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PLAIN AND REINFORCED

CONCRETE II
(CE-862)
Fall Semester

Lecture 01
Agenda

Reinforced Concrete Basics


 Advantages/ Disadvantages
 Compatibility of Concrete and Steel
 Type of Cement
 Setting and hardening
 Admixtures
 Compressive strength, tensile and shear strength
 Modulus of elasticity
 Movement in concrete

Steel bars – grades, sizes and strength

Type of loads

Safe structure and failure


Reinforce Concrete Basics
Reinforce Concrete Basics

What is Reinforce Concrete?


• Concrete is a composite material which consists essentially of :
a) Binding medium of cement and water called cement water
paste
b) Particles of relatively inert filler called aggregate

• Selection of relative proportion of cement water and aggregate is called


mix design. Important requirements of mix design is :
a) Fresh concrete must be workable, or placeable
b) Hardened concrete must be strong enough to carry design load
c) Hardened concrete must be able to withstand service condition
d) Must be produced economically
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Advantages
• Considerable compressive strength than other materials
• Inherent resistance to fire and weathering effects
• Inherent stability due to nature of material
• Due to inherent mass of structure- generally meet vibration criteria
• Lower maintenance cost
• Increase in strength with passage of time
• Require less skilled labor
• More robust due to monolithic nature
• Offer pleasing aesthetics solution, easy to create unusual shapes
• Good sound insulator
• Design is tolerant to small, late alterations
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Disadvantages
• Low tensile strength
• Slower form of construction due to formwork and falsework
• Deadload limits scope
• Greater foundation costs
• Greater drawing office and detailing costs
• Difficult to post strengthen elements
• Fair faced finish needs very skilled contractors and carefully designed
joints
Definitions
Formwork: Term used to describe the fabrications and constructions used to form
the shape of concrete structure, acting as the mould.
Falsework: Temporary structure used to support other structures, usually
permanent, until they can support themselves.
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Compatibility of concrete and steel


• Both materials are complementing each other:
Low tensile strength of concrete – higher tensile strength of steel
Weaker resistance to corrosion for steel – higher weathering
resistance of concrete
Poor fire resistance to steel – higher insulation properties of
concrete
Lighter in weight (steel) – heavier unit weight (concrete)
Expensive material (steel) – Cheap material (concrete)
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Compatibility of concrete and steel

• Cage is placed into a mould and wet concrete is poured thus forming a
composite element. As concrete dries, it shrinks and grips the
reinforcement. To aid this grip, reinforcement bars are made with rough
pattern

• Both materials have almost same co-efficient of thermal expansion


0.0000065 per unit length per degree Fahrenheit for steel
0.0000040 to 0.0000070 with average of 0.0000055 for concrete
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Cement
• Portland Cement is finely pulverized clinker (powdered stony residue)
produced by burning, at about 1450 0C, lime (CaO), silica (SiO2),
alumina (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3)
Lime → 60 – 65 %
Silica →18 – 25 %
Alumina →3 – 8 %
Iron oxide →0.5 – 5 %

• Different types of Portland cement can be achieved by varying


proportion of these constituent
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Cement
• Main compounds of Portland Cement

• Different types of Portland cement can be achieved by varying


proportion of these constituent

Hydration: The reaction by virtue of which cement becomes a bonding agent in a


water cement paste.
Soundness: A cement is said to be sound if there is no abnormal expansion which
can cause cracks.
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Types of Cement

• Type I – Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) → No exposure to sulfates, most common


type

• Type II – Sulfate Resistance to mild level→ Calcium-aluminate and sulfate reaction


can form calcium-sulfoaluminate and result in increase in volume (227%) →
disintegration of concrete

• Type III – High early strength cement → High fineness, high heat of hydration, required
when rapid strength is desired such as formwork reuse or sufficient strength for further
construction

• Type IV – Low Heat of Hydration Cement for massive concrete → rise in temperature
due to large pour can result in high heat of hydration → serious cracking

• Type V – High sulfate resistant cement


Reinforce Concrete Basics

Types of Cement

Low C3A results in


less Calcium
sulpho aluminate
High C3S results in
rapid hardening
Low C3S and C3A
results in low
Hydration
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Process of setting and hardening
Portland Cement + Water

Initial
Plastic workable paste setting
time
Final
Setting

30min
Initial set setting
time
600min
Solid unworkable paste

Final set
Hardening

Rigid solid gaining strength with time


Reinforce Concrete Basics

Admixtures
A component which imparts physical and economic benefits
• Air entraining → surfactants are added to reduce surface tension.
Surface tension is due to unequal cohesive forces at the surface.
Increase in resistance to freeze thaw
 Increase cohesion and reduce bleed and segregation
• Accelerators → Reduce time for mix to change from plastic to
hardened state OR increase the 24hr strength say for access
reason. Normally inorganic chemicals which accelerate production
of calcium silicate hydrate.
• Retarders→ Extend the time for the mix to change from the plastic to
the hardened state. Probably admixture adsorb on the surface of
cement and slow down the reaction OR prevent the precipitation of
calcium hydroxide.
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Admixtures

• Superplasticizers → Dispersing admixture (adsorption onto cement


surface to distribute the cement particle more uniformly), used in
precast and ready mix concrete, high workability
 High workability to give high early strength e.g. precast industry
 Low water content to give high early or later age strength
 Low water content to give low permeability and durable
concrete

• Water proofing→ against rain, tidal and splash zone, chloride attack
Reducing the size, number and continuity of capillary pores
 Blocking the capillary pore structures
 Low water content to give low permeability and durable
concrete
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Strength of Concrete

• Compressive strength
Determined by 28 days old test specimen
The strength may vary from 3000 to 6000 psi as normal
concrete and beyond 6000 psi as high strength concrete

• Tensile strength
Related to opening of micro cracks in concrete
Is usually determined from modulus of ruptures or split
cylinder test
• Shear Strength
Usually vary from one third to fourth – fifth of ultimate
compressive strength
Reinforce Concrete Basics
Modulus of Concrete
• Static Modulus of concrete is dependent on:
 Loading conditions
 Age of concrete
 Strength of concrete
 Aggregate proportioning
• Initial Modulus → slope of stress-strain at origin
• Tangent Modulus → slope of tangent to the curve at some
point- say 50% of ultimate strength of concrete
• Secant Modulus → slope of point from origin to a point 25
– 50 % of ultimate compressive strength
Reinforce Concrete Basics
Modulus of Concrete
• Long term Modulus → slope of stress strain curve when
load has been applied for certain length of time
• For normal weight concrete ranging from 90 – 155 lb/ft3
 Ec = 57000√fc’
Initial Tangent Modulus
Tangent Modulus
Stress σ

Secant Modulus

Strain ε
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Movement in concrete

• Plastic shrinkage
Self desiccation, hydration and evaporation

• Thermal movement
Coefficient of thermal expansion is 10x10-6 /0C
• Elastic movement
Due to short term applied loads
• Creep
Long term moment due to applied load
For external exposure, creep is approximately the same as
elastic movement (as internal water is less or none)
For internal exposure, creep is approximately 3-4 time elastic
movement (internal water is more)
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Movement in concrete

• Drying shrinkage
Loss of water
100x10-6 external and 400x10-6 internal
Reinforce Concrete Basics

Relative Movement

Thermal

Shrinkage (Int)

Shrinkage (ext)

Creep (Int)

Creep (ext)

Elastic

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Movement and volume changes (mm)


Steel bars - Grades, sizes
and strength
Steel bars – Grades, sizes and strength

• Reinforcing steel may be hot rolled or cold twisted

• May be plain or deformed

• Sizes start from #3 (3/8”) to #11 (11/8”) and for special cases,
we may refer to #14 (14/8”) and #18 (18/8”) also

• Welded wire mesh can also be used

• Grades of steel may vary from 40 (40 ksi) to 70 (70 ksi) with 60
(60 ksi) as most common
Steel bars – Grades, sizes and strength
Types of Loads
Types of Loads

• Dead loads

• Self and superimposed loads

• Live Loads

• Environmental Loads
 Seismic
 Wind
 Rain
 Snow
Types of Loads

• Dead loads

• Self and superimposed loads

• Live Loads

• Environmental Loads
 Seismic
 Wind
 Rain
 Snow
Types of Loads
Types of Loads
Live Load
Types of Loads
Live Load
Safe structure and failure
Safe structure and failure

Definition
Safe structure and failure

• Building structures expected to be safe and failure


minimized→ statistical approach is attempted

• Example: Doorway height ? → Draw Histogram for 100


randomly chosen adults
Safe structure and failure
Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures


• The idea of designing is some how matching the loads
applied with the strength of structure. This can be done
in two ways:
Elastic design or Permissible stress design
Limit state design
Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures

Elastic Design

Limit State Design


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures

Limit State Design


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads and strength of structures


Safe structure and failure

Applied loads: Some Examples


Maximum sagging load

Maximum hogging load


Safe structure and failure

Assignment:
Write two page report

• Cement (Islamabad market only)

 Identify various cement brands in Islamabad


 The most popular cement brand
 Strength and weaknesses of various cement
brands
 Different types of cement available in Islamabad
market
 Procedure for ordering special purpose cement
 Any technical problems faced by cement industry
Safe structure and failure

Assignment:
Write two page report

• Aggregates (Islamabad market only)

 Identify various types of aggregates in Islamabad


market
 Identify natural and manufactured aggregates
 Where are these extracted or manufactured
 Strength and weaknesses of various aggregates
 Procedure for ordering special purpose aggregates
such as Pozzalanas etc.
 Any technical problems with aggregates?
Safe structure and failure

Assignment:
Write two page report

• Steel bars (Islamabad market only)

 Identify various brands of steel in Islamabad market


 Identify various diameter bars and yield strength
 Where are these manufactured?
 Strength and weaknesses of various brands
 Procedure for ordering high strength bars
 Any technical problems with available steel bars
Questions?