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MODUL PERKULIAHAN

MATA KULIAH BAHASA INGGRIS II

Disusun Oleh:
Fatimah Kesuma Astuti, M.Pd.
Fery Adrianto, M.Pd.

PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK INFORMATIKA


AKADEMI MANAJEMEN INFORMATIKA DAN
KOMPUTER
AMIK”AKMI” BATURAJA
2017

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KATA PENGANTAR

Alhamdulillah, segala puji bagi Allah yang senantiasa memberikan kemudahan dalam
menyelesaikan segala urusan hingga penulis mampu menyelesaikan Modul Perkuliahan Mata
Kuliah Bahasa Inggris II. Tak lupa penulis juga mengucapkan ribuan terima kasih kepada
berbagai pihak yang telah membantu dalam penyelesaian modul ini.
Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris, khususnya di program D3 AMIK AKMI BATURAJA
memiliki peran yang sangat penting. Sebab Komputerisasi tidak lepas dengan kata-kata
berbahasa Inggris. Untuk itu AMIK AKMI Baturaja membuka Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris
sebanyak 4 semester untuk jenjang Manajemen Informatika dan 2 Semester untuk jenjang
Teknik Informatika. Dengan adanya mata kuliah tersebut dipandang perlu adanya buku acuan
seperti halnya Modul Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris demi menunjang proses belajar mengajar
mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di AMIK AKMI Baturaja
Modul Perkuliahan Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris II ini merupakan lanjutan dari Bahasa
Inggris I. Didalam Bahasa Inggris II ini lebih menitik beratkan pada pengetahuan Bahasa Inggris
Dasar lanjutan tahap II mengenai bekal konsep tentang English component atau unsur-unsur
yang ada dalam bahasa inggris (Vocabulary, Grammar/structure, dan pronounciation). Dalam
proses pembelajaran bahasa Inggris tentunya perlu kiranya untuk terus dilakukan penataan
kembali pola pemahaman dan juga materi atau bahan ajar bahasa Inggris secara sistematis dalam
bentuk skemata atau konsep-konsep yang lebih simple dan mudah untuk dipahami, karena
mengingat karakteristik mahasiswa D3 AMIK AKMI Baturaja yang bukan mahasiwa program
bahasa sehingga diperlukan desain materi yang yang lebih sederhana. Modul ini memuat
ringkasan materi bahasa Inggris dengan didikuti latihan-latihan soal yang disusun secara
sederhana dan sistematis menurut kaidah-kaidah gramatika Bahasa Inggris tertentu, yang
dianggap esensial sebagai dasar untuk mengembangkan keterampilan bahasa lisan maupun
tulisan (spoken / written) seperti pola-pola dasar kalimat bahasa Inggris, seperti: wh-question,
modals, introductory IT, another and the other, to be + going to and will, question-tag, degree of
comparison, elliptical sentence, conditional sentence type 1, 2, and 3, dan preference. Selain itu,
didalam Bahasa Inggris II ini juga terdapat materi Reading Comprehension 1 dan 2. Hal tersebut
dipandang perlu sebab mahasiswa tidak hanya diajarkan mengenai grammar tetapi juga dilatih
untuk memahami bacaaan / wacana berbentuk bahasa Inggris. Dengan harapan bekal tersebut
dapat berguna dikemudian hari. Amin.
Akhir kata penulis mengucapkan selamat membaca dan berpandang mesra dengan dunia
bahasa Inggris yang penulis sajikan. Dan tentu tidak lupa penulis harapkan kritik dan saran yang
membangun agar didalam membuat modul penulis senantiasa rajin berbenah.

Penulis

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DAFTAR ISI
Halaman Judul .......................................................................................................... i
Kata Pengantar ......................................................................................................... ii
Daftar Isi ................................................................................................................... iii
Unit 1 Wh-question .................................................................................................. 1
Unit 2 Modals (can, could, may, might, must) ......................................................... 8
Unit 3 Introductory “it” ............................................................................................ 13
Unit 4 Singular Forms of Other : Another vs. the Other .......................................... 16
Unit 5 To be + going to and Will ............................................................................. 20
Unit 6 Reading Comprehension 1 (Surprise!) .......................................................... 25
Unit 7 Tag-Questions ............................................................................................... 34
Unit 8 Degree of Comparison .................................................................................. 39
Unit 9 Reading Comprehension 2 (Oh the Horror!).................................................. 48
Unit 10 Elliptical Sentence ....................................................................................... 60
Unit 11 Conditional Type 1 ...................................................................................... 64
Unit 12 Conditional Type 2 and 3 ............................................................................ 66
Unit 13 Preference .................................................................................................... 69

Daftar Pustaka .......................................................................................................... 72

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UNIT 1
WH-QUESTIONS

A. Definisi Wh-Questions
Information Questions (Wh-Questions dan how) adalah bentuk pertanyaan yang
menanyakan informasi dengan menggunakan Question Words (kata tanya). Sering
disebut dengan Wh-question karena semua kata tanya diawali dengan Wh-, kecuali How.
Yang termasuk Question Words (QW) adalah: What, Who, Whom, Whose, Why, Where,
When, Which dan How. Karena Questions Words ini terdiri dari 9 buah kata tanya, oleh
karena itu kata tanya ini lazim disebut 8W+1H.

B. Perbedaan Yes-No Questions dengan Information Questions

Gambar 1 Perbedaan Yes-No Questions dengan Information Questions

Dari gambar diatas terlihat jelas perbedaan antara Yes-No Questions dengan
Information Questions, dimana yes/no questions merupakan bentuk pertanyaan yang
dapat dijawab dengan jawaban Yes atau No, sementara information questions adalah
bentuk pertanyaan yang bertujuan untuk menanyakan informasi dengan menggunakan
kata tanya (question word), yaitu where, when, why, who, whom, what, which, whose,
dan how (Azar, 2003:123).

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C. Macam-macam, fungsi, dan contoh Wh-Questions
No. Wh-Questions Fungsi Contoh
1. What (apa) Menanyakan nama benda, 1. Question: What is that?
nama orang atau jenis Answer: That is an apple.
profesi. 2. Question: What are you?
Answer: I am a soldier.
3. Question: What is your name? Answer:
My name is Ivanka.

2. Who (siapa) Menanyakan orang 1. Question: Who are you?


sebagai pelaku/subject. Answer: I am Joko Pinurbo.
2. Question: Who writes the letter?
Answer: Martin does.
3. Who is very beautiful?
Answer: Agnes Monica is very beautiful.

3. Whom (siapa) Menanyakan orang 1. Question: Whom do you meet?


sebagai object. Answer: I meet Inul Daratista.
2. Question: Whom is she looking for?
Answer: She is looking for Brian Safina.

4. Whose (milik Menanyakan pemilik suatu 1. Question: Whose bag is this?


siapa) benda. Answer: This is my bag
2. Question: Whose sister is the girl?
Answer: She is my sister
5. Why (mengapa) Menanyakan alasan atau 1. Question: Why do you come late?
penyebab terjadinya Answer: Because I missed the bus this
sesuatu. morning
2. Question: Why is Mrs. Julia very
healthy?
3. Answer: Because she does sport every
morning.
4. Question: Why do you love me?
5. Answer: Because you are very rich.
6. Where (dimana) Menanyakan tempat. 1. Question: Where does Alicia study?
Answer: She studies in SMPN 03
Wonogiri.
2. Question: Where do you go every day?
Answer: I go to school every day.
3. Question: Where is the library?
Answer: The library is beside the hall.
7. When (kapan) Menanyakan waktu. 1. Question: When does Alfian get up?
Answer: He gets up at five o‟clock every
morning.
2. Question: When did you go to Eromoko?
Answer: I go to Eromoko last week.
3. Question: When do you go to school?
Answer: I go to school at 06.30.

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8. Which (yang Menanyakan pilihan. 1. Question: Which is your car?
mana)
Answer: My car is the red one.
2. Question: Which is his sister?
Answer: His sister is the girl with the blue
jacket.
9. How Menanyakan kondisi atau 1. Question: How are you?
(Bagaimana) keadaan.
Answer: I am fine. Thanks.
2. Question: How is Reyna‟s school?
Answer: Her school is large and clean.

Tabel 1 Macam-macam, fungsi, dan contoh Wh-Questions

D. Penjelasan tambahan mengenai who, whom, dan how.


1. Who (Siapa, sebagai subjek)
a. Who digunakan untuk menanyakan orang (sebagai subjek). Contoh
kalimatnya bisa Anda lihat di bawah ini:
1. Who is that? [Siapa itu?]
2. Who is going to come with Messi? [Siapa yang akan datang dengan
Messi?]
3. Who is she dating now? [Siapa yang sedang dia kencani sekarang?]
4. Who can help me bring this table? [Siapa yang bisa membantu saya
membawa meja ini?]
5. Who were you calling? [Siapa yang sedang Anda telepon?
6. Who will you invite to the party? [Siapa yang akan Anda undang ke
pesta?]

b. Selain itu, who juga bisa langsung diikuti oleh kata kerja. Perhatikan contoh-
contohnya di bawah ini:
1. Who wants to eat? [Siapa yang mau makan?]
2. Who cares? [Siapa yang peduli?]
3. Who won the match? [Siapa yang memenangkan pertandingan?]
4. Who wrote the Harry Potter? [Siapa yang menulis Harry Potter?]

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2. Whom (Siapa, sebagai objek)
Berbeda dengan who, whom digunakan untuk menanyakan orang sebagai objek.
Contoh kalimatnya dijelaskan pada gambar 2 sebagai berikut:

Gambar 2. Perbedaan who dengan whom

3. How (Bagaimana, Berapa, Seberapa)


How biasanya digunakan untuk menanyakan cara, kondisi/kualitas,
kabar/kesehatan seseorang, jumlah (yang dapat dan tidak dapat dihitung), usia,
jarak, durasi, dan frekuensi. Contoh kalimatnya adalah sebagai berikut:
a. How does the washing machine work? [Bagaimana cara kerja mesin cuci?]
b. How was your exam? [Bagaimana ujian Anda?]
c. How are you? [Bagaimana kabar Anda?]
d. How many children does Parto have? [Berapa banyak anak yang Parto
miliki?]
e. How much money have you spent this month? [Berapa banyak uang yang
telah Anda habiskan bulan ini?]
f. How old are you? [Berapa usia Anda?]
g. How far is Bali from Jakarta? [Seberapa jauh Bali dari Jakarta?]
h. How long can you go? [Berapa lama Anda bisa pergi?]
i. How often do you visit your grandmother? [Seberapa sering Anda
mengunjungi nenek Anda?]

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E. Tips membentuk/membuat Wh-Questions
Yang perlu diingat dalam membentuk/membuat Wh-Questions adalah:
1. Bentuk waktu (tense).
2. Memiliki main verb atau tidak? Jika memiliki main verb, gunakan formula
QASM (Question word, Auxiliary verb, Subject, Main verb).
3. Disertai keterangan atau tidak?

Untuk lebih jelasnya, silahkan lihat tabel di bawah ini:

Tense Question Auxiliary Subject Main Keterangan


word verb verb
Simple What Does Sarah think about the project?
Present
What Is your name? – –
What Are You doing? –
What Would You do if you have a
million dollars?
Where Are You – now?
Why Do You love me?
Who Is she? – –
How Does the washing work? –
machine
How many Do You have? –
kids
Simpe Past What Did You do yesterday?
When Did You create the blog?
Where Did You buy that T-shirt?
Why Were You late? –

Tabel 2 Cara Membuat WH-Question di dalam suatu kalimat

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F. Exercises

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UNIT 2
MODAL AUXILIARIES
(can, could, may, might, must)
A. Definisi Modals Auxiliaries
Modal Auxiliary adalah kata yang ditempatkan sebelum main verb (kata kerja
utama) untuk memodifikasi makna dari kata kerja utama tersebut. Fungsinya yaitu
untuk mengekspresikan willingness (kemauan) atau ability (kemampuan), necessity
(kebutuhan), dan possibility (kemungkinan).
Seperti yang dikutip azar dalam bukunya (2003:190), Modal Auxiliaries
merupakan kata kerja bantu yang mengungkapkan berbagai makna (ability
[kemampuan], permission [izin], possibility [kemungkinan], necessity [keperluan]).
Sebagian besar dari beberapa modals memiliki lebih dari satu makna.
Dari asumsi tersebut disimpulkan bahwa Modal auxiliary adalah kata kerja
bantu yang bentuknya bermacam-macam dan dapat digunakan sesuai keadaan yang
ingin diungkapkan oleh sipembicaranya. Bentuk kalimat-kalimatnya dapat
digunakan dengan kata kerja maupun selain kata kerja, dan juga bisa
digunakan untuk situasi sekarang ataupun yang memiliki arti untuk situasi yang akan
datang.

B. Macam-macam Modals Auxiliaries


Berikut adalah berbagai macam dari modals auxiliaries menurut Eastwood, (2002):
1. Necessity: must, have (got) to, needn't dan mustn't
2. Obligation dan advice: should, ought to etc
3. Permission: can, could, may, might dan be allowed to
4. Certainty: will, must dan can't
5. Probability: should dan ought to
6. Possibility: may, might, can dan could
7. Ability: can, could dan be able to
8. Unreal situations: would
9. Habits: will, would dan used to
10. The verb dare

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Dari asumsi tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada beberapa modals
auxiliaries yang sering digunakan, yaitu seperti may, might, can, could, must, had to,
shall, should, will, would, ought to. Tetapi dalam bahasan ini kita hanya fokus pada 5
modals saja antara lain yaitu can, could, may, might, dan must.

C. The usage of Modals Auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, and must)
Modal memiliki beberapa penggunaan seperti berikut ini:
1. Can/could
a. Untuk menyatakan kemampuan:
1) I can cook very well. (Aku bisa memasak dengan sangat baik.)
2) I could not sing this song beautifully. (Aku tidak bisa menyanyikan lagu
ini dengan baik.)
b. Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan:
1) I Can Call You If I have finished my work. (Aku bisa meneleponmu jika
pekerjaanku sudah selesai.)
2) I Could not listen to what he said. (Aku tidak bisa mendengarkan apa
yang dia katakan.)
c. Untuk menyatakan izin:
1) You Can Watch TV after doing your homework. (Kamu boleh menonton
TV setelah menyelesaikan PR-mu.)
2) You Can borrow my novel tomorrow morning. (Kamu boleh meminjam
novelku besok pagi.)
d. Untuk menyatakan permohonan yang sopan:
1) Can I use your phone? Bolehkah aku memakai teleponmu?
2) Could you please tell me where the nearest bank is? Bisakah kamu
memberi tahuku di mana letak bank terdekat?
Catatan: Dalam kasus permohonan, could lebih sopan daripada can.

2. May/might
a. Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan (tidak yakin 100%):
1) Tia does not come to the class, she may get up late (Tia tidak masuk
sekolah. dia mungkin bangun ke- siangan)
2) shinta might not be angry because I am her boyfriend. (Shinta mungkin
tidak marah karena aku adalah pacarnya)

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b. Untuk menyatakan izin:
1) You might meet your mom (Kamu boleh menemui ibumu)
2) May I ask you a question? Bolehkah aku bertanya padamu?

3. Must / had to
a. Untuk menyatakan keharusan:
1) You must pay all of these (Aku harus membayar semua ini)
2) You must not be late (Kamu tidak boleh telat.)
3) We had to keep the secret (Kita harus menjaga rahasia ini.)
b. Untuk menyatakan kepastian/prediksi yang pasti:
1) After studying all the day, you must be so tired (Setelah seharian, kamu
pasti kecapaian)
2) Since you do not practice seriously, you must not win the dance
competition. (Karena kamu tidak berlatih dengan serius, kamu pasti tidak
akan menang dalam lomba menari)

D. Rumus Modals Auxiliaries


Pada umumnya penggunaan rumus modals auxiliaries dari can, could, may,
might,dan must sama dengan modals auxiliaries will/shall pola III, baik untuk yang
menggunakan kata kerja (Verb I) maupun selain kata kerja (Non verb).
1. Menggunakan Verb I
a. Rumus kalimat positif:
S + Aux. + Verb I + O + Adv
1) I can speak English now.
2) I may sit beside you.
3) We must study English well.
4) She need go now.
5) I could help you.

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b. Rumus kalimat bertanya:
Aux. + S + Verb I + O + Adv
1) Can you help me, friend?
2) Could you open the door?
3) Must he make you sad like this?
4) Ought they to help us?
5) Need they leave today?
c. Rumus kalimat negatif:
S + Aux. + Not + Verb I + O + Adv
1) I can‟t come tomorrow.
2) They mayn‟t distusb our friends.
3) I won‟t hete you.
4) Rina mustn‟t work today.
5) She ought to speak like that.
d. Rumus kalimat bertanya menidakan:
Aux. + Not + S + Verb I + O + Adv
1) Can‟t you help me?
2) Won‟t they invite us?
3) Oughtn‟t they to realize it?
4) Myan‟t I stand beside you?

2. Menggunakan selain kata kerja (Non-V)


a. Rumus kalimat positaf:
S + Aux. + Be + Non-V + Adv
1) I can be crazy about english.
2) It may be suitable to me.
3) You ought to be honest.
4) I could be here at 10.00 am.
5) I would be your friend.

b. Rumus kalimat bertanya:


Aux. + S + Be + Non-V + Adv
1) Must Dian be on time tomorow?
2) Can you be our leader on next hiking?

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3) Could you be slowly, please?
4) Ought we to be committee?
5) Must Paul be here now?

c. Rumus kalimat negatif:


S + Aux. + Not + Be + Non-V + Adv
1) I can‟t be an English teacher.
2) You mayn‟t be proud, Joko.
3) They shouldn‟t be here.
4) We shan‟t be angry.
5) I oughtn‟t to be difficult to do it.

d. Rumus kalimat bertanya menidakkan:


Aux. + Not + S + Be + Non-V + Adv
1) Can‟t you be on time?
2) Won‟t she be happy?
3) Mayn‟t he be my patner?
4) Couldn‟t you be frankly next?

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UNIT 3
INTRODUCTORY “it”

A. Definisi introductory
Introductory adalah suatu bentuk kalimat yang bila digunakan di dalam kalimat,
tidak mempengaruhi makna kalimat itu sama sekali. Hal ini disebabkan karena kata
tersebut maknanya sudah dikandung oleh unsur lain. Jadi dapat dikatakan bahwa
introductory adalah kata yang tidak mempunyai arti didalam kalimat. Bila digunakan
maupun tidak, makna kalimat tetap sama. Kata yang dapat kita gunakan sebagai
introductory ada dua, yaitu IT dan THERE.

B. The usage of introductory “it”


Pada dasarnya it tidak selamanya berfungsi sebagai introductory. Selain sebagai
introductory, it dapat juga digunakan sebagai pronoun atau kata ganti. Apabila it
digunakan sebagai kata ganti, berarti it tersebut menggantikan suatu benda buka
manusia. Penggunaan it sebagai kata ganti dapat dilihat dari contoh-contoh berikut:
1. I have a bag. It is very luxury.
2. I have a new movie in my computer, I want to watch it.
3. He does not buy the wedding treasure because his girlfriend does not like it.
4. We have a task. We have to finish it soon. Don‟t be late until the deadline.
5. I don‟t like this lesson, it makes me bored.
Dilihat dari posisi it pada kalimat-kalimat diatas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa it
digunakan sebagai subject maupun object kalimat. Hal tersebut juga berlaku untuk
introductory it. Bedanya adalah introductory it tidak menggantikan suatu benda
introductory it dapat digunakan sebagai:
1. Subjek
Introductory it dapat digunakan sebagai subject untuk menyatakan:
a) Keadaan cuaca
Untuk menyatakan cuaca, introductory it digunakan apabila subjek kalimat dari
TO BE + ADJECTIVE yang menyatakan cuaca adalah ADVERB OF TIME
yang menyatakan nama hari, tanggal, bulan, musim atau tahun.

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Contoh:
1) Today is hot. It is hot today.
2) Yesterday was cloudy. It was cloudy yesterday.
3) Tomorrow will be sunny. It will be sunny tomorrow.
4) In Summer is not rainy. It is not rainy in summer.
5) In December is rainy. It is rainy in December.

b) Menyatakan waktu
Untuk menyatakan waktu, introductory it digunakan apabila subjek dari TO BE +
ADVERB OF TIME menyatakan nama hari dan tanggal.
Contoh:
1) Today is Sunday. It is Sunday today.
2) Yesterday was Saturday. It was Saturday yesterday.
3) Tomorrow will be Monday. It will be Monday tomorrow.
4) Today is 25th. It is 25th today.
5) Yesterday was 23rd. It was 23rd yesterday.

c) Mempertegas makna kalimat


Untuk mempertegas makna kalimat, introductory it digunakan apabila subjek
dari TO BE + ADJECTIVE (ADJECTIVE+NOUN) + TO INFINITIVE
Contoh:
1) To do the test is not easy. It is not easy to do the test.
2) To study English is very interesting. It is very interesting to study English.
3) To meet you again will be nice. It will be nice to meet you again.
4) To program the computer is a difficult work. It is a difficult work to program
the computer.
5) To have a picnic in that resort was very pleasant. It was very pleasant to have
a picnic in that resort.
Noted:
TO BE yang dapat digunakan setelah subjek it adalah is, was, will be.
Penggunaan TO BE ini disesuaikan dengan tenses, yaitu: is untuk present,
was untuk past, dan will be untuk future.

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2. Sebagai Objek
a) Apabila introductory it digunakan sebagai objek, pola kalimatnya dirumuskan
sebagai berikut:
SUBJECT + PREDICATE + IT + ADJECTIVE (ADJECTIVE + NOUN) + TO
INFINITIVE
Contoh:
1) She found it difficult to translate the article.
2) We know it hard to influence an orthodox man.
3) They make it easy to understand the lesson.

b) Apabila setelah predikat digunakan tanda koma atau kata penghubung THAT,
maka pola kalimatnya berubah menjadi:
SUBJECT + PREDICATE (,)/THAT + IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE
(ADJECTIVE + NOUN) + TO INFINITIVE
Contoh:
1) She found, it was difficult to translate the article.
2) We know that it is hard to influence an orthodox man.
3) He think it is interesting to study English
4) You believed that it was boring to listen to a long speech.
5) I think, it is a a wasting time to wait the bus.

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UNIT 4
SINGULAR FORMS OF OTHER: ANOTHER
vs. THE OTHER

A. Introduction
Another mempunyai arti yaitu satu lagi dari sekelompok barang serupa, satu
sebagai tambahan untuk sesuatu barang yang telah terlebih dahulu disebutkan.
Another merupakan suatu kombinasi dari article an + other, ditulis dalam satu kata,
jika diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia artinya adalah „yang lain‟.
Another sebagai adjective selalu diikuti oleh kata benda tunggal (singular noun),
tidak pernah oleh kata benda jamak (plural noun). Kesalahan yang sering dijumpai
adalah banyak yang masih menggunakan kata another_people. Hal ini tidak boleh
terjadi sebab people itu merupakan plural noun.
Selain itu another juga digunakan sebagai kata ganti (pronoun) yang
kehadirannya berdiri sendiri (tanpa ada kata benda yang mendampinginya). Another
sebagai pronoun digunakan untuk menghindari pengulangan kata benda yang tidak
diperlukan dalam kalimat.
Sementara itu the other juga memiliki arti yang sama dengan another, yaitu
berarti „yang lain‟, namun dalam penggunaanya berbeda dengan another. The other
merupakan sesuatu yang lain, yang terakhir di dalam satu kelompok tertentu, satu-
satunya yang tersisa dari sejumlah tertentu dari barang serupa atau sama jenisnya.
The other bisa diikuti oleh singular nouns atau plural nouns, namun pada unit ini
kita hanya akan focus pada penggunaan singular atau tunggal saja. The
other sebagai pronoun juga berdiri sendiri seperti halnya another. The other merujuk
pada benda/orang yang tersisa yang jumlahnya satu. The other adalah spesific,
artinya sudah jelas yang kita maksud. Jika benda atau orangnya berjumlah dua,
maka „the other„ artinya „yang satunya lagi‟, namun jika lebih dari dua, „the
other‟ artinya yang terakhir atau yang tersisa.
Berdasarkan penjelasan yang telah diuraikan diatas, maka dapat disimpulkan
bahwa another and the other dapat digunakan sebagai kata sifat (adjective) di depan
kata benda (noun) atau di depan kata one. Another and the other juga dapat
digunakan sendiri (berdiri sendiri) sebagai kata ganti (pronoun).

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B. Contoh-contoh penggunaan another and the other
1. There is a large bowl of apples on the table. Paul is going to eat one apple. If he is
still hungry after that, he can eat another apple. There are many apples to choose
from.

Gambar 3 Example of using another


2. There two apples on the table. Paul is going to eat one of them. Sara is going to eat
the other apple.

Gambar 4 Example of using the other

Lebih jelasnya dapat dilihat di gambar sebagai berikut:

Gambar 5 Example of using another and the other

C. Review Penjelasan tentang Penggunaan another and the other


1. Penggunaan another
a. Example 1: This door is broken. Use another door.
Explanation: Gunakan pintu yang lain yang mana saja, banyak pilihan pintu.
Tentu saja yang kita butuhkan hanya satu pintu untuk masuk atau keluar.

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b. Example 2: She was everything for me. It would be difficult for me to
find another like her.
Explanation: „Another„ pada contoh di atas tidak diikuti oleh noun tapi tentu
saja kita mengerti yang dimaksud adalahanother girl atau seorang gadis lain
sembarang sebagai pengganti kekasih atau istrinya.
c. Example 3: This cake is delicious. Can I have another slice please?
Explanation: Kalimat di atas sering digunakan sebagai permohonan untuk
meminta tambahan atau meminta lagi. Contoh di atas banyak potongan kue
dan orang itu meminta sepotong lagi.
2. Penggunaan the other (tanpa „s‟)
a. Example 1: This door is broken. Use the other door.
Explanation: Pada kalimat di atas pintunya cuma ada dua. Maka jika yang
satu rusak maka hanya ada pintu satunya lagi yang tersisa.
b. Example 2: She has two cats. One is under the table. Where is the other?
Explanation: Kata „the other‟ di atas adalah pronoun. Kita mengerti
maksudnya adalah „the other cat‟, kucing yang satunya lagi.
c. Example 3: The bank is on the other side of the street.
Explanation: Setiap jalan hanya ada dua sisi, sisi yang ini dan sisi yang
satunya lagi.

D. Exercises
Directions: Complete the sentences with another or the other.
1. There are two birds in drawing A. One is an eagle. __________ is a chicken.

2. There are three birds in Drawing B. One is an eagle.


a. _______________ one is a chicken.
b. _______________ bird is a crow.

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3. There are many kinds of birds in the world. One kind is an eagle.
a. _______________ kind is a chicken.
b. _______________ kind is a crow.
c. _______________ kind is a sea gull.
d. What is the name of _______________ kind of bird in the world?
4. I have two brothers. One in named Nick. _________________ is named Matt.
5. There are five names on this list. One is Adam. _________________ is Greg.
____________________ is Nick.
____________________ one of the names is Eric.
____________________ name on the list (the last
of the five) is Jessica.
6. It rained yesterday, and from the look of those dark
clouds, we‟re going to have _________________
rainstorm today.
7. Nicole and Michelle are identical twins. The best way to tell them apart is by looking
at their ears. One of them has pierced ears, and ___________________ doesn‟t.
8. Of the fifty states in the United States, forty-nine are located on the North American
continent. Where is __________________ located?
9. France borders on several countries. One is Spain. _________________ is Italy.

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UNIT 5
TO BE GOING TO AND WILL

A. Introduction
Di dalam mengungkapkan suatu rencana atau kejadian di masa depan, tentu saja
kita semua tahu bahwa Future tense yang digunakan di kalimat. Kendati demikian, di
dalam future tense, terdapat dua bagian utama yang harus kita pahami dengan baik,
yaitu Going to dan Will. Meskipun kedua kalimat yang menggunakan Going to dan
Will sama-sama diarahkan untuk sebuah masa yang akan datang, namun
perbedaannya begitu besar. Antara going to dan will pada dasarnya memiliki fungsi
utama untuk menunjukkan suatu keputusan atau rencana untuk masa yang akan
datang. Selain itu fungsi yang lain adalah untuk membuat perkiraan dan prediksi.

B. The usage of Going to and Will


1. Menggunakan Going to
a. Digunakan ketika Anda telah memiliki sebuah rencana. Misalkan, Anda hari
ini telah mempunyai rencana untuk pergi ke rumah teman esok hari. Untuk
mengungkapkannya, maka Anda bisa menggunakan going to.
Example:
1) I am going to go to my friend‟s house next morning.
2) Jhony has won the lottery. He is going to buy a new car.
3) She is going to watch a football match next weekend.

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b. Digunakan ketika Anda sedang membuat sebuah prediksi. Prediksi yang
Anda ucapkan didasarkan pada apa yang terjadi saat ini. Misalkan, Anda
sedang melihat langit yang mendung serta begitu gelap. Kemudian, Anda
membuat sebuah prediksi bahwa beberapa menit kemudian akan turun hujan.
Example:
1) The sky is very dark, it‟s going to rain.
2) There is an accident in Bandung. It‟s going to be a traffic jam.
3) His car is crashed. He is going to be absent this morning.

2. Menggunakan Will
a. Kata Will digunakan ketika Anda sedang berbicara tanpa rencana. Misalkan,
Anda sedang mendengar dering sebuah telepon secara tiba-tiba, kemudian
Anda berkata akan mengangkat telepon itu. Maka, kalimat yang digunakan
diharuskan menggunakan Will serta bukan Going to.
Example:
1) Hold on! I will answer the phone.
2) I will turn on the light.
3) Let us see what they will do to help you.
b. Will bisa digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah rencana, namun hanya sebatas
kemungkinan dan bukan prediksi yang kuat.
Example:
1) May be I will stay at home tonight.
2) I think I will come to your party.
3) I will possibly be a football player in the future.

c. Kemudian, Will juga digunakan untuk mengungkapkan fakta di masa depan.


Sebagai contoh, seorang presiden memerintah selama 5 tahun. Tentu saja, itu
adalah fakta serta merupakan kejelasan di sebuah masa depan. Untuk itu
Anda harus menggunakan Will untuk menyatakannya ke dalam bentuk
kalimat.
Example:

1) The president will govern us for five years.


2) Based on these data, your salary will increase until $500 next month.

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Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat penjelasan di tabel berikut:

Tabel 3 Penggunaan Kata “Will” dan “Going to” Dalam Bahasa Inggris

C. Exercises

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UNIT 6
READING COMPREHENSION 1
“Surprise!”

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UNIT 7
TAG-QUESTIONS

A. Definisi Tag-Questions
Tag-questions adalah pertanyaan singkat di akhir kalimat/pernyataan yang
digunakan untuk meminta persetujuan dari lawan bicara Anda atau
mengonfirmasi kebenaran informasi tentang benar tidaknya pernyataan Anda tersebut.
Dalam bahasa Indonesia, question tag ini sendiri bisa diartikan sebagai kan?, bukan?,
ya? atau ya bukan?

B. Penggunaan dan Contoh Tag-Questions

Tabel 4 Penggunaan dan Contoh Tag-Questions

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Aturan penggunaan tag-question adalah jika penyataan Anda tersebut merupakan
pernyataan yang bermakna positif, maka tag-questionnya harus bermakna negatif.
Sebaliknya, jika penyataan Anda tersebut merupakan pernyataan yang bermakna negatif,
maka tag-questionnya harus bermakna positif. Jadi dalam hal ini, kekeliruan jangan
sampai terjadi karena jika terjadi kesalahan, maka pernyataan Anda tersebut tidak
dianggap sebagai tag-question. Tabel berikut merupakan aturan penggunaan beserta
contoh - contoh tag-questions yang benar.

Tabel 5 Aturan Penggunaan Beserta Contoh Tag-Questions yang Benar

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Tabel 6 Aturan Penggunaan Positive Form dari Tag-Questions

Tabel 7 Aturan Penggunaan Negative Form dari Tag-Questions

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C. Contoh Penggunaan Tag-questions yang Terjadi didalam Kehidupan Sehari – hari

No Jenis Contoh Arti


Pernyataan
1 Negatif (-) They are not having an Mereka tidak memiliki makan
early lunch today, are you? siang lebih awal hari ini, ya
bukan?
2 Positif (+) Tania usually gets the bus to Tania biasanya naik bus ke
college, doesn‟t she? perguruan tinggi, ya bukan?
3 Negatif (-) Jennifer Gold hasn‟t got a Saat ini, Jennifer Gold belum
job at the moment, has she? mendapat pekerjaan, ya bukan?
4 Positif (+) I think Paul is right – we Saya pikir Paul benar – kita
work well together, don‟t bekerja sama saja dengan baik, ya
we? bukan?
5 Positif (+) Joanna and Patricia know Joanna dan Patricia tahu bahwa
that the schedule of the jadwal pelajaran telah berubah,
lesson has changed, don‟t ya bukan?
they?
6 Negatif (-) She hasn‟t finished cleaning Dia belum selesai
yet, has she? membersihkannya, ya bukan?
7 Positif (+) I‟m trying to tell my father Saya sedang mencoba untuk
what happened, aren‟t I? memberitahu kepada ayahku
tentang apa yang terjadi, ya
bukan?

8 Negatif (-) Some of the refugees Beberapa pengungsi sangat tidak


disagree about the civil war, senang dengan adanya perang
do they? saudara, ya bukan?
9 Positif (+) Your sister works in Saudara perempuanmu bekerja
Jakarta, doesn‟t she? di Jakarta, ya bukan?
10 Positif (+) Mr. Obama will visit Japan Bapak Obama akan mengunjungi
next month, won‟t he? Jepang bulan depan, ya bukan?

Tabel 8 Contoh Penggunaan Tag-Questions didalam Kehidupan Sehari – hari

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D. Exercises
1. Rudy works as a doctor, …………….?
2. Mary didn‟t attent the class yesterday, ……………?
3. We have watched the movie several times, ……………..?
4. A police officer needs a gun, ………….?
5. Michael Jackson is a popular singer, …………..?
6. The student was absent for a week, ……………?
7. You have got the payment, …………….?
8. Let‟s play the game,…………….?
9. Close the door, ……………?
10. I‟m right, ………….?
11. Carl is a soldier, …………?
12. They won‟t be here…………?
13. That‟s your motorcycle, …………?
14. Mr. Joko Widodo is a President of Indonesia, …………?
15. His mother does‟t has a new car, …………?
16. Cat can‟t swim, …………?
17. I am invited, …………?
18. Clara has a beautiful flower, …………?
19. Tom and Jerry cartoon film isn‟t a horror film, …………?
20. Oggy and Lucy visited their parents last week, …………?

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UNIT 8
DEGREE OF COMPARISON

A. Definisi Degree of Comparison


Degree of Comparison adalah sebuah bentuk perbandingan yang digunakan
menyatakan tingkat perbandingan sifat atau perilaku antara orang dengan orang lain ataupun
benda dengan benda lainnya. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui hasil atau kualitas dari hal
yang kita bandingkan tersebut. Dalam hal ini, Degree of Comparison terbagi menjadi tiga jenis.
Yakni,
1. Positive Degree
2. Comparative Degree
3. Superlative Degree

B. Jenis Degree of Comparison


Positive Degree merupakan bentuk kalimat perbandingan yang menjelaskan sifat yang
sama antar dua benda atau orang. Dalam hal ini, tidak ada hal yang membandingkan atau
perbandingan satu sama lain karena sifat keduanya sama, misalnya secantik, sepintar, serajin,
setinggi, seumuran dan lain-lain.

RUMUS :

Subject 1 + tobe + AS + adjective + AS + Subject 2

Contoh:

1. George is 167 cm (tall)


Jimmy is 167 cm (tall)

Jadi :

George is as tall as Jimmy


(George setinggi Jimmy)

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2. Jimmy is as tall as Toni
(Jimmy setinggi George)
3. Maya is 17 years old (old)
4. Indah is 17 years old (old)
Jadi :
1. Maya is as old as Indah
2. (Maya seumuran Indah)
3. Indah is as old as Maya
(Indah seumuran Maya)

Tabel 9 Perbandingan dengan Menggunakan as…as

Tabel 10 Perbandingan dengan Menggunakan Less…than and not as…as

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Comparative degree merupakan bentuk perbandingan yang digunakan untuk
membanding sifat yang lebih diantara dua benda atau orang. Jadi ada diantara dua benda itu yang
mempunyai sifat yang lebih menonjol, seperti lebih pintar, lebih panas, lebih sibuk, lebih cantik,
lebih tua dan lain-lain. Dalam hal menyatakan tingkatan lebih ada caranya yaitu dengan
penambahan “er” setelah kata yang bersuku kata 1/2. Pemberian “more” sebelum kata yang
bersuku kata lebih dari dua. Dan untuk menyatakan “dari” kita menggunakan “than”

Kata sifat yang bersuku kata 1/2 Kata sifat yang lebih dari 2 suku kata

Cold : colder than Beautiful : more beautiful than

Hot : hotter than Difficult : more difficult than

Old : older than Diligent : more diligent than

RUMUS :

Subject 1 + tobe + ( adjective + er ) + than + Subject 2


(more + adjective)

Contohnya:

 Ilham gets up at 04.55 a.m (dilligent) (lazy)


Tasya gets up at 05.20 a.m (dilligent) (lazy)

Ilham dan Tasya mempunyai perbedaan sifat dilihat dari waktu bangun pagi jadi kita
bisa membandingkan 2 sifat diantara mereka.

 Ilham is more diligent than Tasya


(ilham lebih rajin dari pada Tasya karna bangunnya lebih awal)
 Tasya is lazier than Ilham
(Tasya lebih malas dari pada Ilham karna dilihat waktu bangun tidur lebih
siang)

 Emmy runs in 3 minutes (fast,slow,long,short)


Dicka runs in 5 minutes (fast,slow,long,short)

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(Emmy dan Dicka dalam lomba lari mempunyai waktu yang berbeda, bias disimpulkan
sifat yang disoroti lebih cepat/ lebih pelan dan lebih lama/lebih singkat)

 Emmy is faster than Dicka


(Emmy lebih cepat dari pada Dicka)
 Dicka is slower than Emmy
(Dicka lebih pelan dari pada Emmy)
 Dicka is longer than Emmy in Running
(Dicka lebih lama dari pada Emmy dalam hal lari)
 Emmy is shorter than Dicka
(Emmy lebih singkat dari pada Dicka dalam hal lari)

Tabel 11 Perbandingan dengan menggunakan –er dan –more

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Tabel 12 Perbedaan antara penggunaan Comparative dan Superlative

Tabel 13 Penggunaan more dengan nouns

Noted:
kata 1/2. Pemberian “the most” sebelum kata yang bersuku kata lebih dari dua.
Perhatikan table dibawah ini
Kata sifat bersuku kata 1/2 Kata sifat bersuku kata lebih dari 2

Warm : the warmest Charming : the most charming

Big : the biggest Interesting : the most interesting

Tall : the tallest Famous : the most famous

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RUMUS :

Subject + tobe + (the adjective + est)


(the most adjective)

Contoh :

 Antonio gets 100 in math, 79 in social and 87 in art.


 Ann gets 92 in math, 89 in social and 95 in art.
 Donald gets 75 in math, 95 in social and 77 in art.

(Diantara nilai Matematika, IPS dan kesenian Mario, Ann dan Zio terdapat nilai yang
berbeda, disimpulkan ada nilai yang tertinggi dan terendah)

 Antonio‟s score is the highest in math


(Nilai Antonio adalah yang paling tinggi di pelajaran Matematika)
 Donal‟s score is the lowest in math
(Nilai Donal adalah yang paling rendah dalam pelajaran Matematika)

 Donal‟s score is the biggest in social


(Nilai Donal yang paling besar dipelajaran IPS)
 Antonio score is the smallest in social
(Nilai Antonio yang paling kecil di pelajaran IPS)

 Ann‟s score is the largest in Art


(Nilai Ann yang paling besar di pelajaran Kesenian)
 Donal‟s score is the smallest in the art
(Nilai Donal yang paing kecil dipelajaran Kesenian)

 Baturaja has 2 department stores


 Jakarta has 130 department stores
 Palembang has 10 department stores

(Diantara kota Baturaja, Jakarta, dan Palembang, disimpulkan bahwa kota Jakarta
adalah kota yang paling modern dibidang perekonomian karena mempunyai banyak
pusat perbelanjaan)

 Jakarta is the most modern city in trade center among Baturaja and Palembang.

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Tabel 14 Superlative: penggunaan –est dan most

Tabel 15 Penggunaan Superlative

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Ada sejumlah kata sifat (adjective) yang mengalami perubahan bentuk, untuk lebih jelas
perhatikan table dibawah ini.

Positive Arti Comparative Superlative


Good/well Baik/bagus Better Best
Far Jauh Farther / further Farthest/ furthest
Bad /ugly / ill Jelek/buruk/sakit Worse Worst
Little/ a few/ a little Sedikit Less Least
Old Tua Older/ elder Oldest/ eldest
Much/ many Banyak More Most
Nigh Dekat Nigher Nightest/ next
Hind Belakang Hinder Hindmost
Few / little Kecil Less Least
Late Telat Later Last
Up Atas Upper Uppermost
Early Awal Earlier Earliest
Late Terakhir Later Latest
Smart Pintar Smarter Smartest
Lazy Malas Lazier Laziest
Fast Cepat Faster Fastest

Tabel 16 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs

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C. Exercises
Buatlah positive degree dari kalimat dibawah ini!

1. My car is new. My sister‟s handphone is new. (new)


2. Mr Badi is tall. Mrs Halimah is tall. (tall)
3. Toni is 20 years old. Budi is 20 years old. (old)
4. Yanti is beautiful. Yeni is not beautiful. (beautiful)
5. Hari is not smart. Heri is smart. (smart)

Buatlah comparative degree dari kalimat dibawah ini!

1. Hari is..............(young).........Heri
2. Avanza runs 80 KmKijang runs 60 Km/h. (fast)
3. Harley Davidson is Rp.800.000.000,-. CBR is Rp.50.000.000,- (expensive)
4 Anisa has weight 76 Kg. Putri has weight 42 Kg. (fat)
5. Hadi was born in 1997. Adi was born in 1989. (old)

Buatlah superlative degree dari kalimat dibawah ini!

1. She‟s a very popular singer. She‟s ....................in the country. (popular)


2. It was a very bad mistake. It was....................i‟ve ever made. (bad)
3. It was a very cold day. It was......................of the year. (cold)
4. This building is very old. It‟s.........................building in the town (old)
5. It is a very pretty village. It‟s........................I‟ve ever seen. (pretty)

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UNIT 9
READING COMPREHENSION 2
(Oh the Horror!)
Passage I

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Passage II
Read the passage and answer the questions.

Bill Gates
William Henry Gates III (Bill) was born on October 28, 1955, in Seattle, Washington.
Bill was the second of three children in an upper-middle class family. He enjoyed playing games
with the family and was very competitive. He also loved to read. Bill became bored in public
school so his family sent him to Lakeside School, a private school, where he excelled in math
and science and did well in drama and English.
Gates became interested in computer programming when he was 13, during the era of
giant mainframe computers. His school held a fund-raiser to purchase a teletype terminal so
students could use computer time that was donated by General Electric. Using this time, Gates
wrote a tic-tac-toe program using BASIC, one of the first computer languages. Later he created a
computer version of Risk, a board game he liked in which the goal is world domination. At
Lakeside, Bill met Paul Allen, who shared his interest in computers. Gates and Allen and two
other students hacked into a computer belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC) to get
free computer time but were caught. After a period of probation, they were allowed back in the
computer lab when they offered to fix glitches in CCC‟s software. At age 17, Gates and Allen
were paid $20,000 for a program called Traf-O-Data that was used to count traffic.
In early 1973, Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U.S. House of
Representatives. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the SAT and was accepted by Harvard
University. Steve Ballmer, who became CEO of Microsoft after Bill retired, was also a Harvard
student. Meanwhile, Paul Allen dropped out of Washington College to work on computers at
Honeywell Corporation and convinced Gates to drop out of Harvard and join him in starting a
new software company in Albuquerque, New Mexico. They called it Micro-Soft. This was soon
changed to Microsoft, and they moved their company to Bellevue, Washington.
In 1980, IBM, one of the largest technology companies of the era, asked Microsoft to
write software to run their new personal computer, the IBM PC. Microsoft kept the licensing
rights for the operating system (MS-DOS) so that they earned money for every computer sold
first by IBM, and later by all the other companies that made PC computers. Microsoft grew
quickly from 25 employees in 1978 to over 90,000 today. Over the years, Microsoft developed
many new technologies and some of the world‟s most popular software and products such as
Word and Power Point. Although some have criticized Gates for using questionable business
practices, he built Microsoft into one of the largest companies in the world. He has been
described as brilliant but childlike, driven, competitive, intense, fun, but lacking in empathy.
Bill Gates is one of the richest men in the world. In 2012, his $61 billion dollars in assets
made him the world's second richest man according to Forbes Magazine. In 2006, Gates
announced that he would cut back his involvement at Microsoft to spend more time on
philanthropy and his foundation. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supports many causes
including the quest to eradicate Polio, fighting AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; providing
vaccinations for children; and even reinventing the toilet among many other things.

1. What is the first paragraph talking about?


a. The end of Bill Gates‟s life
b. The beginning of Bill Gates‟s life
c. Bill Gates‟s microsoft
d. Bill Gates‟s family

2. Where was Bill Gates‟s school?


a. Computer school
b. Sunday school
c. Lakeside school
d. Washington school

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3. What did Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and two other students do when they were at Lakeside?
a. They did not do anything
b. They studied about how to create new softwares
c. They hacked into a computer belonging to Computer Center Corporation
d. They ran away from Lakeside

4. Why was Bill Gates accepted as a student by Harvard University in 1973?


a. Because he was interested in information and technology
b. Because he was smart person in computer
c. Because he scored 1590 out of 1600 on the SAT
d. Because he excelled in math, science, drama, and English

5. The sentence “Bill Gates is one of the richest men in the world” refers to
a. A successful person who has much money
b. A person who has many computer
c. An arrogant person
d. A poor man

Passage III
Read the passage and answer the questions.

Scary Experience
I saw a horror film at Galaxy cinema last night. It was “Pulau Hantu” playing on. I read
the poster on newspaper yesterday. It made me curious to see the film.
I went to the cinema alone. I went there by a bicycle. I was 8.00 when I arrived there.
There had been many people queuing up to get the tickets. I came into the cinema soon after I
got my ticket. I had my seat on the forefront. And at 8.30 the movie was played on.
After the movie was over, I left the cinema quickly. My watch showed 11.30 pm as I
got on my bicycle. I pedaled hard on my bicycle and was soon speeding home. My thought went
back to the movie I had just seen. It was a scary story. I could remember clearly a woman
screaming as she was being attached by a ghost. Somehow that frightful scene stayed in my
mind. And I could not forget it.
The road was dark and quiet. I had to pass a graveyard on the way home. As I
approached the graveyard. I heard some sounds behind me. I was frightened and began to cycle
faster. The sound came nearer and nearer. Then I heard a familiar voice calling me. I looked back
and saw Suzana, my classmate. He had also seen the movie and was frightened too. She had
cycled after me so that she would not be alone. Both of us laughed out loud over our behavior.
We went home together. We pedaled our bicycle calmly. We both went not scared any
more.

1. When was the movie played on?


a. At 8.00
b. At 8.30
c. At 11.30
d. In the midnight

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2. What did the author do after hearing some sounds when passing a graveyard on the way
home?
a. He met Suzana, his classmate
b. He was still relax and did not feel anything
c. He was frightened and began to cycle his bike faster
d. He was sleepy and began to cycle his bike faster

3. Why was the author frightened after watching the movie?


a. Because he was a frightened person
b. Because he heard some sounds behind him
c. Because he still remembered clearly a woman screaming in his mind
d. Because he met Suzana, his classmate

4. What does the fourth paragraph tell about?


a. The author finished to watch a horror movie and wanted to go home
b. The author heard some sounds behind him and he was frightened
c. The author started to watch a horror movie
d. The author heard a woman screaming he was frightened

5. What can you learn from the story?


a. Do not try to see a horror film alone if you are a frightened person
b. Do not be arrogant in watching a horror film
c. Being not coward by watching a horror film
d. Must be accompanied by our parents when watching a horror film

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UNIT 10
ELLIPTICAL SENTENCE

A. Definisi Elliptical Sentence


Elliptical Sentence adalah bentuk penggabungan dari dua kalimat yang berbeda tetapi
memiliki unsur yang sama seperti subjek dan predikatnya. Sama seperti kalimat majemuk,
elliptical sentence ini bertujuan agar kalimat tersebut menjadi lebih efisien dengan cara
menghilangkan pengulangan kata - kata yang selalu diulang dalam kalimat tersebut.
Adapun syarat utama dalam menggabungkan kalimat – kalimat (elliptical sentence)
tersebut adalah kalimat – kalimat tersebut harus memiliki jenis tenses yang sama. Misalnya, jika
kalimat pertama adalah kalimat simple present tense, maka kalimat berikutnya harus kalimat
simple present tense juga. Atau jika kalimat pertamanya adalah kalimat present future tense,
maka kalimat berikutnya harus kalimat present future tense juga. Oleh karena itu, elliptical
sentence tidak bisa dilakukan jika kalimat pertamanya adalah kalimat simple present tense tetapi
kalimat berikutnya adalah kalimat simple past tense ataupun present future tense.

B. Rumus Elliptical Sentence

Tabel 17 Rumus Elliptical Sentence Part 1

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Tabel 18 Rumus Elliptical Sentence Part 2

C. Contoh Elliptical Sentence

Berikut merupakan contoh dari elliptical sentence


1. So/Too (Juga)

(He is playing football. They are playing football.)

 He is playing football and they are too.

 He is playing football and so they are.

(He studied English. We studied English.)

 He studied English and we did too

 He studied English and so did we.

2. Either/Neither (Juga, untuk kalimat bermakna negatif)

(She hasn‟t gone. I haven‟t gone.)

 She hasn't gone and i haven't either.

 She hasn't gone and neither have i.

(Dina wasn‟t a nurse. Sandi wasn‟t a nurse.)

 Dhe wasn't a nurse and Sandi wasn't either.

 Dhe wasn't a nurse and neither was Sandi

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3. But (Tetapi)

 (He has studied. Sari has not studied.)

 He has studied but Sari has not.

 (Bani doesn‟t speak English. Doni speaks English.)

 Bani doesn't speak English but Doni does.

4. Or (Atau)

 (He likes eating pizza. He likes eating burger.)

 He likes eating pizzar or burger.

 (Dani doesn‟t like watching a music program.Dani doesn‟t like watching a


news.)

 Dani doesn‟t like watching a music program or a news.

5. Both..and (Kedua.. dan)

 (Bima is smart. Ani is smart.)

 Both Bima and ani are smart.

6. Not only...but also.. (Tidak hanya...tetapi juga..)

 (You‟re going to school. I‟m going to school.)

 Not only you but also I'm going to school .

7. Neither..nor (Tak satupun..atau)

 (I am not happy. She is not happy.)

 Neither I nor she is happy.

8. Either...or (Salah satu dari...atau)

 (You speak English. You speak javaness.)

 You speak either English or javanese.

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D. Exercises

1. I drink tea in every morning. Tania drinks tea in every morning. (not only, but also)
2. I like read English book. Dendy likes read magazine (but)
3. Susan doesn‟t like swimming. Nila doesn‟t like swimming (neither, nor)
4. Nella has a cat. My sister has a cat (so/too)
5. Ronald was at home last night. His mom was at home. (and)
6. Whales are mammals. Dogs are mammals. (so/too)
7. Mahmud has a mustache. Mr. Nadjib has a mustache. (both, and)
8. Jane can‟t speak Chinese. Jane can‟t speak English. (either, nor)
9. Sarah doesn‟t like Indonesian horror movies. I don‟t like Indonesian horror movies.
(and)
10. They can‟t speak Indonesian. We can speak Indonesian. (but)

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UNIT 11
CONDITIONAL TYPE 1

A. Definisi Conditional Type 1


Condtional Type 1 adalah salah satu jenis Conditional Sentence yang merupakan
suatu bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Kalimat pengandaian tersebut digunakan untuk
menyatakan harapan tentang sesuatu hal seperti halnya rencana ataupun keinginan yang
mungkin akan terjadi atau tidak terjadi sama sekali baik di masa lalu, masa sekarang, dan
masa yang akan datang. Ciri umum dari kalimat pengandaian ini adalah dengan adanya
real condition (kondisi yang nyata) dan unreal atau contrary to fact (kondisi yang
terbalik dengan fakta yang terjadi sebenarnya.) Conditional type 1 ini sendiri
merupakan kalimat pengandaian yang berisikan pengandaian yang terjadi di masa
sekarang dengan harapan rencana atau keinginan tersebut akan menjadi kenyataan di
masa yang akan datang. Kemungkinan dalam terwujudnya harapan suatu rencana atau
keinginan tersebut sangatlah besar terjadi apabila pengandaian tersebut sesuai dengan
fakta (realita hidup) dan bukan hanya sekedar impian belaka.

B. Rumus dan Aturan Penggunaan Conditional Type 1

Tabel 19 Rumus dan Penggunaan Conditional Type 1

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If + S + V1 (simple present tense) / am / is / are + O, S + Will / Can + V1 +
O

atau

S + Will / Can + V1 + O + if + S + V1 (simple present tense) / am /is /are +


O

Contoh:
1. If she comes, I will give her the message.
2. If you study hard, you will pass the final exam.
3. If she wins the competition, they will give her a gold medal.
4. He will not go to the picnic if it rains.
5. If we arrive late, she will be angry with us.

C. Exercises

1. Our lecturer will not accept our work if we…………….(not submit) it until deadline.
2. If you do it now, you.…………….(finish) your job.
3. Your lecturer will be very angry if you…………….(be) late again.
4. If I get up too early, I……………. (feel) tired all day.
5. Cats will not eat if you……………. (not feed) them some fresh fishes.
6. If you heat water, it……………. (boil).
7. If I eat too many sweets, my weight…………….(increase).
8. The next car will be the 56th, If the 54th…………….(be) late.
9. If the 51st is late, the next bus…………….(not be) 22nd.
10. We will be very happy, If our football team…………….(win) the competition.

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UNIT 12
CONDITIONAL TYPE 2 AND 3

A. Definisi Conditional Type 2 and 3


Condtional Type 2 and 3 adalah kelanjutan dari jenis Conditional Sentence yang
telah dibahas pada unit sebelumnya. Conditional Sentence (kalimat pengandaian) ini
bertipe 2 dan 3. Conditional type 2 merupakan kalimat pengandaian yang berisikan
pengandaian yang terjadi di masa sekarang, tetapi harapan terwujudnya rencana atau
keinginan tersebut sangat sulit terjadi bahkan tidak terjadi sama sekali dan hanya sebagai
khayalan atau lamunan belaka. Sedangkan untuk Conditional type 3 merupakan kalimat
pengandaian yang berisikan pengandaian yang sudah lama terjadi di masa lalu dan
semua harapan untuk rencana atau keinginan tersebut tidak terwujud sama sekali dan
tentunya tidak akan terjadi atau terulang lagi sehingga hanya menjadi sebagai kenangan
masa lalu belaka.

B. Rumus dan Aturan Penggunaan Conditional Type 2

Tabel 20 Rumus dan Aturan Penggunaan Conditional Tpye 2

If + S + V2 (simple past tense) / were + O, S + Would / Could + V1 + O

atau

S + Would / Could + V1 + O + if + S + V2 (simple past tense) / were + O

Contoh:
1. If she visited me, I would give her money.
Faktanya : She doesn‟t visit me.
2. If I had enough time, I would go fishing.

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Faktanya : I don‟t have enough time.
3. If you were some sugar, I would be an ant.
Faktanya : You are not some sugar.
4. If Natasha Rizky were my girlfriend, I would be the happiest boy in the world.
Faktanya : Natasha Rizky is not my girlfriend.
5. If he smoked less, he wouldn‟t cough so much.
Faktanya : He doesn‟t smoke less.

Catatan:
Pada tipe ke 2 ini, to be untuk semua subyek pada IF clause adalah WERE.

C. Exercises 1

1. If I did not finished my homework, I………………..(not submit) it to my lecturer.


2. If you had enough time, you…………………..(clean) your room before you go to school.
3. Dona……………..(pass) the examination if she studied well.
4. Sinta and Santi would understand it if you……………….(explain) it to them more slowly.
5. If she………………(know) there was a test, she would have prepared for it well.
6. Jack could win the basketball competition if he…………………(practice) more.
7. If Ampera Bridge were here. I.....................(take) a picture.
8. If today………………….(be) Monday, I would go to the office.
9. Were he a police officer, he…………………..(arrest) those criminals.
10. Were Marie a doctor, she…………………..(check) your health.

D. Rumus dan Aturan Penggunaan Conditional Type 3

Tabel 21 Rumus dan aturan Penggunaan Conditional Type 3

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If + S + Had + V3 (past) / Had + Been + O, S + Would + Have + V3 + O

atau

S + Would + Have + V3 + O + if + S + Had + V3 (past) / Had + Been + O

Contoh:
1. If he had studied hard, he would have passed the final exam.
Faktanya : He didn‟t study hard.
2. If the team had played well, it would have won the competition.
Faktanya : The team didn‟t play well.
3. If Alter Bridge had been here, I would have been very happy.
Faktanya : Alter Bridge was not here.
4. If you had come to my house, you would have met me.
Faktanya : You didn‟t come
5. If I had known her number, i would have called her.
Faktanya : I didn‟t know her number.

E. Exercises 2

1. They would had understood their mathmatics teacher if he………………(speak)


slowly.
2. Anto and Anti would have not got married if they………………(not know) each other.
3. My aunt would have given me much money if she……………………(have) it.
4. I had known his address, I…………….(write) her a letter.
5. If my headache had disappeared, I……………………(play) football.
6. If I had seen the rock music concert, I………………..(tell) you about it last night.
7. If soldiers had known where terrorists had been,………………they (attack) them.
8. Civil servant would have been happy if goverment……………… (give) extra salary.
9. If I had much money, we……………… (buy) two new cars.
10. If I had been in America, I………………(meet) Mr Obama in the white house.

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UNIT 13
PREFERENCE

A. Definisi Preference
Preference adalah ungkapan yang menyatakan tentang hal yang lebih disukai dari
hal yang lainnya. Dalam hal ini, preference digunakan saat seseorang memberikan
sebuah saran dan menawarkan sesuatu atau meminta pendapat orang lain tentang apa
yang harus (lebih baik) dilakukan atau yang lebih disukai sehingga harus dipilih mana
yang terbaik. Biasanya makna yang akan diungkapkan oleh seseorang dalam
menyampaikan hal tersebut adalah lebih suka, lebih suka daripada, lebih baik, atau lebih
baik daripada

B. Rumus dan Aturan Penggunaaan Preference

Preferences Rumus Contoh Kalimat

Prefer Prefer + to infinitive They prefer to stay at home.

(Dia lebih suka tinggal di rumah)

Prefer + nouns + to + nouns My mother prefers apple to lemon


juice.

(Ibu saya lebih suka jus apel daripada


jus lemon)

Prefer + Verb -ing + to + Verb -ing She prefers swimming to dancing.

(Dia lebih suka berenang daripada


berdansa)

Would rather Would rather + bare infinitives I would rather study now.

(kata kerja tanpa “to”) (Saya lebih baik belajar sekarang)

Would rather + bare infinitives She would rather stay home than go
+ than + bare infinitives shopping.

(Dia lebih baik tinggal di rumah saja


daripada berbelanja)

Would rather + bare infinitives + She would rather speak Japan than
nouns + than + bare infinitives + speak English.
nouns
(Dia lebih suka berbicara bahasa
Jepang daripada bahasa Inggris.)

Would prefer Would prefer + to infinitives They would prefer to sing rather

69
to + rather than + bare infinitives than dance.

(Mereka lebih baik bernyanyi saja


daripada menari)

Would prefer + to infinitives + You would prefer to play ball rather


nouns + rather than + bare than take a sleep.
infinitives + nouns
(Kamu lebih baik bermain bola
daripada tidur)

Like Like + nouns / (Verb + ing) + better I like singing a song better than
than + nouns / (Verb + ing) playing a guitar.

(Saya lebih suka bernyanyi daripada


bermain gitar)

I like coffee better than milk.

(Saya lebih suka kopi daripada teh)

Had better Had better + bare infinitives You had better study hard.

(Kamu lebih baik belajar yang giat)

Had better + not + bare infinitives I had better not tell her the truth.
(bentuk negative)
(Saya lebih baik tidak mengatakan
yang sebenarnya kepada dia)

It’s time It‟s time + to infinitives It’s time to get up.

(Saatnya lebih baik untuk bangun)

It‟s time + Subject + (Bentuk Past/ It’s time you went away.
lampau)
(Saatnya lebih baik untuk pergi jauh)

Instead of Instead of + Gerund/ Nouns I prefer staying home instead of


going out.

(Saya lebih suka berada dirumah


Instead of kita daripada pergi keluar)
gunakan
sebagai They would rather eat their dinner
pengganti instead of work.
dari: to, than,
better than, (Mereka lebih suka makan santap
rather than malam daripada bekerja)

I would prefer to invite her instead of


him.

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(Saya lebih suka mengundang dia
(perempuan) daripada dia (laki-laki)

She likes me instead of him.

(Saatnya lebih baik untuk bangun)

Tabel 22 Rumus dan aturan Penggunaan Preference

C. Contoh Preference yang lainnya

 I prefer apples to mangoes.


 They prefer English to Mathematics.
 She prefers Andi to Budi.
 John prefers them to us.
 I prefer playing football to watching TV.
 They prefer reading novels to playing games.
 She prefers cooking to singing.
 I prefer to study rather than watch TV.
 He prefers to play football rather than play games.
 They prefer to visit museum rather than go shopping.
 He would prefer to play tennis rather than play basketball.
 I would prefer to listen to music rather than play the guitar.
 She would prefer to eat apples rather than eat bananas.
 I would rather read a book than read a novel.
 They would rather play football than play basketball.
 She would rather stay at home than go to the cinema.

D. Exercises

1. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening………………watching TV by myself.


2. Mr Soni prefers tea………………coffee with his evening meal.
3. Tina would rather lie on the beach………………go swimming.
4. I would prefer chicken………………beef.
5. My brother likes his math class better………………his biology class.
6. When I‟m thirsty, I prefer drinking cola………………coffee.
7. I like dangdut better………………jazz music concert.
8. When I choose a book, I prefer English book………………French book.
9. My brother would rather read a magazine in the evening………………cooking for
dinner.
10. Dina prefers lying on the beach………………going swimming.
11. I like black coffee………………cappuccino.
12. They would prefer to sing a song………………listen to music.
13.We prefer cooking………………sleeping.
14. She would rather stay home………………go cycling.
15. I like singing a song………………writing a poem.

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