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Anda di halaman 1dari 68

n+2 sion is of outstanding importance even to

Exercise 0.1 The ansatz leads to ξ =

2 define such elementary things like addition

ξ n+1 +ξ n , such

√ that ξ = ξ+1, which is

√ solved

of the natural numbers, we will state and

by τ ∶= (1 + 5)/2 > 0 and σ ∶= (1 − 5)/2 =

prove it here for the connoisseur (and all

−1/τ < 0.

those who want to become one). Its first ap-

Let Fn = aτ n + bσ n with 0 = F0 =√a + b

plication will be the definition of factorials

and 1 = F1 √ = aτ + bσ = (a − b) 5/2.

in the next exercise.

Hence a = 1/ 5 = −b and consequently

τ n − σn Fundamental Theorem of Recursion. Let

Fn = √ . (This formula is named for

5 M be a set, η0 ∈ M , and ϕ ∈ M N0 ×M . Then

J. P. M. Binet.) Similarly, if Ln = aτ n + bσ n there exists exactly one mapping η ∈ M N0

√ 2 = L0 = a + b and 1 = L1 = 1 + (a −

with which fulfills the recurrence

b) 5/2, we get Ln = τ n + σ n .

For n ∈ N, we have η(0) = η0 , ∀ k ∈ N0 ∶ η(k + 1) = ϕ (k, η(k)) .

n Proof. Uniqueness. Let η, µ ∈ M N0 both

Fn+1 τ n+1 − σ n+1 τ − σ ( τ )

σ

= = n . fulfill the recurrence. Then η(0) = η0 = µ(0)

Fn τ n − σn 1 − ( στ ) and if η(k) = µ(k) for k ∈ N0 , then η(k+1) =

ϕ (k, η(k)) = ϕ (k, µ(k)) = µ(k + 1). By in-

But σ/τ = −1/τ 2 , whence ∣σ/τ ∣ < 1, such duction we get η = µ.

that Fn+1 /Fn → τ , as n → ∞. Similarly for Existence. The wanted function η ⊂ N0 × M

Ln . must have the following properties:

Remark A.1. While it is by an easy in- ∀ k ∈ N0 ∃ ηk ∈ M ∶ (k, ηk ) ∈ η , (A)

duction proof that one can show that there ∀ k ∈ N0 ∀ m 1 , m 2 ∈ M ∶

is only one mapping F ∈ NN0 0 which ful- (k, m1 ), (k, m2 ) ∈ η ⇒ m1 = m2 , (B)

fills the recurrence (0.4) and we proved (0, η0 ) ∈ η ∧ ∀ k ∈ N0 ∀ m ∈ M ∶

the existence by deducing Binet’s formula, (k, m) ∈ η ⇒ (k + 1, ϕ(k, m)) ∈ η . (C)

the question whether any such recurrence Condition (C) is satisfied, e.g., by

leads to a well-defined mathematical object N0 × M . Therefore we choose

is rather subtle and usually ignored in the

literature. Because of the latter fact and η = ⋂{µ ⊂ N0 × M ∣ µ fulfills (C)} .

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0237-6, Ó Springer Basel 2013

266 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

We now prove (A) and (B) simultaneously such that from (b) we get

by induction on k. By definition, (0, η0 ) ∈ η. k k k! k!

( )+( )= +

Assume that (0, µ0 ) ∈ η for some M ∋ µ0 ≠ ` `+1 `!(k − `)! (` + 1)!(k − ` − 1)!

η0 . Let µ ∶= η ∖ {(0, µ0 )}. Then (0, η0 ) ∈ µ (k + 1)! k+1

and if (κ, m) ∈ µ, then (κ + 1, ϕ(κ, m)) ∈ µ = =( ).

(` + 1)!(k − `)! `+1

as well, since no element of the form (κ +

1, `) has been taken away from η. There-

Exercise 0.3 a) The case k = 0 is just

fore, µ has property (C); but then η ⊂ µ, in

for definiteness: of course, the empty set

contradiction to the definition of the latter

[0] can neither be permuted nor deranged

set.

in the ordinary sense of these words, but

For the induction step, put ηk+1 ∶= there is precisely one mapping from [0] to

ϕ(k, ηk ). If (k + 1, m) ∈ η for some M ∋ [0], and this mapping does not have a fixed

m ≠ ηk+1 , define µ ∶= η ∖ {(k + 1, m)}. Again point, such that f 0 = 1. On the other hand,

(C) is fulfilled for µ ((0, η0 ) has not been the only mapping from [1] to [1] clearly

excluded and (k + 1, m) ≠ (k + 1, ϕ(k, ηk ))), has a fixed point, whence f 1 = 0.

and we get the contradiction η ⊂ µ. ◻ Let k ∈ N and ` ∈ [k]. Any derange-

ment σ on [k] can be modified to yield a

derangement ̃ σ on [k + 1], namely by defin-

ing ̃σ = σ on [k] ∖ {`}, ̃ σ(`) = k + 1, and

Exercise 0.2 a) Induction on `. There ̃

σ(k + 1) = σ(`), i.e. by mapping ` on k + 1

is exactly one (injective) mapping from and the latter to the former image of `. This

[0] = ∅ to [k]. An injection ι from [` + 1] makes up for k ⋅ f k derangements on [k + 1].

to [k], ` ∈ [k]0 , can have k values for A derangement σ on [k − 1] can be

ι(` + 1), and ι ↾ [`] (↾ stands for “restricted manipulated as follows. Define τ ∶ [k −1] →

to”) runs through all injections from [`] [k] ∖ {`} by τ (i) = i for i < ` and τ (i) = i + 1

to [k] ∖ {ι(` + 1)}, such that there are all otherwise. This yields a derangement ̃ σ on

(k − 1)! k! [k +1] by putting ̃ σ = τ ○σ ○τ −1 on [k]∖{`},

in all k = injec-

((k − 1) − `)! (k − (` + 1))! ̃

σ(`) = k + 1, and ̃ σ (k + 1) = `. This leads to

tions from [` + 1] to [k]. another k ⋅ f k−1 derangements on [k + 1]

The statement about bijections fol- which are obviously different from the ones

lows from the special case ` = k, together constructed earlier by the fact that they

with the pigeonhole principle which ex- just switch k + 1 with some ` ∈ [k]. Con-

cludes the possibility of an injection from versely, a derangement on [k + 1] either has

[k] to a smaller set. this property or not, such that it is easy to

convince oneself that all of them are among

b) Again by the pigeonhole principle, there the k (f k +f k−1 ) constructed ones. We thus

is no subset of [k] with ` > k elements. For observed the two basic rules of counting,

k! namely not to forget any object and not to

k ≥ `, we have from (a) injective

(k − `)! count any twice.

mappings from [`] to [k]. Each element of b) To show that (0.14) follows from (0.15)

[k] is easy: clearly, x1 = 0 and for k ∈ N, we can

( ) occurs `! times as a permuted image

` add the two equations

set of one of these injections.

xk+1 = (k + 1)xk − (−1)k ,

c) For k < `, all three terms are 0. For k = `,

xk = kxk−1 + (−1)k ,

k+1 k k

we have ( ) = 1 = ( ) and ( ) = 0.

`+1 ` `+1 to obtain xk+1 + xk = (k + 1)xk + kxk−1 ,

If k > `, then k +1 ≥ `+1, k ≥ `, and k ≥ `+1, whence xk+1 = k (xk + xk−1 ).

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 267

As Euler admits himself, “however, it 1110 = 10112 , such that every bit of 11 is

is not as easy” to derive (0.15) from (0.14). smaller than or equal to the corresponding

Therefore, we first prove formula (0.16) as- one of 1039 and therefore (1039

11

) is odd ac-

suming (0.14) by induction, where the in- cording to (0.8).

duction step for k ∈ N reads

Exercise 0.5 Employ Fleury’s algorithm:

xk+1 = k(xk + xk−1 ) start in a vertex of odd degree, A say, avoid

using a bridge (edge) that separates the re-

k−1

(−1)` (−1)k k maining graph into two components, and

= (k + 1)! ( ∑ + )

`=0 `! (k + 1)! delete used edges. For example:

k+1

(−1)` ABCDABDAC.

= (k + 1)! ∑ .

`=0 `! Exercise 0.6 We can employ Fleury’s al-

gorithm for the graph in Figure A.1, whose

Finally, the implication “(0.16) ⇒

vertices are all even. Starting with edge a,

(0.15)” is trivial.

we follow Fleury to get the trail abcdef,

Exercise 0.4 103910 = 100000011112 and here denoted by the labels of the edges.

f c

d a

b e

Exercise 0.7 We will describe the algo- n ∶= ∣G∣ for all v ∈ V (G). The length ` of the

rithm informally. To check an edge ab for queue is put to 1 and qb = 1, such that ver-

being a bridge in G, we search for a path tex b is now first in the line. Then we search

from b to a in G − ab. Starting in b, we successively for its neighbors u in G − ab

screen all neighbors of b, then neighbors of which have not yet been visited, i.e. with

neighbors and so on, but skipping those al- qu = n. If we encounter a, we stop: ab is

ready encountered. (Since we stay as close not a bridge. Otherwise we increase ` by 1

to the root b as possible, this is called a and put qu = `. After all neighbors of b have

breadth-first search (BFS)). The result is a been scanned, we decrease ` by 1 and also

tree rooted in b and spanning its connected all qu ∈ [n − 1] and restart the search for

component in G − ab. If a is not on that neighbors of the first vertex v in the queue,

tree, then ab is a bridge. that is with qv = 1, as long as there is any,

i.e. ` = ∣{u ∈ V (G) ∣ qu ∈ [n − 1]}∣ ≠ 0.

For a practical realization, we may

construct a queue of vertices to be checked Exercise 0.8 a) Coming from L T, the next

for their neighbors. Initially we define qv = three moves are µ λ µ, which can be found

268 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

twice in both equations (0.9) and (0.10), never outnumber the missionaries on a river

such that there are the four solutions bank.

Identifying women with cannibals

L T S R Q Z B G H X W V J K F D C P N M, and men with missionaries, it is clear that

L T S R Q Z X W V J H G B C P N M D F K, every solution of CB leads to a solution

L T S R Q Z B C P N M D F G H X W V J K, of MC, because individuals do not play a

L T S R Q P N M D C B Z X W V J H G F K. role in the latter and women can never

b) Here the triple is µλ2 , occurring outnumber men on a bank since otherwise

only in one kind in each equation, such that a woman would be without her brother.

we have the two solutions So if we solve MC, we only have to ver-

ify that the solution will also satisfy CB.

J V T S R W X Z Q P N M L K F D C B G H, We will stay with the women/men nota-

J V T S R W X H G F D C B Z Q P N M L K. tion and denote by mw a constellation of

m ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3} men and w ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3}

Exercise 0.9 Let us assume that K3,3 is women on the bank where the boat is

planar. Since it is 2-colorable, it does not present. By the jealousy condition, only

contain any triangle. Therefore 4∣∣∣K3,3 ∣∣∣ ≤ 10 of the 16 combinations are admissi-

2∥K3,3 ∥, such that with (0.11), we arrive at ble: 00, 01, 02, 03, 11, 22, 30, 31, 32, 33. Of

9 = ∥K3,3 ∥ ≤ 2(∣K3,3 ∣ − 2) = 8, a contradic- these 00 (no transfer possible), 01 (can only

tion. be reached from 33 and leads back there)

and 30 (more women than men on the other

Exercise 0.10 Hint: Reduce problem CB bank after transit) can be excluded imme-

to the missionaries and cannibals problem diately. The remaining 7 constellations lead

(MC): three missionaries and three can- to the graph in Figure A.2, whose edges

nibals want to cross the river with the are boat transfers labelled with the passen-

same boat as before; the cannibals must ger(s).

02

ww w

33 ww w mm mw

32 03 31 22

mw m

11

Figure A.2: The graph of the missionaries and cannibals problem

Note that this graph contains a loop at ver- In fact, all solutions lead to solutions

tex 22. Quite obviously, there are precisely of (CB), where now individual identities

four optimal solutions of length 11. One of increase the number of different solutions.

the solutions has been given in Latin verses For instance the transfer 33 → 02 can be

(cf. [265, p. 74]): performed with any of the three pairs of

women, whereas the reverse transfer has

Binae, sola, duae, mulier, duo, vir mulierque,

to be done with the only pair present. A

Bini, sola, duae, solus, vir cum mulier.

combinatorial analysis of all cases based

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 269

on Figure A.3 leads to 486 solutions alto- land in the middle of the river; cf. [265].

gether. It seems that this number has never The problem has also been employed as an

been given in the abundant literature of the example for problem representations, i.e.

problem. models, in the Artificial Intelligence liter-

Variations include higher numbers of ature; cf. [12].

couples and (remember Königsberg!) an is-

2

1 2

3 2

1 3 3 1 1 1

3 1

1 1

bit is switched. This yields the vertex col-

Exercise 1.1 The two pendant vertices are

oring. It can be proved by induction that

the end-vertices of a path. By the Hand-

moves of type 0 and 1 are alternating along

shaking lemma the rest of the vertices form

a shortest path from α(n) to ω (n) , obviously

a union of cycles.

starting and ending with move type 0.

Exercise 1.2 The path of length 2n − 1

from α(n) to ω (n) in Rn can be dissected Exercise 1.4 a) The state graph is con-

into the two paths from 0n to 1n and from structed by adding edges {s00, s11} with

1n = 11n−1 to ω (n) = 10n−1 of lengths βn s ∈ B n−2 to Rn , just like the red edges in

and βn−1 , respectively. Figure A.4.

Figure A.4: The graph R3 with double moves (red edges)

b) We may define the graph R ̃n from the β̃n+1 + β̃n = 3 ⋅ 2n−1 − 1. For γn ∶= 2n−1 − β̃n

previous graph by deleting all vertices of this means that γ1 = 0 and ∀ n ∈ N ∶ γn+1 =

the form s01, because they subdivide the 1 − γn , whence

new edges. It is a path graph again, whose

length is 2n − 1 + 2n−2 − 2 ⋅ 2n−2 = 3 ⋅ 2n−2 − 1. β̃n = 2

n−1

− (n even) .

c) As in (1.2), we have β̃1 = 1, ∀ n ∈ N ∶

270 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 1.5 Hint: (2n −1) mod 3 = n mod Exercise 1.10 Hint: Starting at 0n , walk

2. For n = 0, C = V and ∣C∣ = 1. For along the edges of the cube by switching

n ∈ N, either 0n or 0n−1 1 is a codeword. bgk in the k-th step for k ∈ [2n − 1]. This

Consequently, the codewords are those ver- path will end in 0n−1 1, corresponding to a

tices s ∈ B n with d(s) mod 3 = 0 or 1, re- corner of the n-cube which is linked to our

spectively. From the hint it follows that for starting corner by an extra edge.

even n necessarily α(n) and ω (n) are code-

1 n Exercise 1.11 We will show that Corol-

words and that ∣C∣ = (2 + 2); for odd n lary 1.11 remains valid with g replaced by

3

there are two perfect codes, containing ei- a. We first claim that for any r ∈ N0 , (i)

1 n

ther α(n) or ω (n) and with ∣C∣ = (2 + 1). a2r = r + 1, and that (ii) ak < r + 1 for any

3 k < 2r .

Exercise 1.6 We are looking for the state We proceed by induction on r, the

s ∈ B 14 which lies on the path R14 between cases r = 0 and r = 1 being trivial. Let

114 and 014 at a distance 9999 from the for- r ≥ 2 and suppose that a2r−1 = r and that

mer. Since β14 = d(114 , s)+d(s, 014 ), we get the terms before a2r−1 are smaller than r.

2 The 2r−1 − 1 terms after the term a2r−1

d(s, 014 ) = ⌈ (214 − 1)⌉ − d(114 , s) constructed by the greedy algorithm coin-

3

= 10922 − 9999 = 923 cide with the first 2r−1 − 1 terms of the

= 000011100110112 . sequence. Indeed, if we would construct a

square, it would not contain a2r−1 because

We can now apply the Gray code au- by the induction hypothesis the terms be-

tomaton in Figure 1.4 which yields s = fore it are smaller. So a square would

00001001010110. Therefore, rings 2, 3, 5, have to appear before (or, equivalently, af-

7, and 10 are on the bar, all others are off. ter) a2r−1 , which is not possible. Hence we

Exercise 1.7 Obviously, W (P1 ) = 0, and have a sequence containing (2r−1 − 1) +

for a pendant vertex e of Pk , k > 1, we have 1 + (2r−1 − 1) = 2r − 1 terms of the form

W (Pk ) = ∑ d(e, v) + W (Pk−1 ) 1, 2, . . . , 1, r − 1, 1, 2, . . . , 1, r, 1, 2, . . . , 1, r −

v∈V (Pk ) 1, 1, 2, . . . , 1. Now we see that a2r = r+1, for

k otherwise a square would be constructed.

= ∆k−1 + W (Pk−1 ) = ( ) + W (Pk−1 ) . Moreover, the above argument also implies

2

part (ii) of the claim.

Comparing this with Exercise 0.2(c), we re-

Suppose now that k = 2r (2s + 1),

alize that W (Pk−1 ) fulfills the same recur-

where s ≥ 1. Let t ∈ N be selected such that

rence as (k3), such that W (Pk ) = (k+1 ).

3 2t < k < 2t+1 . To show that ak = r + 1 in

Exercise 1.8 Write k = 2r (2s + 1), r, s ≥ 0. this case too, we proceed by induction on

Then observe that in the binary representa- t, where the case t = 1 is straightforward.

tion (bn bn−1 . . . b1 b0 )2 of k we have b0 = b1 = So let t ≥ 2. Then by the above, ak = ak−2t .

⋯ = br−1 = 0 and br = 1. Hence ̃ gk = r. Since Since k − 2t = 2r (2s + 1) − 2t = 2r ((2s + 1) −

by Corollary 1.11, gk = r + 1, the conclusion 2t−r ) and (2s + 1) − 2t−r is odd, the induc-

follows. tion hypothesis implies ak−2t = r + 1. But

then ak = r + 1 as well.

Exercise 1.9 The recursion for q follows

As an alternative, we may prove

immediately from the binary representa-

Proposition 1.12 by using induction on l ∈

tion of k. But then gk = q(k − 1) − q(k) + 2,

N to show that a2l−1 = 1, a2l = al + 1

because the right-hand side fulfills the re-

(cf. Proposition 1.10).

cursion of the Gros sequence in Proposi-

tion 1.10. Summing ̃ gk = q(k − 1) − q(k) + 1 Exercise 1.12 Hint: Use the fact that g is

from 1 to n yields Legendre’s formula. the greedy square-free sequence and argue

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 271

that g is also the greedy strongly square- (i) Never place a disc onto a disc or

free sequence. base of the same metal.

Rule (o) is obvious for a shortest so-

lution path and was the only rule to be fol-

Chapter 2 lowed to get from α(n) to ω (n) in the CR.

Rule (i) will guarantee by Proposition 2.3

Exercise 2.1 Observe that for any r, s ∈

that you stay on the optimal path.

T m , r ≠ s, rT n−m ∩ sT n−m = ∅. The rest

follows from the fact that sT n−m is the set Exercise 2.6 Let bn , n ∈ N0 , be the number

of regular states with the largest m discs of legal arrangements on the source peg i in

fixed in distribution s. the optimal solution with n discs. Note that

bn is at the same time the number of legal

Exercise 2.2 We may assume that the

arrangements of discs on the goal peg j.

transfer of the tower is from peg 0 to peg 2.

Then b0 = 1 = F2 and b1 = 2 = F3 . For

Replace the induction step in the proof of

n ≥ 2, we first move discs 1 to n − 1 onto

Theorem 2.1 by the following argument.

the intermediate peg 3 − i − j, yielding bn−1

Before the first move of disc d, to peg i,

arrangements on the source peg. After disc

say, state 0n−d 0(3 − i)d−1 must be reached

n is moved to the goal peg, discs 1 to n − 2

moving only discs from [d − 1] in the min-

are moved from peg 3 − i − j to peg i, yield-

imum number of moves, which by (strong)

ing bn−2 arrangements on the source peg.

induction assumption is 2d−1 − 1.

Now prove that these two sets of arrange-

The statement about the last step fol-

ments are disjoint and observe that after

lows by symmetry, since every minimal so-

that no new arrangement on the source peg

lution from 0n to 2n is a minimal solution

is obtained. It follows that bn = bn−1 + bn−2 .

from 2n to 0n taken in inverse move order.

The argument is completed by the fact that

The statement about the disc moved

an = bn−1 .

in step k in Theorem 2.1 then follows a pos-

A second proof can be based on

teriori from another characterization of the

Proposition 2.3. By that result, bn is also

Gros sequence reflecting the corresponding

the number of admissible arrangements on

property of the Gray code, namely

peg i. Now let ν ∈ N0 . If n = 2ν, then peg i is

∀ n ∈ N0 ∶ g2n = n + 1, either empty (we only count movable discs)

n or the bottom disc is 2k + 2, k ∈ [ν]0 , lead-

∀ k ∈ [2 − 1] ∶ g2n +k = g2n −k .

ing to b2k+1 admissible arrangements on i,

This, in turn, is an easy consequence of i.e.

ν−1

Corollary 1.11. b2ν = 1 + ∑ b2k+1 . (A.1)

k=0

Exercise 2.3 Hint: Use the recursive solu-

If n = 2ν+1, then again peg i is either empty

tion of the problem and induction.

or the bottom disc is 2k + 1, k ∈ [ν + 1]0 ,

Exercise 2.4 Hint: Start with h. leading to b2k admissible arrangements on

peg i, i.e.

Exercise 2.5 Let us assume that disc n

ν

and all discs of the same parity are made

b2ν+1 = 1 + ∑ b2k . (A.2)

of gold, the others from silver. Moreover, k=0

the bases of pegs 0 and 2 should be silver,

that of peg 1 golden. Then, apart from the From (A.1) it follows that b2ν + b2ν+1 =

divine rule, of course, follow just two com- b2ν+2 , and from (A.2) we get b2ν+1 + b2ν+2 =

mandments: b2ν+3 , i.e. the recurrence relation of the Fi-

(o) Never undo the move just made. bonacci sequence is satisfied by (bn )n∈N0 .

272 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

(In fact, (A.1) and (A.2) correspond to cept disc 5, leads to a change of state of the

an equivalent characterization of that se- P1-automaton of Figure 2.6, such that the

quence; cf. [213, p. 5].) algorithm returns δ = 1 and µ = 239; it ends

Exercise 2.7 The proof is by induction on in state 2. Hence we know that the minimal

n. The case n = 1 is clear. Let n ∈ N. Then solution has length 239 and starts with the

disc n + 1 moves by (j − i) mod 3 only once move of disc 1 from peg 1 to peg 0. There-

in move number 2n . Before that move, disc after, one can use the statement of Propo-

d ∈ [n] is relocated in moves (2k + 1) 2d−1 , sition 2.9 to obtain the rest of the optimal

k ∈ [2n−d ]0 , by path.

(((3 − i − j) − i) ((n − d) mod 2 + 1)) mod 3 Exercise 2.10 a) Apply Algorithm 10

= ((i − j) ((n − d) mod 2 + 1)) mod 3 for i and j, i.e. on two copies if the P1-

= ((j − i) (((n + 1) − d) mod 2 + 1)) mod 3 automaton, starting one in state i, the

other in state j. Then, as long as sd = k,

from induction assumption. Similarly for

the states of the automata will just be

the moves after the largest disc’s move,

switched and 2d−1 be added to µ. As soon as

when k ∈ [2n+1−d ]0 ∖ [2n−d ]0 .

sd ≠ k, however, only one of the automata

Exercise 2.8 We assume the initial nee- will change its state and add 2d−1 to µ. This

dle to be 0, the goal to be 2. The age of can not be compensated during the rest of

the universe (in moves) can be determined the performance.

if we know the state s ∈ T 64 of the Tower b) The initial state is s = 0n 1n , and

of Brahma after the current move of disc δ. the result will depend on the parity of n.

If δ ≠ 1, this move takes place between the If either n is odd and the goal peg is 1 or

two pegs which are not occupied by disc 1, n is even and the goal is 2, then the P1-

and by Proposition 2.4 the parity of δ de- automaton changes its state with every in-

cides on the direction of the move. If δ = 1, put of an sd , such that all in all 4n −1 moves

we know that d(s, 0n ) has to be odd. Al- are necessary. Otherwise, the automaton

though we do not know the value of s1 , we stays in the same state after the inputs from

can run the recursion in (2.5) down to d = 2 the n largest discs, such that only 4n − 2n

and put `0 = 1. moves are necessary. Quite obviously, the

Disc 58, being even, necessarily moves distance of s to the perfect state 02n is just

from 0 via 2 to 1. Therefore the goal of the 2n − 1.

current move is needle 1 because disc 1 lies

Exercise 2.11 Moving one step from s to

on needle 0. Therefore, sd = (d = 59) + (d =

t, say, s and t differ in precisely one tit:

58) and application of (2.5) yields that the

sd ≠ td . But then d(s, kn ) and d(t, kn ) can

move number is 258 + 257 (one may coun-

differ by at most 1, and by Lemma 2.8 they

tercheck with equations (2.3) and (2.4)),

cannot all be pairwise equal. The rest fol-

such that the age of the universe is about

lows from Proposition 2.13 as applied to s

13.7 billion years. (Note that this is in

and t, respectively.

amazingly good agreement with the present

knowledge of cosmology! So it seems that Exercise 2.12 We may assume that j =

the Brahmins have not yet touched disc 60 1. Then, by Proposition 2.13, d(s, 0n ) +

and that the universe will survive for a d(s, 2n ) = 2n − 1. Hence s lies on the short-

while.) est path from perfect state 0n to perfect

state 2n . There are 2n such states.

Exercise 2.9 The task is to get from state

01210021 to perfect state 18 . We apply Al- Exercise 2.13 The number of moves can be

gorithm 10, starting with k = 1 correspond- obtained from Proposition 2.19 as the value

ing to the goal peg. Each of the discs, ex- of y8 , which is 182. This number can also

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 273

the task to get from (01)4 to 28 . We can-

not use the information about the idle peg Exercise 2.16 One way to prove this

for this task directly, because we are deal- is to combine the Handshaking lemma

ing with the inverse task. However, since with Exercise 2.14. Other approaches are

disc 8 will only move once from peg 1 to to solve the recurrence ∥H30 ∥ = 0, ∥H31+n ∥ =

peg 0, the optimal solution will start with 3(∥H3n ∥ + 1), stemming from (2.10), or to

the transfer of a 7-tower from 1 to 2, which use (2.9) directly.

means that disc 1 is moved to peg 2 at the

beginning. The rest of the solution should Exercise 2.17 a) The proof is by induction

also be clear. on n, the case n = 1 being obvious. For the

induction step note first that any hamilto-

Exercise 2.14 By the definition of TH it nian path from 11+n to 21+n cannot use the

follows easily that the perfect states are of edge between 10n and 20n . But then the

degree 2 and all the other vertices are of hamiltonian path is obtained uniquely from

degree 3. induction assumption, putting together the

Exercise 2.15 We may, of course, assume unique hamiltonian paths on 1H3n , 0H3n ,

that n ∈ N. The vertices can be colored and 2H3n , respectively. As an illustration,

with colors 0, 1, and 2 according to Propo- the three hamiltonian paths between i4 and

sition 2.21. Each of the 3n−1 subgraphs in- j 4 , i ≠ j, can be seen in Figure 2.10 by delet-

duced by the three vertices s0, s1, and s2 ing the edges colored like vertex (3 − i − j)4 .

with s ∈ H3n−1 (they are isomorphic to the b) Hint: Use part (a). In Figure A.5, follow

complete graph K3 ) can obviously be to- the 27(!) letters of the English alphabet on

tally colored with colors 0, 1, and 2, re- the graph H33 .

specting the vertex colors already assigned. c) Clearly, H30 and H31 are eulerian. All the

For n > 1, the remaining edges, representing others are not even semi-eulerian, because

moves of discs 2 to n, can then be colored there are 3n −3 > 2 vertices of odd degree 3.

m o

l p

j r

k q

i s

g h t u

f b z v

e d c a & y x w

274 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 2.18 Let an ∶= ∣An ∣ and cn ∶= ∣Cn ∣. We get the following recurrence rela-

By construction, a0 = 0 and c0 = 1. More- tion for the numbers mn of matchings of

over, H3n , depending on the number `n of match-

ings of H3n with one, kn with two, and jn

an+1 = an + 2 ((n even)an + (n odd)cn ) , with three perfect states deleted:

cn+1 = cn + 2 ((n even)an + (n odd)cn ) ,

such that in particular cn+1 −an+1 = cn −an , m1+n = m3n + 3mn `2n + 3`2n kn + kn3 .

whence cn = an + 1. Therefore,

two perfect states deleted will also always

+ (n odd)(an + 1))

be composed as in Figure A.6, which now

= 3an + 2(n odd) . has to be read with the two lower perfect

states deleted. The remaining unsymmetric

It follows that

cases are shown in Figure A.7.

n−1

k This leads to

an = 2 ∑ 3 (n − 1 − k odd)

k=0

n−1 k1+n = mn `2n + mn kn2 + 2kn `2n

k n−1−k

= ∑ 3 (1 − (−1) ) + kn3 + 2jn kn `n + jn2 kn ;

k=0

n n n obtained by interchanging m with j and k

3 − 1 3 − (−1)

an = − with ` simultaneously. The seeds of this re-

2 4

currence are m0 = 1 = l0 , k0 = 0 = j0 .

1 n

= (3 − 2 + (−1)n ) b) The recurrence for the number of respec-

4

tive perfect matchings is the same as for

and cn = 41 (3n + 2 + (−1)n ). matchings in general, except for the seeds,

A more direct proof can be based on which are m0 = k0 = j0 = 0, l0 = 1. Obvi-

the fact that the number of perfect states ously, mn = 0 = kn for all n, because the cor-

which are codewords is 2 + (−1)n . Each responding graphs are of odd order. There-

of them covers 3 vertices, while the non- fore the recurrence reduces to

perfect codewords cover 4. So we only have

to solve the equation `1+n = jn `2n + `3n ,

the union of matchings of H3n or graphs ob- for all n ∈ N. So we are left with solving the

tained from H3n by deleting perfect states. recurrence

In Figure A.6 one can find all possible con-

`1 = 1, ∀ n ∈ N ∶ `1+n = 2`3n .

figurations depending on the number of

connecting edges included in the match-

It is obvious that `n = 2λn with the se-

ing, the two middle ones occurring in three

quence (λn )n∈N fulfilling λ1 = 0 and λ1+n =

symmetric versions each; the little trian-

3λn + 1. By Lemma 2.18, we get λn =

gles represent copies of matchings of H3n √ 3n

with perfect states deleted shown as un-

1

2

(3n−1 − 1), whence `n = √12 6 2 . (Note

filled dots. that λn = 13 ∥H3n−1 ∥; cf. Exercise 2.16.)

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 275

vertices s̄ and t̄ of H3∞ , there is an n ∈ N0 , The second equation follows immedi-

such that s̄ = 0∞ s, t̄ = 0∞ t, s, t ∈ H3n . Hence ately from this and (2.23).

there is a path between s and t in H3n and Let an ∶= ∑ µzn (µ). Then, by (2.20),

consequently there is a (finite) path be- µ∈N

tween s̄ and t̄ in H3∞ . a0 = 0 and

sition 2.27 we see that ε(is) becomes min- µ∈N

mark 2.12 tells us that d(is) = 0 ⇔ s = in , µ∈N

ε(is) ≥ 2n+1 − 1 − 12 (2n − 1 − 1) = 3 ⋅ 2n−1 . µ∈N

The latter value is strictly less than 2n+1 −1 + 2n zn (0) + ∑ (2n < µ)µzn (µ − 2n )

µ∈N

for n > 1 and then attained only for ver-

tices is with d(s, in ) = 2n − 1 and d(is) = 1. = ∑ µzn (µ) + 2n ∑ zn (µ) = an + 6n ,

µ∈N µ∈Z

Since s ∈ T n is uniquely determined by the

two values d(s, in ) and d(s; k, j), there are where use has been made of (2.23).

precisely 6 vertices fulfilling this, namely Lemma 2.18 yields the third identity in

ijin−1 , i, j ∈ T, i ≠ j. Lemma 2.29.

The periphery of H31+n consists of

those vertices is for which, without loss Exercise 2.23 We first remark that by an

of generality, d(s, in ) = d(s; k, j), or easy induction argument it follows from ei-

d(is, j 1+n ) = 2n+1 − 1, i.e. all vertices which ther (2.27) or (2.28) that ∀ n ∈ N0 ∶ b(2n ) =

have maximal distance to one of the per- 1.

fect states. For n ≤ 1, center and periphery Now assume that (2.27) holds. Then

coincide. b(2) = b(1) by the previous statement and

from case n = 1 of (2.27) we have b(3) =

Exercise 2.22 By definition of zn (µ) for a b(1) + b(1) = b(1) + b(2). Let (2.28) be true

fixed n, every s ∈ T n is counted for exactly up to ν − 1 ∈ N. Since we may assume that

one µ ∈ Z, which proves the first equation 2n < 2ν < 2n+1 for some n ∈ N, we have

276 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

2n−1 < ν < 2n . Then z such that the triangle xzy has a 60○ an-

gle at z. Let a ∶= ∥x − y∥, b ∶= ∥x − z∥, and

b(2ν) = b(2n+1 − 2ν) + b(2ν − 2n )

c ∶= ∥z − y∥. Then, by the cosine theorem,

= b (2(2n − ν)) + b (2(ν − 2n−1 )) a2 = b2 +c2 −2bc cos(60○ ) = b2 +c2 −bc. It fol-

= b(2n − ν) + b(ν − 2n−1 ) lows that 4a2 = (b + c)2 + 3(b − c)2 ≥ (b + c)2 ,

= b(ν) . whence 2a ≥ b + c. Now d(x, y) ≤ d(x, z) +

d(z, y) = ∥x − z∥ + ∥z − y∥ ≤ 2∥x − y∥.

Similarly, For the induction step we look at the

b(2ν + 1) = b (2n+1 − (2ν + 1)) straight line section between the two points

+ b ((2ν + 1) − 2n ) x and y on σ n+1 . Starting in x let x̃ be the

first point on σ n (if any) and ỹ the last

= b (2(2n − (ν + 1)) + 1)

point on σ n before we reach y (if any). Then

+ b (2(ν − 2n−1 ) + 1) for the (at most) one segment between x̃

= b (2n − (ν + 1)) + b(2n − ν) and ỹ we can use the induction assump-

+ b(ν − 2n−1 ) + b ((ν + 1) − 2n−1 ) tion, and the remaining segments can be

treated like the case n = 0, just in a smaller

= b(ν) + b(ν + 1) ,

triangle.

where we note that the equations in (2.28) If we choose x and y to be the center

are trivially valid for ν = 0. points of two sides of the middle triangle,

Now assume that (2.28) holds. The i.e. the one to be added in the step from

case n = 0 is clear. Let (2.27) be valid up to n = 0 to n = 1, then d(x, y) = 21 = 2∥x − y∥.

n − 1 ∈ N0 and let 2n < ν < 2n+1 . If v = 2µ,

Exercise 2.25 By isomorphy, the number

then 2n−1 < µ < 2n and we get

we are looking for is equal to the number

b(ν) = b(2µ) = b(µ) of states which are at a distance of µ from

a perfect state of the TH. So the statement

= b(2n − µ) + b(µ − 2n−1 ) follows immediately from Proposition 2.16.

= b(2n+1 − ν) + b(ν − 2n ) . An alternative proof can be based on

(0.8); this was Glaisher’s argument in [111,

For ν = 2µ+1, where 2n−1 ≤ µ < 2n , we have p. 156].

b(ν) = b(2µ + 1) = b(µ) + b(µ + 1) Exercise 2.26 As b(ν) is the number of odd

= b(2n − µ) + b(µ − 2n−1 ) entries in the νth subdiagonal of AT mod 2,

all entries of which add up to the Fibonacci

+ b (2n − (µ + 1)) + b ((µ + 1) − 2n−1 )

number Fν , b(ν) is even if and only if Fν

= b (2(2n − (µ + 1)) + 1) is (cf. Figure 2.26). From the recurrence for

+ b (2(µ − 2n−1 ) + 1) the Fibonacci numbers it is easy to see that

= b(2n+1 − ν) + b(ν − 2n ) .

this is the case if and only if 3 divides ν.

Chapter 3

Exercise 2.24 We show by induction on

n ∈ N0 that the inequality is true if x and y Exercise 3.1 As the start vertex take the

lie in the union σ n of all constituting subtri- state σ = 1 . . . (n − 2) n (n − 1) ∣ ∣ from

angles of side-lengths greater than or equal Remark 3.4. Then we have seen in this

to 2−n ; it then follows for the remaining remark that it takes 2n−2 moves to get

pairs by continuity. If n = 0, the points x disc n away from peg 0. After this first

and y lie on the triangle with side-lengths 1. move of the largest disc the state is ei-

Among the corners of that triangle choose ther n − 1 ∣ n ∣ 1 . . . n − 2 = 102n−2 or

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 277

t = 0n as the target state, then it is clear call is made for the task 6 3 ∣ 4 1 7 ∣ →

that disc n has to be moved (at least twice) ∣ ∣ 1 3 4 6 7 . This, in turn, is a standard

if we want to get from σ to t, and from case task which the algorithm analogously

formula (2.8) we deduce that the distance solves in 12 moves. Then disc 8 moves from

from the intermediate state to t is 2n − 1. peg 0 to 1 and another recursive call is

made for ∣ ∣ 1 3 4 6 7 → ∣ 1 3 4 6 7 ∣ , which

Exercise 3.2 Hint: Assume that n ≥ 3 and

is equivalent to a regular P0-type task for

distinguish three cases for the initial state

Ð

→ 5 discs, needing 31 moves.

σ ∈ V (H n

3 ):

Back in the main loop after 44 moves,

• Disc n lies on bottom of tn . disc 10 is transferred from peg 2 to 0 and

• sn ≠ tn and either sn−1 = 3−sn −tn another best buffer disc

or n does not lie on bottom of sn . ′

b = bb (1; ∅, D(2)) = bb (1; ∅, {5}) = 6

• sn ≠ tn , sn−1 ≠ 3 − sn − tn , and n

lies on bottom of sn .

is chosen, leading to a recursive call for

Make use of Lemma 3.2 and Theorem 3.5. ∣ 1 3 4 ∣ 5 → ∣ 1 3 4 5 ∣ , a regular task

4

Exercise 3.3 The optimal solutions are, re- equivalent to 2111 → 1 , taking 15 moves.

spectively, Move 61 is now made by disc 10 from 0

to 2. Finally, the algorithm is called again

4 7

53 ∣ ∣ 421 Ð

→ 3 ∣ 124 ∣ 5 = 21011 Ð → 214 , for ∣ 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 ∣ → 29 , a stan-

1 6 4 15 4 dard case P3 task which is solved similarly

53 ∣ ∣ 421 Ð

→ 3 ∣ 5 ∣ 421 Ð

→ 1234 ∣ ∣ 5 = 20 Ð→ 21 , by the algorithm taking another 382 moves,

53 ∣ ∣ 421 Ð

1 2

→ 3 ∣ 5 ∣ 421 Ð

6

→ 5 ∣ ∣ 3421 Ð

→ 21 .

4 the relatively large number stemming from

the fact that intermediate states are much

The figures on top of the arrows indi- more regular by now. Altogether 443 moves

cate the move numbers of the intermediate have been made. (A path using peg 1 in-

steps. So the lengths of the respective paths stead of the special peg for the intermediate

are 11, 22, and 9. It turns out that the path move of disc 10 takes at least 710 moves.)

where disc n moves from peg 0 to 1, back to

0, and finally to its goal peg 2 represents the Exercise 3.5 The upper bound follows im-

unique optimal solution. This shows that mediately from Theorem 3.5. For the lower

they do come back (cf. Lemma 2.26)! bound, note that for 1/12 of all states we

have sn−1 = j = sn with disc n above disc

Exercise 3.4 We are asked to get from σ = n − 1. In these (special) cases, a perfect

6 3 8 ∣ 4 1 7 9 2 ∣ 10 5 ∈ T10 to 210 ∈ T 10 (n − 1)-tower must be moved after the sec-

Ð→

in H 103 , which is a special case task. There- ond move of disc n, which takes precisely

fore, in the first call of Algorithm 13, n′ is 2n−1 − 1 moves of discs from [n − 1].

identified to be 9, such that ν = 0 and con- Numerical experiments (cf. [102,

sequently i = sp(σ) = 0, k = 1. The best Tabelle 4]) indicate that dn ≈ a⋅2n for large

buffer disc b is n with an a between 0.3 and 0.4.

bb (1; D(0), 10↑) = bb (1; {3, 6, 8}, ∅) = 9

such that a recursive call of the algo- Chapter 4

rithm is made for the standard case task

6 3 8 ∣ 4 1 7 ∣ → ∣ 1 3 4 6 7 8 ∣ , where j = 1,

Exercise 4.1 The vertices in question are

i = 0, and k = 2. Here the best buffer is

shown in Figure A.8. With the aid of the

bb (2; 8↑, D(1)) = bb (2; {3, 6}, {1, 4, 7}) , H3 -to-S3 automaton one finds that the

278 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

start vertex corresponds to 0110 in Sier- 2211, respectively. For (d) it suffices to en-

piński labelling. Similarly, the goal vertices ter the first two tits, leading to 20 ∗ ∗ ; for

in (a) to (c) transform into 2100, 2212, and (e), the first three tits become 211∗ .

0000

0002 0001

0012 0021

0011 0022

0010 0020

0211 0122

0222 0111

0221 0201 0200 0100 0102 0112

1222 2111

1202 1212 2121 2101

1100 1011 2022 2200

1111 1110 1120 1122 1022 1021 1001 1000 2000 2002 2012 2011 2211 2210 2220 2222

Figure A.8: Graph H34 for the tasks in Exercise 4.1 with the starting vertex in

green, the goal vertices in red

The first pair of input (0, 2) defines the of the corresponding graph. In Figure A.8

P2-decision automaton, namely with i = 0, the set of those goal states which need two

j = 2, and k = 1. Entering the other pairs moves of disc 4 to be reached from the green

leads to the states with the corresponding vertex 0220 is highlighted in the lower right

capital letter, such that for (a) and (d), disc subgraph; on the green line next to that

4 moves once only, for (c) and (e) it has to area one can find the only two goal vertices

move twice and for (b) there are two opti- with two shortest paths from 0220.

mal solutions including one or two moves

of the largest disc, respectively. Exercise 4.2 If tn+1 = i, then disc n + 1 will

For tasks involving a relatively small not move at all. If tn+1 = k, then we have

number of discs, one might, of course, find to use Romik’s P2 decision automaton in

the type of solution easily by an inspection Figure 2.27 with letters j and k switched

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 279

and we will always end up in state D. If that for any i, j and k, j ≠ k, there is a

tn+1 = j, then we employ the automaton as path between ij n−1 and ikn−1 which goes

it is and realize that, although we might through all vertices from iSpn . Obviously

reach state B eventually if the pair (k, k) that reduces the inductive argument to the

is to be entered, the j in the first position statement that j n and kn , j ≠ k, may be

of all subsequent input pairs will never lead connected in Spn by a path going through all

to either C or E. vertices (for all n). Without loss of general-

By isomorphy, non-perfect initial ity assume j = 0 and k = p−1. By the induc-

states exist for the TH as well such that tive hypothesis we may find a path from 0n

all tasks can be solved optimally with at to 01n−1 through all vertices of 0Spn . Add

most one move of the largest disc. the edge between 01n−1 and 10n−1 to the

path. By the same argument we may find a

Exercise 4.3 Hint: Induction on n.

path from 10n−1 to 12n−1 through all ver-

Exercise 4.4 For n = 1 the proposition is tices of 1Spn . Continue this procedure until

trivial since Sp1 is a complete graph. Let (p−2)(p−1)n−1 is joined to (p−1)(p−2)n−1

n ≥ 2 and consider the sequence of paths and a path from (p −1)(p −2)n−1 to (p −1)n

P0 , P1 , . . . , Pp−1 , where P0 is a path be- through all vertices of (p − 1)Spn is added at

tween the vertices 0(p − 1)n−1 and 01n−1 , the end.

Pp−1 between the vertices (p − 1)(p − 2)n−1

Exercise 4.5 Hint: Determine the size of a

and (p − 1)0n−1 , and for i = 1, 2, . . . , p − 2,

corresponding perfect code using the fact

Pi is a path between the vertices i(i − 1)n−1

that every vertex of it, except possibly some

and i(i + 1)n−1 . We claim that the paths Pi

extreme vertices, cover four vertices.

can be constructed in such a way that they

include all the vertices from iSpn , i ∈ [p]0 . Exercise 4.6 A planar drawing of S42 is given

To prove the claim it is enough to see in Figure A.9.

12 13

11

10

01

00

21 20 02 03 30 31

22 33

23 32

Every subgraph ijS41 of S43 with i, j ∈ tices induce a K5 -subdivision in S43 . Hence

[4]0 , i ≠ j, is isomorphic to K4 . Adding all S4n with n ≥ 3 are non-planar and so are

a vertex ikj with i ≠ k ≠ j it can easily Spn with p > 4 and n ≥ 1 since they contain

be seen from Figure 4.5 that these five ver- a K5 .

280 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

Exercise 4.7 Hint: Mimic the proof of pegs, 1 + x move at least twice, such that

Proposition 2.22. 2(1 + x) + 2 = 2(2 + x) moves are necessary.

Exercise 4.8 First check the cases p = 1, 2. Exercise 5.3 First select k non-empty pegs

For p ≥ 3, the p-cliques sSp1 (cf. Theo- in (kp) ways. Top discs for these pegs can

rem 4.3) cover all vertices of Spn . As there be selected in (n−1

k−1

) ways because disc 1 is

are pn−1 such cliques and each can con- always one of them. After the top discs are

tain at most one vertex of an independent selected, there are k! ways to assign them

set, α (Spn ) ≤ pn−1 . On the other hand, to the non-empty pegs.

it is well-known (and not difficult to see)

Exercise 5.4 This is proved by induction

that χ(G) ≥ ∣G∣/α(G); cf. [336, Proposi-

on ν. Quite surprisingly, the case ν = 0

tion 5.1.7]. Since χ(Spn ) = p it follows that

is not trivial as usual but requires another

α (Spn ) ≥ pn−1 . (A direct argument for the

straightforward induction on q to get

latter inequality would be to observe that

q

vertices of the form sn sn−1 . . . s2 0 are not i q q

∑(−2) ( ) = (−1) .

adjacent; cf. the canonical vertex-coloring.) i=0 i

The induction step is then by showing that

Chapter 5 both polynomials fulfill the recurrence re-

lation

Exercise 5.1 Let x = 0 (red case in Fig- 1 ν+q

ure 5.3). Then mn = ∆ν−1 . For m = mn , P (ν + 1) = (P (ν) + ( )) ,

2 q

we have µ + (y ≠ 0) = ν − 1 < ν = n − m. If

m < mn , then µ + (y ≠ 0) < ν − 1 + 1 = ν < which in turn follows from the standard

n−m. For m > mn , necessarily µ = ν −1 and properties of combinatorial numbers.

y ∈ [ν − 1], such that µ + (y ≠ 0) = ν − 1 + 1 = Exercise 5.5 Let s be an arbitrary regu-

ν > ν − y = n − m. lar state and consider a sequence M of

Turning to the case x ≠ 0 (green in moves in which each disc is moved at least

Figure 5.3), mn has to be written as ∆ν , once. Just before disc n is moved, discs

if x = ν, and ∆ν−1 + x otherwise. In the 1, 2, . . . , n − 1 are on the same peg. With-

former case we have for m = mn : µ + (y ≠ out loss of generality assume that disc n − 1

0) = ν = n − m, in the latter µ + (y ≠ 0) = is moved after the move of disc n. It fol-

ν − 1 + 1 = ν = n − m. If m < mn , then lows that after the move of n, we need to

µ + (y ≠ 0) ≤ µ + 1 ≤ ν < n − m. So let finally solve a P0 problem for n − 2 discs using

m > mn . Then either µ = ν − 1 and y > x at least 2n−2 − 1 moves and to move disc

or µ = ν and y ∈ [x]0 . In the former case, n − 1. Together with the move of disc n, the

µ + (y ≠ 0) = ν − 1 + 1 = ν > n − m and in the sequence M is of length at least 2n−2 + 1.

latter case µ + (y ≠ 0) = ν + (y ≠ 0) ≥ ν > Hence g(3, n) ≥ 2n−2 + 1. To see that equal-

n − m. ity holds, consider the regular state 001n−2 .

Exercise 5.2 The case ν = 0 is trivial; for Exercise 5.6 Let k ∈ [p] and consider the

ν = 1 it is clear that each disc moves at regular states in which exactly k pegs are

least once. For ν = 2 we have n = 3 + x non-empty. We can select k pegs in (kp)

discs, x ∈ [3]0 , which can be transferred to ways. The n discs can be partitioned into k

two pegs in 2(2+x) moves. But this number non-empty parts in { nk } ways, these parts

is also needed, because if all discs go to one can be distributed onto k pegs in k! ways.

and the same peg, then 2 + x of them have Hence there are exactly (kp) { nk } k! = { nk } pk

to move at least twice, resulting in at least regular states with exactly k non-empty

2(2 + x) + 1 moves. With 3 + x discs on two pegs.

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 281

Consider next an arbitrary regular Now start in the state 01n of Hp1+n and

state with k non-empty pegs. There are transfer the tower of n smallest discs on

k(p − k) legal moves between non-empty hamiltonian paths according to the above

and empty pegs. Moreover, between two in a cyclic fashion from peg to peg, each

non-empty pegs, exactly one move is legal. complete transfer being followed by a sin-

We conclude that the degree of an arbi- gle move of disc n + 1 to the next peg in the

trary regular state with k non-empty pegs same direction.

is k(p − k) + (k2) = 12 k(2p − k − 1), the extra

factor 12 in the desired formula stemming Exercise 5.8 Assume that one of the p(p−1)

from double-counting of edges. non-perfect states, say 01, is a codeword.

Then 2Hp1 contains no codeword, because

Exercise 5.7 Hint: First use induction on

otherwise 21 would be covered twice. But

n to show that there is a hamiltonian

this means that 22 is not covered.

path starting and ending in distinct per-

fect states. (Say, move disc n + 1 stepwise Being surrounded by non-codewords,

from peg 0 to 1, from peg 1 to peg 2, and all perfect states must be codewords them-

so on to p − 1. Before each such move, a selves. This results in a (unique) perfect

hamiltonian path in the corresponding n code.

discs subgraph can be performed to trans- Exercise 5.9 Hint: Look at the 24 flat states,

fer the tower consisting of the n smallest i.e. those where the three discs are dis-

discs to a peg allowing disc n + 1 to move. tributed on three different pegs.

Note that this sequence visits all the states The subgraph of H43 shown in Fig-

in which disc n + 1 is on a fixed peg. Act ure A.10 is a subdivision of K3,3 . Therefore,

similarly after the last move of disc n + 1.) by Kuratowski’s theorem, H43 is not planar.

302 132

213 023

230 310 103 031 321

013 123

231 301

Exercise 5.10 The proof of Proposition 5.40 position. (If there is no such disc, then t is

is by induction on n. The cases n = 0 reached and each disc moved at most once.)

and n = 1 are clear. Now let s, t ∈ [p]n+1

0 , Move it to peg k. Now peg d − 1, the goal of

n ∈ [p − 2], with ∀ d ∈ [n + 1] ∶ td = d − 1. disc d, is not empty and all discs on it are

Starting in s, move as many discs as pos- not in their end position. We may therefore

sible directly to their goal pegs. Then, by consider the task which remains after ignor-

virtue of Lemma 5.39, some peg k ≥ n + 1 ing pegs k and d−1 and all discs lying there.

ν

is empty in the resulting state. Let d be This is a task in Hp−2 with ν ∈ [n]0 of the

any top disc which is not already in its end same type as the original one. (The cases

282 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

p = 3 and 4 can easily be sorted out.) By in- Now ε(s) ≥ n + ⌊ n2 ⌋ for every s, such

duction assumption, this can be solved with that rad(Hpn ) ≥ n + ⌊ n2 ⌋.

at most ⌊ ν2 ⌋ ≤ ⌊ n−1

2

⌋ discs moving precisely For (b) we deduce from Proposi-

twice and all other discs moving at most tion 5.40 that

once, those in end position being fixed. All

n n n

discs on peg d − 1 can now be moved di- ∃ t ∈ [p]0 ∀ s ∈ [p]0 ∶ d(s, t) ≤ n + ⌊ ⌋ ,

rectly to their goals and finally disc d too 2

in its second move. The former ones there- such that there is a t with ε(t) ≤ n + ⌊ n2 ⌋,

fore all moved precisely once, the latter one

whence rad(Hpn ) ≤ n + ⌊ n2 ⌋.

twice; no disc in end position was moved.

Note that t and in fact all flat states

Since ⌊ n−1 ⌋ + 1 = ⌊ n+1 ⌋, Proposition 5.40 is

2 2 belong to the center of Hpn if n < p. The

proved.

sequence xn = n + ⌊ n2 ⌋ is [296, A032766]; it

For (a) we show that

fulfills the recurrence

n n n

∀ s ∈ [p]0 ∃ t ∈ [p]0 ∶ d(s, t) ≥ n + ⌊ ⌋ . x0 = 0, x1 = 1, ∀ n ∈ N ∶ xn+2 = xn + 3 .

2

For s ∈ [p]n

0 let ∀ d ∈ [⌈ 2 ⌉]:

n

Exercise 5.11 Hint: Observe that the states

in question are precisely the states in which

td = (sd + (sd = sn−d+1 )) mod p = tn−d+1 . disc n is alone on peg i and j is the only

empty peg. (For the sequence, cf. [296,

Then all discs from [n]∖[⌊ n2 ⌋] move at least

A180119].)

once, the others at least twice, summing up

to at least n + ⌊ n2 ⌋ moves. Exercise 5.12 See Figure A.11.

the number of moves of all the other discs.

Exercise 6.1 Hint: Observe that in any op- Then use induction to reach the required

timal sequence of moves, after a move of conclusion.

a disc that is not one of the two smallest,

the next move must be either a move of Exercise 6.2 A solution making 11 moves

the smallest white disc or a move of the is presented below. By (6.2), the solution

smallest black disc. Also, any solution must is optimal. To distinguish the colors of the

start and end with a move of a smallest three stacks we denote their discs by d, d′ ,

disc. Hence the number of moves of the and d′′ , d ∈ {1, 2}, respectively.

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 283

1 1′ 1′′

2 2′ 2′′

→ and Romik’s automaton in Figure 2.27 tells

1 1′′ us that the largest disc 8, i.e. the largest

2 2′ 1′ 2′′

→ golden disc, moves twice in the shortest

1

→ path, i.e. we have a class II task. Before the

2 2′ 1′ 2′′ 1′′

first move of disc 8, disc 7 is not moved, be-

1

2 2′ 1′ 2′′ 1′′

→ cause it is not in the way. Between the two

1 moves of disc 8, the 7-tower of smaller discs

2 2′ 1′ 2′′ 1′′

→ is transferred with one move of disc 7. This

1

→ is followed by the last move of disc 8. After

2′′ 2 2′ 1′ 1′′

that the 7-tower is decomposed into its final

1

2′′ 2 2′ 1′ 1′′

→ distribution with no move of disc 7 because

1

it is already in its terminal position and

2′′ 2 1′ 2′ 1′′

→ the starting configuration is perfect. Thus,

1

→ the largest silver disc moves only once, al-

2′′ 2 1′ 2′ 1′′

though it is the “lighter” one. The shortest

1

2′′ 2 1′ 2′ 1′′

→ path needs 208 moves.

1 1′ Exercise 6.6 With the aid of the H3 -to-S3

2′′ 2 2′ 1′′

→

′′ ′ automaton of Figure 4.4 the task translates

1 1 1

2′′ 2 2′ into the task s ∶= 02020202 → 12121212 =∶ t

in S38 . Romik’s automaton in Figure 2.27,

with i = 0, j = 1, and k = 2 moves to state B

Exercise 6.3 By Theorem 6.2 it suffices to on the input (k, k), remains there after the

find two different solutions with 22 moves. next input (i, j) and then, on (k, k) again,

changes to state E, such that disc 8 neces-

Exercise 6.4 As in the case of an even num- sarily moves twice. It follows that

ber of discs, the optimal solution for the

task 1(01)n → 0(10)n can be decomposed d(s, t) = d(s, 027 ) + 1 + (27 − 1)

into the transfer of 2n smaller discs to peg

+ 1 + d(127 , t) = 213 .

2, the single move of the extra disc to peg

0 and the sorting of the 2n-tower on 2 into The first sub-task is 201201 → 16 in H36 .

odd and even on pegs 0 and 1, respectively. The P1-automaton in Figure 2.6 yields 1 as

This time, the first three input pairs are the idle peg of the best first move, such that

(1, 0), (0, 1), and (1, 0) for the Hanoi la- disc 2 moves from peg 0 to peg 2. (With

belling, leading to (1, 0), (2, 2), (0, 1) in the only one move of the largest disc, the full

Sierpiński notation, such that in the P2 de- 255 moves are needed; in that case, disc 1

cision automaton i = 1, j = 0, and k = 2 moves to peg 2 first, such that this would

and again the two input pairs are (k, k) destroy optimality already.)

and (j, i). Therefore, the total number of

moves is 2y2n +1 = ⌊ 57 22n+1 ⌋+(n mod 3 = 2). Exercise 6.7 Since t = 2 = r and N = 3, The-

Putting the results together, the swapping orem 6.3 asserts that the optimal number

of the positions of N ∈ N discs, initially of moves is 29, which is indeed the length

sorted according to parity, needs 2yN−1 +1 = of the given path. The sequence of moves

⌊ 75 2N ⌋ + (N mod 3 = 2) moves. differs from the one produced by Algo-

rithm 20 starting from the state 217 ∣ 465 ∣ 3.

Exercise 6.5 Translated into the language After this state disc 2 is moved while Algo-

of the TH, the task is (01)4 → (1001)2 . rithm 20 moves disc 3.

Applying the H3 -to-S3 automaton of Fig-

ure 4.4, this becomes 0(210)2 2 → (1221)2 ,

284 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

l

Exercise 7.1 As G is hamiltonian, G−X has tween s and σ is given by sn+l = l + ∑ σk

at most ∣X∣ connected components consist- k=1

ing of the sections of an arbitrary hamilto- for all l ∈ [p + 1]0 . Figure A.12 refers to this

nian cycle C between the removed vertices situation: on the left one can see the posi-

of X. Hence if two vertices of X would be tions sn+k of peg bottoms dividing the set

consecutive on C, G − X would consist of of n (uncolored) balls, and on the right the

at most ∣X∣ − 1 connected components. corresponding distribution of the balls on

For G = L, consider X as the set of the pegs is depicted.

the 12 vertices of degree 4.

1 k p

h1

{ hk

{ { hp

{

{

{

0=sn+0 sn+1 sn+k-1 sn+k sn+p-1 sn+p=n+p 1 k p

Figure A.12: Correspondence between positions of peg bottoms and the distribu-

tion of balls

p

take the classical London graph L, where

n p

lh = ∣{σ ∈ N0 ∣ σ ≤ h, ∑ σk = n}∣ , p = 3 = n and h = 123, such that

k=1

3 3 ν µ

3 ν

where σ ≤ h is meant componentwise, l123 = ∑ l12 =∑ ∑ ∑ (λ = 0)

ν=0 ν=0 µ=ν−2 λ=µ−1

i.e. σk ≤ hk for every k ∈ [p]. (Of course,

3 ν

lhn = 0 for n < 0.) Then for p = 0 we obvi-

= ∑ ∑ (µ ≤ 1) = 1 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 6.

ously get ν=0 µ=ν−2

n

l∅ = (n = 0). (A.3)

c) Each σ corresponds to a distribution of

Moreover, if g ∈ Np0 and α ∈ N0 , then

n uncolored balls on the pegs. Then there

n

n are n! different colorings of the balls.

lgα = ∑ lgν ; (A.4)

ν=n−α Exercise 7.3 a) Induction on p. For p = 1,

p we have

this is because necessarily σp+1 = n − ∑ σk n

1+n−1

p

k=1 lnn = ∑ l∅ν

=1=( ).

ν=0 n

and therefore ∑ σk runs through all (non-

k=1 Furthermore,

negative) values from n − α to n.

With equation (A.4), we can break n n

p+ν −1

down lhn recursively to a sum consisting lnnp+1 = ∑ lnnp = ∑ ( )

µ ν=0 ν=0 ν

only of terms of the form l∅ , which can then

be evaluated using equation (A.3). Explicit p+1+n−1

=( ),

formulas for lhn can only be given in specific n

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 285

the latter by induction on n. It follows that where in the fourth step use has been made

p+n−1 (p + n − 1)! of formula (0.6).

∣Opn ∣ = n!( )= .

n (p − 1)!

Exercise 7.5 a) The steps from the proof of

b) Of all permutations s ∈ Symn+p only Theorem 7.3 are illustrated in Figure A.13.

those with sp+n = p + n are admissible, b) Since no ball is in right position at the

i.e. at most ∣Symn+p−1 ∣ = (p + n − 1)!. Only start, it is clear that each one has to move

1/(p − 1)! of these fulfil the necessary con- at least once and ball 3 at least twice. More-

dition of strict monotonicity sn+1 < sn+2 < over, an easy combinatorial analysis shows

⋯ < sn+p−1 < sn+p . But the latter also im- that if ball 2 moves once only, then 4 has to

plies k ≤ sn+k ≤ n + k for all k ∈ [p + 1]0 , move three times and if ball 4 moves only

whence 1 ≤ sn+k − sn+k−1 ≤ n + 1 for all once, then 2 moves thrice. Therefore, an op-

k ∈ [p]. Therefore the condition in Defi- timal solution needs at least 7 steps. Here

nition 7.2 is automatically fulfilled for all is one:

remaining permutations.

1∣2∣43 → 21∣ ∣43 → 21∣4∣3 → 1∣24∣3 →

Exercise 7.4 Choose q ∈ [p] pegs. The

number of states with all balls distributed 1∣324∣ → ∣324∣1 → ∣24∣31 → ∣4∣231 .

among all these pegs is, for n ≥ q,

Exercise 7.6 The lower bound follows from

n! n−1 1 = g (L3222 ) ≤ cr (L3222 ) . For the upper

∣Oqn−q ∣ = n!( ).

(n − q)! q−1 bound, see Figure A.14. Better bounds are

n!

This is so because there are (n−q)! choices not known so far.

to fill the bottom line of balls on all q pegs,

and the remaining n − q balls can be dis- Exercise 7.7 This can be done by adding all

tributed arbitrarily, such that the number missing vertices and their adjacent edges to

of these distributions can be taken from the the drawing of L3222 in Figure 7.9 without

previous exercise. introducing any crossings. In Figure A.15

Each of these states has degree q(p − the mixed graph of Lucas’s second problem

Ð→

1), whence by the Handshaking lemma for 3 discs H 33 is drawn on the torus; the

p

underlying graph, completed by the edges

n 1 p n−1 in red, is O33 . In fact, we know from Exer-

∥Op ∥ = (p − 1) n! ∑ q( )( )

2 q=1 q q−1 cise 7.4 that ∥O3n ∥ = 23 n(n + 1)! = 3∆n n!

p

p−1 n−1 (cf. [102, Satz 3.7]). Finsterwalder noted

= ∆p−1 n! ∑ ( )( ) in [102, Satz 3.8] that 3∆n−1 n! out of the

q=1 q −1 q−1

2∥O3n ∥ arcs of the directed Oxford graph

n−1

p−1 n−1 Ð

→

= ∆p−1 n! ∑ ( )( ) are missing in H n 3 because these moves do

λ=0 λ n −1−λ not obey the divine rule; hence it has only

3

p−2+n 2

n(n + 3)n! arcs. Finally, ∆n−2 n! edges of

= ∆p−1 n!( )

n−1 On3 , n ∈ N, i.e. 6 for n = 3, are missing in the

Ð

→

p−2+n underlying graph of H n 3 , because the cor-

( = ∆p−1 n!( )) responding moves do not conform with the

p−1

divine rule in both directions; hence, this

n p (p − 2 + n)! graph has (n2 + 3n − 1)n! edges (cf. [102,

= ,

2 (p − 2)! Satz 3.9]).

286 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

(0)

! 2

5 4 3

1 2 3 5 4 1

2 moves 3 moves

( 1)

3 3

4 5 1 2

1 2 5 4

1 4 2 4

(2)

3 4 5 3

1 5 (3) 1 4

4 2 5 2

1 5 (4.2) 4 1

(3)

3 5 4 3

5 1 ( 4.1) 4 1

4 2 5 2

2 moves

( 4.1)

5 5 2 moves 4

5 1 1 1 4 1

4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 5 2 3

(4.2)

3 2 moves 2 moves 3

4 1 4 1 4 1 1 4

5 2 5 2 3 5 2 3 5 2

Exercise 7.8 Let us first determine the fixed a fixed point of (χ, π) if both χ and π are

points for the action of (Γ33 , ⋅ , 133 ) on rotations (derangements) or both are reflec-

V (L3222 ). Apart from the identity 133 , only tions. The distribution of fixed points to the

“flat” distributions of the three balls can group elements is shown in Table A.1.

lead to a fixed point, and they can only be

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 287

3||21

23|1| 23||1

|2|31

3|1|2

3|2|1

3|21|

|1|32 |32|1

13||2 13|2|

1||32 3||12 3|12| 1|32|

|31|2

|3|12 |12|3

31||2 31|2|

1|3|2 1|2|3

21|3| 21||3

|13|2 |2|13

|21|3

2|13| 2||13

1|23| 1||23

12|3| 12||3

|23|1 |1|23

2|31|

2|3|1

2|1|3

32||1 32|1|

|3|21

2||31

We can read the following from that and the other one of the 6 flat distributions

table. The sum of the sizes of the fixed of balls, each of which is fixed under the ac-

point sets is tion of 6 group elements. We therefore only

3 g have to consider two representatives, 12 ∣ 3 ∣

∑ ∣V (L222 ) ∣ = 42 + 4 × 3 + 9 × 2 = 72 , and 1 ∣ 2 ∣ 3, say. They have degrees 3 and 6,

g∈Γ33

respectively, such that the statements re-

such that Burnside’s lemma Corollary 0.9 lating to degrees are obvious.

yields (with ∣Γ33 ∣ = 3! × 3! = 36) that the

number of equisets of vertices is just 2. We now turn to the conclusions about

From Theorem 0.8 we learn that one of the metric properties of L3222 . The only tedious

classes consists of the 36 non-flat states, step is to determine all distances to other

which stay fixed only under the identity, vertices from the two prototype states,

288 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

123||

|321|

3|21| 3||21

|31|2 23|1| 23||1 |2|31 ||231

||132 |132|

3|1|2 3|2|1

|1|32 |32|1

231|| ||312 13||2 13|2| |312|

1||32 1|32|

3||12 3|12|

|3|12 |12|3

31||2 213|| 31|2|

21|3| |213| ||213 21||3

321||

|23|1 2|3|1 12|3| 12||3 2|1|3 |1|23

|123| ||123

||321

2||31 32||1 32|1| 2|31|

132|| |231|

Ð

→

Figure A.15: The mixed graph H 33 and extra edges of O33 on the torus

i.e. to span shortest-path trees rooted in attained, e.g. for the task 1 ∣ 2 ∣ 3 → 3 ∣ ∣ 12.

12 ∣ 3 ∣ and 1 ∣ 2 ∣ 3. This can be done, e.g., (From the Handshaking lemma it also fol-

by recourse to Figure A.14. lows that ∥L3222 ∥ = 72.) Moreover, the sums

In Figure A.16 all distances from the of lengths of all shortest paths in the trees

respective start vertices are indicated. It are 140 and 133, respectively. This leads to

turns out that the height of both trees is the total sum of 36 ⋅ 140 + 6 ⋅ 133 = 5838 and

5, which proves the statements about ec- the average distance of 13941

.

centricities and diameter, the latter being

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 289

π

123 231 312 132 321 213

χ

123 V

231

312

132

321

213

Finally, in order to arrange tasks into puts them into equisets of size 36.

equisets, we have to let the group act on

the set V (L3222 )×V ˙ (L3222 ). A task (s, t) can

only be invariant under the action of a

group element g, if both s and t are in the Chapter 8

fixed point set of g. This means that there

are just 2 fixed points for each combina- Exercise 8.1 The number of moves of disc

tion of reflections and 6 for the combina- d is 2 ⋅ 3n−d .

tions of non-trivial rotations. That makes

a total of 1722 + 4 ⋅ 6 + 9 ⋅ 2 = 1764, such that Exercise 8.2 Hint: Every move changes the

Corollary 0.9 tells us that there are 49 eq- parity of the number of discs on peg 1.

uisets of tasks. Moreover, Table A.1 shows

that tasks being fixed by a non-trivial rota- Exercise 8.3 It suffices to prove that the

tion are fixed by another one, whereas those tower of n discs can be moved from peg 0

fixed by a reflection are not invariant under to peg 1. Design an algorithm for this task

any other non-trivial group element. There- and prove its correctness by induction.

fore, the former constitute the only equiset

of size 12 the latter the only one of size Exercise 8.4 First show by induction that

18. Representatives of these two classes are, [n] [n] [n] [n]

∣0 Ð→ 2∣ = ∣2 Ð→ 1∣ and ∣1 Ð→ 2∣ = ∣2 Ð→ 0∣.

e.g., 1 ∣ 2 ∣ 3 → 2 ∣ 3 ∣ 1 and 1 ∣2 ∣ 3 → 2 ∣ 1 ∣ 3, re- [n] [n]

spectively. All other task are invariant only Setting an = ∣0 Ð→ 1∣, bn = ∣0 Ð→ 2∣,

[n] [n]

under the identity, such that Theorem 0.8 cn = ∣1 Ð→ 0∣, and dn = ∣1 Ð→ 2∣, we read

290 Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises

3 4

3 3

5 5 4

4

5 5 4

3

4 4 4 4

5 2

5 4 5 3

3 5 5 5

4 4 2 1

4 5

2 4 5 1

4 4

3 3 1

4 1|2|3

3 2 1

4 4 3 1

2 5

3 1 2 3 3 1

3 5 2 4

12|3|

4 1 3

2 2

4 3 4 3

1 6x1= 6

3 6 x 2 = 12

5 2

2 5 3 4 9 x 3 = 27

12 x 4 = 48

2 5 3x1= 3 8 x 5 = 40

2 7 x 2 = 14

4 10 x 3 = 30 41 133

12 x 4 = 48

9 x 5 = 45

41 140

Figure A.16: L3222 with distances from vertex 1 ∣ 2 ∣ 3 (green) and from vertex 12 ∣ 3∣

(blue)

from Algorithm 23: ∣1 Ð→ 2∣, cn = ∣2 Ð→ 0∣, and ∣1 Ð→ 0∣ = dn =

[n]

an = 2bn−1 + 1, ∣2 Ð→ 1∣, we get:

bn = 2bn−1 + dn−1 + 2, an = 2an−1 + cn−1 + 2,

cn = 2dn−1 + 1, bn = an−1 + dn−1 + 1,

dn = bn−1 + cn−1 + 1 . cn = 2dn−1 + 1,

The initial conditions are left to the reader. dn = bn−1 + cn−1 + 1 .

Exercise 8.5 This is done as in Exercise 8.4. The base of the asymptotic exponential be-

[n] [n]

Now, with an = ∣0 Ð→ 2∣, ∣0 Ð→ 1∣ = bn = havior of these sequences is then the great-

Appendix A. Hints and Solutions to Exercises 291

est (with respect to absolute value) solution an = 3an−1 + 2 for n ≥ 1. This leads to

of λ3 −λ2 −4λ+2 = 0, which is approximately an = 3n − 1. To get a solution using only

2.342923. 18 moves (instead of the 26 needed by the

algorithm) use the fact that when disc 3 is

Exercise 8.6 The first assertion follows from

moved from peg 0 to peg 1, discs 1 and 2

the definitions of legal moves in TH and in

Ð→ need not be both on peg 2; and similarly in

TH( C 3 ), for the second use induction on the later stages.

the number of discs.

Exercise 8.9 Hint: It is easy to see that for

Exercise 8.7 Hint: Consider the states of

any vertex v of a moderately enhanced cy-

the puzzle as the points of the lattice [p]0 ×

cle D, the digraph D − v cannot contain a

[p]0 . Optimal solutions of the puzzle corre-

strong subgraph on at least three vertices.

spond to paths in the grid between (0, 0)

For the converse suppose that D has no

and (p − 1, p − 1) that meet a diagonal point

vertex w such that the digraph D − w con-

(i, i) for precisely one i ∈ [p − 2]. Then take

tains a strong subgraph on at least three

a closer look at the shape of these paths.

vertices and consider two cases. The first

(For details, see [174, p. 375f].)

is that there are vertices u, v ∈ V (D) such

Exercise 8.8 Let an be the number of that (u, v) ∈ A(D) and (v, u) ∉ A(D), the

moves. It is easy to see that a0 = 0 and second being that this is not so.

Glossary

V (G) × V (G) → B, (u, v) ↦ ({u, v} ∈ E(G)) .

binary tree A rooted tree where every vertex has at most two adjacent vertices

which are further away from the root.

bit Short for binary digit.

bridge Edge whose deletion increases the number of connected components of

a graph. Also called cut-edge. In particular, edge whose deletion leaves a

connected graph disconnected.

center The set of those vertices of a graph whose eccentricities are equal to its

radius.

(vertex) chromatic number The minimum number of colors needed for a coloring

of vertices of a graph such that adjacent vertices receive different colors.

circuit Another word for a closed trail.

clique in a graph A complete subgraph.

complete graph A graph G whose edge set is E(G) = (V (G)

2

).

connected graph A finite or an infinite graph is connected if any two of its vertices

are joined by a finite path.

connectivity The connectivity of a graph G is the smallest size of a vertex set X

such that G − X is disconnected or has only one vertex.

cycle in a graph A finite path in a graph to which an edge joining its end vertices

is added.

cyclic permutation A permutation which moves the elements of a subset cyclically:

c1 ↦ c2 ↦ ⋯ ↦ ck ↦ c1 and leaves the others fixed; its length is k, and it is

denoted by (c1 c2 . . . ck ).

degree The number of incident edges of a vertex v is its degree deg(v). A loop

adds 2 to the degree of a vertex.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0237-6, Ó Springer Basel 2013

294 Glossary

diameter of a graph The maximum over all distances in a connected graph.

digraph Ordered pair D = (V (D), A(D)) consisting of the set of vertices V (D)

and the set of arcs A(D) which are ordered pairs of vertices.

eccentricity of a vertex The maximum distance between a given vertex and all

the other vertices.

edge coloring A function from the edge set of a graph to a set of colors such that

any pair of incident edges receives different colors.

eulerian circuit A circuit in a graph G which contains all edges of G.

eulerian graph A graph which contains an eulerian circuit.

eulerian trail A trail in a graph G which contains all edges of G.

forest A graph F without cycles. It has ∣F ∣−∥F ∥ components [327, Theorem I.35].

geodesic A shortest path between two vertices of a graph G is called a geodesic

in G.

graph Ordered pair G = (V (G), E(G)) consisting of the set of vertices V (G) and

the set of edges E(G) which are unordered pairs of vertices.

graph distance The minimum length of the paths between two vertices of a con-

nected graph.

hamiltonian cycle A cycle containing all the vertices of a given graph.

hamiltonian path A path containing all the vertices of a given graph.

Handshaking lemma Asserts that the sum of the degrees in a graph is twice the

number of its edges.

height of a rooted tree The largest distance from the root.

inclusion-exclusion principle For two finite sets X and Y , ∣X∪Y ∣ = ∣X∣+∣Y ∣−∣X∩Y ∣.

The principle has an extension to any finite family of finite sets.

independence number The maximum size of a subset of vertices of a graph which

are pairwise non-adjacent.

Kuratowski’s theorem Asserts that a graph is planar if and only if it does not

contain a subgraph that is a subdivision of K3,3 or K5 .

length of a path The number of its edges.

loop An edge in a multigraph whose end-vertices are identical, i.e. a singleton.

matching A set of pairwise non-adjacent edges of a graph.

Glossary 295

mixed graph Triple G = (V (G), E(G), A(G)) consisting of the set of vertices

V (G), the set of edges E(G) which are unordered pairs of vertices, and

the set of arcs A(G) which are ordered pairs of vertices.

multigraph Ordered pair G = (V (G), F (G)) consisting of the set of vertices V (G)

and the family F (G) of edges which are singletons or unordered pairs of

vertices.

natural number A non-negative integer. The set of natural numbers is denoted by

N0 , while N stands for the set of positive integers.

order of a graph The number ∣V (G)∣ of the vertices of a graph G; abbreviated

∣G∣.

partition of a set P ⊂ 2V is a partition of the set V , if ∅ ∉ P , V = ⋃ P , and

∀ {X, Y } ∈ (P2 ) ∶ X ∩ Y = ∅.

path graph A graph with one vertex and no edge or a connected graph with two

vertices of degree 1 and the other vertices of degree 2.

path in a digraph A subdigraph with vertex set {xi ∣ i ∈ [` + 1]0 } of size ` + 1 and

arc set {(xi−1 , xi ) ∣ i ∈ [`]}, where ` ∈ N0 is its length, x0 its start vertex and

x` its end vertex.

path in a (multi)graph A subgraph isomorphic to a path graph.

pendant vertex A vertex of a graph of degree 1.

perfect matching A matching M of a graph G such that every vertex of G is

saturated, i.e. is incident with (precisely) one element of M .

periphery The set of those vertices of a graph whose eccentricities are equal to its

diameter.

permutation A bijective mapping from a finite set to itself.

pigeonhole principle There is no injective mapping from [n] to [m] if N0 ∋ m <

n ∈ N (as can be proved by induction on m).

pit Short for p-ary digit, the entities of the number system with base p; cf. bit

and tit.

radius of a graph The minimum over all eccentricities of vertices in a connected

graph.

regular graph Graph all of whose vertices have the same degree. Called k-regular

if their degree is k.

root, rooted tree A rooted tree is a tree one of whose vertices has been specified

as its root.

semi-eulerian graph A graph which contains an eulerian trail.

296 Glossary

size of a graph The number ∣E(G)∣ of the edges of a graph G; abbreviated ∥G∥.

1-skeleton of a polyhedron The graph whose vertex set is the set of vertices of the

polyhedron and where two vertices form an edge if the corresponding vertices

on the polyhedron are the endpoints of an edge.

spanning subgraph A subgraph with the same vertex set as its host graph.

Stirling numbers of the second kind The number of partitions of an n-set into k

nonempty parts; denoted by { nk }.

subdivision A subdivision of a graph is a graph obtained from it by successively

replacing an edge {x, y} ∈ E by two edges {x, z} and {z, y} with a new vertex

z.

suffix of a sequence (finite or not) (xk )k≥K is a subsequence (xk )k≥L for some

L ≥ K.

tit Short for ternary digit.

total coloring A vertex coloring together with an edge coloring such that each

edge receives a color different from the colors of its end vertices.

total eccentricity The sum of eccentricities ε(v) over all vertices v of a (connected)

graph.

(closed) trail A (closed) walk containing no repeating edge.

transposition A cyclic permutation of length 2.

tree A connected graph without cycles, i.e. a connected forest.

vertex coloring A function from the vertex set of a graph to a set of colors such

that any pair of adjacent vertices receives different colors.

(closed) walk A walk is a finite sequence of vertices such that neighbors in the

sequence are adjacent in the graph. It is closed if the first and last member of

the sequence coincide. In a multigraph it might be necessary to specify which

edge is joining two vertices. Also the subgraph induced by these vertices and

edges.

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Name Index

Allardice, R. E., 43 Chen, G.-H., 159

Allouche, J.-P., 76, 78, 248, 250 Chen, H.-R., 159

Allport, A., 227 Chen, L.-C., 101

Arett, D., 192, 195 Chen, Xiao, 190

Astoorian, D., 76 Chen, Xiaomin, 225

Atkinson, M. D., 250 Claus (de Siam), N., 1, 3, 10, 12, 13,

Aumann, S., 188, 206 43

Azriel, D., 258, 259 Comellas, F., 101

Conway, J. H., 66

Ball, W. W. R., 1 Coxeter, H. S. M., 2

Barlow, M. T., 121 Crowe, D. W., 82

Behzad, M., 33 Culin, S., 4

Bell, E. T., 13 Cull, P., 45, 98, 160, 187

Bennish, J., 129

Berend, D., 249, 250, 255–258 D’Angeli, D., 127

Berg, W. K., 230 Décaillot, A.-M., 12, 13

Berger, T., 155 Della Vecchia, G., 159

Berlekamp, E. R., 66 Dinitz, Y., 225, 226

Binet, J. P. M., 265 Domoryad, A. P., 129

Bode, J.-P., 179 Donno, A., 127

Boettcher, S., 67 Dorée, S., 192, 195

Brendel, J., 101 Dress, F., 78

Brocot, L.-A., 18, 19 Dudeney, H. E., 4, 33, 46, 165, 170

Brousseau, Brother A., 187 Duh, D.-R., 159

Byrd, D. L., 230 Dunkel, O., 46, 167, 177, 190

Cantor, G., 36 Ehler, C. L. G., 24

Cardano, G., 4, 41, 56 Eisenstein, G., 17

Cattin, A., 48 Emert, J. W., 255, 256

Chan, T.-H., 47, 119 Er, M. C., 45, 47, 80, 90, 94, 250

Chang, S.-C., 101 Euclid, 37

Chappelon, J., 172, 254 Euler, L., 23, 24, 26, 31, 267

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0237-6, Ó Springer Basel 2013

320 Name Index

Fang, J. F., 159 Hoseiny Farahabady, M., 159

Felner, A., 167, 175, 179, 181, 182 Hunter, W. S., 48

Fermat, P., 9, 36

Fibonacci, L., 11, 14 Imani, N., 159

Finsterwalder, S., 285

Jacobsthal, E., 110

Fleury, 24, 267

Jakovac, M., 158

Frame, J. S., 46, 166, 167, 174–177,

Jordan, C., 31

184, 185, 188, 190, 203

Fraser, A. Y., 43 Kauffman, L. H., 66

Fu, J.-S, 159 Keister, W., 65

Fu Xi, 5, 6 Kirchhoff, G. R., 101

Fyodorov, M., 74 Klahr, D., 48

Klavžar, S., 49, 149, 155, 156, 158,

Gauss, J. F. C., ix, 35, 36

186, 187, 209, 259

Gedeon, T. D., 250

Klein, C. S., 132, 138, 140

Gerety, C., 45

Knuth, D., 49, 186

Germain, S., ix

Köhler, T., 158

Glaisher, J. W. L., 122, 276 Korf, R. E., 167, 175, 179, 181, 182

Gonçalves, B., 67 Kummer, E. E., 19

Götz, K. A. M., 202, 232

Gravier, S., 156 Lanier, L. M., 48

Gray, F., 58 Legendre, A. M., 61

Grigorchuk, R., 198 Leibniz, G., 5

Gros, L., 4, 41, 53, 56, 58, 61 Leiss, E. L., 244, 258

Grundy, P. M., 44, 94, 242, 256 Leonardo Pisano, 11

Guan, D.-J., 243 Li, C.-K., 98

Guclu, H., 67 Liang, W.-Y., 159

Guibert, O., 49 Liang, Z., 263

Guy, R. K., 32, 66 Lin, C.-H., 156

Lindley, E. H., 48

Halāyudha, 13, 19 Lindquist, N. F., 93

Halder, A., 225 Lipscomb, S. L., 161, 163

Halphén, G., 19 Liu, J.-J., 156

Hamilton, W. R., 26–28 de Longchamps, G., 43

Hayes, B., 80 Lu, X., 45, 47, 93, 187

Hayes, P. J., 46 Lucas, É., vii, ix, 3–6, 9, 12, 19, 20,

Heawood, P. J., 32 56, 61, 78, 79, 113, 131, 132,

Heffter, L., 32 211–213, 263

Hering, H., 49, 242, 250 Lunnon, F., 215, 217

Hierholzer, C., 24

Hinz, A. M., 47, 76, 120, 132, 140, Majumdar, A. A. K., 225

144, 158, 179, 195, 196, 209, Mandelbrot, B. B, 19, 21

232, 236 Marinoni, G., 23

Name Index 321

Meier, M., 182, 202 Sanges, C., 159

Mersenne, M., 11, 12 Sapir, A., 245, 248–250, 255–257

Milutinović, U., 49, 149, 155, 186, Sarbazi-Azad, H., 159

187, 209, 259 Sartorius von Waltershausen, W., 35

Minsker, S., 132, 138, 140, 218, 219, Scarioni, F., 90

221 Schief, A., 120, 144

Möbius, A. F., 31 Schmid, R. S., 195

Mohar, B., 156 Schoute, P. H., 2, 43, 82, 129

Mollard, M., 156 Schuh, F., 2

Montucla, J. F., 11 Schützenberger, M., 12

Scorer, R. S., 44, 94, 242, 256

Neale, R., 221 Shallice, T., x, 48, 227

Nelson, I., 98 Shallit, J., 76

Nelson, R. B., 255, 256 Shen, J., 190

Newell, A., 49 Sierpiński, W., 21

Ng, K.-L., 159 Sikora, A. S., 67

Noland, H., 91 Simon, H. A., 48, 49

Nurlybaev, A. N., 164 Smith, C. A. B., 44, 94, 242, 256

Soifer, A., 33

Obara, S., 92, 219 Solomon, N., 259

Olive, R., 43, 74, 76, 78, 79 Solomon, S., 225, 226, 255, 259

Owens, F. W., 255, 256 Speranza, M. G., 90

Ozanam, J., 3 Spitzer, A., 236

Stern, M., 17, 19

Pacioli, L., 4, 41 Stewart, B. M., 46, 166, 167, 177,

Parisse, D., 123, 151, 158, 195, 196, 184, 188

209 Stewart, I., vii, 23, 119

Park, S. E., 197 Stierstorfer, Q., 195

de Parville, H., 1, 2, 9, 43 Stockmeyer, P. K., 84, 196, 214, 215,

Pascal, B., 13 217, 250–252, 254–256, 259

Perkins, E. A., 121 Strohhäcker, S., 179, 182

Peterson, J., 48 Sturm, C., 43

Petr, C., 155, 186, 209, 259 Šunić, Z., 127, 198

Piaget, J., 48 Szegedy, M., 189, 190

Poole, D. G., 93, 121, 222–225

Przytycki, J. H., 67 Teufl, E., 101

Tian, B., 225

Randall, J., 76 Tunstall, J. R., 231

Rasmussen, P., 41, 56, 60 Tutte, W. T., 101

Rémond de Montmort, P., 15

Ringel, G., 32 Urbiha, I., 123

Romik, D., 113, 124, 125, 127, 144,

147 Vizing, V. G., 33

322 Name Index

Wallis, J., 41, 54, 56

Walsh, T. R., 250

Wang, L., 225

Wang, Y.-L., 156

Ward, G., 227

Weil, A., 39

Wiesenberger, H. L., 60, 154

Wilf, H. S., 124

Wilson, R. J., 23

Wolfram, S., 19

Wood, D., 44, 45, 47, 218, 222

Woodin, W. H., 45, 263

Wu, S., 101

Yen, W. C.-K., 156

Youngs, J. W., 32

Zhang, W., 41, 56

Zhang, Z., 101

Zhu, X. Z., 56, 60

Zhuge Liang, 4

Subject Index

absorbing Markov chain, 146 basic double task, 127

absorbing state, 146 benzenoid hydrocarbon, 117

accelerated Chinese rings (ACR), 56 best buffer (disc), 137

adjacency matrix, 101, 293 binary carry sequence, 61

admissible arrangement, 77 binary logarithm, 123

admissible state, 77 binary tree, 94, 293

algorithm Binet’s formula, 265

Fleury’s, 24 binomial theorem, 15

greedy, 33, 64 bipartite graph, 33

human, 113, 129 bit, 5, 293

Olive’s, 74 Black and white Tower of Hanoi

Allouche-Sapir conjecture, 262 (BWTH), 215

alphabet, 63 black sheep formula, 15

alternating group, 27 Bottleneck Tower of Hanoi (BTH),

ape, 155 222

Argentine ants, 50 boxer rule, 106, 153, 188

Arithmetical triangle, 13, 16 breadth-first search (BFS), 179, 267

arrangement, 50 bridge, 25, 293

admissible, 77 Brocot sequence, 18, 110

association, 36 Burnside’s lemma, 40, 100

atom, 17

automaton cardinality, 38

cellular, 19 careful brothers problem, 34

Gros code, 58 Catalan number, 259

P1-, 82 Catalan permutation, 49

Romik’s, 125, 146 Cayley table, 84

Romik’s H3 -to-S3 , 144 ceiling function, 14

automorphism group, 40, 99 cellular automaton, 19

average distance, 60 center, 130, 184, 293

average eccentricity, 59 central peg, 251

normalized, 112 characteristic polynomial, 104

Chinese rings (CR), 3, 53

ba gua 八卦, 5 accelerated, 56

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0237-6, Ó Springer Basel 2013

324 Subject Index

Chinese rings network, 68 Rainbow, 262

Chinese string (CS), 66 Ring, 67, 261

chromatic index, 33, 195 Stockmeyer’s, 254, 262

chromatic number, 33, 158, 195, 293 Strong Frame-Stewart, 187, 262

circuit, 23, 293 Total coloring, 33, 197

eulerian, 23, 294 connected graph, 25, 58, 293

Class 1 graph, 196 connectivity, 97, 158, 194, 293

Class 2 graph, 196 countable, 38

clique, 150, 293 crossing number, 32, 157

p-, 150 cube

clique number, 33 n-, 69

closed trail, 23, 296 Rubik’s, 100

closed walk, 296 curve

code dragon, 62

Gray, 58, 63, 80, 90, 243, 271 generalized Sierpiński, 163

(p, n)-Gray, 243 triangular Sierpiński, 160

Gros, 58 cycle, 54, 293

perfect, 58, 69, 97–99, 155 directed, 244

reflected binary, 59 hamiltonian, 26, 69, 294

codeword, 69 moderately enhanced, 257

coloring cycle of permutation, 28

of edges, 33, 56, 294 cyclic permutation, 28, 293

total, 33, 296 Cyclic Tower of Hanoi, 244

vertex, 33, 296

combination, 14 degree, 23, 293

combinatorial number, 15 maximum, 33

complete bipartite graph, 33 minimum, 192

complete digraph, 242 degree balanced, 228

complete graph, 31, 293 delayed duplicate detection (DDD),

complexity class NP, 30 179

complexity class P, 26 derangement, 17, 294

complexity of graph, 101 Devil’s peg, 165

conjecture diameter, 56, 294

Allouche-Sapir, 262 digraph, 132, 294

Double task, 262 complete, 242

Frame-Stewart, 46, 167, 175, strong, 244

178, 262 directed cycle, 244

Graceful tree, 33 discrepancy, 222

Guy’s, 32, 158, 261 distance, 58

Köhler’s, 261 average, 60

Korf-Felner, 262 graph, 58, 294

LDM pattern, 262 distance layered graph, 203

Monotonicity, 262 divide-and-conquer, 46

Subject Index 325

dodecahedral graph, 27 floor function, 14

dominating set, 99 forest, 101, 294

domination number, 99, 155 formula

Domoryad’s task, 129 Binet’s, 265

double P2 problem, 127 black sheep, 15

Double task conjecture, 262 Euler’s polyhedral, 31

dragon curve, 62 Four-in-a-row Tower of Hanoi, 254

dual graph, 30 fractal, 23

Dunkel’s lemma, 178 Frame number, 166, 185

Frame-Stewart conjecture, 46, 167,

eccentricity, 59, 294 175, 178, 262

average, 59 Frame-Stewart number, 166, 170,

total, 59, 296 186, 187

edge chromatic number, 33, 158 Frame-Stewart-type strategy, 252

edge coloring, 33, 56, 294 frontier search, 179

equipotent, 38 function

equivalence, 37 ceiling, 14

equivalence class, equiset, 37 Euler’s phi, 19, 110

equivalent elements, 37 excess, 182

equivalent states, 183 floor, 14

Euler’s number, 17 ruler, 61

Euler’s phi function, 19, 110 fundamental matrix, 147

Euler’s polyhedral formula, 31 Fundamental theorem of recursion,

eulerian circuit, 23, 294 265

eulerian graph, 130, 294

eulerian trail, 23, 294 game

even permutation, 27 Icosian, 26

even vertex, 25 solitaire, 211

excess, 36 Tetralogic, 261

excess function, 182 Trilogic, 261

exchange number, 66 Game of encounter, 15

Exchanging discs TH (EDTH), 214 general Sierpiński graph, 149

exponential Tower of Hanoi, 257 generalized Frame-Stewart number,

extreme vertex, 144, 152 254

generalized Sierpiński curve, 163

factor set, 40 genus, genera, 32, 157

factorial, 50 geodesic, 106, 294

falling power, 209 Golden section, 12, 50

Fibonacci number, 12, 122, 123, 129 Graceful tree conjecture, 33

Fibonacci sequence, 11, 117 graph, 23, 294

fixed point, 17 bipartite, 33

fixed point set, 40 Chinese rings, 55

flat state, 48, 236, 281 Class 1, 196

326 Subject Index

complete, 31, 293 Guy’s conjecture, 32, 158, 261

complete bipartite, 33

connected, 25, 58, 293 hamiltonian cycle, 26, 69, 294

distance layered, 203 hamiltonian graph, 26

dodecahedral, 27 hamiltonian path, 26, 294

dual, 30 Hamming graph, 191, 194

eulerian, 130, 294 Handshaking lemma, 26, 192, 294

general Sierpiński, 149 Hanoi graph, 44, 45, 94, 179, 190, 259

hamiltonian, 26 Hanoi rainbow problem (THR), 221

Hamming, 191, 194 Hanoi Towers group, 127, 198

Hanoi, 44, 45, 94, 179, 190, 259 Hausdorff dimension, 23

iterated complete, 159 heat map, 181

London, 231, 232 height, 94, 294

mixed, 132, 295 height of peg, 231

Oxford, 232 hexagram, 5

pancyclic, 159 Holländischer Baum, 24

Pascal, 121 human algorithm, 113, 129

path, 54, 295 Hutchinson operator, 160

planar, 31, 156 hyperbinary representation, 123

regular, 28, 295

Schreier, 198 icosagonal, 27

semi-eulerian, 130, 295 Icosian calculus, 27

Sierpiński, 44, 49, 121 Icosian game, 26

Sierpiński with base 3, 141 Icosian group, 27

Sierpiński-like, 121 idle peg, 74, 89

Sisyphean Hanoi, 104, 120, 122 imperial ruler, 61

Sisyphean Sierpiński, 142 inclusion-exclusion principle, 16, 294

state, 44 independence number, 158, 294

toroidal, 235 index, 36

underlying, 234 chromatic, 33, 195

graph distance, 58, 294 Wiener, 59, 118

Gray code, 58, 63, 80, 90, 243, 271 infinite face, 31

(p, n)-, 243 intercalation, 17

greedy algorithm, 33, 64 irregular state, 131

Gros code, 58 isomorphic, 39

Gros code automaton, 58 isomorphy of graphs, 36

Gros sequence, 60, 61, 74, 271 isomorphy of groups, 39

group iso-problems, 100

alternating, 27 iterated complete graph, 159

automorphism, 40, 99 iterated function system, 160

Hanoi Towers, 127, 198 Iverson’s convention, 20

Icosian, 27

symmetric, 27 Jacobsthal number, 111, 123

Subject Index 327

Jordan curve theorem, 31 maximum degree, 33

measure, 23

Kekulé structure, 117 mediant, 18

Kirchhoff matrix, 101 mediation, 18

Köhler’s conjecture, 261 Mersenne number, 11

Königsberg bridges problem, 23 Mersenne sequence, 11

Korf phenomenon, 182 Meru-Prastāra, 13, 20

Korf-Felner conjecture, 262 minimum degree, 192

Kuratowski’s theorem, 33, 294 missionaries and cannibals problem

(MC), 268

largest disc move (LDM), 112, 206 mixed graph, 132, 295

latin square, 84 moderately enhanced cycle, 257

LDM pattern conjecture, 262 monotonicity condition, 185

legal move, 72 Monotonicity conjecture, 262

lemma Monsters and Globes, 50

Burnside’s, 40, 100 morphic sequence, 248

Dunkel’s, 178 most economical, 175

Handshaking, 26, 192, 294 Mount Meru, 13

length, 29, 294 move

Linear Tower of Hanoi, 242, 251, 255 largest disc, 112, 206

Linear Tower of Hanoi on p pegs, 251 legal, 72

Linear Twin Hanoi, 221 type 0, 53

Lipscomb space, 161 type 1, 53

Little Tower of Antwerpen (LTA), multigraph, 23, 295

219

Locking disc puzzle, 65 natural number, 11, 295

London graph, 231, 232 network

loop, 268, 294 Chinese rings, 68

Lucas correspondence, 121 Tower of Hanoi, 67

Lucas number, 12, 111 WK-recursive, 159

Lucas sequence, 12 Noland’s problem, 93, 220

Lucas’s second problem, 131, 235, non-repetitive sequence, 63

262 Non-subtower conjecture, 262

normalized average eccentricity, 112

Markov chain, 146 NP-complete, 30

absorbing, 146 number

matching, 101, 294 Catalan, 259

perfect, 130, 295 chromatic, 33, 158, 195, 293

matrix clique, 33

adjacency, 101, 293 combinatorial, 15

fundamental, 147 crossing, 32, 157

Kirchhoff, 101 domination, 99, 155

transition, 146 edge chromatic, 33, 158

328 Subject Index

exchange, 66 Pattern-matching puzzle, 65

Fibonacci, 12, 122, 123, 129 peg

Frame, 166, 185 central, 251

Frame-Stewart, 166, 170, 186, Devil’s, 165

187 idle, 74, 89

generalized Frame-Stewart, 254 special, 137

independence, 158, 294 pendant vertex, 54, 295

Jacobsthal, 111, 123 perfect code, 58, 69, 97–99, 155

Lucas, 12, 111 perfect matching, 130, 295

Mersenne, 11 perfect state, 71, 165

natural, 11, 295 period-doubling sequence, 79

partition, 167 Peripheral phenomenon, 184

3-smooth, 172, 252 periphery, 182, 184, 275, 295

Stern, 123 permutation, 50, 295

Stirling of the second kind, 192, Catalan, 49

296 cyclic, 28, 293

tetrahedral, 46, 187 even, 27

total chromatic, 33, 158, 196 phenomenon

triangular, 35, 170 Korf, 182

Peripheral, 184

odd vertex, 25 pigeonhole principle, 50, 112, 295

Olive sequence, 76, 78, 104 p-in-a-row Tower of Hanoi, 251

Olive’s algorithm, 74 pit, 151, 295

Olympic Tower of London, 232 planar graph, 31, 156

orbit, 40 presumed minimal solution, 47, 167

Orbit-Stabilizer theorem, 40, 99 principle

order, 32, 295 inclusion-exclusion, 16, 294

Oxford graph, 232 pigeonhole, 50, 112, 295

problem

P1-automaton, 82 careful brothers, 34

P2 decision problem, 113, 145 double P2, 127

pancyclic graph, 159 Hanoi rainbow, 221

paper-folding sequence, 62 Königsberg bridges, 23

partition, 37, 295 Lucas’s second, 131, 235, 262

h-, 238 missionaries and cannibals, 268

strict, 38 Noland’s, 93, 220

trivial, 38 P2 decision, 113, 145

partition number, 167 rabbit, 11

Pascal graph, 121 river crossing, 34

Pascal’s triangle, 121 Triple-Tower, 221

path graph, 54, 295 Twin-Tower, 219

path in digraph, 134, 295 type P0, 71, 242

path in graph, 295 type P1, 82, 86, 212

Subject Index 329

type P3, 132 frontier, 179

type P4, 132 seed, 17

water, gas and electricity, 33 self-similar, 23

wolf, goat and cabbage, 34 semi-eulerian graph, 130, 295

problem isomorph, 50, 65 semi-perfect state, 134

prosody, 13 sequence

Prouhet-Thue-Morse sequence, 79, binary carry, 61

105 Brocot, 18, 110

puzzle Fibonacci, 11, 117

Locking disc, 65 Gros, 60, 61, 74, 271

Pattern-matching, 65 Jacobsthal, 56, 110

The Reve’s, 46, 165, 251 Lucas, 12

Mersenne, 11

quasigroup, 84 morphic, 248

Steiner, 84 non-repetitive, 63

quaternary, 165 Olive, 76, 78, 104

quotient set, 37 paper-folding, 62

period-doubling, 79

rabbit problem, 11 Prouhet-Thue-Morse, 79, 105

radius, 130, 295 3-smooth, 172, 252

Rainbow conjecture, 262 square-free, 63, 75

recurrence, 11 Stern’s diatomic, 18, 115, 121

recursive, 10 strongly square-free, 69, 76

reflected binary code, 59 Thue, 79, 105

regular graph, 28, 295 set

regular state, 71, 165 dominating, 99

regularization, 132 factor, 40

representative, 38 fixed point, 40

right direction, 82 quotient, 37

Ring conjecture, 67, 261 Sierpiński curve

river crossing problem, 34 generalized, 163

Romik’s automaton, 125, 146 triangular, 160

Romik’s H3 -to-S3 automaton, 144 Sierpiński gasket, 21

root, 94, 179, 267, 295 Sierpiński graph, 44, 49, 121

rooted tree, 295 Sisyphean, 142

Rubik’s cube, 100 Sierpiński graph with base 3, 141

rule Sierpiński triangle (ST), 23, 101, 119,

boxer, 106, 153, 188 160

divine, 2 Sierpiński-like graph, 121

ruler function, 61 sign manual of Muhammad, 25

singleton, 294, 296

Schreier graph, 198 Sinner’s Tower of Hanoi, 225

search Sisyphean Hanoi graph, 104, 120, 122

330 Subject Index

size of graph, 25, 296 187, 262

1-skeleton, 27, 296 strongly square-free sequence, 69, 76

3-smooth number, 172, 252 sub-exponential Tower of Hanoi, 257

3-smooth sequence, 172, 252 subdiagonal, 122

solitaire game, 211 subdivision, 33, 296

solution subfactorial, 17, 51

presumed minimal, 167 subtower, 168, 172

subtower, 175 subtower solution, 175

solvable double P2 task, 127 suffix, 127, 296

solvable Tower of Hanoi, 242 superdisc, 172, 209

spanning subgraph, 101, 191, 296 Switching Tower of Hanoi (STH), 49,

spanning tree, 101, 267 145, 149

special case, 135 symmetric group, 27

special peg, 137

Taegeukgi, 5

spreadsheet, 80

task

square, 64

basic double, 127

abelian, 69

Domoryad’s, 129

latin, 84

solvable double P2, 127

square-free sequence, 63, 75

tetrahedral number, 46, 187

stabilizer, 40

Tetralogic game, 261

standard, 37 The Reve’s puzzle, 46, 165, 251

standard case, 135 theorem

Star Tower of Hanoi, 251 binomial, 15

state, 131 Fundamental of recursion, 265

absorbing, 146 Jordan curve, 31

admissible, 77 Kuratowski’s, 33, 294

flat, 48, 236, 281 Matrix-Tree, 101

irregular, 131 Orbit-Stabilizer, 40, 99

perfect, 71, 165 Vizing’s, 33, 196

regular, 71, 165 Three-in-a-row TH, 221, 242

semi-perfect, 134 Thue sequence, 79, 105

state graph, 44 tit, 85, 296

Steiner quasigroup, 84 Toeplitz transform, 78

Stern number, 123 toroidal graph, 235

Stern’s diatomic array, 17, 110 total chromatic number, 33, 158, 196

Stern’s diatomic sequence, 18, 115, total coloring, 33, 296

121 Total coloring conjecture, 33, 197

Stirling number of the second kind, total eccentricity, 59, 296

192, 296 Tower of Antwerpen (TA), 218

Stockmeyer’s conjecture, 254, 262 Little, 219

strict partition, 38 Tower of Brahma, 1

strong digraph, 244 Tower of Hanoi (TH), vii, 2, 71

Subject Index 331

Bottleneck, 222 0 move, 53

Cyclic, 244 1 move, 53

Exchanging discs, 214 P0 problem, 71, 242

exponential, 257 P1 problem, 82, 86, 212

Four-in-a-row, 254 P2 problem, 105, 212

Linear, 242, 251, 255 P3 problem, 132

Linear on p pegs, 251 P4 problem, 132

p-in-a-row, 251

Sinner’s, 225 underlying graph, 234

solvable, 242

Star, 251 vertex

sub-exponential, 257 even, 25

Switching, 49, 145, 149 extreme, 144, 152

Three-in-a-row, 221, 242 odd, 25

weakly solvable, 258 pendant, 54, 295

Tower of Hanoi network, 67 vertex coloring, 33, 296

Tower of London (TL), 49, 227 Vizing’s theorem, 33, 196

Olympic, 232

walk, 28, 296

Tunstall’s, 232

closed, 296

Tower of Oxford, 227

water, gas and electricity problem, 33

Tower of Toronto, 50

weakly solvable Tower of Hanoi, 258

trail, 23, 296

Wiener index, 59, 118

closed, 23, 296

WK-recursive network, 159

eulerian, 23, 294

wolf, goat and cabbage problem, 34

transition matrix, 146

transitive, 37 yang 阳, 5

transposition, 27, 296 yi jing 易经, 5

tree, 94, 296 yin 阴, 5

binary, 94, 293

rooted, 295

spanning, 101, 267

triangle

Arithmetical, 13, 16

Pascal’s, 121

Sierpiński, 23, 101, 119, 160

triangular number, 35, 170

triangular Sierpiński curve, 160

trigram, 5

Trilogic game, 261

Triple-Tower problem (TTT), 221

trivial partition, 38

Tunstall’s Tower of London, 232

Twin-Tower problem (TT), 219

Symbol Index

α(G) – independence number of ancy t, 222

graph G, 158

β – Brocot sequence, 18 C(G) – center of graph G, 183

γ(G) – domination number of graph Ð

→

C p – directed cycle on n vertices, 244

G, 99 cr(G) – crossing number of graph G,

δ(G) – minimum degree of G, 192 32

∆(G) – maximum degree of G, 33

∆ν – triangular numbers, 35 d(s, t) – distance between states s

ε(v) – eccentricity of vertex v, 59 and t, 88

κ(G) – connectivity of graph G, 97 d(s; j, k) = d(s, j n ) − d(s, k n ), 106

Σ(3) – triangular Sierpiński curve, d(G) – average distance on graph G,

160 60

τ (G) – complexity of graph G, 101 deg(v) – degree of vertex v, 24

ϕ – Euler’s phi function, 19 diam(G) – diameter of graph G, 58

χ(G) – chromatic number of graph

G, 33 E(G) – total eccentricity of graph G,

χ′ (G) – chromatic index of graph G, 59

33 ex(n) = ε(0n )−d(0n , 3n ) – the excess

χ′′ (G) – total chromatic number of function, 182

graph G, 33 EX(n) = diam(H4n ) − d(0n , 3n ), 182

ω(G) – clique number of graph G, 33

ω (n) – the last vertex of Rn , 54 f – paper-folding sequence, 63

n n

F 4 (= F S 4 ) – Frame numbers for 4

Altn – alternating group on n ele- pegs, 166, 174

ments, 27 Fk – Fibonacci numbers, 12

n

AT – Arithmetical triangle, 13 F p – Frame numbers for p pegs, 185

Aut(G) – set/group of automor- F S3n (= F3n ) – Frame-Stewart num-

phisms of a graph G, 40 bers for 3 pegs, 166

F S4n (= F4n ) – Frame-Stewart num-

B – set {0, 1}, 54 bers for 4 pegs, 166

b – Stern’s diatomic sequence, 115 F Spn – Frame-Stewart numbers for p

B(N ) = ∑N ν=0 b(ν), 116

−1

pegs, 186

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0237-6, Ó Springer Basel 2013

334 Symbol Index

g(G) – genus of graph G, 32 132

g – binary carry sequence, 61

̃ Pk – path graph on k vertices, 59

Ð

→ q(n) – sum of bits of n, 61

H n3 – Hanoi digraphs on 3 pegs, 132

H3∞ – Sisyphean Hanoi graph, 104

rad(G) – radius of graph G, 130

H4n – Hanoi graph on 4 pegs, 179

Rn – state graph of the Chinese rings,

Hpn – Hanoi graph on p pegs, 190

54

H (p) – Hanoi Towers group, 198

s(3) – 3-smooth sequence, 172

Jk – Jacobsthal numbers, 110 S3n – Sierpiński graph (with base 3),

141

Kp – complete graph on p vertices, Spn – general Sierpiński graph, 149

31 ST – Sierpiński triangle, 23

←

→

K p – complete digraph on p vertices, ST4 – digraph of the Star Tower of

242 Hanoi, 251

K(G) – Kirchhoff matrix of graph G, ST4n – Star Tower of Hanoi numbers,

101 252

Symn – symmetric group on n ele-

lb(x) – binary logarithm of x, 123

ments, 27

L – state graph of the classical Tower

Sym(T ) – symmetric group on T , 99

of London, 228

L3231 – Olympic Tower of London, 232 T – set {0, 1, 2}, 71

L4234 – state graph of Tunstall’s Tn - set of states with n discs, 132

Tower of London, 232 TH(D) – TH with oriented disc

Lnh – London graph, 232 moves corresponding to di-

Lk – Lucas numbers, 12 graph D, 242

←→

L 3 – digraph of the linear TH, 242

W (G) – Wiener index of graph G, 59

Mk – Mersenne numbers, 11

mod – the modulo operation, 20 Z – set {. . . , −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, . . .}, 67

N0 – set {0, 1, 2, . . .}, 10 with d(s; k, j) = µ, 108

X g – fixed point set of g, 39

o – Olive sequence, 76 3 = 2/3, 85

Opn – Oxford graph, 232 ⊍ – union of pairwise disjoint sets, 72

A×A˙ = {(a, b) ∈ A × A ∣ a =/ b}, 100

P (G) – periphery of graph G, 184 ∣M ∣ – size of set M , 50

P0 – problem perfect to perfect, 71 ∣G∣ – order of graph G, 32

P1 – problem regular to perfect, 82 ∣∣G∣∣ – size of graph G, 25

P2 – problem regular to regular, 105 ∣∣∣G∣∣∣ – number of faces of planar

P3 – problem irregular to perfect, 132 graph G, 32

Symbol Index 335

ment S, 20

(k`) – combinatorial number, 14

(K` ) – set of all subsets of K of order

`, 15

{ nk } – Stirling numbers of the second

kind, 199, 209, 296

bk – constant word, 54

nk – falling power, 209

M N – set of mappings from set N to

set M , 265

x ≈ y – x equivalent y, 37

[x] – equivalence class (equiset) of x,

37

⌊x⌋ – floor of x, 14

⌈x⌉ – ceiling of x, 14

X/Γ – factor set, 40

G ≅ G′ – isomorphic graphs, 39

k! – k factorial, 50

k ¡ – k subfactorial, 51

[k] – set {1, . . . , k}, 50

[k]0 – set {0, . . . , k − 1}, 50

V /E = V / ≈ – quotient set, 37

Γx – stabilizer of x, 39

Γ.x – orbit of x, 40

a

b

⊕ dc – mediant of ab and dc , 18

i j – a binary operation on T , 82

◁

◁

main D, 266

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