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Feb 15, 2019

Silva2016 Article ANovelMethodologyForObtainment

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Silva2016 Article ANovelMethodologyForObtainment

© All Rights Reserved

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Silva2016 Article ANovelMethodologyForObtainment

Silva2016 Article ANovelMethodologyForObtainment

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DOI 10.1007/s41024-016-0001-x

RESEARCH ARTICLE

of concrete

Thiago Silva1 • Hizadora D’Ambros1 • Esequiel Mesquita2 • Alcimar Milhomem1 •

Received: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published online: 6 August 2016

Ó Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Abstract The present work provides a special contribution adhesion [1]. According to Daoud et al. [2] the bond

for assessment of the compressive strength of the concrete existent at reinforcement bars and the surrounding concrete

through a low-cost test. Here, an alternative pull out test is is indicate as the fundamental factor for reinforced concrete

presented and an experimental campaign was carried out performance, and comprises an important aspect that

aiming the demonstrate the applicability of this novel should be taken into account during the structural assess-

methodology. Three different classes of concrete were ment. Nonetheless, the bond between the rebars and the

performed, namely C20 (20 MPa), C25 (25 MPa) and C40 concrete can be affected by a large number of factor, as the

(40 MPa), each one with two variations of the reinforce- water/cement relation, aggregates characteristics and cure

ment rebar diameter, that were 10 and 16 mm. In addition, conditions.

references samples also were casted and submitted to A recent study on crack emergence in the zone of

compressive strength test by NBR 5739. The results found adhesion steel–concrete was presented by Ožbolt et al. [3]

confirmed the applicability of the novel methodology for considering the effect of the different levels of corrosion

obtainment compressive strength of concrete. using the 3D chemo-hygro-thermo-mechanical model.

Basically this model considered the physical, electro-

Keywords Low cost pull out test Compressive strength chemical process with the concrete mechanical perfor-

of concrete Concrete quality control Field testing mance and also considered radial concrete resistance as

linear elastic, and the adhesion zone as an isotopic area. In

this analysis, finite element method was employed, and the

1 Introduction numerical model was calibrated based on simplified

experimental test. The results showed that chemo-hygro-

The essential characteristic for reinforced concrete exis- thermo-mechanical properties presents a large influence in

tence is the perfect adhesion between the concrete (C) and the crack emergence and consequently for bond resistance

the reinforcement rebars (RR). However, the mechanism of between the RR-C [2].

adhesion between these two different materials results from Studies related with the porosity influence on cement

association between the chemical, mechanical and friction matrix and its relationship with the adhesion mechanisms

between the cement paste, aggregates and reinforced rebars

(in case of reinforced concrete) has been carried out from

reinforced concrete advance. However, only in the 70

& Thiago Silva decade, the studies on RR-C bond characteristics were

thiago@ifto.edu.br oriented aiming the obtainment of relations between the

1 mechanical properties of the concrete and the cement.

Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Instituto Federal de

Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Tocantins, AE 310 Sul, Now, the bond RR-C has been performed in terms of

Avenida LO 05, s/n, Palmas, Tocantins 77.021-090, Brazil numerical modeling and the zone characteristics imple-

2

CONSTRUCT-LESE, Faculty of Engineering, University of mented aiming a most real model about the behavior of

Porto, Dr Roberto Frias street, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal rebar-concrete surrounding zone [4–6].

123

1 Page 2 of 5 J Build Rehabil (2016) 1:1

According to NBR 6118 [7] the capacity of resistance, Recently, low cost assessment methods has been

performance in service and durability are some of the developed on the field of the liquid measurement and

minimum quality requirements that concrete structures thermal monitoring [10–12]. Nevertheless, exist a gab on

must to attend. Additionally, if this parameter was mea- the techno-scientific field regarding to a low cost pull out

sured in the early ages dramatic situations can be analyzed test for concrete samples, with easy applicability and high

and decision could be adopted for safety maintenance in a results accuracy.

short time. Based in the above mentioned reasons, the present

One of the most important parameters considered during works intents to provide a novel pull out methodology

safety assessment is the compressive strength of the con- focused to obtainment of the compressive strength of

crete. However, for compressive strength assessment a concrete. In the following section the experimental cam-

destructive method based on axial rupture of cubic or paign and the proposed methodology will be described, as

cylindrical samples is commonly employed (see [14, 15]). well the results and the conclusion.

In fact, for this destructive method the concrete specimens

should be casted with concrete and after a period deter-

mined the compressive strength should be determinate in 2 Experimental

laboratories through specific pressure machine. But some-

times the laboratories are not of easy accessed to owners 2.1 Novel pull out methodology

and this can make difficult the quality control, and espe-

cially in emerging economies this fact contributes to For the proposed methodology application, a pull out test

owners treat this important step as a subjective factor for machine was built, as showed Figs. 1 and 2. The pull out

the building safety. This way, advances on the methods for machine consist in a metallic structure with a rectangular

quality control of buildings material are essentials for base (100 cm 9 20 cm) linked with a hydraulic jack with

maintenance of the quality control and safety of the maximum load capacity of 10 tones, analogical pressure

buildings, especially during it application in field. gauge and manual loading. For the pull out test the con-

According to Silva et al. [8] the use of compressive crete samples should be initially centralized and the loads

strength test is motivated by: (1) low complexity of test applied (manual override of hydraulic jack) considering the

procedures; (2) easy interpretation of results; (3) satisfac- intervals of 10 s aiming most accuracy of the data

tory correlation of this parameter with others resistances, measurements.

tensile strength, shear strength, bond strength armor-con- The work mechanism of the proposed pull out machine

crete. Nonetheless, some limitations in this experimental consists that the force applied at the bar should be mea-

test may be identified, as: (1) the test is characterized by a sured although a manometer accomplished to pull out

displacement test imposed at support sides which does not machine till failure of the adhesion RR-C.

create a uniform stress field imposed on the sides for a Sequentially, the measured values obtained by pull out

heterogeneous material such as concrete; (2) the influence test should be converted to adhesive strength through

of technique and materials used in the regularization or Eq. 1, where fbd = adhesive strength of calculation;

leveling the top at test results; and (3) not consideration of Rs = force applied along the rebar length; ; = steel bar

the bond RR-C. diameter; lb = anchorage length. Then, the characteristic

In truth, the bond RR-C characterization is a relevant tensile resistance can be obtained by Eq. 2, where g1 ¼ 1:0

parameter for structural safety assessment, and should not (without rib bar); g1 ¼ 1:4 (carve bar); g1 ¼ 2:25 (rib bar);

be excluded from technological control. This way, the g2 ¼ 1:0 (good adherence); g2 ¼ 0:7 (poor adherence);

employment of pull out test should be considerate in order

to improve more information about the reinforced concrete

behavior [4] and, in addition can be used for provide

forecast on compressive strength of concrete.

The pull out method is standardized by RILEM/CEB/

FIP RC6 [9]. This proceeding consists in pull out one steel

bar centered in a specimen placed on support plates of a

testing machine. The traction force applied to one end of

bar and enough to slip inside the concrete block the other

end is measured. The test results can be expressed as the

variation of slip measured at the free end of the bar versus

pull out strength. Fig. 1 Overview of machine of pull out test modified

123

J Build Rehabil (2016) 1:1 Page 3 of 5 1

and E16) were casted by a 1.5 L plastic bottle, where

reinforced rebars with 40 cm of length were passed by the

top hole till crossing the plastic bottle symmetrically.

Following, the plastic bottle was fill by concrete and after

24 h submitted to cure by immersion during 28 days. For

the pull out test, the plastic bottle was not removed because

does not present influence to test measures.

The E0 concrete samples were casted in metallic

cylindrical shapes, with diameter of 10 cm and height of

Fig. 2 Overview of machine of pull out test modified model

20 cm. The recommendations described in [14] were

adopted. After 24 h the metallic cylindrical shapes were

removed and the E0 concrete samples were also submitted

to cure by immersion till the experimental campaign.

g3 ¼ 1:0 (diameter bar lower than 3.2 mm); g3 ¼

ð132 ;Þ=100 (diameter bar greater than 3.2 mm), and 2.3 Methodology

finally the compressive strength of the concrete can be

estimated by Eq. 3, where: fctd = characteristic tensile Initially, the E0 samples were submitted to compressive

resistance; fck = compressive strength of concrete, and strength test according with NBR 5739 [15]. For this, a

cc = specific mass of concrete [7]. hydraulic pressure machine with load limit capacity of 1000

fbd ¼ Rs =ðp:;:lb Þ ð1Þ kN was used. Now, for E10 and E16 tests was necessary to

fbd ¼ g1 :g2 :g3 :fctd ð2Þ fill with cotton the bottle cap to create a non-adherence zone

in order to prevent the reaction of the backing plate that

2=3

fctd ¼ 0:21 fck =cc ð3Þ compresses the concrete, restricts the transverse deformation

and causes the overestimation of the bond stress in concrete,

mainly because the concrete remains confined in its plastic

2.2 Materials and concrete samples preparation mold during the test. The samples E10 and E16 were care-

fully centralized in the pull out machine in order to avoid

For the concrete mixtures, the following materials were measure distortions. Following, the loading was manually

used: a pozzolan cement, namely Portland cement (CPII-Z) applied till the maximum pull out stress be achieved and the

with specific mass of 3.02 g/cm3 and specific surface area tension measured in the manometer was noted. All the

(Blaine) of 3200 cm2/g was employed. A fine sand was details of these procedures are shown in the Fig. 3.

also used part of the aggregates, characterized by 1.510 kg/ It is necessary to state that the proposal methodology is

dm3 of unitary mass, specific mass of 2.67 g/cm3, fineness limited to reinforced rebars diameters equal or less than

modulus of 2.40 and maximum nominal size of 2.40 mm. 16 mm, due to top hole of the plastic bottle support

The coarse aggregate presented 1.651 kg/dm3 of unitary diameters till 16 mm.

mass, specific mass of 2.63 g/cm3, fineness modulus of

0.85 and maximum nominal size of 19.00 mm.

For the concrete mixtures design the American Concrete 3 Results

Institute’s method (ACI) [13] was employed. Three dif-

ferent concrete mixtures were designed for each compres- The compressive strength values obtained for the E0-C20

sive strength class, C20 (20 MPa), C25 (25 MPa) and C40 concrete samples testing were of 17.39, 21.03 and

(40 MPa) and then, 18 concrete samples were casted, 9 22.41 MPa. Now, the compressive strength values were of

with reinforced rebars diameter of 10 mm (here titled as 23.45, 26.01 and 26.72 MPa for E0-C25 and of 42.35, 45.68

E10) and 9 with diameter of 16 mm (assigned as E16). and 47.32 MPa for E0-C40. The compressive strength

Additionally, nine reference concrete samples (titled as E0) average values for the E0 samples were of 20.27 MPa

were casted according to [14]. In the total, 27 concrete (C20), 25.39 MPa (C25) and 45.11 MPa (C40). The E0

samples were tested after 28 days submitted to cure by results were plotted and used for comparison with the E10

immersion. and E16 samples results, as showed by Figs. 4 and 5. In

The concrete mixtures presented a mortar index around general, the E0 samples presented compressive resistance

54 %, maximum slump of 75 mm and minimum slump of values really near to the compressive strength design, also

25 mm, index of incorporated air around 2 %. The water/ presented a low dispersion between each samples, consid-

cement index changed between 0.54 (C20) to 0.40 (C40). ering the concrete classes C20, C25 and C40.

123

1 Page 4 of 5 J Build Rehabil (2016) 1:1

concrete samples E10 and E16,

and the details of the plastic

bottle used as molds

C20 C25 C40

Samples Rs (Ton) fbd (MPa) fctd (MPa) fck (MPa)

Compressive strength (MPa)

40

E10

C20 1.3 5.24 1.63 21.63

30 C20 1.2 4.84 1.51 19.19

E10

E0 C20 1.25 5.04 1.57 20.40

20 C25 1.5 5.76 1.79 24.90

C25 1.4 5.37 1.67 22.45

C25 1.6 6.14 1.91 27.43

10

C40 2 7.96 2.48 40.51

C40 2.1 8.36 2.60 43.59

0 C40 2.15 8.56 2.66 45.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

E16

Samples

C20 2.1 5.29 1.65 21.95

Fig. 4 Compressive strength results of the E0 and E10 C20 2.2 5.54 1.72 23.53

C20 2 5.04 1.57 20.40

C25 2.2 5.47 1.70 23.09

50

C20 C25 C40 C25 2.1 5.22 1.63 21.54

C25 2.25 5.60 1.74 23.88

Compressive strength (MPa)

C40 3.5 8.39 2.61 43.85

30 C40 3.5 8.39 2.61 43.85

E16

E0

20 expressions 1, 2 and 3, as previously mentioned. All the

experimental results range are showed in the Table 1.

10 The compressive strength results of E0 and E10 samples

are compared in the Fig. 4, where is possible to observe

that the results present similar values really closed each

0

other. Taking into account the C20 class, the standard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Samples

variation of the compressive strength between E0 and E10

was of 1.80 MPa, and to classes C25 and C40 the standard

Fig. 5 Compressive strength results of the E0 and E16 variation values remained low, 1.52 and 2.50 MPa

respectively. However, for 77.7 % of the concrete samples

Concerning to pull out tests results, taking into account the compressive strength values of the E0 were superiors to

the Rs values collected during the experimental campaign E10 values, this same characteristic is also observed in the

the fbd , fctd and fck values were obtained through E16 results.

123

J Build Rehabil (2016) 1:1 Page 5 of 5 1

Concerning to E16 results, a comparison between them 2. Daoud A, Maurel O, Laborderie C (2013) 2D mesoscopic mod-

and the E0 compressive strength values also confirmed low elling of bar–concrete bond. Eng Struct 49:696–706

3. Ožbolt J, Oršanić F, Balabanić G (2014) Modeling pull-out

standard variation values, namely 1.81 MPa for C20, resistance of corroded reinforcement in concrete: coupled three-

1.52 MPa for C25 and 2.50 MPa for C40. dimensional finite element model. Cem Concr Compos 46:41–55

4. Breccolotti M, Materazzi AL (2013) Structural reliability of

bonding between steel rebars and recycled aggregate concrete.

Constr Build Mater 47:927–934

4 Conclusions 5. Désir J-M, Romdhane MRB, Ulm F-J, Fairbairn EMR (1999)

Steel–concrete interface: revisiting constitutive and numerical

In this work a novel methodology for obtainment of the modeling. Comput Struct 71(5):489–503

compressive strength of concrete based on pull out test was 6. Zhao Y, Lin H, Wu K, Jin W (2013) Bond behaviour of normal/

recycled concrete and corroded steel bars. Constr Build Mater

presented, namely a low cost method. The results found 48:348–359

showed that the compressive strength can be easily deter- 7. ABNT (2014) NBR 6118: Projeto de Estruturas de Concreto–

minate by employment of the RILEM expressions and that Procedimento. Rio de Janeiro

the compressive strength values measured during the 8. Silva BV, Barbosa MP, Filho LC, Lorrain MS (2014) Experi-

mental investigation on the use of steel–concrete bond tests for

experimental campaign presents a linear relation with the estimating axial compressive strength of concrete. Rev IBRA-

values from the regular compressive strength test, stan- CON Estrut Mater 7(5):715–736

dardized by NBR 5738 [15]. 9. RILEM (1970) Essai portant sur l’adhérence des armatures du

In fact, this method can be employed as an alternative béton. Matér Constr 3(3):169–174

10. Antunes P, Dias J, Paixão T, Mesquita E, Varum H, André P

test for determination of the compressive strength of con- (2015) Liquid level gauge based in plastic optical fiber. Mea-

crete in field applications, and can be used as a support tool surement 66:238–243

for concrete quality control. 11. Lin X, Ren L, Xu Y, Chen N, Ju H, Liang J, He Z, Qu E, Hu B, Li

Y (2014) Low-cost multipoint liquid-level sensor with plastic

Acknowledgments Hizadora D’Ambros acknowledge the Junior optical fiber. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 26(16):1613–1616

Scientific Initiation fellowship of Federal Institute of Education, 12. Balsamo D, Paci G, Benini L, Davide B (2013) Long term, low

Science and Technology of Tocantins (IFTO). Esequiel Mesquita cost, passive environmental monitoring of heritage buildings for

acknowledge CAPES through the Fellowship Number 10023/13-5, energy efficiency retrofitting. 2013 IEEE Work Environ Energy

Fundação CAPES, Ministério da Educação do Brasil. The authors Struct Monit Syst, pp 1–6

acknowledges the Civil Engineering Laboratory of IFTO. 13. ACI (1991) ACI 211 1-91: standard practice for selecting pro-

portions for normal heavyweight and mass concrete. ACI,

California

14. ABNT (2003) NBR 5738 Concreto-Procedimento para moldagem

References e cura de corpos de prova. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

15. ABNT (2007) NBR 5739: Concreto-Ensaios de compressão de

1. Dahou Z, Mehdi Sbartaı̈ Z, Castel A, Ghomari F (2009) Artificial corpos-de-prova cilindricos. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

neural network model for steel–concrete bond prediction. Eng

Struct 31(8):1724–1733

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