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CHUYÊN ĐỀ 1

BE/ PRONOUNS/ POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES/ COUNTABLE NOUNS

I. BE
A. USE:
The verb be is used in the following patterns:
1. with a noun:
My mother is a teacher.
Bill Clinton was the president of the US.
2. with an adjective:
This soup is very tasty.
The children were good.
2.1 with the -ing form to make the continuous aspect
We were walking down the street.
Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.
2.2 with the -ed form to make the passive voice
The house was built in 1890.
The street is called Montagu Street.
This car was made in Japan.
3. with a prepositional phrase:
John and his wife are from Manchester.
The flowers are on the table.
B. FORM:
I am We are
Present simple: Affirmative You are You are
He/She/It is They are
Am I? Are we?
Question form: Are you? Are you?
Is he/she it? Are they?
We are not/aren’t
I am not/ I’m not
You are not/aren’t
Negative: You are not/ aren’t
They are not/aren't
He/She/It is not/ isn’t

Note: We don’t write the short form of “be” in the positive answer (Yes, we’re. Yes, we
are.). We must write in short form in the negative answer (No, we are not. No, we
aren’t.)

II. PRONOUNS
Pronouns are words we use in the place of a full noun.

We have both subject and object pronouns:


Subject Object
I me
You you
He him
She her
It it
We us
You you
They them

We use he/him to refer to men, and she/her to refer to women. When we are not sure if we
are talking about a man or a woman we use they/them.

This is Jack. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him.
This is Angela. She’s my sister. Have you met her before?
Talk to a friend. Ask them to help you.
You could go to a doctor. They might help you.

A. Subject pronouns

We use subject pronouns as subject of the verb:

I like your dress.


You are late.
He is my friend
It is raining
She is on holiday
We live in England.
They come from London.

Warning
Remember: English clauses always have a subject:
His father has just retired. Was a teacher. > He was a teacher.
I’m waiting for my wife. Is late. > She is late.
If there is no other subject we use it or there. We call this a dummy subject.
It’s good to go swimming every day.
There’s a woman in the house.

B. Object pronouns

We use object pronouns:

• as the object of the verb:

Can you help me please?


I can see you.
She doesn’t like him.
I saw her in town today.
We saw them in town yesterday, but they didn’t see us.
• after prepositions:

She is waiting for me.


I’ll get it for you.
Give it to him.
Why are you looking at her?
Don’t take it from us.
I’ll speak to them.

III. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Commented [A1]: Bài tập NGT 2 trang 5, 7

Can you fill in the table with the right possessive adjectives?

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjective


I me
You you
He him
She her
It it
We us
They them

We use possessive adjectives:

• to show something belongs to somebody:

That’s our house.


My car is very old.

• for relations and friends:

My mother is a doctor.
How old is your sister?

• for parts of the body:

He’s broken his arm.


She’s washing her hair.
I need to clean my teeth.

IV. COUNTABLE NOUNS


Countable nouns have two forms: singular and plural.
Singular count nouns refer to one person or thing:
a book; a teacher; a wish; an idea
Plural count nouns refer to more than one person or thing:
books; teachers; wishes; ideas

A. Singular count nouns


Singular count nouns cannot be used alone. They must have a determiner:
the book; that English teacher; a wish; my latest idea
We use a for a singular noun which start with a consonant sound.
a book, a nurse, a uniform, a university
We use an for a singular noun which start with a vowel sound
an egg, an ink pot, an elf, an X /eks/
Some nouns used only in the singular
Some nouns are used only in the singular, even though they end in -s. These include: the names
of academic subjects such as classics, economics, mathematics/maths, physics; the physical
activities gymnastics and aerobics; the diseases measles and mumps; and the word news:
Maths was never my best subject at school.
Aerobics is great fun – you should try it!
B. Plural forms
Nouns used only in the plural
Some nouns only have a plural form. They cannot be used with numbers. They include the
names of certain tools, instruments and articles of clothing which have two parts.
Tools and instruments

binoculars (ống nhòm) headphones (tai nghe) sunglasses

glasses scissors (cái kéo) tweezers (cái nhíp)

Clothing

jeans pyjamas tights (quần bó)

pants shorts trousers

I’ve got new sunglasses. Do you like them?


He always wears shorts, even in the winter.
A pair of
We can use pair of to refer to one example of these nouns:
I bought a new pair of binoculars last week.
That old pair of trousers will be useful for doing jobs in the garden.
We use pairs of to refer to more than one example of this type of noun:
They’re advertising two pairs of glasses for the price of one.
I bought three pairs of shorts for the summer.
Other nouns which are always plural in form

belongings (đồ dùng cá nhân) outskirts (ngoại ô)

clothes premises (buildings) (dinh cơ, cơ sở kinh doanh)

congratulations (lời chúc mừng) savings (money) (tiền tiết kiệm)

earnings (lợi nhuận, tiền kiếm được) stairs

goods (hàng hóa) surroundings (khu vực lân cận, xung quanh)

likes/dislikes thanks

Please ensure that you take all your belongings with you as you leave the aircraft.
They live on the outskirts of Frankfurt, almost in the countryside.
My clothes are wet. I’ll have to go upstairs and change.
She spent all her savings on a trip to South America.
Collective nouns (group words) Commented [A2]: Bài tập thực hành NRU 3

Some nouns refer to groups of people (e.g. audience, committee, government, team). These
are sometimes called collective nouns. Some collective nouns can take a singular or plural
verb, depending on whether they are considered as a single unit or as a collection of
individuals:

Audience Crew public

Committee Enemy team

Company government Manchester United

Compare

seen as a single unit seen as individuals

The audience was larger than average and the The audience were all
concert was a success. cheering wildly.

In general, a plural verb is more common with these nouns in informal situations.
Forming the plural of nouns

The rules for making the plural of nouns depend on the spelling and pronunciation. Most nouns form their
plural by adding -s:

face – faces school - schools

hole – holes store - stores

In other cases, the plural depends on how the noun ends.

Singular Plural Rule

If the noun ends in -ch, -s, -sh, -x or -z,


box, watch, bus boxes, watches, buses add -es. The plural ending -es. is
pronounced /ɪz/ (/ˈbɒksɪz/, /ˈwɒtʃɪz/)

If the noun ends in -o, add -es


potato, cargo, potatoes, cargoes,
but note: radio-radios, video-videos, kilo-
torpedo torpedoes
kilos, photo-photos, piano-pianos.

university, baby, If the noun ends in a consonant plus -y,


universities, babies, ferries
ferry change yto i and add -es.
Singular Plural Rule

For some nouns ending in -f, change -f to


wife, thief, loaf
wives, thieves, loaves -vesbut note: roof-roofs, belief-beliefs,
tên trộm, ổ bánh
cliff-cliffs, handkerchief- handkerchief.

formula, formulae, phenomena, Some nouns which come from Latin and
phenomenon, crisis crises Greek form their plurals in special ways.

Here are some important exceptions to the spelling and pronunciation of plural nouns.

singular plural

child children /ˈtʃɪldrən/

man, woman men, women /ˈwɪmɪn/

tooth, foot, goose teeth /ti:θ/, feet /fi:t/, geese /gi:s/

mouse, louse (con chấy, rận) mice /maɪs/, lice /laɪs/

sheep, fish, deer sheep, fish, deer*

Plural count nouns do not have a determiner when they refer to people or things as a group:

Computers are very expensive.


Do you sell old books?

Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable

Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.

Countable Uncountable

There are two hairs in my coffee! hair I don't have much hair.

There are two lights in our bedroom. light Close the curtain. The light is too bright.

Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. It's difficult to work when there is too much noise.
There are so many different noises in the noise
city.

Have you got a paper to read? (newspaper) I want to draw a picture. Have you got some
paper
Hand me those student papers. paper?

Our house has seven rooms. room Is there room for me to sit here?

We had a great time at the party. Have you got time for a coffee?
time
How many times have I told you no?