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QSV 81/91 Series Gas Engines

Module 3 - SAFETY

Cummins Corporate Training

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION


CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING
G / Safety / BMG / 01 - 01 / REV. 03.
Safety
Learning Objective
Participants will be able to state the constituents and characteristics
of Natural Gas in addition to having an awareness of the dangers of
working with Natural Gas as a fuel. You will be able to demonstrate
basic safety measures associated with Gas fuelled engines.

Agenda
• Natural Gas and it’s Composition.
• Basic Facts.
• Characteristics and Properties of Natural Gas.
• Working with Natural Gas Equipment Safely.
- Safety Rules,
- Leak Detection,
- System / Pipe Purging.

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Natural Gas
What is it ?
• A fossil fuel, not a component of crude oil.
• Found near oil deposits, coal beds or in
reservoirs by itself.
Why use it ?
Considered a near perfect fossil fuel!
• Clean burning - low combustion pollutants.
• Efficient.
• Economical.
• Inexpensive relative to other fossil fuels. NATURAL GAS A FOSSIL FUEL
• Abundant Supplies.

AS A RESULT MODERN DAY USAGE REACHED MASSIVE SCALE WITH RESIDENTIAL,


COMMERCIAL AND VEHICLE APPLICATIONS.

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Natural Gas - Basic Facts
Natural gas is measured in Pounds, Standard Cubic Feet or Therms;
STANDARD CUBIC FEET THERM
Heating Value = 923.7 BTU/SCF Heating Value = 81,328 BTU/THERM
Weight = 0.0458 lbs./SCF Weight = 4.034 lbs./ THERM

Volume / mass of natural gas compared with diesel fuel ;


1 Gallon of
Diesel Fuel
140 SCF Natural Gas = 6.4 lbs.
140 SCF
1 Gallon, No 2 Diesel = 7.1 lbs.
Natural =
Gas
Volume Ratio approx = 140 : 1
129,575 Btu/gal = 129,575 Btu/gal

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Constituents of Natural Gas
Increase in other constituents results in a decrease in
Methane. Jeopardises engine performance & durability
4. 0 % Ethane
1. 7 % Propane
4. 3 % Other Inert Gasses
10 % Total

Plus trace amounts of:


90% METHANE - Carbon Dioxide
- Nitrogen
- Sulphur

METHANE (90%), ETHANE (4.0%), PROPANE (1.7%), OTHER (4.3%)

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Natural Gas Properties
- 130
OCTANE ANTIKNOCK
RATING QUALITIES

NATURAL GAS

NATURAL GAS
PROPANE - 110

PROPANE
- 100
OLINE

OLINE
GAS -

GAS -
• Methane has excellent anti-knock qualities.
• Anti-knock qualities - indicated by octane rating, temperature at which the fuel
burns (NG Octane Level 130 = approximately 1,300º F ).
• Wobbe Index or Ratio (similar to octane rating) more common for Natural
Gas:
WI = Heating Value of Natural Gas / Specific Gravity.

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Emissions Comparison
Grams per mile Reactive Hydrocarbon Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Oxide
2..00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
ETHANOL METHANOL GASOLINE PROPANE NAT. GAS

• Natural gas combustion process has greatly reduced levels of unburned


hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
• If trace levels of sulphur reach more than 10ppm particulate emissions are increased,
counteracting the positive benefits of powering an engine with natural gas.

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Natural Gas Properties
3 TIMES LIGHTER AS LESS
DENSE
PROPANE & OTHER

NATURAL GAS
IN COMMONLY
BURNED FUELS
COLOURLESS
ODOURLESS
AIR
FALL
RISES
* Manufacturers and Utility companies add oderants which gives natural
gas it’s familiar scent. This does not mean that safety devices such as
methane detectors are unnecessary.

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Natural Gas Combustion Window
LEL UEL

4% 16 %

NATURAL GAS VOLUME IN AIR

LEL = Lower Explosive Limit UEL = Upper Explosive Limit

Natural Gas is ONLY flammable when mixed with oxygen to a


certain level. Natural Gas must make up 4.0 to 16.0 percent of
the volume of air.

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Leak Detection
• Methane gas detector MUST be
available to check pipes and
fittings.
• Always place detector ABOVE the
fitting being tested to ensure
methane is detected.
• Use Soap & water solution to
pin-point location if necessary.
• If leak detected or hazard exists,
shut off supply and ISOLATE all NOTE: Natural gas is non-toxic,
potential ignition sources. however, in a ratio of seven parts
or more to one oxygen, suffocation
• Ventilate the area. occurs (same for all gasses).
• Display GAS HAZARD! sign.

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Purging
• When working on the Gas
Supply Line to the engine,
supply lines should be
purged before braking into
them and again when
re-commissioning.
• Purging may be carried out
with Nitrogen, Air or Natural
Gas via test & purge points.
The purge flow rate must be OBJECTIVE:
correctly calculated To safely expel gas or air from a line
• Do NOT attempt. This is a and prevent an explosive gas / air ratio
specialised operation (4-16 %) occurring inside or outside the
requiring certified personnel line.

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Safety Rules
• You must be aware of and work to local H & S and Gas Council
rules, these vary dependant on each country or area.
• It is your responsibility to comply.
• Any work carried out on the engines gas system should be tested
and checked by a competent person before putting into service.
• Examples of such governing bodies are;
United Kingdom:
CORGI (Council for registered Gas installers).
ACOPS (Approved Codes of Practice laid
down by the HSE)
USA:
AGA (American Gas Association)

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Safety Rules
In a lean burn engine installation, gas may cause DANGER situations.
The most serious situations are:
1) Gas leaks into the engine room,
2) Gas fires & explosions caused by unburned gas in the exhaust system.
For these reasons it is important that:
1) The installation includes high level gas detectors connected to an alarm
system.
2A) The engine starting system includes an automatic crank cycle without gas to
purge any gas from the exhaust.
2B) A high quality safety exhaust system is installed. This would include pressure
relief valves that relieve system pressure while channeling un-burnt gasses
and combustion products to a safe open area in the event of an explosion.
ALWAYS FOLLOW LOCAL FIRE AND SAFETY CODES

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Safety Rules
Fire Extinguishing
• Remember to shut-off supply at source!
• Use Carbon Dioxide or dry powder
extinguishers only - starve fire of oxygen.
Gas Detectors CO 2

• Trouble-shoot for leaks by soaping suspected locations or


probing with hand held gas detector. Larger leaks may be
detected by sound or “frosting”
- Never use an open flame!
• Installations should be fitted with
combustible gas detectors at high
level and connected to the alarm system.
ALWAYS FOLLOW LOCAL FIRE AND SAFETY CODES

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Safety Rules
Ignition Sources
• Do NOT light matches or smoke cigarettes
• Do NOT use electrical equipment that is
not approved for use near flammable gasses.
• Hot surfaces are less of a danger for natural
gas than other fuels but may still cause ignition.
(Auto- ignition temp; NG = + 480º C, Gasoline = 100º C)
Ventilation
• Always work in a well ventilated area and outdoors if possible.
• Rooms and enclosures must be well ventilated, use high level
extraction fans, ensure the heating systems is not open flame
type.
ALWAYS FOLLOW LOCAL FIRE AND SAFETY CODES

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Conclusion

Gas engines are


nice babies but
take care of them
to avoid…...
..emergency cases !

CAN YOU REMEMBER THE BASIC PROPERTIES OF


NATURAL GAS ?

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


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Module 3 - Safety

End
Cummins Corporate Training

QSV Gas CUMMINS CORPORATION CUMMINS CORPORATE TRAINING


G / Safety / BMG / 01 - 01 / REV. 03.