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QSV 81/91 Series Gas Engines

Module 4 - Base Engine

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QSV Gas Engines
Learning Objective
To identify key build changes between QSV Industrial Diesel
engines and QSV Industrial Gas engines. Participants will be able
to identify the base engine changes and additional components
associated with Cummins Gas engines.

Agenda
• Gas Engine Ratings.
• Gas Engine Layout.
• Diesel to Gas Component Changes.
• Gas Fuel System Components.
• Gas Ignition System Components.

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QSV - Gas Engine Rating
POWER OUTPUT

• 89 Kw /Cylinder @1500, TA LUFT continuous, or


• 71 Kw /Cylinder @1200, TA LUFT continuous.

ENGINE SPEED
• 1500 rpm for Genset 50 Hz.
• 1200 rpm or 1500* rpm + G/Box for 60Hz Genset.
• 1500* rpm for gas compressor engine * Planned

COMPRESSION

• 12 : 1 = Fuel Methane Index ( MI ) > 70 (standard)


• 11.4 : 1 = Fuel Methane Index ( MI ) 60 - 70
• 10.5 : 1 = Fuel Methane Index ( MI ) 45 - 60

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A-Bank View - V16
9

8
1
2

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B-Bank View - V16
8
9

7 2

3
6

5
4

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Flywheel-End View - V16
6

1
5

4
2

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Free-End View - V16

9 2

8 4

5
6

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes
180mm GAS COMPONENTS SHOWN

B A

Skirt Cooling Tapered Piston


Combustion Bowl Articulated design
Nozzle Cut-Out Pin
(x2)
Piston & Pin Design
• Diesel 170 mm bore - Composite Construction
• Gas 180 mm bore - Articulated, combustion bowl in piston crown.
• Diesel Pin - type ‘A’
• Gas Pin - type ‘B’ (Internal Taper - No load on skirt)

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QSV 81/91 Piston Assembly
• Construction: Articulated Type.

• Aluminium skirt with steel crown,


bronze pin bores.
CTR
• Skirt lubrication via piston pin.
Skirt assembly either way - two nozzle
cut-outs.

• Combustion ‘Bowl’ set in piston


crown.

• Centre (CTR) position marked on


crown - assemble to Multi-duct.

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes
• Multi- housing
Diesel - Pump element, pump
and valve roller tappets, push-
rod tube support, fuel supply
and return rails, oil supply
point to valve gear.

Gas - Valve roller tappets,


push-rod tube support, oil
supply point to valve gear only.

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes

‘QSV’ Camshaft
shown

Camshaft
• Diesel - Pump and valve cam lobes.
• Gas - Valve cam lobes only (lobe profile change).

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes
Valve Cover

• Diesel - Single point fixing with oil


seal

• Gas - Single point fixing with oil seal,


plug insulator and LT coil
(COP) connection, 300-350v dc.
NOTE: HT BELOW VALVE COVER

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes
Insulator Assembly
Insulator

Locking tabs
Clamp
(locks sleeve &
seat assembly).

Sleeve

Plug Seat with


O-Ring
Cylinder Head
• Diesel - Centrally located injector (no water cooling MK1)
• Gas - Centrally located insulator assembly and spark plug with water cooled
plug seat. No cylinder access plug, remove spark plug. Knock sensor fitted to
front face.

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Diesel Vs Gas Component Changes
• Liner
Diesel - 170mm bore.
Gas - 180mm bore.

• NOTE: The 180mm bore Gas Cylinder Liner outside diameter


and block bore are the same as the 170mm Diesel engine.

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Diesel Vs Gas Specification Changes
Specification changes include:
• Large End & Mains Bearings - Not interchangeable!
QSV Diesel - Tri-metal, steel base with liner of either lead / bronze or
aluminium / tin, and overlay of Indium.
QSV Gas - Bi-metal, no Indium overlay, lower risk of corrosion (water plus
sulphur = acid) plus lower engine dynamic loads.
• Turbochargers and Boost Pressure
QSV Diesel - 4.5 Bar @ 1500, Holset - Model HX82
QSV Gas - 2.3 Bar @ 1500, Holset - Model HX82
• Timing
QSV Diesel - 4.0 mm pump cam lift @ 14º BTDC firing stroke (1500 rpm).
QSV Gas - 5.3 mm (+/- 0.08) exhaust cam lift @ 14º BBDC firing stroke
(all engines, valve timing only!).

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Gas Supply Components
The natural gas supply system can be split into two parts;
components mounted external to the engine and those mounted on
the engine.

1) The components EXTERNAL to the engine:

• Main shut-off valve (manual).


• Gas filter.
• Flow meter (optional).
• Pressure reducer / regulator down to 150mBar.
• High pressure discharge valve.

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Gas Supply Line
Gas Supply Line as shown Pressure High Pressure Discharge
normally 80mm diameter up Regulator with Valve 200mB.
to 3.0Bar inlet pressure, Safety Shut-off (Ball Valve, protects
50mm diameter over 3.0Bar. Valve system if Regulator fails)

Manual Shut-off Gas Flow Meter


Valve (Optional)

TO ENGINE

SSV - Safety Shut-off


MAINS
GAS Gas Filter Valve protects
SUPPLY diaphragm
(operates on dP
across Regulator)
Blow-off / Breather line
Manual reset!
Simplified gas supply system EXTERNAL to the engine - Supplied Loose

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Hand Valve
• Concentric disc soft sealing butterfly valve.
• Install between flanges DIN/ISO 5211.
• Pressure rating up to dP 16Bar.
• Tight seal with flow in either direction.

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Filter
• GF Type - general fine filter for all
gasses and air, 50 micron rating.
• Body cast - Aluminium & Silicon
(ALSi).
• Flanges to DIN 2533.
• Filter pad - removable polypropylene
fleece.
• Can be fitted in horizontal and
vertical indoor pipes.
• Max operating Temp + 80º C.
• Max pressure 2 or 4Bar.
Note: Direction of gas flow

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Pressure Regulator
• Gas pressure regulator with high Pressure
Control
level safety shut-off valve at adjustment

200mBar, manual reset only. Control


Actuator spring
• Pressure settings (3) inlet options; (diaphragm) Vent
1) 1.25 - 1.8 Bar / 150mBar
Actuator
2) 1.80 - 3.0 Bar / 150mBar
3) 3.00 - 4.0 Bar / 150mBar Tap
• Output & SSV pressure adjustable. connection
(sense)
Differential between set and
response pressure of the SSV SSV
Reset
should be not less than 20mBar. Tap con. shaft
SSV
Blow-off con.
• SSV and regulator range set by actuator spring
casing
colour-coded springs. SSV adjustment

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Regulator Installation & Operation
Blow-off & Regulator breather
To ensure that the device lines (run separately)
will respond properly in the
event of rapid load changes,
the regulator breather line Pressure Typical Regulator
Regulator
should have the following Installation
dimensions: with SSV

Up to 3.0m long DN -15


TO ENGINE
Up to 5.0m long DN - 20
Tap Line
Over 5.0m long DN - 25

DN
MAINS GAS SUPPLY

Tap lines should be


connected to a length of outlet
pipe where turbulence is low, SSV Tap Line 5 x DN
i.e. at a minimum distance of 5
times the pipe diameter SSV - Safety
Shut-off Valve

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SSV Reset Procedure.
1 3

If excessive pressure differential occurs


between the set pressure of the regulator and
the response pressure of the SSV, then the SSV
will trip. Follow the procedure below to reset:
1. Equalise pressure across valve by depressing
plunger using special tool provided.
2. Unscrew dust cover from SSV reset
mechanism.
3. Inspect mechanism, slot on shaft should be
Horizontal. If slot is Vertical, the SSV has
tripped. To reset, fit supplied box spanner and
rotate mechanism anti-clockwise.
2 4. Refit SSV reset mechanism dust cover.
NOTE: It is not necessary to isolate the gas
supply in order to perform the above procedure.
However, if you do, open the isolation valve
slowly in order to avoid re-tripping the SSV. SSV Special Tools

Slot in mechanism should be HORIZONTAL

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Typical Installation

Pressure
Regulator
Breather
Line
Regulator
& SSV
Tap Lines

High
Pressure
Discharge
Valve
Blow-off
Safety
Shut-off
Valve
Breather
Line

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Gas Supply Components
2) The supply components mounted ON the engine:
• Gas Control Valve - Solenoid operated twin shut-off valves (for
isolation & safety, includes adjustable high and low pressure
safety switches).
** ‘V’ Engines
• Gas Flow Control Assembly (FloTech)** fitted with
• Gas /Air Mixer** multiple units
• Turbocharger (Holset HX82 series on ‘V’)**
• Charge Air / Gas Cooler
• Actuator / Driver (throttle)**
• SSM 558 Module (Sub Systems Module) Fuel & Ign. control**
• MCM700 (Master Control Module) Throttle control / speed
MCM700 / SSM 558 module functions will be covered in the Control Module

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‘V’ Engine Gas Circuit Schematic
To - Turbochargers - Charge Air / Fuel Cooler - Throttle Actuators - cylinders

4 x Mixers

Gas control assy. Gas control assy.


(FloTech No.1) (FloTech No.2)

Twin Solenoid Valve GMF Sensor.


(may be mounted Flow Calculation
externally). via SSM 558

HP Safety Valve
Duty Cycle (200mBar)
Valve
Regulator
Filter

Components Mounted Externally Mounted


on the Engine Components
Isolation Valve

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Gas Supply System
The Natural Gas supply system ON the engine:
• Gas Control Valve - 24v dc solenoid
operated twin shut-off valves with vent.
(for isolation & safety).
• Normal shutdown shuts off supply via this
valve.
• LP protection set at 80mBar (adjustable).
• HP protection set at 180mBar (adjustable).
• Valve operation can be checked by listening
to the sound of the valve operating when
switching the valve isolating switch on the
OEM panel.

THE CONTROL VALVE THEN SUPPLIES TWO SEPARATE GAS FLOW ASSEMBLIES ON
THE ENGINE, ONE AT THE FREE-END & ONE AT THE FLYWHEEL-END.

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Gas Control Valve
Features PRESSURE
SENSOR AS
• Twin Solenoid (24v dc) FITTED TO
CONTROL
• High / Low pressure settings VALVE
180mBar / 80mBar.
Operational Checks
SINGLE SOL
• Check manual power switch is CONTROL
VALVE
operational prior to engine start. SHOWN

• Verify proper solenoid & vent


operation prior to engine start.
• Verify that pressure safeties are
operational.

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Gas Control Assembly (Duty Cycle)
ONE OF TWO IDENTICAL UNITS
Typical Value; AIR GAS MIXER
FITTED TO ‘V’ ENGINES
P1 = 1.15Bar abs. INTAKE
P2 = 0.9Bar abs.
PRESSURE SENSORS 1 & 2

dP
P1 GAS mass FLOW DUTY CYCLE VALVE
P2
SENSOR (FloTech)

GAS TO
IN TURBO’S
VENTURI

5v
By-pass line
G.M.F
reduces 0v
turbulence and SENSOR
(Hot Wire) Mark Space Ratio
increases
measurement GAS MIXER
resolution
All control signals to and from SM558

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Gas Control Assembly
Gas Mass Flow Sensor
• Low maintenance. P1

• Requires calibration on replacement.

Duty Cycle Valve (FloTech)


• Low maintenance. GMF

• No calibration required on Duty


replacement. Cycle
Valve
Pressure Sensors
• P1 & P2 Fuel pressure in and out Component position and location
of gas control assembly shown, two units on ‘V’ engines.

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Gas Control Assembly

Pressure
Gas Mass Flow Sensor Sensor ( P2)
(GMF)

Control ‘Butterfly’

Pressure
Duty Cycle Valve
Sensor ( P1)
(FloTech)

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Gas Mixer

T A
U
R I
P2 B
O R

GAS IN - 0.9Bar abs.

PROFILE OPERATING PRINCIPLE

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Throttle Actuators
• From each of the Gas mixers the fuel passes
to two Holset Turbochargers. Gas / Air Flow

• Fuel flows through Charge Air Cooler.


• Fuel supplied to Intake plenum via two*
throttle actuators.
2 x Throttle Actuators
• At “normal” conditions (temp/amb) engine ( Woodward Proact)
runs on one actuator, second (B - bank)
remains at min. position (8 - 10% feedback on
Calterm).
• With increased temp/pressure and 65-70 %
duty cycle B-bank actuator will begin to open.
2 x Heater Elements
NOTE: Throttle actuators rotate in the same
direction but are handed for access to the coupling
grub screw, therefore the part numbers are different.

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Ignition Components
The following components are provided on each engine:
• Spark plug - one per cylinder
• COP (Coil on Plug)
• CCD/PDM (Capacitor Discharge/Prognostic Diagnostic Module)
• SSM 558 (Sub Systems Module)

NOTE: Additional engine monitoring is provided by the CENSE


module, this module does not perform any of the control functions.
THE ABOVE MODULES ARE SUPPLIED WITH INFORMATION BY A
NUMBER OF SENSORS / SENDERS MOUNTED ON THE ENGINE. THE
SENSORS AND MODULE FUNCTIONS WILL BE COVERED IN THE
CONTROL MODULE.

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Cummins QSV Gas Ignition System
• Fully Electronic Design to ensure precise timing and
spark control.
• Closed-Loop Control - multi-strike capability based
on breakdown voltage of COP previous cycle, 6 max.
• Variable Energy System.
• Monitors In-Cylinder Pressure (by spark resistance).
• Varies Spark Energy based on In-Cylinder Pressure.
- At Low loads, Cylinder boost pressure lower,LESS spark energy required -
12/18KV to start fuel burn.
- At High loads, Cylinder boost pressure higher, MORE spark energy required
- 26KV to start fuel burn.
Traditional Ignition Systems must address high load environment. Therefore
always fire the plug at max energy levels.
Result: 2 X + Spark Plug Life

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Control & Ignition Modules
• CCD - one per bank, Bank ID Modules located in “Hot Box”
ignition control, 9 cyl connector

max. Output 300 - 350v


• SSM 558 - one per bank,
ignition & throttle control
SSM 558
CCD / PDM
View on Face of SSM 558 Module
Module
SM558 CCD
SSM558
1
A 10 1
B 10 10
B 1 10
A 1

41 50 41 50 50 41 50 41
Front View - Male Connectors Face View of Connectors (When Removed) - Female
Male Pin Connectors Pin Connectors

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Coil-On-Plug
• One COP per cylinder.
• Eliminates high-tension leads.
• Output range 12,000 to 36,000 v.
• Improves ignition system reliability and
output.
• Liquid crystal polymer injection
moulding with paper wound coil
construction.

Coils designed for 40,000 h + life

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COP Assembly

COP PIN LAYOUT


E

D A

C B
A = + V dc.
B = - V dc.
C = H V sensor -Ve.
D = HV sensor +Ve.
E = Not Used.

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Module 4 - Base Engine

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