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Wmtv of tlTecbnologp
Clettrical Cnfimeeriiig





©rparlment of electrical engineering

S^egional engineering College
l^urnkffljttra QSniberjiitp
l^uruksiljetra (inbia)
September, 1984
< ; •

This la to certify that the Project entitled

^mSLOSl ^u F^alC^UION CF JtNE's i,m\iuR F€a Tit- i*F£.iD
CCNTiOLCI D.G.dt:HI..i 't^TOl^ which i s being subadtttfi by
Janjeev aid in p a r t i a l fulfllsiBnt for the award of th«
I'aster of T<?chnolo?y C^iectrlcal I nglneerlnf3 ifegree In
Control oystems of Curukthetra University, Jaorukshetra, i s
a record of the student*s t«ork carried out by h i s under
fry aupervislon and guidance during th» liesalon - 198^.

Uate ilOmta )
Electrical Ens^inearing Cepirtaent,
:^5?lonal Engineering Coll^'ge,
l^jrulQihAtra. «

.. - r'
A C K H C W L :'• D 5 E MEHTa

The author acknovltdges h i s de«p gratf tud® to

prof .J.a.Gttpta, Professor F I s e t r i e a l Engineering at t h «
asjtlonal Sfigg.CoUegtjRurukshstx'a for providing h i s
©Xpert guidance in carrying out the work r e t o r t e d in
this project.

The author i s also indebted to i>taff of the

Control lab v l z . a . C . L a l l for h i s sustained i n t e r e s t and
co-operation i n carrying out f a b r i c a t i o n and experiisantal

Dat»dt 17-9.I98U- i^ianjeev dud

fi^o®« .jirukshfitra. '^^' **

i> Diode

E^ Back e.ffi.f.
iS^ ^4ipily voltage
^i»\ ^ ^ ^ voltage

F P\2S«
f Besonafjt frequency
^Q ft9q\30acf of Unijunction Transistor O s c i l l a t o r

l^ Armature Current

*av Hirerag« Currant

IQJ^ Hotor Current fteauired to Ppovld® ia'akeaway Torque

ly Field Current
I^ Gat® wurrent

Ijj Itolding Current of Thyrlstor

I-»I^ ijoad Current
u O
I. Elock .fetor ?*>tor Oirrent
I P«ak Current of TJ.J.T.
1_ i^pply Current
I^ Valley Surr nt of •I.J.T.
K foaas Factor
L Aroatijpps Inductance
L- Inductance of HeiaJwfsStBiiHi Field Winding
if Mstor
M^£ Mitual Indue tanc«

W ^ e d of '^or Nuaber of Tunis

Pj^ F'ovier Input
P.C.B, frlntefi £n Circuit itoard
R Hesistanoe
R^ Arnjature iieslstance
R- Field Resistance
S Switch
a.Q.R. isBTl Conductor Controlled R e c t i f i e r s
t Tisje Period of O s c i l l a t i o n
T ^ Average Torque
Tr tlqcrialxr Thyristor
T^ Turn off Tir-e of Thyristorlsftd Chopicr Circuit
t_ sHbtor Time Constant

t Turn off Tinie for Thyristor

U.J.T, Unifunctlon Transistor
U.T.C, Unijunction Transistor o s c i l l a t o r
Vr Volt a? a c r o s s Field
V- Voltage c r o s s Cajjacitor
^Tr Voltage ACBOSS Thyristor
V^ Valley Voltag« of tJJT
V^ r«ak Volta-e of tIJT
W Sp««d of 14otor
a F i r i n g Angle of 3.< ^ .
p Conduction tigl© of .;i.C,R,
4 miTking Mux


1,1 General 1
1«<^«1 o|»€dd Equation for ii.c.a&rlea Mtor 1
1,2,2 4>e0d Control by Changing Field Flu> 4 %
1«2,3 ^ e e d Control by Changing i^rfsatura aealstanee X
1.2,^ .j^eed Control by Changing ^ p p l y Voltage •J
1.3.1 i. leetronlo i^eed Control H
1.3.2 isaalc irlncipLe of 4)«ed Contrcl H^lng S.C.a. H
1.3.3 A.C .Phase Control ^
l,lS D»C,Voltage Control ^
l.^> Mvantagesof D.C.Chopper Circuits 5
2. lB',e
^ o.eHCPPEI^
p?^^ 7-57
2.1.1 a«n€-Tal 7
2.1.2 Uuty Cycle 7

2.2 iapeed Control of D.C .Drives by Choprers

2.3 aenerallsed C3x)pper C i r c u i t IH
t.3.1 Chojper C i r c u i t for the ..fjeed Control of D.C lb
i / . C a r r i e s ffetor.
2,3.2 Frequency Control of Chopers
2,if aegen'^ration '^H
2,5 ijuaaary
cnis"SER " I I I

3. CO?«'!U?A?ICH ff'THODS
3.1 A.O.duprly or Line Conjf;utation
3.2.1 Turn off in i).C.Circuits ^^
3.2.8 iJtarvation 'fede of Oomcutation <^^
3.5^.3 ' a r a l l e l Capacitor Turn off
3.2,** Ljerles Caracltor Commutations

k, DS^im (&' D.C.CTIOr Eftii '^S -59

k,l vjRlaction of Circuit 3S
^•.2.1 Design of D C Choppers HO

^-.2,2 Design Prooc'dure HO

k,2^i D«slgn Notes
>+.2,'* Transformer
^•.2.5 Fref^ ivhef ling Dlocto
^.2,6 AVer a •© Current in ,-jC.ii2, C and Lg
»*,2,7 a'lu Current In I^ HS

^.2.8 Vclta e iating of 3CR D and C

Wd»$ aca Dyn.Mic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
if,3 Design of Triggering C i r c u i t s
k,k DesirTn of Actual C i r c u i t
k,^,l Design of Triggering Circuits
^,5,2 Triggering Circuit for yocond X i
^.5.3 Jelyction of Uffiltlng Resistancs a^^ ai«i A^- 57
h,6 i t i e o t i o n ot Coaii cnents
h»7 Fabrication

5 9 - ^^
5« ^RPOItKi^li AND C0HCI17SI0N
5*1 E3q"®ri»ental Aotlysis
5.2 Conclusion




1.1 General

4.D.C s e r i e s iiK:»tor Is a cheap «fid r e l i a b l e I n d u s t r i a l

drive. I t i s mainly used for t r a c t i o n purposes, as almost
i n every f i e l d of a?);!!cation speed control i s e s s e n t i a l and
because of the inherent advantage of siaple and precise speed
control in e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n of r o t a t i o n , D.C.drives are
widely used in I n d u s t r i e s , iiailways and i n e l e c t r i c a l vehicles

1,2.1 Aeed Equation for D.C.jerics ?'otor

In D.C,series ?fctor

^ • ^b ^ ^a^a
K " V - I . a^ (1.1)
Also o a «
E «-LULL. (i«2)
b A
? » ^? lied voltage - volts,
S^ • Back e . a . f , « volts
1 • .-irmatur© current - aaaps.
R w itirmature Hesistance - ohms.
# « /working ^lux - wb
2 * Number of araature conductors
II SB ipeed in r . p . s ,
P a Number of poles
A • Nufflber of P a r a l l e l p a t h s .
I q u a t l n g (1,1) and (1,2)
we g«t

a a

H. ^"-y^^' a.3)
ii^nc* A»2. an<3 P ar« constant so
H, ^'^ - / a \^ (lA)

EPOB d.W') i t i s clear t h a t sp®«d of s e r i e s !!K)tor

^&sx be changed by e i t h e r of threa methods.

1. By changing the f i e l d flux #

2. By changing the armature r e s i s t a n c e a„
3. By changing suprly voltage ~ V

1,2,2 ape ad Qontrol by Chang;lng Field Flux #

This method of speed control gives a constant power

drive and only speeds above normal are obtained viith t h i s
method. One of the major disadvantage of t h i s method i s ,
owing to reduction of flux comj^aitatlon beconies u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .
The aiiOxiPiuiB l i t i i t to which the speed i s increased by t h i »
method i s I i 6 for ^'/c's with i n t a r p o l e s .

1»2,3 Jpeed Control by Changing innature He s i stance

With t h i s method of speed control only speeds below

normal are obtained yet t h i s method i s widely used for machines
having low pov(er r a t i n g . The disadvantage of t h i s Eethod i s
owing to losaas In th« resistance th« maxisnum K . l , of a»tor
was dlffilnished and heat generated I s t o tie deaslpated lay
makiiig suitable arrangeosnt*.

Although such type of speed control gives constant

torque drives but due to the low efiiciency - such method
•re not ^ n a r a l l y used for large power r a t i n g motors,

^•2.*» opeed Control by Changing Juri?ly Voltage

There are s e v e r a l nsethods for changing the supply

voltage as

1, aeries and ahurt r e g u l a t o r s

2. Variable tap changing trans for laers
3» Ward Leonard method of speed control
W. Voltage control by using D.C.Choppers

The flrsttlfo nethods have f i n i t e r e s o l u t i o n which nseans

t h a t speed control with these methods i s in d l s c r e i € s t e p s .

Ward Leonard method of speed control provides a wide

range of very s e n s i t i v e speed control in both d i r e c t i o n s of
r o t a t i o n and with t h i s method the speeds both below and above
normal ar" obtained.
This «ethod requires three machines and hence here
l i e s the disadvantage. They have very high i n t l a l cost and
also requires large space, duch methods are used for th*
main drive of s t e e l m i l l s .
1.3.1 Electronlo arg»d Control

Tb ov«r oon» a l l those difj ionltles aa laentioaiBd

In -revli uft dlsousaiont ft lot of research took place for
apeed control esiploylng electronioa, flratly by tiaing
tfaermonio and gas dl:joharge valvea and thin dirlng last tiio
decades,these valves were eonplately over ruled by semi-
conductor devi&es.
All ttei advanti^s of these serai conductor devices
lies in their inteis^ation and their developtoent results in
the miniaturBeation of electronics circuits.

A F*N-P«N semiconductor devices called thyfistor

covers the alnost entire (K>ntrol sohenes of industrial and
power electronics circuits and these ect9 the main conponent
of speed control circuitry, during last decade use of thyristor
have been used to obtain the speed control of O.U•series

1.3.2 3asie ' rincitiie of ^eed Control tJsing -j.^.a.

while using I-K-l-H diodes for controlling the po^r
inputs to D.G.load, the first thing to be noticed i s available
v o l t a ^ source vether the source i s A.C, or D.^. 2f A.a»
supily i s availid)le then i.C. phase control techniques are
utaliEed othirwide with CCaources the aost reliable and
efilciant circuits are D.u.chopper circuits.

1*3.3 A.C, base Control

lower Btodulation using gate contro vith thyristors i s

the Bsost effective method of control. In 4.J.circuits, the
2.C.a. can be turned on by the gate at my ai^le « vith
•tapeot to t h i e^rUcd voltai^. The angle a Is the firing
angl«. ajch control I s kimvn as tbe phase control. The
£).G.ii. will turn OFF i37 natoral coafntatlon i*&. when current
becomes sero after the half cycle, hence no sreolal coitnrutatlon
circuits are required.

The bistable state of a,C.H. and the property that

enables fast transition from one state to other are made use
of In the control of power In D.*^ . c i r c u i t s . The variation In
tl» load s Qwer at constant input r o l t a ^ la obtained by
changing the firing angle a*

Such voltage control la used for D.o.powr supplies,

teisperature regulators, ll^ht dlsn^rs and speed regulation of
L.C.isotors. In u.u.circuits by changing the firing angle a
lovQT control i s obtained by varying the duration of OK»ti?te
and OfT^tiaii C^ explained latji^er]. This mode of operation
is Cilled OH-OFF control or chopper control. In order to
turn off the S.C.a. forced o^m^tatlon i s required.

For D.u.circuits using OH-OJF control, the device

current i s u n l d l r e c t i o k and therefore ve make use of i>«C.K.*s
with such c i r c u i t s .

^•^ ^v^tftft^s Qf D,CB,Ch^pper C4ret^||^

Jotm of the main advantages of solid s t a t e D.Q.chop ers
are listed bel^v:
(1) M ooi!^arad to other taethods losses took place In
ii.c .chopper*s are vexy small.
(2) At any ape«d they allow contlntkous ranning without
omsr heaCijog.

(3) aeg«ner&tlv» braking i s easily emrloyed with these

Gircuitf with slight modifioations
(S) They reqtiirel lea a maintenarice
(5) ? ^ ^ ajpe insensitiVB to jerka so they can he eaally
e&jployed with traction motors.
(6) With tt^se smooth control i s availahle.



4s mentioned e a r l i e r th«t with the aid of ^.C.ii.i

the &v«rage powr input i s controlled, and when the available
•up. ly i s iJ.^.then laost reliable circuits are D,t .chopper

As auprly availble i s D,C.8o vr have to go with

cboper circuits while carrying out t h i s project,

Inh rently 5.ujfi can be used as a m^ perfect switch

and can be used to convert direct current at a lov-r v o l t a ^
In a nearly loss las. manner. In t h i s loode of operation the
...Q.a perforos as a so called ctopr^rCfig.S.l) i l l u s t r a t e
a general principle of c}K>pping vith switch.

"%tbeinatically average output V i s given ast->

Vjg X ton
^0 -
W • ^f f .... (L.l)

a 5?
*on * *off (2.2)
T - time period of ctiopper

£.£,*.: Duty Cycle

?he r a t i o of the t^^ to i t ^ %tf^ ^^ called the duty

cycle. The averagfe lo**d current i^ given by



11 n El>«



7- KSPT Ct^/^STflf^T



-^tf- t d - - t^^lV
^ CcJ
t^ KePr C^NSTflNT



F I!

f- tofP %


Bfirreny A A

THE vi>«>ot/s s^/i^e fo^fyfs oF DC cHOpPefi


Th« KVtrag« pomv inptrt 1«

Htgleoting loams

The various waar« forms for ehoppep c i r c u i t s ar« araim

in <fig*2»S}.
As sbovn two distinct nodes of operations ars possibls.
m shown in (fig«2,li)). fhe tiise period bet««cn each succsss*
ive closing sl»}uld be Isept constant and ttm awrags voXtage
of ths load Ep can ba varied fey varying the tiaa daring each
period for that switch i s cloi^ad i » e , by varying t^^^t In t h i s
east the pulaa i s varriad as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( f i g . e . l b ) .

In second aode of ofieration t^^ i s kept constant and

by varying the t^^ vt can change the E^^ i^ shonn in Cfig«2«lc),
the Zp can be raised by decreasing t ^ ^ and i t can lowred by
increasing t^ff* Baeh operation i s called t i s * r a t i o control.

k eonbination isode of operation i s of course, possible,

in a l l oases the use of switch such as J.C.B provides inherently
high efficient control of load poi^r*




§CK£^^flT/c Dlfl^SRM OF V C CHOPPE'H. ClRCUiy

^•^ ir«ed Control of D.cairiiws by Choppers

If tht working iroltage i s *J,t,, then tb« variation

in th» apr ll«d voltage to th« sjotor arnatuw Is obtained
through an OH-CFF control speed reversal i s obtained by
Interchanging the armature tensinals and by keeping the field
polarity saan.

For D.J.voltages an OK-GFJ control i s achieved through

forced coiBmutation of &.C.a , unlike that in LN*CFF control
form ^ , i . circuit vhere ^,C*d, or triae i s turned OFF at
natural zero. The 8cl»«atio diagram of cl»pper (xsntrol circuits
i s given in (fig.2*3), Tb9 output voltage can be approximated
from the wave forms as (fig.2«S)« During the Ql^ time of the
chopper (i«a« iidien s^ i s closed and Sg i s open)» the Ep^,
su ly voltage i s applied to the sotor and during the CFF tine
(i«e«i^iBn 12 i s op^nt Sg i s closed), the implied voltage to
the sotor i s zero.
In the steady state, neglecting the speed variation
and assuming the constant mitual inductance between field and
armsa^ure circuit, the differential equation %^i(^ relates
aprUec* voltage F and the armature current 1^^ i s given by

E « [ V I ^ ] - ^ ^a^VV'^^af ^a ^^ •*••• ^^'^^

where i^ and L^ are the field and ansibure indu^tffiee,
^ and a are thi corres ending resistances M^ i s the mtw^al
inductance and m i s the speedyvoltac^ F, i s equal to ^•^
during CN-time and i s zero during OFF-tioe since the average
current, voltage and speed of the actor are of particular interest

i+), ^

^ C ^
^L ^


i t>.


F d

i n the St ady state a n a ^ a i s the t«riE» In equation 2.7 ire

integrated owr one complete iQM • o i l ] pexlod tad divided
by the corres oading tlae to get the equations in terias of
awrage vaiuee of vari M e s E, i „ and vm

^m. " ^airJ% * \ 3 -^ 'W V ^av. ••••• <^*S>


^av. » JSii—m (U.9)

^on * V f

Sliiilarly, thi steady stats awrag® to^pfps eaa be

obtained in ^ r m s of average value as
V , " ^af ^al ^ <2.10)

Where K is tim to Am factor of ourrent vave fona shown

i n (fig•!;•£). Thi value of K i s i^t^roadMately wtJcsi unity•
Equation ^%& and i^.lO can be used for obtaining the steady «
toroue charaoteriatics of t ^ ii.c.iaotor for various OS-OfF
tii^s, th!B Botor speed can be 'mpX c»natant by a pi^per tUmtik
feed bade faroa teehnogenerator, %fhich adjust the r a t i o
^ W ^ ^ o n * V f l ^ ^®^ ^ ^ ©hopper.
2«3. qeqef alised Ctot^cer Circuit
fhe circuit &lk.rm in iilg.2mh) abows the widely used
chopper c i r c u i t , ISiis circuit has a clas B type of forced
eoaj^tation in whldh conducting iS:a v i l l turned OFF by the
capacitoif discharge current pas ing through i t . Hence i t i s


also cal ' a as oscilatlng chop|.ar. I^ l a a large Inflnotor
itilch fliakea the load eorrtnt ripple flree, Thia icduotor
may be the field irtading of C.C.series aotor or of any load.
In the analysis that follons load ourrent i s assus^ to be
steady and continuotis voltage E will be equalt> tbe cup ly
voltage t^ien i s oondueting (OS.tiaie) and sero vben
diode B^ i s oondactlug (Off' - t i a e ) . eare the OS-tlme i s fixed
by the natural period of the resonant eireuit L^C.. AJiL i s
triggerrd by a t . J . f relaxation o s c i l l a t o r , the triggering
<tetertiine»s %lm (on * ^W ) tla» so, the chopper produces
iM a vsriahle ft^etju^ney.

There are mai^ available ohopper c i r c u i t s 1 1 ^

!• "^rgan choprer
ii, iktman chopper
ill* Jone*8 chopper
iv. Blasley and vhlte chopper, and max^ others

2.3 a Chopter Uirouit for the a?eed Control of U & Series Motor
4 practical fors! of the ctx>pper circuit for series

notor control i s knovn as SomB c i r c u i t and i s eho%ai In

(fig.2»5). The circuit uses a capacitor C and auto transforaer
T, and a thyrlstor ia?g to perfora the coasHUtatlon function.
The operation of (fig.S.6) and the viveforaa of (flg.2.7)
sho%{3 the sons what coB^jHcated operation of the circuit over
•ne cycle of ON and CFF tisre. The basic problea of the desl-n
i s to charge the capacitor G with enough energy and of correct

" V.IN

Jo ^v,l..l TTT
14 j).

'« '• •» ' I '• '«

It) Itf)

• " V, (t,l
-1 F

LI •
o ci,;[
-^ GO
'9 '" 'O



polarity so th«fc wbtn the TTg i s fired, the capacitor will
abut off tTj^ aad then TTg as v e i l . In the conducting or
OH-«tate, the c ^ afcitor U charged to about - V_ irolte.and
the motor currant I s carried hy Tr^^ and the lower section of the
Qutotransfomer T^.

The d«3tailed operation of thR circuit can be followed

from the sequence shown In (fig.2.6) where the thyristors
are rerrcrented by 8witcJ»s the corresjending intervals are
showi in (fis?«2.7)*

Prior to tine t.f the motot current i s oiroolating

through the fl»ee wheeling r e c t i f i e r D^, the tvo thyristors
are both OFF and t l ^ capacitor i s chargea to an i n t i a l voltage
with the lower plate negative, The Oii interval la started by
firini? thyrlater TP^. During the internal t^ to t^f the current
X to the notor produces through auto transforairsfj^ a eunrent
XQ which resonantly charges thsB capacitor to peak positive
voltage on the lower r ^ ^ ^ * I^lode Dg blocks and isolates
the capacitor^ motor current 1 continues as the source voltage
V^ i s a r lied to motor. This interval from tj^ to t^ i s the
ON-tltre of motor.

To end tta» Oll-tiaie, the ooaEiutating thyrlstor Trgis

fired at tiiue tr;. F i r s t , the capacitor i s clasqped across
TP^L api lying a reverse blocking voltage to i t and turning I t
CFF|; seconci, the capacitor discharges through Tr^ and resonantly
recharges with opposite polarity, third, the Tr^ current i s
forced to »ero at %]^ so that i t also blocks^ fourth, the
fflotor current transfers t o the fl?ee wheeling diode £^.

y?c HI

l i c k i

VS c R S.

l i c fl2

lQoTTai-1 PLUTT)



Tt» car acltor voltaj^ at t^^ ezotdds the source
voltag* V^, ao the cm -citor in the Internal t^ t^ discharges
resonantly araln back to tbt source and comes to rest vhsn
Dg blocks 8t the level shovn* 1!his eai aoitor voltage i s the
level available at the s t a r t of next CN-lnterval• M
additional thjrrlstor can be useS to charge the capwoitor
back to the source voltage t^tveen tg and tbs next t . *
^'acy other achwaes have l»?*n d«*velopea for perforraing
the pulBe r a t i o control function. In addition, various types
of pulse tnodulatlon are used to vary the average notor
^•3•a Freauenay Control of Choppers

Tbe frequency of the t l a ^ ratio control of (fig.2.5)

may be controlled by unijunction transistor esolllator (UTC)
as ahovn. in ( f i g . i . 8 } . ^ i ^ different controlable frequency
• s d i l a t o r s may be used. The tTTO I s very desirable ar.roaohf
since i t 13 a solid state osill3ttor and the unl|unetlon
transistor' ia caljle of delivering adequate gating pulses for
firing a relatively wide range of S . d i deiflces the fraquenor
f of tJTO i s ai j rcatlmate3y

- 1 (2.11)
^o " c,(ii^;Hg)—
TheroaxlfflUMfrequency of the UTO control must be limited
to raalntaln a proper operation of J^^ com-itttatii« circuit in
-D+ -•—•



: A«r£ cnrhooe


llie frequency of tbt UTD can be ilailtad by Peslatane*
Hg vh«n thi laajliBum load Uislt voltage noc^d not escecad in thp
ftrdar of Ej^ » 0 . 9 % . a^^ la th« satiafactory frequency llBiit
hoiwirep wh«n i t i s dasirad to operate with E.aa nearly equal
to Ej^, as poaslble. Tbe -ise of Hg to l l i d t frequancy f^
ia not astlsfactopy variation in the DTO maxlmm frequency with
temper =ture or variation in the length of the tisB for %hich
the aCH 1 i CM may ba torge enough ao that (fig,2,8) can not
be reljttbly operated wh*r© the load voltage oloaely approicfaBjfa
E^ \«ten i t iii desirt^d to operate with Sj. greater than 0.9E^t
an automatic means of l l r l t i n g the UTG frequency i s used, ! l ^
•lockout' technique indicated in (fig*2.8)i8 one aiaans of
providing su(A on automatic frequency limit » the r e s i s t o r
iU connected the upper base lead of unifunction transistor
Qg to thP cathode of uCi when the . d i s CK, The base to base
TOltage of UJT ia r&ised t o a value SOBA what greater than
twice the "TTO siqpply voltage E^^, Tha actual value cf this
voltage iii determinp by tha relationship between Hn and the
equivalent base to base resistance of UJTy when i t s base to
base voltage i t soa» what greater than ^ g ^ j the UJT firing
will be delayed u n t i l jCxi i s turned OFF. The tJTO iastdiately
turns the XH back ON* Since the capacitor C^ would have
been previcualy charged • This lock out operation limits the
ffiaxirauB jnrequen<^ to precisely match the frequency that
corresponds to the t _ esta listed by tl» operation of firing
circuit of auxiliary thyristor firing c i r c u i t .

^ 1"-"
p Z^ ftlLV I \



la [XetieneKiiriouJ

CONMgCriOU OiACRRf^ foR REe:,eHefii>T,vp QRakrtf^C, OF

D C f€^>£S MaToR


4 feature of th« ©hopper speed oontpol circuit la

th«t not only Is I t efficient for controlling the speed of
iBotor imt i t can be usefi to brake the aaotor by returning
the motor energy to the battery or any other d.c.source.
k sinpllfied clrcxiit for regeneration le uhoyn In (fig• 2.9)
which requires the adf Ition of a diode and reconnection of
the arsiature from the circuit o f ( f i g . 2 . 5 ) .

The prlncljle oi regeneration operation i s the uae of

the Inductance of the field winding to store the energy of the
motor when i t i s switched off the linei and the return of
both the energy in the inductance and the direct output of
the armature vhen the iftor i s connected to the l i n e , Tta
principle i» analogous to that for speed control where the
inductance i s used to stor<^ energy w!ton the inotor la connected
to the line and the energy la delivered to the armature when
the motor i s switched off the l i n e .

During the charging interval In (fig«S.9}t t ^ thyristor

la conducting and the armature volta,^ V;. i s applied to the
armature R^ - L^^ c i r c u i t causing thi current i^^ to r i s e
ea^onentially as the inductance absorbs energgr* ?^' interval
i s shown as t^ in Cfig.2*9b)* Mean while diodes t^ and D^
are blocked, i f the armature voltage V^< V^ when the currsait
i_ has risen to a prescribed value, the thyrlster i s comisu-
ted OFF and the armature current transfers through the r e -
generation path through diode D.,

W»Vf - FO/iMS oF CiUCviJ

fbj i.OW SPEEP;




louring the re gw» ration Internal tg, energy i s
tran^sferred baek to battery, Tha voltage difference
(V^-V^) i s now ap [ lied to the armature a^^ - I^ circuit in the
direction to decrease the current i^ exponentially, The
currant f a l l s until the end of interval when the thyristor
i s fired to etart charging the field inductance again.
The vaVE^forxs for tvo values of speed at the »&m
braking torque and the average current are shovn in (fig*2«9band o
For slov speed operation the ratio of the thyristor conducting
ftine to total time, which i s the pulse ratio ^ i i s high.
The loni tiuje t^ i s required to charge the inductance froa
tbe low armature voltage and the short time tg to deliver the
energy to the l i n e .

For high speed operations a shorter charging period

t , and t ienger regeneration period tg are required to transfer
the increased energy to the D.C. source. The pulse ratio i s
controlled by loonitoring the average current 2^ during the
braiESng period,

^•5 aunrrary
The chopper circuits are used to obtain efficient
spead control and regeneration of series a»3tor operated from
battary or other d,c. source. A thyristori vhich snst be
forced coimrutated , i s used to connect and disconnects the
motor from the source. During the disconnected intervals, the
field winding inductance i s used as energy reservA«i(.
m original |>ap«r on chopper sptefi control circuits
was presented by Jems* Fxas^les of applications arc gUfca
\3f HetMann and ^re recently by BeasXey and ^Mte, mA ^
;;;ieeooXa and Wsiser.


In an a . c . poT«»er circuit ttoe a.w.iU t^ras off sbortly

after i t s anode current has bepo brought to i^ro bf tfe©
action of th« c i r c u i t . At usual ow-r frequencies the circuit
turn off ti»c t . or the tine that the J.U.J. i s reirarMea
biasedf i s vory large oo^&v®^ to the mazlMUffi d^Uai.device
turn off tiir« t ^ ^ . Tills r e s u l t s in highly efficient power
frequency operation anfi sak^ the u.G.a,, in con||unotion with
i t s low forward OU voltage (voltage drop) and i s used in
controlled a.c. and controlled rectification c i r c u i t s .

3.^*1 Tayn O^f In D,C,Cj^rca|t8

I t was n^ntioned e a r l i e r that J.C.H. turn off, or
coBJ-flUtation of load current, in the circuit sup lied by d . c ,
source requires that the anode current be teought to zero or
r e w r ^ bias be m^aintain d sufficiently long . u.U,^, turn
off ««tliods in the d . c . circuits can be classified as follows.

3.2.2 ijtarvation tede of Gois:utation

•khen tbs .J,G,A, anocte current i s reduced below i t s
Holding current, forward anode voltage may be re-applied
after internal recoablnation ol carrif rs has restored i t s
forward blocking csjjabilities, TblB mode of turn ofl i s
i U u s t r s t e d in (fig.3-1). ( shows the Ej^ual switch



I„ J^^C'l'^ jK, jV,-

Ca.J CbJ




IF <^«*


interruption of laiofit carrtnt, by t h i s method a typical
ti.u. i. mast be allowed a tlaie i o th« opiei? of icc /a s e c .
to recover before the switch asy be reclosed reverting to
the OH e t a t e .

(Flg.3«lb) i l l u s t r a t e s diveralon of i.C.a anode currant

fcy !^ans of sn ausElUary device. A trtnaistor i s shoun, but
a mechanical centact or other transdueet could accomplish
the seme function, fhe J.C.H. will block forward voltage
i f i t s forward current Ip i s held 1» low i t s holding current
I., sufficiently lo«.
0ig»3«lc) illustrats© use of nagatlve gate drive
- I g to increase the l»ldin^ oui'rent I^| of eai i.CjLi.. For
a given null, current in the c i r c u i t , ^^i turn off laay th&reby
be achieved by adjusting t t e holding current to a slightly
greater value. This vari«ition of starvation isode turn off
can be veqr useful i n pulse -^dfilator or othar capacitor
discharge d r o u i t a when the aCH holding ciirrent can be raised
above the cap aoitor charging current fcy mean of negative gate
drive after the discharge pulse has tal^n plaice•

3.£.3 garallel car&oitor turn off

A, previous jy cheated capacitor m&f be switched into
the circuit sothat i t forces dCa anode current to zero and
then s^mtalns reverse bias for the required .X^d turn off time
t ^ undfr the prevailing x a operating conditions. The basic
c h o p e r and i t s associated ffimily of parallel-capacitor-


». SCR I

V S.c/?, ^—^ nrmm^
Jf" c 2%


la) Ct^^^^c P;?««U£i. TufiNoPP fbj cSTweoe PutSf ruffA;^;-^

pflg/>UgL cfiPticiroR rufjuorf Mgrw^s



S. e I^S,

{ct LOAD ieNSiTive eATHooe IMJ Bnste TiMf fl/»rio

cttofPEn cincuir
coBtrutat«d I n w p t t r circuits are bastd on thl» ffioa« of
turn off. In thl« clas« of c i r c u i t s the capacitor, o l t t n
referred to as the cow lutatlng car aoitor Is ecnneoted
e f f i c t l v i l y In p a r a l l e l with load# The charge ator^d on
the c ^ a c i t o r establishes the re.Hired € a turn off bias
conditions by resistive (flC) or damped resonant UXC)
disohaire during tins coiBBiutiitlon Interval.

(FI^,3«2) l i - u s t r a t e s various types of capacitor turn

olf methcda.

In (Fi^.3«2«) the conmutatlng capacitor c will charge

to £^ in the polarity sbovn vtwn lead X ^ l i s turiwd CH, when
auxiliary sCHg I s triggered the left plate of c i s connected to
ground. Thus Xii|^ I s i n i t i a l l y reverse biased by essentially
S^, The right hand plate of the coBRiutating capacitor now
charges to •»t at * tlwe constant a.C . 4t t i » end of the
charging interval the capacitor i s charget* to tanwtel e s ^ n t i a l l y
E^ i n the polarity shown, -CRg can be triggered and the
cycle can be rt^peated.

(Fig,3,£b) shows resonant charging of coascutatlng

capacitor e via inductance L and diode ca when OCxi^^ i s
trig^rsd. I t i s important that th» capacitor can be i n t i a l l y
charged as indicated. Eesonant charging cauops the c a p ^ l t o r
to reverse i t s polarity and to charge to api roadjBately E.^ •
Diode ca w i n block t h i s charge u n t i l auxiliary turn off dGIJg
is trlg^red. A Ciithode pulse of apirojdmately Z^ with
respect i t s mode then reverse biases dCIL and turns i t off.


'T^ •


1 7^

r/j /??sroi>f-«r csT*i,'s»s>e PVLSB TU^H opf


i c-^X


m c.r.ooB p . , , , T u « . o^;: 3, ,,,,,^ ^


The circuit wlli recognised as basically a d . c , chopper,

CF1?.3,2C) I l l u s t r a t e s load sensitive resonant

charging of oooutating capvicltor c, inductor L acts as an
auto-transforaier which charges capacitor c to higher than
E^ whsn load i s heavy othsrwiaa circuit works as (fig,3.2b),

(Fl.r.3.2d) shews the basic time r a t i o chopper or brgan

circuit. I t uses o^ Situruble core reactor tocomblne the
functions of the aito transform^^r action of the tap-ed
Inductor L and the auxiliary turn off JCiig shown in (flg.3.S^c),
(FSf:.3.2e) shows the -inother important type of circuit
for p a r a l l e l d . c . COKcitation. This i s a basic parallsl
inverter circuit although having comaon Inductance on the
cathodes of JC:{»s. The function i s stmSltir as e3q)iained
for (fig,3.2a).
Gosamtatlon represented by (fig.3«2p) can be extended
as shewn in (fig«3«^f)* Fulaes suitable to effect ^-4
coaimtition ure injected in series with jca»8. This type of
cojimutatlon provides Isolation of power and turn off circuitry,
3*2mh ;Jerles Car?^cltor Cca^imtations
TTnUkP parallel capacitor comritttation, the coraKUtatlng
cap cltor mey effective be con e c ^ d across series with the
load. If the c i r c u i t paoraiaeters are selected afiropriitely
to s^ive underdajnped resonant operation* Under this <»3ndltion
of operation, eooRjutatlon of x a i s affected by reversal of
c i r c u i t current in the manner similar t o a . c . line coanrutation.
However energy available for osniaitatlon i s 11 raited to that
stored in tht capacitor at tlie staptlng or turn off
Interval a mm BS in the cas« of paral3«l c^aoltoz* CRSB «•
(f ig,3«3) I l l u s t r a t e s series capacitor turn off
for a slag It eleajent. Two a l t a r a a t l w positions of loajfl
resistance Mj^ are sl^un for the case of (flf«3«3a) series
circuit resonant frp«|ien«Qr i s d e t r a i n e d hf c l j ^ s i c
re latlon

% / A. _ I* 1. f^ % \

^ J
Vihen c a turns Cit, the current Inallds up sinusoidaHy,
hM t t s t a r t s to r e w r s t , tbs x a i s turned off, provided the
half pprlod of the remnant frequency i s large than the Xxt
device turn off time t^|.^. l a t h i s case the load may be
large (luw value of H|^J i»nd ccndition

^L * / u,T ••.•.•(3««^)

im t 1^ satisfied for resonant oparation

(Fig.3*3b) represents series capacitor coaaut&tion

a&iptsd to the csae in vhieh load i s small <|^) the
c i r c u i t resonant freqtiBney i s

: ^.


1,1 s « y M T LiP.W Ri,

)P}.Ciro{^ -fuHiJ CiFF

^ AT) 10
TbB theoretical c r l t e r l m of underdainjjtd operation
mtt^t bd wmt aM before i t Is

H >y ^ oM
KquatioM 3.1 and 3.3 aw of course , equivalent.


maiON OF i3X. CHDPPEaa

^•i JelBetion of Ciwalt

ThB soljLd 8tat9 li.L .series isotor drlwa can be
eff ei«Btly fabricated,utilizing the basic thxeory of cfiopper
cireuite, Pertlcularly Joue's cliopp r cirouit i» irldely used
for the speed coAtroX of D.C,series rotor as in t h i s circuit
the size of ctHsmutating oapMoitor required i s small ooi^ared
to any other scheme. The basic theory of s u ^ circuits had
already discussed in chapter IX, tt» actual cirouit for
Jone*s olsopper controlled D.u.series motor i s given in
The fo loving are the main features of the circuit
with reference to (flg.**.X).

SCHj^ - main XH
XA^ * auxiliary dCK for oomrutation
D,,i>2 « blocking diodes
C^jCg and C-j oai BOitors for triggering
c^ -. cotoinutiition c«^acitor
T, - iuto-transforaer
Q, and q^ - ^^
^l*'^ •> keemr diodes
tU,Ec • curr nt limiting resistance
D, - uridgs reotlflTP for gate protection
l^jTjj - 111 pul^e transfors«rs
a - avitch
I « fuse

! 31






Z! $-

Th«» 0 opfor circuits are selected for Ita 8l?!?illolty,

r e l i a b i l i t y of oper-tion, r e l i a b i l i t y of comtaitation and
othfr advantages o w r thB other c i r c u i t s . This chfi^ster
deals with the basic chopper dssign, for designing tbs
basic circuit as dssoribsd by ( f i g . ^ . ! ) the folloving
design procedure i s adopted. Hie source for the design notes
i s from»i^a M^iHUAL* o f (^C,IOHiX)H E d i t o r ODTi^hlUEH.F.*.

^•2.8 Design FyoceGure

Tc design the variable speed drive described in ( f i g . ^ . l )
ths following information i s required.

(I) The battery voltage

(II) The rotor current reqiired to provide load brake away
torque • i^^f i f current llmitin« i s used otherwise a
lock rotor motor current 2^.

<ili) ?totor tiiae constant t^^

ajth maxlmim p»tor current and battery voltage are kiey
Variables facing the designer who has f u l l control of a l l
design Variables, assuiapln: a fixed H.P. requirements,other
isgiortant, acd interrelated variables are co«J?sitating
oa| acitors tijse , j^ii current and volta-e requirei^nts,
auto tranaforaer specifications, ill the ..hove rsntloned
paraiseters and current com onent requirtisents are interrelated.

The thvuBb rule equation gen rally used for c i r c u i t turn ofi
tiae for chop t r i s
h • -XT' •••• ^^'^^
Ibwe-TT t h i s do«s not t&l^ Into account tht c i r c u i t
action of th» Jones chopi.«r ifhich has boast circuit which
charges tha co» utatln^ capacitor voltage V. to value
greater than E^^ so equation becoajes

4t current limit the boast v o l t a ^ i s given by


\ « I^N/TTS" ih.3)

putting equation ^,3 in *f.2 ne get,

t h i s i s valid for stns&y state operating conditions

but not during I n i t i a l s t a r t up, Dividing equation K3 by


^- ^CL ./rir .... (if.5)

%9 H9 ^
^L "bs
l o r '4 >1 T'- <;: V lue of £d I aiA 2 aap« aptroadL mtely
gi irsn as

L-j^ and C dtt«rrlnea both eircuita tacn Uit time and

c i r c u i t voltage.

**-2.3 Dcajgn Notes

JB lection of aCii 1
The current rating of Ca 1 i s datersiined by tbe mtor
currtnt. This rule of thumb holds in i r a c t l c e with an
adequate h^at exchanger for JCA 1 oj^ citor C,Ij^ and I^
Jileet Q based upon desired naxlESim i£K and capacitor
voltage ratin? and sup: ly voltage E^^ and iind .^^

Jtlect »L» and 'C* values for which t^ equal to twice

of .CK "mm OFF taxm tim

Htr ' T. ' l 3 t C01B3E.

*o • ^ l i s t CO.™. •••• ""''"

equation must s a t l s i ^ that t^ ^ t

During the second and subsequent comnit^tions the
current Iw i s always less than twice the magnitude of pri^vious
com utated current level since L. and C were chosen for twice
the Rain JL.t rpqulr^fl .L4 tirjp, t t » boost-d vcltagt due to
rrevlotts current peak X^^ v l i l «?uarante€ coKwatatlon second
aubseqtient COM utatlona,

^•^•**' Transformer

Choose a 111 turn r a t i o . If the transforstwr core has

an airgap ffiada uj of the ends of the laminations butting
together vlth no spaces the ntaaber of tha turns may be found
from the following aprroadLmate relations

k • core oro-ss sectional area in square inches

and I* i n / I tma&vf
The choice of the ntmber of turns and core size §rust
be ohe^c^ed regarding muxlatuai flax der^lty in the <«>re

Flux denallgr » STA""^ C^«12)

^•2.5 fT9e whewlin;^ Diode

A rule or thumb for naxiaraa airerage current in Dj^ i s
a qustrtar of sjaxliBua raotor current (j^^une 180** conduction
A fast ra:»iery diode will reduce d^^/dt stress on
Xiil as wall as grfatly reduce voltage transients that are
:enerate<S by diode recovei^.

^,ii#6 Awrage Current in Xii2« u ^ d L^

Thfe aame average curr«-nt will flow in a l l coarjonants
^av ' ^ ^ ^ H s * ^^rux."^^ 3 X 10* ...... (^.13)
— » « *s « - » e >v «
..j..:;-' :ni:~E ^4;i^jHjij;
y—1-t— l-T> ' t - f j • -
, Ui-j...
; . / 1 . ••••• i i i n
" -••'•t:r::-
uUa. f;
_ j . ^ . : _ ; . ' L.•_.._,.
• ' • • - 1 -
• .' • i
f : i . .:•. 1
- 1 . . .u...;..^
• ' ^
• O
S3 • -
,,,. , ex I
^ f —
• -i -
'^~~ .1....
--:— .zj: -|...zi::
•3 .:4„ .'.r—.'--:-
• )•;:
, , | . H-..,
1. : ;•
I •;•
:M !:
•ti-~ irtn::; ::i;
..^..,^„^_„„,. - • _ - — r : -4..; 4 - i... •T"
or " n - j T
: 1
2 J.,:;.; I:::
t- •
*. «j f^ •« m -^ « • • r- « V)
•.mfla^-«*«" ** •»


'••2,7 ii'fe c u r r e n t In ^

A rule of thumb for th® Km current in k la the h-df

of the motor raaxlaaiin current 1 ^ ^ ^

^•2.e Voltage r a t i n g of X a i . .jC:i2, D^^ and C

th« p««k forward and r@v«?rst blocking; ^ ) l t a g e across

3CE1 and ijCB£, and peak r e w r s e voltagf- a.eross L',, the p«ak
voltage across C are found by(flg,^+.2).

^•''^•^ S.C«3 Dynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

»|I « ilii volts/us .... (if,!^)

Intla„ it" XT
Circuit turn off tinje t „ « J22. (^.16)

^ u -M— volts^s •..,.. (^.17)
dt s/igr

X ntial
*^*' sjfraF Inductance in loop
for-aeo by X d l XR2 and G
C i r c u i t t u r n off t l a e w i l l depends upon the t r i g g e r
c i r c u i t timing i t ffiay he mads s e w r a l times J^XL available
c i r c u i t turn off t i s e .
(^init^yf^ ii^pPi^y voirp^B 'V, -VOLTS
-t <r o »» i «r s ^ is

\ •
^••3 eegjgn of t r i g g e r i n g Circuits

f • tiase I®Plod of o s c i l l a t i o n

T « ^ (»*.19)

aiffer fliTurp 2 . 8 .

T « a ^ C ^ l n j i - ih,2Q)

» 2.3R^ Cj^ log j ^ ....... (If.a)

"^IJUUE, peak current of "JT"-

- liiH^ i*.2i)
V - V
^Iffiln. ^ -XT—2L. (ifr.23)

V^ « Valley voltage iS of UJT

I » Vallay current of UJT

m j i i n » supi ly ^olta«© r@qulr«^d i» given by

-• i(2^00
S | ^ g - ^*HRB»)
B , ) _ Vy,, (^.2$)
^1 '

V, if the minium supr y voltage given by ( f l g . ^ . J ) and

>. ^pFpfrfl:lilUiUJ
>. " r r
y n i-
fl n
i i
Xa(/t^^'j??|^'H 'i'^
! I
11M 11
r\ •
-r! ( I • i
I.-. ;
I'i" r
! I t
! I I
o --ftn
M *•
h,k l>»sfgn of J3tual C i r c u i t

Th« aTaUablp supply voltage i s 220 ¥ D.C,

^totor saximuis current - 15 amps.

AM a s e l p c t i o n of 3C:iil, we choose 26TBlf
I t has rated current of 16 amts.
Ritfd voltage i s ^ C volts.
Turn off t i a e 2. u seconds.

•^c ' ^S
20 yusec,
\ '

*« -
Uc /u s e c .

elect Q « 1.2
As y.?


\ = Q^bs
1-2 S»

G « i.a [.^i-^] s
s 2,72/Uf.
c C3 3/uf. -.^ ^^'5 t^f^

4€ X 10"^ « y4*3xio"^

l^ « 5.3x10**^ H
L • 533/tiH
• 5oo^H = 0.5 BH

h ir

Lj^ X 6.16 X 10"^ > 20x10"*

i^ » 32M* uK a 3500/AH

Lj^ -• I^ * 3500 AlE

1^ « 30CC /UH

Average current on free wheeling diod« D^^ i s ip-

X ^ « 3.75 affijs.

Volt«g« r a t i n g of IX « ^ 0 vo^ts,

i^rorage current on XB^, C and Lg i s given as

In tquation M-,13
l e t laaxiffiUiH allowable frequency i« £000 Bz

I«« *= 2C00 [Cx22C*2xl5 v500x3 1 x IC"*

- 2.32 ^ ^ t
Voltage r a t i n g of oiCil i and C i s koQ v o l t s .
XR aypaiaic eharaoteristie*
MR 1

Circuit tura off tlaf ^ ^ s e ^ c ,

Willi I

Av ••CO

°^ v5cGx3 ^

l^ln. turn off t i s a « J/l^ » eo^ssec,

T!Jt used for triggering I s 2S WS^

I t has fcllovlng specification*

n « 0.63

V a 1 TOlt.
V* « 3c i r o l t s .

^Imax. * % - "T^ " 50 It 10-*

K g 2 t kobBi.
"irtn. * «8 " \ - \ . -a
I^ JfxlO
« 7.2».

l e t Bsax, frequency r e q u i n d « 5C0 I&.


« .,
o X Eg

1 1

» 20 K.
l e tfflSniBUiBfriquenoy be eo H£.

J. ^ « _ i —J— m 125 <•

* *^ C.lxlC ^xBO
E^ « 105 K.

/ssuine H_ « C - 100 X.pot

ileal nlniinuii f r quency « _^ f
C.lxlO ^xlLOxlO^

a 83.3 « BifHz.

^2 i| V^ .63x30
a 529 » 529 * 500 otar.
•••J-^ trlgg' rln^ Circ ^It for jBcond dCR
ifere iigaln UJT 2Sk6k6 IS used

V* • 16 rolU.

«i-in.*«e • rit^^T" • •'•''"•

In t h i s c:»se m^nlan-n fr««|tt«nBy s^it l>« greater
than 500 Hs.

"^Ijaax,'^Hg] -

C « •i/«r.

1 > 500
0.1x10"^ ^Snax,*^2^

^4^2 < 20 K.

MlnlBauB tlB« period required « 0.0005

"^iXiHram frequency ts x/f « 1/.CCL5

B 2C00 HE.

a^ » •" ' i " 5 >'•

^ c.izie '*«20t^u
.\^ » 1 - 15 K . o t
,1 . .lOfOOfi, « Jf22!±,
^ i| V* C.63X16

« lOOC ohm.
« 1 K.

"..5.3 ^ : . ^ l 9 n , f l i ^ ^ ^ , , a..istanot ^ *J^

let Yoltagt by 2 watt».

a^ « (^1^? « 3C K. 2 watt.

**,6 dBleotlon of Gowroi^nts

Currant carrying c&i a c l ^ - 16 mptB,

xroltate rating - ^ 0 volta,
turn off tiiBB - ^/ttsec.
typical tttrn OU t l a t - 3 A»s.

^^ - a: v/joseo.

Qate current - ko mA.
^«n.requlred TOltage to trigger - u.2 Yoits,
^ximum required v o l t a ^ to trigger - 2 v o l t s .
.CR 2 EQd 'K,(.3

Current carrying capacity - 3 aar: •

volta;?** rating - »#C0 v o l t « .

2 Diodef

"i - ^127

"a - df 127

«» in »»oo3 - four
h ST Fi. 3c
H - fZ 16

3 C^aoltpr*
CI - 0,3 /Of 5o 7olt»,

«» C.l/uf 50 v o l t s .

O.X /ctf % volts.

°3 -

mm 3/tif. 501 volts.

^ /Uito Tranaforser

\ - ^ • ^ * 500/iH
^ • 30oc^fl.

Ai«a of core - 1 sq.inch

No. of turns for I^ • 200 ^

Wire used • 2^«Ki a WO

No. of turns for l^j^- 187
aire used • IcL 3W(}
f . WT

(^ - 2U £6>(6

^2 - 2H 26H6

iaak current • 50/UA

Valley current - *• mA

Vfcll«y voltage - 1^

n » 0.63

6 . FuJgB Trangforaers

IS PK 2229 C£'.C

« l^S S?29

7 . tiesiatanot*

«» Si K 2 w.

% - 0 • ICD K r o t , ^ «^.

- 2^ K ^ V.
-J,^ - 510 ofam. • ^ ^*

. 33X, 2 * .
mm IK , 1 « .
- C - 15 X Fot, ^ watt

«• *^«/^ § *«•

IOC ote . ^ V,,

h -

- iiwitch • 15 aagjs.
r ••> I^se - 3 amps.
- i *






'n .1'


A general d«sign of t l * printed c i r c u i t board and

th» physical lay out of the cosionents of c i r c u i t of
( f i g . ^ . l ) i s shown In (fig.W.S). While preparing the FCB
the following points should be kept in lalnd.

(i) As th« advantage of e l ctronic cftrcuits li«» in i t s

mini atura2at ion so cur tendecy i s to accomirodate
maxlJiUB nunber of com onents in ininiinuia space.

(11) If there i s a likelihood of generation of heat in my

comionent then that component roust be isounted on the
the heat sink of proper dlisenslons so that th©
the t a a tes^arature of that component may not r i s e to
the l i m i t causing the comronent to f a l l .

(ill) I t should be carefully checkted that there i s no

short c i r c u i t on P.C.B.










pgBFOilMA'-CE Mm CoriwIIJ>.;IOIf

tW^ Joae's chopper for controiling the sp«p6 of

luC,»erl«s BK>tor was fsbricit'^^d and tf-st^-d. The variotia
wave for«is were observed oo Cao and JTOIMKI to b« f a i r l y
consistent with t t e o r y .

5.^ Conclusion.

Itiyrlstorlzeo s o i l s s t a t e 3||«ei ccatrol drives have

gain®c popularity for ttm control of various drives <Su# t o
t h e i r s l B f l i c l t y , efficiency, eas« of operation and low
asalntenano©. The objective of t h i s Fit3j|©ct had bean to study
t h e basic design rroeedur* of ii.C.choppers and a&ks the
expsrlR^ntal lnwsfcia:atlon in t h e i r applications such as
control of e l e c t r i c a l drives uj^ng n I w r s a l lotors or
I»«C,s«rles laotors, m these motors ht^v® high s t a r t i n g torque
and aiainly used for t r a c t i o n work.

I t i s e s s e n t i a l for a r e a l i s t i c ap: roach for a daslgn,

which I s r e l i a b l e effaient and optiaufs, also t o Into
consideration speed refiilation freqmnoj regulation of' tr'5?.i?ering
c i r c u i t s and ripples In out put eurr n t . ioc© s e r i e s field
winding of D.G.series KotoP has considerably iargr Inductance
so i t can e f f e c t i v e l y f i l t e r s cut the ripjl'^s in out put
r t.

K Q;
tt; Oi

U j 2.
v/^ Q:-^
0 . U.
2: UJ
~~- v^
ex <3:


Th« eaphasls in th» design of or c^JopTer controlled

•p«~'d control c i r c u i t should be on the ^aerits of easy
s d ^ ' t a b i l i t y , e f f e c t i w n e a a and reduced complexity. Chapter -
IV discusses vpjlous factors vhich should be considered
t o have a go;.d d e l g n for the chop er c i r c u i t s ,

Diff*^r©nt o^^aaurpn? nta on the output of the pov«r

•uprly are aiada with VTVM and Cm, where wave forms are not

The UTC t r i g g e r i n g c i r c u i t explain^^d in chapter - I I

i s used to control the output voltage l^ varying the
t r i g g e r i n g frequ''-ncy. The d i f f e r e n t wave wer ob-.erved
ikxftKi on t a c , Th« f i r i n g pulses v«ra lound to be ac apt able

It E F £ H E N CFS

1. AlexuRder Kusko- "Solid t a t e D.C.jfctor Drives"

Th« MIT I p e s s .
2, Bed Fort B,l3.and - "Frlnciple of Inverter C i r c u i t s "
Ibft a.a.
J .Wiley - i96if.
3. Berde M.S. - "Thyrlstor Engineering'*
IQianna itibllshers - 1978,
k, a£;OTRY ? , B . , « "deml Ct nductor Controlled Recrifiers
Nlok Holonyack (lrinclpl«« and 4), U c a t l o n of P
Vonzastrov E Ji , P« vices)
Frentic© Hall of India 1-vt.Ltd.,
JJew Delhi, . -^ '^^"^-^'"'^

5. •JTITZWILIEa F,W. " s.c.a. r^muai"

0.S.C.London - 1977* . ^^.
6. John ?ferkus "oource Book of Electronic Circuits'*
%hrav - Hill Book Qomrmy*
7. i a l . , a.C. - "Thyrls t o r i zed Power Supplies and t h e i r
M. c.Hngg.i/issertation, Xurukshetra University,
i^irukshetra - 1981,
8. '^rgan a^E. - "ii,; .to D.c. ower Conversion"

- ** An Introduction t o Thyristors and t h e i r

9. RarRaaocpty M,
«|); l i e at ions ,
m, •'Electronics Pu'idaiijental and applications'*
10. Hydep JJJ,
ppentic Hall, of India Pvt.Ltd— II.Delhi«1978,
• "A Stu<^ of i-hopper controlled i;.C.Drives'*
1 1 . Handhawa K,i»,
MSc . D i s s e r t a t i o n s , Kurukahetra TJniVBrsity,
K u r u k ^ e t r a . - 1979.