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Instructor: Architect Eva Maria Villanueva 1. block the overall dimensions of the house and add
the thickness of the outside walls with a hard pencil
 FLOOR PLAN 2. layout the position of interior partitions
 a drawing of the outline and partitions of a building as you 3. locate the position of doors and windows by center
would see them at the building were cut horizontally at line and by their widths
about 4 feet or 1.20m 4. darken the object lines with an F pencil
 the plan is the beginning of the building. It is the foundation 5. add doors and window symbols with a 2H pencil
upon which the scheme of the structure rests. It relates the 6. add symbols for stairwells
various units to each other 7. erase extraneous lines if they are too heavy. If they
 the design process should always proceed from within to are extremely light, they can remain
without 8. draw the outlines of the furniture and fixtures
9. add the symbols and sections for any masonry work
10. dimension the drawing
1. the arrangement of the units according to practical
2. the arrangement according to the rule of abstract 1. show normally swinging doors at 90º opening
design 2. doors swings are shown with light lines and quarter
FLOOR PLAN SKETCHING 3. door type is not illustrated in plan, only in
1. Preliminary sketching elevational views
 shows desirable size proportion and relationship of each 4. window type cannot be explained in plan except for
room to the entire plan width and location : window type and height are
 offsets and indentations are smoothed by increasing the shown in elevational views
dimensions of some rooms and changing slightly the 5. show sill lines with a lighter line weight than wals,
arrangement of the others jambs and glass, since sills are not in fact cut
 modular sizes are established through
 exact positions and sizes of doors and windows are
2. Final sketching - note that what is cut through in plan (walls,
 single line sketches are change to define wall thickness and columns, etc.) takes precedence and should be
include property features dominating value; what is seen within plan (flooring,
 location of shrubbery, trees, patios, driveways, gardens, etc. counters, furniture, etc.) should be lighter in value
are included
RULES FOR DIMENSIONING FLOOR PLANS by two dashes. It is placed in the part to be
1. architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with sectioned, and the arrows at its ends show the
dimensions placed above the lines. Arrowheads, dots, small direction from which the section is to be viewed
circles and diagonal lines are used to denote the termination  the cutting plane line often interferes with
of the dimension line. Dots are used when the area to be dimensions, notes and details. In this case, an
dimensioned is too small for arrowheads. Arrowheads may alternative method wherein only the extremes of the
also be placed outside the extension lines when the area is cutting plane line are used. The cutting plane line is
too small then assumed to be straight
2. dimensions should be placed to read from the right or
from the bottom of the drawing. The numerals should KINDS OF SECTIONS
always be written above the lines  FULL SECTION
3. dimension lines are placed about 3/8” apart. To avoid - a section cut through the entire building or
crossing extension and dimension lines, place the longer component
dimensions farther away from the plan. Overall building a. cross section – a section showing a
dimensions are placed outside all other dimensions crosswise cut through the building
4. when the area to be dimensioned is too small for the b. longitudinal section – a section showing
numerals, they are placed outside the dimension lines. Do a transverse or lengthwise cut through
not try to “fancy up” dimensions with artistic numerals, building
legibility is the only concern  OFFSET SECTION
5. rooms are dimensioned form the center line of partitions. - a section with a cutting plane line offset to permit
In some cases, they may be dimensioned from wall to wall, it to cut through necessary features
exclusive of wall thickness  HALF SECTION
6. in dimensioning stairs, the number of risers is placed on a - a cut to remove only one quarter of a symmetrical
line with an arrow indicating the direction (up or down) component. Thus both exterior and interior can be
7. architectural dimensions always refer to the actual size of shown in one view
the building regardless of the scale of the drawing
8. never crowd dimensions. To free the plan of excessive POINTS TO REMEMBER IN DRAWING SECTIONS
dimensions, the sizes of doors and windows are given in the 1. a building material is only sectioned when the
door and window schedule. All obvious dimensions are also cutting plane line passes through it. The outline of
omitted all other materials visible behind the plane of
projection must also be drawn in their proper
 SECTIONS position and scale
 architectural sections are drawings that show a building cut 2. as with floor plans, whatever is cut through in taking
in half by an imaginary plane called a cutting plane. All the a section (floor, walls, roof structure, etc.) is profiled
material on one side of the cut is removed so that the with a heavy line
interior can be studied 3. cut sections through major elements in a building
 the position of the cutting plane is shown by the cutting (major window openings, doorways, changes in roof
plane line. A cutting plane line is a long heavy line followed
and floor levels, roof opening, etc.). never cut through 4 TYPES OF ELEVATION ACCORDING TO
4. it is good practice to include people in building design  front elevation
section to give a scale to the spaces - the view projected from the front of a building
5. the physical context of the building should always be shown  rear elevation
buy indicating the earth upon which it sits, which is also cut - the view projected from the rear of a building
through  right side elevation
6. construction details and foundations need not be indicated in - the view projected from the right side of a building
design sections
 left side elevation
RULES FOR DIMENSIONING SECTIONS - the view projected form the left side of a building
1. vertical dimensions should be read from the right of the
2. levels to be dimensions should be labeled with a note, term ORIENTAITON
or abbreviation - a method of projecting the elevations of a building
3. room heights are shown by dimensioning from the floor line with no so-called front or rear view
to the ceiling line
4. the height of windows and doors are dimensioned from the STEPS IN PROJECTING ELEVATIONS
floor line to the top of windows and doors. Windows and The major lines of an elevation are derived by
doors may be indexed to a door and window schedule, or projecting vertical lines from the floor plan, and measuring
the style of the windows and doors may be shown on the the position of the horizontal lines from the ground line
sectional drawing.  vertical line projection
5. sectional dimensions show only vertical distances. - vertical lines represents the main lines of
horizontal distances are shown in the floor plan a building should first be projected. These lines
6. dimensions for small, complex, or obscure areas should be show the overall length or width of the building.
indicated to a separate detail They also show the major parts or offsets of the
7. overall height dimensions are placed on the outside of building. The position of the doors and windows are
subdimensions also projected from the floor plan
 horizontal line projection
 ELEVATIONS - horizontal lines that represents the height
- the main feature of the outside of a building are shown on of the eave line and ridge line above the ground are
the elevation drawings. Elevation drawings are orthographic measured, then drawn to intersect with the vertical
drawings of the exterior of a building. They are prepared to show lines drawn from the floor plan. The intersection of
the design, materials, dimensions, and final appearance of the these lines provide the overall outline for the
exterior of a building elevation
- only horizontal distances can be established in the floor
plan. Thus, the vertical height such as the height of windows and
doors must be shown on the elevations
 KITCHENS cooking utensils that will be used in the area. The
A well planned kitchen is efficient, attractive and easy to cooking center must have an adequate supply of
maintain. In designing an efficient kitchen, the following must be electrical outlets for the minor appliances used in
considered: cooking

a. function WORK TRIANGLE

b. basic shape If you draw a line connecting the three centers of
c. décor the kitchen, a triangle is formed. This is called a work
d. size triangle. The perimeter of an efficient work triangle should
e. location of equipment be between 12 and 22 feet or 3.7 and 6.7 meters


The basic function of a kitchen is food preparation. In some 1. PULLMAN
cases, the kitchen is also used as an informal dining area and as a - this shape of kitchen, consisting of a long
laundry area corridor with utilities on either side, is often used
when space is at a premium. Doors may be at either
THREE AREAS OF THE KITCHEN end or one end only.
 storage center - this shape of kitchen is unsatisfactory if a
- the focal point of the storage center is the considerable traffic passes through the work triangle
refrigerator, although many cabinets for non-refrigerated - a Pullman kitchen produces one of the
food, dishes and utensils must be provided. The refrigerator most efficient work triangles of all the arrangement
may be free-standing, built-in or suspended from a wall
- to save steps, the refrigerator may be located 2. U-SHAPED
near the delivery door, or nearest the door to the - this type of kitchen has cabinets on three
living/dining area walls, the sink usually in the middle, and the
 preparation and cleaning center refrigerator and stoves on opposite sides. This plan
- this center is built around the sink and its is adaptable for both small and large rooms
adjoining counter space - in this arrangement, traffic passing
- the preparation and cleaning center may also through the kitchen is completely separated from
include a waste-disposal unit, an automatic dishwasher, and the work triangle
cabinets for storing brushes, towels and cleaning supplies - the open space between the sides may be
 cooking center 4’ or 5’ (1.2 or 1.5m)
- the cooking center is grouped around the
range/stove. Range-oven combinations are often 36 3. L-SHAPED
inches or 0.90 meter high, so counters should be designed - probably the most commonly used
at the same height arrangement, the L-shaped kitchen is efficient
- the cooking center should also include countertop because it allows for two doors without any
workspaces, as well as storage for small appliances and interruption of countertop area
- this type of plan has continuous counters and 3. the kitchen is located adjacent to the dining area
appliances and equipment on two adjoining walls. The work and near the children’s area
triangle is not often used for other kitchen facilities, such as 4. the work triangle measures less than 22’ or 6.7m
dining and laundry 5. shadowless and glareless light is provided and is
- if the walls of an L-shaped kitchen are too long, concentrated on each work center
the efficiency is destroyed 6. adequate counter space is provided for meal
4. PENINSULA 7. ventilation is adequate
- the peninsula kitchen is similar to the U kitchen. 8. the oven/range/stove is separated from the
However, one end of the U is not enclosed with a wall. The refrigerator by at least one cabinet
peninsula is often used to adjoin the kitchen to the dining or 9. working height for counter is 36” or 0.90m
family rooms 10. the combination of base cabinets, wall cabinets, and
- this kind of layout may be used only with large appliances provides a consistent standard unit
rooms. It is called peninsula when the bar runs without gaps or awkward extension or depressions
perpendicular to a wall, and an island when it is

- this layout is used when a kitchen must be fitted
in a long, narrow space such as in small apartments, cabins
or houses where little space is available
- the work centers are located in an efficient
although not ideal arrangement. In planning the one-wall
kitchen, the designer must be very careful to avoid having
the wall too long, and must provide adequate storage


The kitchen must be located near the service entrance and
near the waste disposal area. If possible, the children’s play area
should also be visible from the kitchen. The kitchen must always be
adjacent to the dining area or when provided, outdoor dining areas.


1. the traffic lane is clear of the work triangle
2. the work areas include all necessary appliances and facilities.
Electrical outlets must be provided for the appliances. There
must be adequate storage centers for all work areas