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EdExcel Core 3

Differentiation

Topic assessment
1. Using the chain rule, differentiate (x2 – 1)6. [3]

3. Show that the gradient of y = (x2 – 1)(x – 2)3 is given by

dy
= ( x - 2)2 (5 x 2 - 4 x - 3) [4]
dx

x -1
4. Find the gradient of the curve y = at the point where x = 2. [5]
x2 - 3

5. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ln(3x – 5) at the point where
x = 3. [5]

6. Show that the curve y = x – ln x has one turning point only, and give the
coordinates of this point. [4]

7. A curve has y = e 2 x cos x .

(i) Show that the turning points of the curve occur at the points for which
tan x = 2 . [5]
(ii) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point for which x = 0. [5]

8. For the curve y = x 2 e - x ,

(i) Write down the co-ordinates of the point(s) where the curve cuts the
coordinate axes. [1]
(ii) Find the gradient function for the curve and hence the co-ordinates of any
turning points, distinguishing between them. [8]
(iii) Describe the behaviour of the graph for large positive and large negative
values of x. [2]
(iv) Sketch the curve. [3]

9. Three pieces of wire are cut and used to make two equal circles and a square. The
total length of wire used is 100 cm. If the radius of each circle is x cm and the side
of the square y cm:
(i) Write down an equation that connects x and y and simplify as far as possible.
[3]
(ii) Write down an expression for the total area enclosed, A, in terms of x and y.
[2]
(iii) Eliminate y from your expression in (ii) using a substitution from your
equation in (i) and hence express A in terms of x only. [2]
(iv) Find a value for x that will minimise A. [5]

Total 60 marks
Solutions to Topic assessment

EdExcel C3 Differentiation Assessment solutions

1. y = ( x - 1)
2 6

du
Let u = x - 1 � = 2x
2

dx
dy
y = u6 � = 6u5
du
dy
du dy
=
� = 6u5 �2x
Using the chain rule: dx du dx
= 12x( x2 - 1)5

[3]
1
2. y = cosec x = = (sin x)-1
sin x
du
Let u = sin x � = cos x
dx
dy 1
y = u-1 � = -u-2 = - 2
du u
dy
du 1 dy cos x
=
� = - 2 �cos x = -
dx du dx u sin2 x
Using the chain rule:
1 cos x
=- � = -cosec x cot x
sin x sin x

[3]

3. y = ( x - 1)( x - 2)
2 3

du
Let u = x - 1 � = 2x
2

dx
dv
Let v = ( x - 2) � = 3( x - 2)2
3

dx
dy dv du
=u +v
dx dx dx
= ( x - 1)�3( x - 2)2 + ( x - 2)3 �2 x
2

Using the product rule:

= ( x - 2)2 �
3( x2 - 1) + 2 x( x - 2)�
� �
= ( x - 2) (3x - 3 + 2 x - 4 x)
2 2 2

= ( x - 2)2(5 x2 - 4x - 3)

[4]

EdExcel C3 Differentiation Assessment solutions
x- 1
4. y =
x2 - 3
du
Let u = x - 1 � =1
dx
dv
Let v = x - 3 � = 2x
2

dx
du dv
dy-u v
= dx 2 dx
dx v
( x - 3)�1 - ( x - 1)�2 x
2
=
Using the quotient rule: ( x2 - 3)2
x2 - 3 - 2 x2 + 2x
=
( x2 - 3)2
- x2 - 3 + 2x
=
( x2 - 3)2
-22 - 3 + 2 �2 -4 - 3 + 4
When x = 2, gradient = = = -3 .
(22 - 3)2 12

[5]

y = ln(3x - 5)
5. dy 1 3
= �3 =
dx 3x - 5 3x - 5
3 3
When x = 3, gradient = =
3�3 - 5 4
When x = 3, y = ln(3 �3 - 5) = ln4 = 2ln2
y - 2ln 2 = 43( x - 3)
Equation of tangent is 4y - 8ln2 = 3x - 9
4y = 3x + 8ln 2 - 9

[5]

y = x - ln x
6. dy 1
= 1-
dx x
1
1- =0
x
At turning points, 1
=1
x
x= 1
The only turning point is at x = 1.
When x = 1, y = 1- ln 1 = 1- 0 = 1
The turning point is (1, 1).

EdExcel C3 Differentiation Assessment solutions

[4]
7. (i) y = e cos x
2x

du
Let u = e = 2e2 x
2x

dx
dv
Let v = cos x � = - sin x
dx
dy
Using the product rule: = -e2 x sin x + 2e2 x cos x
dx
-e2 x sin x + 2e2 x cos x = 0
At turning points, sin x = 2cos x
tan x = 2

[5]
dy
(ii) = -e2 x sin x + 2e2 x cos x
dx
When x = 0, gradient = -e0 sin0 + 2e0 cos0 = 2
Gradient of normal = - 21
When x = 0, y = e cos0 = 1
0

y - 1 = - 21( x - 0)
2( y - 1) = - x
Equation of normal is
2y - 2 = - x
2y + x = 2

[5]
2 -x
8. (i) y = x e
When x = 0, y = 0.
The only point where the curve cuts the axes is (0, 0).

[1]
du
Let u = x = 2x
2
(ii) �
dx
-x dv
Let v = e � = -e- x
dx
dy
Using the product rule, = - x2e- x + 2 xe- x = xe- x(2 - x)
dx
-x
xe (2 - x) = 0
At turning points,
x = 0 or x = 2
When x = 0, y = 0
4
When x = 2, y = 2
e

x<0 0<x< x>2

2

EdExcel C3 Differentiation Assessment solutions

dy -ve +ve -ve

dx
� 4�
From table, (0, 0) is a minimum point and �2, 2 �is a
� e �
maximum point.

[8]

(iii)When x is large and positive (e.g. x = 100). y is close

to zero.
When x is large and negative (e.g. x = -100), y
becomes very large and
positive.

[2]
�2, 4 �
(iv) � 2�
� e �

[3]

9. (i) Wire used for square = 4y

Wire used for each circle = 2p x
� 4y + 4p x = 100
Total length is 100 cm � y + p x = 25

[3]
Area of square = y
2
(ii)
Area of each circle = p x2
Total area is given by A = y + 2p x
2 2

[2]
(iii)From (i), y = 25 - p x
Substituting into expression in (ii): A = (25 - p x)2 + 2p x2

[2]
(iv)The expression for A is quadratic, with positive term in
x², so the turning
point is a minimum point.

EdExcel C3 Differentiation Assessment solutions
dA
= 2(25 - p x)�-p + 4p x
dx
= -2p(25 - p x) + 4p x
-2 p (25 - p x) + 4 p x = 0
-25 + p x + 2x = 0
At stationary point, (2 + p )x = 25
25
x=
2+ p
25
Therefore x = minimises the value of A.
2+ p

[5]