gives a very broad overview of my
topic which I can definitely dive deeper into.

Eagly, Alice H. ​Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the


Contradictions​. Evanston. ​Wiley Online Library,​
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00326.x. Accessed 30 Oct.
2018.

Summary: Research Report


This ​research report​ was done by the Department of Psychology at Northwestern
University. It addresses the question of whether there is an advantage or disadvantage of
women leaders. Eagly states that the type of women’s leadership is more beneficial to a
company and for that reason, many women leaders are being hired. However, in other
studies it says that women are at a disadvantage for leadership because many leadership
qualities are seen as stereotypically masculine. The research they did, however, shows
that yes, women’s leadership style of a more coach-like method is incredibly effective. It
also shows that women are not necessarily at a disadvantage at this point simply because
of the opportunities and knowledge of this bias. However, it acknowledges that in one
position women are at a disadvantage: when the sector that they are in is a majority male.
Overall, the data has shown that women’s leadership style has lead to an increase in a
number of senior leadership positions over the years.

Application to Research
This study is applicable to my research because it shows a different perspective than
many of my other sources. For example it does not put women at a disadvantage and
instead focuses on the growth of their employment versus the improvement that still
needs to occur.

Eagly, Alice H. "Some Leaders Come from Nowhere: Their Success Is Uneven." ​Journal of
Social Issues,​ PDF ed., vol. 74, no. 1, 2018, pp. 184-96.

Summary: Research Report


This ​research report​ is about how some leaders seem to come from nowhere. Nowhere
being places or groups that generally do not produce leaders. When they do produce these
leaders however, they tend to be resilient, extremely competent, and their rise to power
requires special conditions for which they “get lucky.” Eagly gives an example of Angela
Merkel, chancellor of Germany, who came from a lower class yet achieved extraordinary
success and became chancellor. These unexpected leaders serve as symbols of inspiration
for others of a similar situation and can sometimes cause widespread change within a
social group, organization, or a nation.

Application to Research
This is very useful for my research because it provides advice for women to move up the
corporate ladder. It helps give an interesting perspective to a woman’s ability to move up
the corporate ladder.

Easton, Mark David. ​Gender-Pay Inequality and Organizational Culture: A


Multi-Organizational Analysis of Job-Evaluation Data​. U of Toronto, 2015,
tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/79727/3/Easton_Mark_D_2015_PhD_thes
is.pdf. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Summary: Journal
This journal is about the reason for gender pay inequality. Easton cites a historical
action that society tends to devalue work associated with women, so female majority
occupations tend to pay less. He also notes that outcomes of pay practices are caused
by the organizational nature of the business. He addresses whether more masculine
culture organizations are more intensely devaluing their job reward systems,
leading to wider stereotyping of masculinity and femininity. What Easton found was
that large amounts of devaluation actually occurred within female concentrated
roles within “masculine organization cultures.” This stereotyping of jobs has lead to
pay inequality.

Application to Research
This is applicable to my research because it deals with gendered inequalities,
perceptions, and stereotypes within a corporation or organization.

“Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List.” Edited by Scott DeCarlo, ​Fortune,​ Time
Inc., 21 May 2018, fortune.com/fortune500/.

Summary: Website
This is an interactive ​website ​to explore the list of fortune 500 companies. A fortune 500
company is a company on the list put out annually by Fortune Magazine listing the 500
most successful US based companies. Companies are ranked by their total revenue, and
the website itself is compiled through reports and financial statements. The website
allows one to scroll through the entire list of companies for 2018, putting the revenue in
millions of dollars next to it. The cut off price this year (the lowest revenue on the list)
was around 5.4 billion dollars. There are also different categories such as most profitable,
biggest number of employees, newcomers, etc. The most profitable lists companies with
the most profit, which is not in order of the ranking. The biggest number of employees
list is very interesting because the number one biggest employer has almost two million
more employees then the next biggest.

Application to Research
This site is useful for my topic because it gives examples of large corporate businesses
which is an important part of my question.

Helios. “Leadership.” ​Helios HR RSS,​ Helios,


www.helioshr.com/2015/06/a-review-of-gender-leadership-styles-common-traits-in-men-
vs-women/.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​is about the differing leadership styles of men and women. It addresses the
commonalities and differences in the leadership of female vs male. For example, females
prefer to encourage collaboration within employee groups, going along with a more
transformational and mentor-like vibe. Males like to promote competition in order to
boost results. Another thing it focuses on is the preference of communication to
subordinates. Women like to use indirect communication whereas men prefer more direct
communication. Men also prefer a more hierarchical structure to allow an easier
delegation to authority and a clear identity. Women prefer a more flat organizational
structure to allow for a more collaborative work environment. There are advantages and
disadvantages to the working style of both genders. By knowing these
advantages/disadvantages, one can possibly make the best choice pertaining to leadership
and training, but it is best to strive for a leadership style in between the two.

Application to Research
This article is applicable to my research because it shows the difference in gender
leadership styles. This is a more generalized article, but it is good to know what the
extremes are and that most fall somewhere in between the two.

Hennessey, Sean. “Art of the Deal.” ​Boston College News,​ Boston College, 9 Aug. 2016,
www.bc.edu/bc-web/bcnews/nation-world-society/business-and-management/gender-and
-negotiation.html.

Summary: Research Summary


This ​research summary​ is about a study done by the Journal of Consumer Research
regarding the decision making patterns of people individually and groups based on
gender. The results essentially showed that women and individuals tend to lean more
towards compromise while two males tend to turn towards more extreme options. Two
women, a mixed gender group, and individuals all leaned to a compromise between two
extremes while two or more men will tend toward more extreme options. The explanation
offered for this occurrence is attributed to needing to prove dominance to other males.
Compromise is seen as a more feminine trait, so two males will tend to go to the extremes
so as to protect and prove their masculinity. When selling or buying, it is best to always
know the audience so as to choose the option that would be most profitable or helpful.

Application to Research
This article seems a little biased in its wording, but it is helpful to my research in
summarizing a possible source that I can use. It also shows a difference in decision
making styles as well for the different genders.

Hudson, Therese, Dr. "How Decision-Making Is Different between Men and Women and Why It
Matters in Business." Interview by Kathy Caprino. ​Forbes,​ 12 May 2016,
www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2016/05/12/how-decision-making-is-different-betwe
en-men-and-women-and-why-it-matters-in-business/#684d7ba64dcd. Accessed 13 Dec.
2018.

Summary: Interview Transcript


This is an ​interview ​done by Kathy Caprino of Dr. Therese Hudson. She asks about the
differences in the decision making skills of women and men. Hudson cites several
different studies that show that the common perception that women crack under stress
and men make more logical decisions is false. In fact, the opposite proved true. Under
stressful situations, men tended to turn more towards taking risks while women tended to
look at the risks and make more logical decisions. Another study she cites mentions the
common belief that women make decisions based on a “women’s intuition.” Hudson
describes how in a total of 32 studies, 12 of them showed that women were actually more
analytical than men when it comes to decision making and data analysis, and the other 20
showed no difference in their decision making methods. The true method for a successful
business is a company where there are multiple women leaders and groups that are mixed
so as to balance out the risk taking and cautious decision making. In fact, a study done
showed that the best teams regarding decision making were those who understood their
other team members.

Application to Research
This interview is helpful for my research because it cites multiple studies and sources that
I can email and use in my research. It also explains the results of each study and its
significance.

Jeong, Seung-Hwan, and David A. Harrison. ​Glass Breaking, Strategy Making, and Value
Creating: Meta-Analytic Outcomes of Women as CEOs and TMT Members​. U of
Texas at Austin, 2017,
mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#search/source/FMfcgxvzMBljGqNZMXrrCVDlTVtJRhX
z?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Summary: Journal
This journal was about the effects of female leadership in top positions on a firm.
The effects, as researched, were shown to be mostly positive. In terms of long term
financial performance, the firm’s performance increased. This is possibly due to the
tendency of women to take less risks when decision making than men do. However
in terms of short term stock market exchange, there were weaker or negative
results, again perhaps due to the lack of risk taking. Despite this short term
detrimental effect, the report concludes that it is beneficial in the long run to have
women in higher board positions because of their influence on strategic actions that
eliminate large risks leading to better long term status, and these benefits increase
with more power that is given to executives.

Application to Research
This research report is applicable to my research because it shows the benefits that
come from having female leaders in a business, and provides incentive for
businesses to want them there.
Kaufman, Josh. "Chapter 1: Value Creation." ​The Personal MBA​, Worldly Wisdom Ventures,
2010. ​The Personal MBA​, Worldly Wisdom Ventures,
personalmba.com/5-parts-of-every-business/. Accessed 25 Oct. 2018.

Summary: Book Excerpt


This article summarizes an ​excerpt from a book ​called ​The Personal MBA. I​ t summaries
the five essential parts of a business: value-creation, marketing, sales, value delivery, and
finance. Value-creation is the process of creating the product or service to cater to a need
or to solve a problem. Without a product or service, then there is nothing to sell and make
a business of. Marketing is the act of advertising and gaining attention for a business.
Without marketing, a business will not be able to sell anything. Sales is turning the
prospective customers into actual customers for the company. Value delivery is ensuring
the quality of and customer satisfaction with the product/service. If the customer is not
satisfied with the product, they will not come back to the business. Finance is keeping
track of the money to see if there is enough money to continue the business and make it
worth it.

Application to Research
This summary of the excerpt from a book is useful in my research because in order to
know when a business is unsuccessful, I must first know when a business is successful
and what parts of a business are important to its success.

Kelan, Elisabeth K. ​Gender Logic and (Un)doing Gender at Work.​ 12 Feb. 2010. ​Wiley Online
Library​, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2009.00459.x. Accessed 9
Nov. 2018.

Summary: Research Report


This ​research​ ​report ​addresses gender divisions and how to get rid of them in
workplaces and environments. One type of division when “doing gender” is an
organizational theory, broken up into two parts: ethnomethodology and
poststructural/discursive. The ethnomethodological approach relates to a consistent
gendering in the formation of something. The poststructual/discursive approach refers to
gender being done in interactions. Some ways to “undo” gender is to “unsettle” the
defined boundaries of each gender. For example a female having masculine qualities or a
male having more feminine qualities but normalizing these “gender bending”
characteristics. Another way to undo gender is to keep people neutral in gender. One
could also enact multiple forms of masculine and feminine traits to challenge the
traditional stereotypes of masculine and feminine. This allows for contradictions to be
resolved and to create something entirely new and interesting.

Application to Research
This research report, while not related entirely to women in large corporations, does
relate to gender within the workplace. The author lists out several names of gender
divisions and suggested solutions to each of these. This can be useful for my topic
because it shows that are many different ways by which women can be obstructed in the
workplace.

Kreidy, Celina, and Laura Vernon. ​An Analysis of Women's Leadership Styles: How They Shape
Subordinate Perceptions of Female Leaders.​ Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College.

Summary: Journal
This ​journal​ details the data about women in leadership positions and how they are
perceived in the eyes of their subordinates and employees. For example, women who
demonstrate leadership techniques and styles that are generally seen as more masculine
are perceived to be more unlikeable. However, this research report generally disagrees
with that. This report argues that the unlikeability comes into play in more laboratory
settings or with female bosses who show dominant and forceful characteristics. The
report argues that the application of certain styles of leadership that are seen as more
aggressive can lead to “flare ups” of discrimination and sexism that differ from the
normal circumstances.

Application to Research
This is incredibly applicable to my research because I currently do not have many sources
on leadership, especially focusing on just women’s styles and their impact.

Kruman, Yuri. “Eight Steps Fortune 500 HR Leaders Must Take To Embrace The Employee
Experience.” ​Forbes​, Forbes Magazine, 23 May 2018,
www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2018/05/23/eight-steps-fortune-500-hr-leade
rs-must-take-to-embrace-the-employee-experience/#421039034934.

Summary: Article
This is an ​article ​about the best ways to treat your employees. It offers eight pieces of
advice to embrace the employee experience (EX). The first practice it says is to let the
employees find themselves. Give them the proper tools and materials so that they can
discover who they are, and then help them come up with a detailed plan including
benefits and perks. The second practice is to listen to the employees. Make sure that there
is always a listening ear to hear their complaints in person. Next, HR should understand
the mindsets of the people in the company. Know what each department does and
effectively communicate a strategy to utilize these goals. Another piece of advice is to
allow employees to be mobile. Let them leave the company and give them ample
opportunities to be successful so that they might come back with more experience and
skills. Going along with this, treat employees well. Also give employees flexible working
hours and give them time to work on outside projects.

Application to Research
This article is important for my research because in order to figure out employees
feelings about the workplace when it’s being sold, it requires knowledge of how they are
being treated within the company during their work.

Lally, Maria. “Are Women Better Decision Makers than Men?” ​The Telegraph​, Telegraph
Media Group, 3 July 2016,
www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/are-women-better-decision-makers-than-men/.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​points out a double standard in the decision making skills of women versus
men, citing examples such as how long women take to change versus how long men take
to choose a car. The author states that many studies have shown that women and men
struggle with a similar amount of indecisiveness, but because of the bias that men are
more decisive, their indecisiveness tends to be overlooked. The author uses an example to
point out the double standard that women face in their decisions. There are also multiple
studies used to point out that in times of stress, women are often more cautionary and
tend to make better decisions whereas men tend to become more reckless. One of the
studies that the author had found also pointed out that women tended to ask for the input
of others first before coming to a final decision, proven as a good leadership quality, but
seen as a weakness otherwise.

Application to Research
This article is applicable to my research because it shows the gendered perceptions of
people regarding decisions. While this does seem a tad biased towards women, it does
make a good point of citing multiple studies, experiences, and observations to prove their
point.

Lerner, Sandy, performer. "Cisco Systems & Urban Decay: Sandy Lerner." ​How I Built
This​, hosted by Guy Raz, NPR, 1 Oct. 2018.
Summary: Podcast
This particular ​podcast​ focuses on Sandy Lerner, the founder of Cisco Systems and
Urban Decay. Lerner, during her education at Stanford, became intertwined with several
computer engineers, and specifically Len Bosack. Together, they created a system that
was essentially the first internet. Bosack and Lerner decided to branch off on their own
and created Cisco Systems. After having it as a small business for a while, an investor by
the name of Don Valentine proposed that he invest and create the business into something
larger. However, after expanding the company, Lerner was faced with the hatred of
Valentino and the new CEO as well as a completely different workplace environment.
One day, the CEO called Lerner into his office and essentially fired her. Bosack, her male
counterpart was not told to leave, but he, after hearing of this injustice done to Lerner,
walked out as well. Later on, Lerner went on to build a largely successful makeup brand
because of it’s high quality ingredients and unique colors.

Application to Research
This podcast shows the experiences of a woman who was discriminated against within
her own company. It shows how women, even within their own companies, are
questioned and loathed for their success.

Levesque, Laurie L., and Teresa Nelson. ​The Status of Women in Corporate Governance in
High-Growth, High-Potential Firms.​ Baylor University, Mar. 2007,
file:///Users/Anika/Desktop/StatuswomenCorpGovernance.pdf.

Summary: Journal
This ​journal​ was about the best way to increase female participation in high growth, high
potential firms rather than businesses such as the ones on the Fortune 500. They
hypothesized that high demand labor markets, enhanced higher education of women, and
moving/interesting industry/firm conditions would lead to greater participation in women.
However, their findings contradicted several parts of that thesis. For one, the higher
growth firms lead to women being even less likely to even be on the board of these large
companies. They are not present in top leadership positions such as the CEO or the
chairs. However, it does say that a higher education of women would help place them in a
better position for career opportunities at the executive level, allowing for the existence
of more female leaders.

Application to Research
This research report is extremely helpful to my project because it details the best ways to
increase female participation which is important to business rights of women.
Miller, Claire Cain. “The Number of Female Chief Executives Is Falling.” ​The New York Times​,
The New York Times, 23 May 2018,
www.nytimes.com/2018/05/23/upshot/why-the-number-of-female-chief-executives-is-fal
ling.html.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​starts off with a graph, showing that the number of female Fortune 500 CEOs
fell 25% from last year. Miller cites the reason to be an inherent bias against women in
higher positions. With every promotional level, the percentage of women drops off, and
the trend continues higher up the corporate ladder. Miller also disputes a common theory:
wanting to balance work and family life. Miller explains that men and women both do
this, but women are more likely to be more open about doing so, making them seem not
as dedicated to men who do similar but more under the radar. There is also a
subconscious bias of what a good leader is supposed to look like, and women generally
do not fit this description and face a disadvantage in which people are more willing to
blindly place their faith in a male leader than a female leader. Miller also suggests ways
to improve this situation such as hiring more female executives and making positions
more appealing to them or having investors demand an increase in diversity.

Application to Research
This article is extremely helpful to my research in that it describes the situations relating
to my research topic. It gives reasons why women are not as likely to progress up the
corporate ladder.

Nitchie, Frederick J. ​The Effect of Gender Stereotypes on Perceived Decision Making


Abilities.​ Arcadia University, 2016. The Compass. ​Arcadia University​,
scholarworks.arcadia.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&htt
psredir=1&article=1028&context=thecompass. Accessed 6 Feb. 2019.

Summary: Journal
This journal done by Arcadia University is about the effects of stereotypes and how
the different genders react to them. It was mainly about how the stereotypes affect
people’s confidence in their own decision making abilities. What the study found
was that women responded more negatively to their stereotypes and rated
themselves more negatively on their decisions and the effectiveness of them. Men on
the other hand tended to disregard their stereotypes and believe in their abilities
while women were the opposite. These results hold importance because it can be
displayed in their ability to make efficient decision in life, especially trivial decisions.
Application to Research
This is applicable to my research because it deals with perception and decision
making. While it is not necessarily about others perceptions, it is about their own
which has some effects on how one perceives others.

Ohio University. "The Glass Ceiling Frustrating Women & Minorities in Business Today."
Ohio University​, 23 Oct. 2018, onlinemasters.ohio.edu/blog/
the-glass-ceiling-frustrating-women-minorities-in-business-today/. Accessed 30 Oct.
2018. Infographic.

Summary: Infographic
This ​infographic ​outlines the inherent problem within our business workforce of the
limitations of women and minorities in business. While there has been a large growth in
the number of women owned businesses, there is a still a lot of work to do regarding the
equal treatment of women within the workplace. Women, according to the US Bureau of
Labor Statistics, still do not receive the same salary as their male counterparts, their
percentage even decreasing recently. There is a large gap, especially within business, of
women and men. In the infographic, 85% of corporate executives and board members are
white males, and argues that these board members and executives might benefit from
considering a more diverse working environment. Ethnically and gender diverse
companies are significantly more likely to outperform non-diverse companies, and for
every 10% increase in diversity, there was a .8% increase in company earnings.

Application to Research
This infographic is useful to me because it provides a multitude of very interesting and
important statistics about women in business. It also provides me with two wonderful
sources that I could consider interviewing.

Pelster, Cathy Benko, Bill. “How Women Decide.” ​Harvard Business Review,​ 7 Oct. 2014,
hbr.org/2013/09/how-women-decide.

Summary: Research Summary


This ​research summary ​is about a study conducted by the Harvard Business Review
regarding the differences in the decision making process of men and women, specifically
when attempting to sell a product or a service. The article uses the example of a company
who was struggling to engage a half female clientele. This article goes more into depth
about the differences in decision making. Women tend to be more thorough in their
choices, listening to all different perspectives before making a decision. On the other
hand, men tend to stick to their original idea. This is the primary difference in the types
of decision making, and when selling a product/service, one must always keep in mind
the demographic of their clients. If it was mostly female, then ensure that you make
conversation, show personality, comment on their life and add personal touches.
However, if it is male then it would do well to stick more to topic.

Application to Research
This is incredibly applicable to my research because I currently do not have many sources
on decision making. This is helpful to see if the perception that women are more
emotional based decision makers is true or false.

Sandberg, Sheryl. ​Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead.​ E-book, Alfred A. Knopf,
2013.

Summary: Book
This ​book ​is written by the COO of Facebook and the founder of LeanIn.org, a
foundation that increases public awareness about gender bias within the workforce. In
this book, she points out the unequal separation of work at home and the subconscious
feminine values of family and home, women are more likely to drop their work leading to
less of them in senior leadership positions. Her first piece of advice is to “sit at the table”.
This means that women should not step to the side, but instead should take risks and
accept compliments for their actions. Another observation was the the “corporate ladder”
was more of a jungle gym because there are numerous ways to get to the top. More
advice she gives is to seek a mentor, to freely speak thoughts, to talk about the inherent
bias. She also claims that women have a tendency to restrict themselves based on future
familial plans, and instead women should continue their climb to success until the day
they must leave, and from there decide to return or not. Finally, she states that the child
and home duties need to be evenly split between women and men. She states that we
must work together to improve the treatment of women in the workplace.

Application to Research
This book is extremely applicable to my research because it has a lot of first hand
experience and gives advice and observations of women within business. I might be able
to use this source to show the difference in treatment of women and men.

Shirley, Stephanie. "Why Do Ambitious Women Have Flat Heads?" Mar. 2015. ​TED,​
www.ted.com/talks/dame_stephanie_shirley_why_do_ambitious_women_have_flat_head
s. Accessed 15 Nov. 2018. Speech.

Summary: TED Talk


This ​TED Talk​ was done by Stephanie Shirley. She recounts her story as a Jewish child
during the Nazi invasion. She was saved and moved to England, where she began her
own company. It was very rare for a woman to be in the tech industry workplace at the
time (1960s). To combat this at her company, she hired only female employees.
Oftentimes, to get past the “glass ceiling” of women in work, she would sign her name as
Steve instead of Stephanie. When the company first started, men would say that it only
worked because it was a small company. When it grew, they said that it had no strategic
interest. When her company was valued at three billion dollars, she said humorously that
they said “well done, Steve.” Her company programmed the black box flight recorder of
the Concorde jet and their software was eventually adopted by NATO. Afterwards, she
shares her life experiences after the success of her company. Her son, Giles, was autistic,
so Shirley founded and began to sponsor multiple charities pioneering services for those
with autism.

Application to Research
This TED Talk is very applicable to my research because it shows a woman’s
experiences in a field dominated by males, especially at a time with limited women’s
rights.

Tabaka, Marla. “What Happens After You Sell Your Company? What These Founders Say May
Surprise You.” ​Inc.com​, Inc., 25 Sept. 2017,
www.inc.com/marla-tabaka/what-happens-after-you-sell-your-company-what-these-foun
ders-say-may-surprise-you.html.

Summary: Article
This ​article ​describes the steps to “getting over” the loss of your business. It provides
five pieces of advice from founders who have sold businesses before. The first is to
grieve for the business. This business was a large part of your life, and like anything else,
one needs to grieve to overcome the loss. Going along with this, one must take some time
to rest their minds. This also applies to any possible positions that one is offered. After
selling a business, people might offer positions or ideas for one to invest in, but it is okay
to say no to them. Selling the business would leave the former owner with a decent sum
of money, but they should be very careful with how they invest. Finally, the last piece of
advice was a suggestion. For many of the founders who gave advice, they said that giving
back helped them feel satisfied with their lives. They volunteered, donated, and for many,
they thought that it greatly improved their life.

Application to Research
This article is applicable to my research because it sets a precedent. I can include in my
research ways to feel better after selling the business, but also gives you something to
consider not selling the business for.

Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. “Time Magazine Sold to Salesforce Founder Marc Benioff for $190
Million.” ​The Wall Street Journal,​ Dow Jones & Company, 16 Sept. 2018,
www.wsj.com/articles/time-magazine-sold-to-salesforce-founder-marc-benioff-for-190-
million-1537137165.

Summary: Article
This site is an ​article ​written about the purchase of Time Magazine by billionaire Marc
Benioff, the co-founder of Salesforce.com, and his wife, Lynne Benioff. Time
Magazine’s previous parent company, Meredith, sold it within less than a year of
ownership. Meredith had been struggling to make profit from Time Inc. and has therefore
put four names under Time Inc. for sale: Fortune, Time, Money, and Sports Illustrated.
This lack of profit is due to its struggle to keep up with the new digital world. However,
the Benioff’s, who are social activists at heart, have hope that Time Magazine will rise
again. The reason they invested was because they believed in the influence and message
of the company.

Application to Research
This is very useful information for my project because it is an example of what I will be
researching on. This is a very useful and clear example of when to buy/sell a business,
and why.

Waber, Stephen Turban, Laura Freeman, Ben. “We Asked Men and Women to Wear
Sensors at Work. They Act the Same but Are Treated Very Differently.” ​Harvard
Business Review​, Harvard Business Review, 30 Oct. 2017,
hbr.org/2017/10/a-study-used-sensors-to-show-that-men-and-women-are-treated-differen
tly-at-work.

Summary: Research Summary


This ​research summary​ focuses on a study done by Harvard Business School. Several
people of different genders wore sensors to work, and what they found was even though
the women and the men were very similar in terms of number of contacts, time spent with
leadership, amount of time spent in the job, work patterns, identical performance
evaluations, the men were advancing much faster than the women were. The reason
behind this is because of the treatment of the different genders. There is a subconscious
bias that many workplaces have which leads to less women in senior leadership positions.
There is also the problem of many women being forced to balance work with family life
(a disproportionate amount to men) and it leads to an increased rate of leaving the
company. In order to improve this, the research suggests that companies should modify
their standards to support working parents. It also gives methods to improve this bias
such as funding bias-reduction programs and leveling the playing field between the two
genders. It suggests that companies approach this problem with data and customize a
solution based on this data.

Application to Research
This research study is useful for me because it is a previous study that has been done on
an area closely related to my topic. It informs me about the treatment of women, why
they are treated differently and how we can improve the bias.