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FAULT ANALYSIS OF THE "A4VSO" AXIAL PISTON PUMP

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TECHNICAL REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORT

FAULT ANALYSIS OF THE


"A4VSO"
FAULT AXIAL PISTON
ANALYSIS PUMP
OF THE
"A4VSO" AXIAL PISTON PUMP

By
By

Prof. Dr. Aly M. El-Zahaby Dr. Abdelrady Okasha


Head of Mech. Power Eng. Dept. Manager of Spec. & Eng. Systems
Prof. Dr. Aly M. El-Zahaby Dr. Abdelrady Okasha
Faculty
Head ofofMech.
Eng. Tanta
PowerUniversity
Eng. Dept. Aeronautical
Manager Research
of Spec. Center
& Eng. Systems
Faculty of Eng. Tanta University Aeronautical Research Center

December 2006
Cairo, Egypt
December 2006
Cairo, Egypt

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 1


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION 3
2.1 Pump Description 3
2.2 Geometrical Measurements 6
2.3 Geometric Analysis 7
2.4 Pump A4VSO Basic Parameters 10
2.5 Effect of Slipper Pad-Piston End Clearance on
Pump Performance 11
2.6 Cavitation 13
2.7 Effect of Erosion and Corrosion on hydraulic Oil 14
2.8 Load Analysis 14
2.8.1 Normal operation 14
2.8.2 Abnormal operation 15
3. VISUAL INSPECTION 16
4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 17
4.1 Material Composition 18
4.2 Fracture Analysis 21
5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 25
6. CONCLUSIONS 26
7. RECOMMENDATIONS 26
REFERENCES 27
APPENDIX 1 28

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS i


LIST OF SYMBOLS

b ... distance by which the piston moves outward of the mean piston
b\ ... distance by which the piston moves outward of the mean piston
M ... drive torque [N.m]
NS ... pump specific speed
n ... speed [rpm]
P ... drive power [kW]
p ... operating pressure in pipeline [bar]
Q ... volume flow rate (pump discharge) [L/min]
RT ... mean pitch circle radius
Vg ... geometric stroke volume [cm3]
Vg max ... maximum Geometric stroke volume [cm3]
 ... selected swivel angle (may be between 0o and max)
max ... maximum swivel angle
vol ... volumetric efficiency
mh ... mechanical hydraulic efficiency
t ... total efficiency (t = vol mh)
p ... pressure drop [bar]

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS ii


LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 : Variable Displacement Pump, Type “A4VSO” Pump

Fig. 2 : Rexroth A4VSO Pump With Diagram of Hydraulic


Power Unit
Fig. 3 : Basic Dimensions of Pistons and Retaining Plates

Fig. 4 : Schematic Drawing of Variable Displacement Pump

Fig. 5 : Analytic Geometry of Piston Motion

Fig. 6 : Movement of slipper pads Due To Piston Inclination

Fig. 7 : Slipper Pad-Piston End Joint

Fig. 8 : Force Diagram on the Piston at Swash Plate

Fig. 9 : Effect of Clearance on the Slipper Pad Movement

Fig. 10 : The Fractured Slipper Pad

Fig. 11 : Corrosion On The Inner Surface Of The Slipper Pad

Fig. 12 : Microstructure of the Damaged Slipper Pad-MF350

Fig. 13 : Microstructure of the Damaged Slipper Pad-MF750

Fig. 14 : Investigated Locations for EDS Analysis

Fig. 15 : Outer Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

Fig. 16 : Middle Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

Fig. 17 : Inner Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS iii


LIST OF TABLES

Table (1) : Main Dimensions of the New Piston

Table (2) : Main Dimensions of the Old Piston

Table (3) : Main Dimensions of the Retaining Plates

Table (4) : Limits of Slipper Pad Movement

Table (5) : Chemical Composition of the investigated Slipper Pads

Table (6) : Chemical Composition of the investigated Retaining Plates

Table (7) : Chemical Composition of the investigated Swash Plates

Table (8) : Quantitative Results of EDS Analysis

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS iv


FAULT ANALYSIS OF THE "A4VSO" AXIAL
PISTON PUMP

1- INTRODUCTION

This A4VSO pump is specially designed for industrial operation as it has


the advantage of long service life. The pump is used as the pumping device
for the hydraulic power unit of the hydraulic press PH 1600 produced by
"SACMI IMOLA, ITALIA".

The PH 1600 press is fully automatic machine specially designed to


press ceramic powder to produce floor and wall tiles or other similar
products. The hydraulic press uses hydraulic power to perform the whole
work-cycle, which is programmed through using the "Microprocessor Based
Computer".

The hydraulic power unit provides the amount of oil required to operate
the actuators, filters the oil and controls the oil temperature within the
correct operating range (35 oC < Toil < 41 oC).

However the problem of pump failure is frequently occurred whereas no


more than 9 months operation is preserved. The pump failure is basically the
fracture of one of the slipper pads of the piston ends. Such pump failure is
frequently happened in last year especially for the new imported pumps. As
a note the used Old pumps had an average service life around 5 years
operation or even more.

Ceramica Cleopatra Group requested us to investigate the causes of the


failure of the slipper pad of the hydraulic pump "A4VSO". It provided us
samples from the components of two pumps, which are designated in this
report as old and new. Old refer to the pumps set, which are operated for
long time. New refer to the pumps set which are operated for relatively short
time and they are faulted due to slipper pad failure.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 1


The pump components of the old and new ones are

 Two pistons
 Two retaining plates
 Two swash plates

Therefore decision is made to do analytical and experimental


investigations of the problem under concern to determine the causes the
slipper pad failure by performing the following:

1- Complete study, analysis and comparison of pumps to determine and


clarify the conditions of slipper pad failure.

2- Experimental investigation of the slipper pad fracture.

As result of these investigations, several reasons of fracture occurrence


are estimated and also several recommendations are concluded to overcome
the occurrence of pump failure.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 2


2- ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATIONS

2.1 Pump Description

The pump "A4VSO", Fig. 1 is a variable displacement pump in swash


plate design suitable for use in open loop system [1]. The angle is changed
on one side and smoothly adjusted. The pump has single output direction of
rotation.

Fig. 1: Variable Displacement Pump, Type “A4VSO” Pump

The used variable displacement pump "A4VSO" draws the oil from the
reservoir and delivers it into the hydraulic circuits at the required pressure
and flow rate. For the used hydraulic power system, the load sensing control
and mooring control as well as pressure regulator and power control are used
with this pump "A4VSO". The power control limits the absorbed power to
level less than or equal to the 55 kW available, motor output power
(mechanical drive power), at line pressure p = 150 bar. The mechanical drive
power PMD is opposed by the hydraulic output power P hy. Both and are given
by the following relations:

Mn
PMD  (1)
9549
and
Qp
Phy  (2)
600

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 3


Considering the hydraulic power, the operating pressure p is dependent
on the load, while the flow rate Q may be changed by the swivel angle.
Control is started at the maximum adjusted swivel angle. The position when
control is finished is given by the maximum pressure. As a note the
maximum and minimum displacement (swivel angle) are adjusted and
limited by strop screws. Fig. 2 [2] shows the used Rexroth variable delivery
pump "A4VSO" viewed from above together with the diagram of hydraulic
power unit.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 4


Fig. 2: Rexroth A4VSO Pump With Diagram of Hydraulic Power Unit

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 5


2.2 Geometrical Measurements

To compare between the old and new pumps some parameters of the
moving parts are measured. These parameters of the pistons and retaining
plates are shown in Fig. 3. The measured dimensions of the new and old
pistons are presented in Table (1) and (2) respectively. The measured
dimensions of the new and old retaining plates are presented in Table (3).

D3

DT

Retaining Plate Piston

Fig. 3: Basic Dimensions of Pistons and Retaining Plates

Table (1): Main Dimensions of the New Piston


Piston D1 D2 L1 L2 L2-L1
No. max min max min
1 44.950 44.900 31.950 31.930 131.100 133.500 2.400
2 44.950 44.950 31.950 31.930 131.000 133.500 2.500
3 45.000 44.950 31.950 31.920 130.500 133.500 3.000
4 44.950 44.950 31.950 31.930 131.000 133.100 2.100
5 44.970 44.930 31.950 31.920 131.000 133.100 2.100
6 45.000 44.930 31.950 31.930 130.500 133.200 2.700
7 45.010 44.950 31.930 31.930 130.700 133.400 2.700
8 45.000 44.950 31.950 31.920 130.600 133.250 2.650
average 44.979 44.939 31.948 31.926 130.800 133.319 2.519

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 6


Table (2): Main Dimensions of the Old Piston
Piston D1 D2 L1 L2 L2-L1
No. max min max min
1 45.020 45.000 30.620 30.600 125.500 129.200 3.700
2 45.040 45.000 30.620 30.600 125.700 127.000 1.300
3 45.020 45.000 30.640 30.620 126.900 129.200 2.300
4 45.000 44.920 30.640 30.640 125.700 128.400 2.700
5 45.000 44.980 30.700 30.680 126.000 129.900 3.900
6 45.100 45.040 30.660 30.620 125.400 129.100 3.700
7 45.040 45.020 30.660 30.620 125.700 128.700 3.000
8 44.940 44.900 30.600 30.580 125.100 127.100 2.000
9 44.960 44.920 30.660 30.660 124.350 128.400 4.050
average 45.013 44.976 30.644 30.624 125.594 128.556 3.331

Table (3): Main Dimensions of the Retaining Plates


Hole New Old
No. D3 t1 t2 t3 D3 t1 t2 t3
1 38.15 5.60 6.49 9.21 38.4 5.50 6.70 9.20
2 38.16 5.60 6.52 9.15 38.4 5.50 6.68 9.20
3 38.14 5.60 6.54 9.18 38.4 5.50 6.68 9.22
4 38.15 5.60 6.59 9.20 38.4 5.52 6.70 9.22
5 38.15 5.62 6.57 9.25 38.4 5.50 6.68 9.24
6 38.16 5.63 6.57 9.25 38.4 5.50 6.68 9.20
7 38.14 5.62 6.54 9.20 38.4 5.52 6.60 9.22
8 38.12 5.61 6.54 9.21 38.4 5.52 6.66 9.20
9 38.16 5.60 6.48 9.22 38.4 5.50 6.66 9.24
average 38.148 5.609 6.538 9.208 38.400 5.507 6.671 9.216

2.3 Geometric Analysis

Considering the measured geometry of the retaining plates and the


slipper pads of the old and new pumps we can determine the mean pitch
circle diameter DT (at zero swivel angle) which is considered as reference
position as shown in Fig. 4. The displacement of slipper pads b and b’ due
to piston inclination is determined (swivel angle  =15o, inclined piston
angle  = 5o). From Figs. 3, 4 and 5 the following dimensions in mm for the
old and new pumps are

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 7


Old New

RT = 69.621 mm RT = 69.362 mm
b = 1.683 mm b = 1.724 mm
b’ = 1.730 mm b’ = 1.677 mm

High Pressure

Low Pressure

Fig. 4: Schematic Drawing of Variable Displacement Pump

C
A B

C'
b'
B'
A'

Fig. 5: Analytic Geometry of Piston Motion

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 8


The slipper pads movement inside the holes of the retaining plate is
checked considering the measured dimensions and pump geometry for both
new and old pumps. Such check is clarified according to Fig. 6, from which
the following relations would be satisfied to assure smooth tangential
loading on the slipper pads.

ZRU = RT + D3/2 > ZU = OC + D2/2 (3)

ZRL = RT - D3/2 < ZL = OC - D2/2 (4)

C'

Fig. 6: Movement of slipper pads Due To Piston Inclination

The calculated values of conditions (3) and (4) are given in Table (4). As
result conditions (4) are satisfied while conditions (3) are temporary
unsatisfied whereas for the new pump the outer surface of slipper pads at the
end of suction stroke (point C) have temporary interference with the holes
in the retaining plate. The interference reaches the value of 1 mm out of
limit, which represents a temporary obstacle for the relative movement
between slipper pad heads and the swash plate. Such movement obstacle
increases the wear between slipper pads, retaining plate and swash plate and
causes temporary extra loads on the slipper pads.

Therefore it is recommended to increase the retaining plate holes by 1


mm to overcome such fault or to consider the dimensions of the old pumps.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 9


Table (4): Limits of Slipper Pad Movement
ZRU Zu ZRU - Zu ZRL ZL
Old 88.82111 89.12453 -0.30342 50.42111 55.07662
New 88.43556 89.5007 -1.06514 50.28778 54.16308

2.4 Pump A4VSO Basic Parameters

Considering the basic mechanics principles, pump geometry and basic


fluid mechanics principles we can write the relations for flow rate Q, pump
speed n, drive torque M and drive power P at different pump operating
conditions [1].

Vg max n tan  vol


Q (5)
100 tan  max

Q 1000 tan  max


n (6)
Vg max vol tan 
V p tan 
M  g max (7)
20 mh tan  max

1.59Vg max p tan 


M (7’)
100 mh tan  max

2 M n M n
P  (8)
60 000 9549

Q p Q p
P  (9)
600 vol mh 600 t

The basic parameters of the pump "A4VSO" at maximum power can


now be calculated as follows:

Design operating parameters of AVSO pump

 Vgmax = 250 cm3


 n = 1500 rpm
 drive power = 55 kW
 adjusted maximum swivel angle max = 15 o
 operating pressure in pipe line p = 150 bar

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 10


Calculated parameters at maximum operating pump duty

 The maximum drive torque is calculated from equation (1):

Mmax = 350.13 N.m

 The maximum possible swivel angle max is calculated from equation


(7).

For axial piston pumps, vol = 0.8 – 0.99 depending on pump type
while t = 0.86 – 0.83 depending on line pressure (70 – 200 bar). For
the pump “A4VSO” vol = 0.96 & t =0.8496 then mh = 0.885

As result max = 27.298 o

 The pump flow rate is calculated using equation (5) and checked using
equation (9), the two equations give

Q = 186.91 L/min

n Q rpm gpm
 The pump specific speed N s  0.75
  17.44
H H 0.75
If Ns < 500, a positive displacement pump is likely candidate [3].

2.5 Effect Of Slipper Pad-Piston End Clearance On Pump Performance

Considering the measured dimensions of both new and old piston ends
with slipper pads, it is found that there is an axial clearance varied from
2.1–3 mm for new pump and from 1.3-4.05 for old pump, Fig. 7. As a note
the 9 pistons of the old pump are gathered randomly from more than one.
Also, the operating hours of both pumps are not recorded.

With such high value of axial clearance it is obviously clear that it is out
of permissible limits. Such axial clearance results due to axial loads during
suction stroke, as an aging effect, which seems to occur in the new pumps
faster than the old ones.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 11


Such high value of axial clearance has an effect on both pump
performance and the joint strength of slipper pad-piston ends.

Bad Joint Good Joint

Fig. 7: Slipper Pad-Piston End Joint

Referring to the pump performance, such high axial clearance causes


lower suction stroke and consequently lower sucked oil, which of course
decreases the pump discharge. As conclusion this high axial clearance has
negative effect on the operating regimes of the pump, which causes:

 Decreasing of pump discharge Q


 Decreasing of pump volumetric efficiency vol
 Increasing the consumed shaft power

Also the exist of such high axial clearance causing sudden step loading at
the beginning of compression stroke which cause a pressure pulse resulted in
unsmooth operating conditions.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 12


The above-mentioned effects are evaluated by calculating the increase in
both “Flow Pulsation Coefficient Q” and “Pressure Pulsation Coefficient
p” defined as:

Qmax  Qmin
Q   100 %
Qm
2
Qmax  Qmin
2
p   100 %
Qm2

As result the flow pulsation coefficient increases by Q=1.53% while


the pressure pulsation coefficient increases by p = 3.04 % for the new
pump.

Referring to the joint strength of the slipper pad-piston ends, such value
of axial clearance cause smaller contact area between slipper pads and the
piston end, which means high value of bearing stress in the slipper pad and
may cause its failure.

2.6 Cavitation

Cavitation reduces pump capacity and efficiency and damages the pump.
It occurs at pump entry when the absolute pressure at the entry drops below
the vapour pressure of the hydraulic oil (fluid being pumped). Under these
conditions, vapour bubbles form at inlet and penetrate in the cylinder.
During pressure stroke the bubbles collapse abruptly due to high pressure
and the surrounding fluid rushes to fill the voids with such force that a
hammering action occurs. The high-localized stresses that result from
hammering action can pit the pump pistons and cylinders.

For the existing pump the compressed air is used to pressurize the tank,
which put the hydraulic oil contained in it under constant pressure equal to
1-1.2 bar. Such pressure is adjusted in this range by help of pressure reducer
and safety valve.

The pressurization is kept under control using pressure switch mounted


on the suction line of the main pump A4VSO that prevent the pump starting
if pressure in suction line is not sufficient.

Therefore, for the pump A4VSO no danger of cavitation exists.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 13


2.7 Effect Of Erosion And Corrosion On Hydraulic Oil

The study of such problem requires extra investigation considering


filtration system analysis and contamination analysis through using
ferrography techniques which can determine operation conditions of wear
system by analyzing the amount, size, shape and color of debris contained in
lubricating or hydraulic oil samples. In this technique the oil sample has to
pass through a series of calibrated membrane filters so that the size and
shape of debris could classify, so nature of the wear can be identified in time
to prevent catastrophic damage.

As result of continuous application of ferrography techniques for long


period (e.g. 2-3 years or even more) for many pumps of the same type, the
debris groups categories can be determined which classified into 12 groups
as: normal particles, fatigue particles, sliding particles, cutting particles,
particles from corrosion wear, etc…. The analysis of debris groups’
categories using fuzzy logic can be used for forecasting of pump failure and
planning of correct maintenance actions [4].

However the used filtration system with pump “A4VSO” identified by


suction filter and high pressure filter after the pump together with their
pressure switches and other filtration elements in the hydraulic system e.g.
proportional filter (10 mm), must be capable for keeping suitable and
required fluid properties to fulfill the required tasks.

2.8 Load Analysis

2.8.1 Normal operation

The resolution of the forces takes place at the swash plate in the slipper
pads and cylinder block as shown in Fig. 8. The piston slipper pads have
hydrostatic bearings and hence ensure that the rotary groups have a long
service life [1].

The piston force F (5) can be resolved into tangential force FT, which
makes the slipper pad to slide between the swash plate and the retaining
plate, and normal force FN as shown in Fig. 9, (Normal Operation).

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 14


1- High Pressure 3 1
2- Low pressure (suction 4 5
pressure)
3- Bearing Force
4- Torque (Drive Force)
5- Piston Force (high
pressure force F)
2

Fig. 8: Force Diagram on the Piston at Swash Plate

2.8.2 Abnormal operation

In case of existing clearance between the piston ball end and slipper pad,
which may occurs due to slipper pad wear, the point of force action on the
slipper pad is changed from its normal position.

As a result; the forces are unbalanced which acting faraway the centroid
of the slipper pad making it rotates as shown in Fig. 9, (Abnormal
Operation).

In this case the slipper pad is subjected to bending moment and shear
force. Taking into consideration that these loads are dynamic and random
which cause and accelerate the slipper pad damage.

Moment

F
FT FN FT FN

Abnormal
Normal Operation
Operation

Fig. 9: Effect of Clearance on the Slipper Pad Movement

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 15


3. VISUAL INSPECTION

Visual inspection of the old and new pumps basic parts are firstly done.
It is noticed from which:
1- The retaining plates, swash plates and pistons are made from stainless
steel. While the slipper pads are made of copper zinc alloy.
2- There a big axial clearance between slipper pads and piston ends.
3- There is a noticeable wear in the new swash plate and new retaining
plate compared to the old ones.
4- The fractured part is always the slipper pad, Fig. 10.
5- There is a noticeable corrosion on the inner surface of the slipper pad
as shown in Fig. 11. Such corrosion is estimated as dezincification
problem as the motion of the hydraulic fluid between slipper pad and
piston end is slow rather than the outer surface.

Fig. 10: The Fractured Slipper Pad

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 16


nossorroC

Fig. 11: Corrosion on the Inner Surface of the Slipper Pad

4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

One of the pump fault-reasons is the possibility of material deficiency.


Specially, the current fault has not been appeared in the old pumps (which
are used before). As a result of visual inspection, decision has been taken to
carry out experimental investigation of some parts of the failed hydraulic
pump A4VSO. The investigation aims to estimate the cause of failure of the
slipper pads. The experimental investigation is carried out in "Central
Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Helwan, Cairo Egypt" on
some specimens of the old and new pumps. The specimens are

 Two specimens from the old and new slipper pads which are
designated as PHO and PHN respectively.
 Two specimens from the old and new retaining plate which are
designated as BPO and BPN respectively.
 Two specimens from the old and new swash plate which are
designated as SWO and SWN respectively.

The investigation includes

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 17


1. Spectrum analysis to determine the chemical composition for the
material of the old and new pumps selected parts.
2. Slipper pad fracture analysis by performing the following:
a. Microstructure investigation by selecting different areas for
examination using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to
determine the type failure.
b. The chemical compositions at bounding surface near the area of
fracture are obtained using EDS (Energy Dispersive
Spectroscopy) to confirm the occurrence of dezincification.

4.1 Material Composition

The Chemical compositions of the old and new slipper pad are presented
in Table (5). It was found the results according to "Application Datasheet
Standard Designation for wrought alloys" that:

 Slipper pad materials are brasses.


 Slipper pad material designation of the new one is "C67400".
 Slipper pad material of the old one has no designation "not found".
 Nickel in the old one represents more than 19 times the new one.
 Silicon in the old one represents more than 1.78 times the new one.

Table (5): Chemical Composition Of The Investigated Slipper Pads


Wt% Ratio
Constituent Remarks
PHO PHN (old/new)
Sn 0.0270 0.2710 0.099 10 times less
Zn 35.1830 35.8260 0.982
Pb 0.5650 0.3820 1.479
Fe 0.0973 0.5103 0.191 5 times less
Ni 2.3230 0.1200 19.358 19 times greater
P 0.0040 0.0050 0.800
Si 1.3800 0.7750 1.781 1.78 times greater
Mn 2.5430 2.4000 1.060
S 0.0050 0.0050 1.000
Bi 0.0020 0.0026 0.769
Sb 0.0413 0.0330 1.252
Mg 0.0030 0.0030 1.000
Cu 57.8100 58.0500 0.996

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 18


Copper Zinc Alloys Pecularities

o Brasses are copper zinc alloys. In general, they have good strength
and corrosion resistance. They contain zinc as the principal alloying
element. Other alloying elements may also be present to impart
advantageous properties. These elements include Iron, Aluminum,
Nickel and Silicon. Adding Aluminum, Iron and Manganese to brass
improves strength. Silicon Additions improve wear resistance. Adding
Nickel to copper alloys, increases resistance to corrosion, improves
ductility and strength.

o Dezincification can be a problem in alloys containing more than 15%


zinc in stagnant, acidic aqueous environment. Dezincification begins
as the removal of zinc from the surface of the brass, leaving a
relatively porous and weak layer of copper and copper oxide. The
dezincification can progress through the brass and weaken the entire
component.

o Stress corrosion cracking can also be a problem of brasses containing


more than 15% zinc. Stress corrosion cracking of these brasses occurs
when the components are subjected to a tensile stress in environments
containing moist ammonia, amines and mercury compounds.

The Chemical compositions of the old and new retaining plates and
swash plates are presented in Tables (6) and (7).

It was found from the specimens results according to DIN standards that:

 Retaining Plates of the old and new pumps are of the same material
namely, "Nitriding steel 1.8550".
 Swash Plates of the old and new pumps are of the same material
namely, "Nitriding steel 1.8504".

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 19


Table (6): Chemical Composition Of The Investigated Retaining Plates
Constituent Wt%
Ratio (old/new)
BPO BPN
C 0.3614 0.3803 0.950
Si 0.3100 0.3983 0.778
Mn 0.7216 0.7226 0.999
P 0.01366 0.0030 4.553
S 0.0033 0.0106 0.311
Cr 1.5593 1.5780 0.988
Mo 0.1517 0.1787 0.849
Ni 0.9482 1.0513 0.902
Al 1.3004 1.2065 1.078
Cu 0.1550 0.1996 0.776
Ti 0.0036 0.0124 0.290
V 0.0469 0.0095 4.937
W 0.0001 0.0001 1.000
Sn 0.0196 0.0143 1.371
Nb 0.0045 0.0047 0.957
Fe 94.180 93.9900 1.002

Table (7): Chemical Composition Of The Investigated Swash Plates


Constituent Wt% Remarks
SWO SWN Ratio (old/new)
C 0.3787 0.3470 1.091
Si 0.3440 0.3420 1.006
Mn 0.7746 0.7630 1.015
P 0.0063 0.0056 1.125
S 0.0020 0.0096 0.208
Cr 1.2039 1.1760 1.024
Mo 0.1416 0.1550 0.914
Ni 0.07113 0.1123 0.633
Al 1.0149 1.0197 0.995
Cu 0.0950 0.1293 0.735
Ti 0.0052 0.00613 0.848
V 0.0052 0.0041 1.268
W 0.0001 0.0001 1.000
Sn 0.0073 0.0083 0.879
Nb 0.0036 0.0032 1.125
Fe 95.7700 95.7600 1.000

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 20


4.2 Fracture Analysis

The microstructure investigation has been done using scanning electron


microscope (SEM) on the damaged slipper pad by different magnification
factor. It is clear from Figures (12) and (13) that the failure of the slipper pad
is brittle failure.

Fig. 12: Microstructure of the Damaged Slipper Pad-MF350

Fig. 13: Microstructure of the Damaged Slipper Pad-MF750

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 21


A further investigation is done. The chemical composition using energy
dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are obtained on the outer surface, middle
surface and inner surface of the damaged slipper pad. The investigated
locations for are indicated in Fig. 14.

The selected positions for EDS analysis are shown in Figs. 15, 16 and
17.

Inner

Middle

Outer

Fig. 14: Investigated Locations for EDS Analysis

The EDS quantitative results (ZAF method) for the outer, inner and
middle surface at the fractured section are summarized in Table (8).

Table (8): Quantitative Results of EDS Analysis


Constituent Wt %
Outer Inner
Middle Inner
Al -- 1.44 49.05
Si 2.34 1.18 3.28
Mn -- 1.32 --
Fe 0.67 0.31 --
Cu 59.29 56.48 18.40
Zn 37.70 39.28 29.27

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 22


From Table (8) it is found that the amount of zinc in the inner surface is significantly
decreased by 21% relative to the normal composition of the material. This confirms that
dezincification problem occurs on the inner surface of the new slipper pad. Also, it is
clear from the table that the material suffers inhomogeneous structure which
may be attributed to improper casting.

Fig. 15: Outer Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

Fig. 16: Middle Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 23


Fig. 17: Inner Surface Scanning for EDS Analysis

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 24


5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

1- From geometrical analysis, the outer surfaces of the new pump-slipper


pads at the end of suction stroke have temporary interference with the
retaining plate.
2- The clearance between slipper pad-piston ends increases the flow
pulsation coefficient and pressure pulsation coefficient.

3- The mentioned clearance increases the bearing stresses on the slipper


pad.

4- The filtration system used with the pump “A4VSO” is capable for
keeping suitable and required fluid properties as long as the user
executes the operating and maintenance instructions.
5- From load analysis, the abnormal operation conditions may exist due
to slipper pad-piston end clearance. Such conditions cause tilting of
slipper pad and consequently interfered with swash plate. This
interference increases swash plate wears which is visually observed,
and cause sudden high loads leading to slipper pad fracture.

6- There is a noticeable corrosion on the inner surface of the fractured


slipper pad, which is a dezincification problem that is confirmed by
EDS analysis. Also, EDS, show that the material is inhomogeneous.
7- The retaining and swash plates' material of the old and new pumps is
stainless steel with almost the same chemical composition in the old
and new pumps respectively.

8- The slipper pad’ material is brass with big difference in the nickel
content. The old material has higher resistance to corrosion due to the
higher nickel (Ni) contents (19 times the new one).

9- Dezincification problem may occurs on the inner surface of slipper


pads as the hydraulic fluid motion in this place is slow rather than in
the outer surface and the slipper pads are subjected to tensile stress
during suction stroke. Dezincification leads to relatively porous and
weak layer of copper and copper oxide which cause stress corrosion
cracking. Such stress corrosion cracking can finally cause the fracture
of slipper pads.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 25


6. CONCLUSIONS

The fracture of slipper pad of the new pumps set is attributed to:

 Material deficiency of lower corrosion resistance of the new slipper


pad due to shortage of nickel, which appears as dezincification and
weak the inner surface.

 The brittleness of the new slipper pad’ material is higher than the old
one due to shortage of nickel (Ni) content.

 The composition of the new slipper pad' material is inhomogeneous


which may attributed to improper casting.

 The final forming is not suitable for the new slipper pad’ material
which causes extra clearance in a short operating period.

 That clearance cause tilting of slipper pad and consequently interfered


with swash plate. This interference increases swash plate wears and
cause sudden high loads leading to slipper pad fracture.

7. RECOMMENDATIONS

1- It is recommended to request pump producer to overcome slipper pad


material deficiency.
2- The problem of extra clearance can be overcome by using suitable
production technology for producing slipper pad-piston end joint.
3- Deep investigation for oil properties using oil trace analysis is
recommended in future.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 26


REFERENCES

[2] Lohr A. Maik, "Basic principles and components of fluid technology- the hydraulic
trainer, vol 1, Rexroth Hydraulics, 1991.
[2] “Instruction manual 159.29.A02”, Hydraulic presses, SACMI IMOLA, ITALIA,
1995.
[3] Lev Nelik, "Centrifugal and rotary pumps fundamentals with applications, CRC
Press, Boca Roton, London, New York, Washington DC, 1999.
[4] Elzahaby A.M., et al, "Operation under alarm conditions for gas turbine engine
bearings", IASTED International Conference on Energy and Power Systems (EPS
2006), Tailand, March 29-31, 2006.

A4VSO-PUMP FAULT ANALYSIS 27

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