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WEE

K
11-
14

Academic Report
Writing
UNIT 4
Writing Conclusion and
Recommendations

By the end of this unit, students will be able to


Conclude findings based on primary and secondary
sources
Make suggestions for further improvement of the
case studied

UHL2332 SEMESTER I 2009/2010


Modern Languages Department
CMLHS @ UMP
Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 43

5.1 Writing Style for Conclusions


• Conclusion comes after the Findings, and it usually summarizes
the findings in brief.
• Sometimes, readers only read the Conclusions and
Recommendations instead of Findings and Discussion in order
to get a brief idea of the research result, and also to save
time.
• Therefore, Conclusion needs to be well-written, i.e. it should be
clear, concise and precise.
• It should also present an accurate picture of what is contained in
the Findings and Discussion.
• In an academic report, the conclusion is written to indicate a
summary of findings – Logical deductions (reasoning) or
opinions. For example,
Based on the findings, the following conclusions can
be made:
i. Most UMP students prefer to work in small group
discussion.

ii. These students feel that they are able to express their
opinions freely in small group discussion.
Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 44

Exercise 13
Write three conclusions for each of the three figures in Exercise 12
based on your analysis.
Please ensure that your conclusion is a combination of a summary of
the findings as well as your logical deductions of the analysis.
Figure 1 Activities Carried out during Leisure Time

Figure 2 Preference Study Skills among UMP Students


Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 45

Figure 3 Soft Skills Elements Students need to Focus

5.2 Writing Style for Recommendations


• When analyzing data in graphs, charts or tables, it is sometimes
necessary to follow up the conclusion by recommending a
course of action that should be taken. For examples,
i In order to reduce the number of accidents, it is
essential that a more stringent law should be drawn to
punish reckless road users.

ii It can be concluded that to conserve the


environment, there is a need to regularly conduct
awareness programmes to the public.
Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 46

• When making recommendations, we normally use one of


the following phrases:
- We need / should to
- It is imperative that
- We recommend that
- It is recommended
- There is a need to
- It is essential that

Exercise 14
Match the objectives with the recommendations, and then, rewrite
appropriate statements to express recommendation. The first one has
been done for you.
For example,
In order to speed the transition away from oil, there is a
need to develop renewable sources of energy.
Or
It is essential that we develop renewable sources of energy
in order to speed the transition away from oil.

Objectives Recommendations
Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 47

1 to speed transition
away from oil
2 to avoid inflation
3 to increase the role of increase taxation on private cars
nuclear energy control air, land and water pollution
4 to increase coal develop renewable sources of
production energy
5 to guard against build new nuclear power plants
environmental damage
implement price tag and wage
6 to encourage the use of
control
public transport
control the amount of pollutants
7 to encourage the car
discharged by factories
industry to conduct
convert oil-fired energy generating
research into
plants to other fuel sources
alternative engines
8 to conserve our water keep open all economically viable
supply mines
9 to prevent illegal raise public awareness of turtles'
logging plight
10 to conserve oil impose water rationing strictly
11 to prevent the increase the number of forest
extinction of turtles rangers
12 to control the amount of provide financial assistance
industrial effluent
discharged into the
waterways

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Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 48

3 .......................................................................................................

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5 .......................................................................................................

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7 .......................................................................................................

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8 .......................................................................................................

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9 .......................................................................................................

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Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 49

10 .......................................................................................................

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12 .......................................................................................................

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References

Anna Fung Wai Choo & Choi Tuck Oon. (1998). Easy Steps To Report
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Mastura, B.B., Zaiton, I. & Zuhana, M.Z. (1998). English Language III:
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Ravichandran, Vengadasamy. (1999). English for Business Level II.


Bangi: Pusat Pengajian Jarak Jauh, Universiti Kebangsaan
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Unit 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 50

Strutt, P. (2000). Business Grammar and Usage. Essex: Longman.

Suzaini bt Mohammed Yunus, Nur Amalina bt Mat Musa, Salifah bt


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The Language Centre, University of Leeds. (2004, October 25).


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Vengadasamy, R. (1999). English for Business: Level II. Selangor:


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Williams, M. (n.d.). Guide to Writing Dissertations. Exeter: University of


Exeter Press.