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Definition of Career:

1. Career is a sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with the series of job and work related

activities over a person’s life time.

2. Succession of related jobs, arranged in hierarchical order, through which a person moves in an


Objectives of career development:

 To attract and retain person in an organization

 To utilize human resources optimally

 To improve morale and motivation level of employees

 To reduce employee turnover

 To practice a balanced promotion from within policy

 To make employees adaptable to changes

 To maintain harmonious industrial relation

 To increase employee’s loyalty commitment to the organization

 To inculcate equitable employment practices providing equal career progression opportunities to

women and minorities

Different stages of career development:

 Exploratory stage

 Establishment stage

 Maintenance stage

 Stage of decline

Exploratory Stage

 Ensure the availability of accurate information about the various occupations existing in the

organization to the new employee

 Create opportunities to enable new employees to get information with the organizational careers

through job rotation, internship, visit different units, seminars, etc.

 Sponsor educational and training programmes for ensuring supply of potential talent in future.

Establishment Stage

 Identification of the best possible talent for the organization

 Communicating the correct and positive of the organization to the employee

 Maximum learning and favourable attitudes of the employees towards the organization

 Assigning challenging jobs to employees to enable them test their abilities and skills

 Designing of development plan, identification of development needs, deciding career steps, etc.
Maintenance Stage

 Strategies motivate employees, so that they can be productivity utilized even without promotion

 Adequate opportunities for transition from specialist cadres to generalist position at higher levels of the


 Help employees to adjust to their changing roles, their careers shifts from active position to advisory


 Help employees to prepare for retirement

Decline Stage

 Manage retirement without destroying the employee’s sense of self-worth

 Invent new creative part-time roles for which can use their knowledge, experience and wisdom

Advantages of career development:

 It reduces employee turnover by providing promotional avenues

 It improves morale and motivation

 It enables organizations to man promotional vacancies internally

 It ensures better utilization of employee’s skills and provides increased work satisfaction to employees

 It makes employees adaptable to the changing requirement of the organization

 It reduces industrial disputes related to promotional matters and thereby provides opportunity to the

organization to maintain hard industrial relations

 Career development programs ensure equitable promotional decisions for every human in an


What is succession planning?

1. Growth and survival of the organization are the responsibilities of the top management

2. To fulfill such responsibilities each organization needs to plan management succession

3. Succession planning is done in different time frames to ensure the availability of right positions for

continuing organizational vitality and strength

4. Good organizations try to make succession planning in three different time frames

 Immediate (within 1 year)

 Intermediate (1 to 5 years)

 Long range (beyond 5 years)

Step of succession planning:

1. Prepare and develop a management staffing plan for all anticipated needs in different time frames
2. The second step is staffing and development. Staffing is concerned with recruitment, selection and

placement. Development means development of managerial personnel through training, job rotation,

counselling and guidance

3. The third step is to ensure congenial organizational environment to retain the desired managerial


4. The fourth step is to develop a good performance appraisal system to get feedback on managerial

performance and to review their progress and shortfalls

5. The fifth step is the preparation of the management resource inventory. Such inventory contains details

of personal data, performance records, skills, potential, career goals and career paths of managerial


Management development

 Management development is a scientific training process for managers and executives to enrich their

knowledge and skills so as to make them competent to manage their organization effectively

Characteristics of management development:

1. A continues process

2. A knowledge updating activity

3. A vehicle for attitudinal change

4. A stimulant to higher competence

5. A deficiency improper

6. A self-development process
Components of management development

1. Selection

 Selection process enables us to understand the innate potentiality of the executives and the

degree and extent of their managerial abilities.

2. Intellectual Conditioning

 It is the process of educating managers and executives on different managerial tools and


3. Supervised training

 It is the process of guiding managers and executives while they apply and use their knowledge

in day to day work

Steps of management development

1. To look at the organizational objectives

2. To ascertain the development needs

3. To appraise the present performance of managerial staff

4. To prepare manpower inventory

5. To plan for individual development programs

6. To establish training and development programs

Objectives of management development

 To make available managers and executives with requisite knowledge and skill to meet the present

and anticipated future needs of the organizations.

 To encourage managers to develop their full potentiality for handling greater responsibility

 To improve the functional competence of the managers, making them more transparent and

responsive to the changing needs of the organization

 To develop managers for higher assignments, duly replacing the elderly executives.

Why management developments fail?

1. Purpose of the management development efforts in most of the organizations are often characterized by


2. Some organizations are too much concerned to get the immediate benefits of MDP’s

3. In some cases, lessons imparted in MDP’s are in direct conflict with the philosophy of the organization

4. There is no system to evaluate the effectiveness of the MDP’s by such outside agencies

Performance Appraisal

 DEFINITION: Performance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevant

strengths and weakness. Or, performance appraisal is evaluating employee contribution to the job.
Purpose of development

 Provide performance feedback to all concerned

 Identify individual skills, core competencies, strengths and weakness

 Evaluate goal achievement of employees

 Identify individual training needs

 Determine organizational training needs

 Reinforce authority structure

A career can be defined as a pattern of work experiences comprising the entire life span of a person and

which is generally seen with regard to a number of phases or stages reflecting the transition from one stage

of life to the next (Weinert, 2001). Similarly, Collin (1998) explains that the term career arises from the

interaction of individuals with organisations and society. This interaction, as Savickas (2009) proposes, is no

longer merely just a sequence of jobs but is now a story that working people build about themselves.

The term “career” can therefore be defined as the sequence of interaction of individuals with society,

education and organisations throughout their lifespan. It is necessary, however, to emphasise that the

majority of the responsibility now rests on the individual for their own career progression, which requires

sustained employability (Beukes, 2009; Herr et al., 2004).

According to Baer, Flexer, Luft and Simmons (2008) an individual’s career development is a lifetime process

that encompasses the growth and change process of childhood, the formal career education at school, and

the maturational processes that continue throughout a person’s working adulthood and into retirement.

Schreuder and Coetzee (2006) explain that a career consists of different stages and the individual is

confronted with different issues during each of these stages.

According to Stevens (1990), the common pattern of multiple careers during individuals’ adult years requires

that they evaluate, make personal decisions and implement career transition actions at several points during

their lifetime.

Super (1957) identified five stages - growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline that were

thought to capture individuals’ work related experiences from the years of childhood to retirement. Miller and

Form (1951) and Hall and Nougaim (1968) also identified five career stages, and Schein (1978) proposed a

sequence of nine stages of career development.

Planning in life is always very important and pay as it is based on advance level of pros and cons with deep

evaluation. Similarly Career Planning is of prime importance in growing career of the individual. Career

planning involves lots of factors and aims behind their working and decision. It may include the following:

Personal interests, Financial stability, Market requirement, Family involvement, Switching between careers

(Sana Butt)

 Workplace ethics play a vital role in both career development and professional growth. They build a

positive reputation for companies, which is integral to business success.

 Employers seek candidates with integrity to ensure increased productivity which means ethical workers

are rewarded with advancement opportunities.

 Having top qualifications without strong ethics compromises career development opportunities.

Successful employees have a strong educational background and personal ethics.

 These qualities are drawn from life experiences and personal values. However, professional ethics are

a product of education and can be fortified with exposure to great organisational culture.

 A strong workplace culture focuses on key values, such as integrity and openness. Successful business

promotes a strong alignment between ethical practices and overall company values. Many organisations

require employees to follow a code of ethics when handling daily duties.

 Adhering to the code makes it easy to provide a high quality and reliable service. A company that does

not value integrity can easily face legal woes because of the behaviour of its leaders and workforce.

That is a major reason why 79% of employees believe that ethics are important in continuing to work for

their employers.


Attributes of Ethical Business Cultures:

 Accountability – the norms, values and ethical expectations set by the organization and its management

practices. Having accountability means that the organization sets its ethical expectations up front. The

company’s values are clear to each individual working for it. Everyone is expected to stay true to these

values and is held accountable for their actions.

 Fairness – the perceived justice of the policies and practices that affect employees and their work. It is

the perception of the greater majority that the policies in place inside the organization are reasonable

and impartial. Employees should see justice in the daily practices of the company as well. They must

view themselves and the work receiving fair treatment in all aspects from pay to promotions.

 Motive-based trust – the assessment employees make regarding the ethical character of those with

whom they interact at work. as for leaders, employees are looking for individuals whom they can trust

based on their character. People want to follow managers that are able to listen to criticism instead of

just shutting things down. They must be quick to take responsibility for their ethical mistakes. They must

also practice humility – not above asking for forgiveness and taking corrective action.

Most important characteristic for trustworthy leaders:

 Willing to listen to criticism

 Willing to take responsibility for ethical mistakes

 Willing to ask for forgiveness and take corrective action

Values corporate leaders should ingrain in their companies

 Integrity – implementing fair dealings with customers and vendors including competitive pricing, timely

payments and the highest quality standards in the manufacture of its products. Integrity is vital as it is

the cornerstone of the trust placed by the customers and vendors on the company. Dealings must be

fair and honest in all facets. The prices given must always be competitive, the payments made in a

timely manner, and the products manufactured with high standards.

 Respect – demonstrating respect for its employees by valuing opinions and treating each employee

equally. Leaders should be the first ones to show respect to their followers. Managers demonstrate their

respect for employees by listening to their thoughts and opinions, acting on them if the situation calls for

it. They should treat each of them equally with no hint of any favouritism that might compromise their


 Self-transcendence – is the ability to look beyond one’s self and consider the well-being of others.

Leaders should exhibit values such as concern and sense of responsibility to uphold the rights of every

person, especially those working for them. This can also extend to nature with environmental protection

being a big part of corporate social responsibility.

 Compassion – is the concern for all of those that are affected by the business whether it is a person or

creatures in the environment. If people see this in their leader, they will follow the example.
 Loyalty – displaying loyalty toward employees help they work to maintain the relationship and work harder

toward that end. If employers are loyal to their employees, then the latter will repay the former in kind.

This type of loyalty is increasingly rare in the business environment where the movement of individuals

is often dizzying quick. Those who recognize their good fortune of having a dependable leader will want

to stay and work harder to ensure and enduring partnership.


 On the flip side, strengthening ethical behaviour leads to a positive workplace culture, which translates

into stock market success. These companies also benefit from lower turnover as workers enjoy their

environment. They feel less pressured as they don’t have to compromise their own personal values.

This is crucial in wanting to continue to work for an employer.

 Employees in these companies also have higher job satisfaction ratings compared to the average in

their industry. They are more motivated to commit to the organization and its goals. They are also more

engaged in their work and are willing to push themselves harder to complete their tasks.


 CAREER ORIENTATION is a comprehensive and sequential educational concept designed to provide

individuals at the middle school level with the necessary information and experience to prepare them

for living and working in an ever-changing economy, society, and environment. It is a career

development instructional guidance program designed to prepare students to have a greater

understanding of educational and career opportunities and options and to assist them in making

meaningful and informed career choices.


 To gain an understanding of your own interests, abilities, aptitudes, and strengths.

 To develop an individual inventory of valuable career development foundation skills.

 To gain valuable career information and related job training options and opportunities.

 To become acquainted with various forms of employment and to develop job acquisition and job

retention skills.

 To experience hands-on activities for self appraisal purposes and for exploratory career experiences.

 To develop a tentative career and educational plan relevant to their individual interest, abilities, aptitudes,

and goals.

Being Favourably Competitive on the Job Market

 Being favourably competitive on the job market combines a variety of aspects and factors including;

educational background, environment, access to labour markets information, ability and willingness to

sale oneself, timing, personality and character.


 Set goals and priorities

 Decision-making; strategic and rational thinking

 Knowledge of duties and responsibilities

 Respect not fear; people and property

 Conflict resolution

 Customer care

 Report writing


 In life, we have to set goals and priorities. We need to understand ourselves and also the environment

that we are living. We need to make strategic, rational and sound decisions and judgement; although

there will be challenges in your pursuit for happiness, the bottom line is to see opportunities and place

ourselves in a position to take advantage of them; it all begins with you.


 By now we all have heard that people will change careers (not just jobs) 5-7 times in a lifetime. This

being true, career management is an important life skill to develop and cultivate. According to "Get

Smart! About Modern Career Development", there are six stages of modern career

development: Assessment, Investigation, Preparation, Commitment, Retention, and Transition. As

career development professionals, it is important that we are aware of what occurs in each stage as

well as what part emotions play. As you read through this basic outline, notice which stage you feel

best qualified to work with clients on and in which stage you need to gain more confidence. Take note

of the activities and tools you use to help clients successfully navigate from one stage to the next.

 In the Assessment Stage, you are getting ready for your life's work. This stage is characterized by

unawareness, in that you are not sure what your values, strengths, and weaknesses are. You start to

feel like you want to know more about yourself and make a conscious effort to get in touch with who

you really are.

Key Tasks:

 Taking assessment instruments

 Working with a career counselor or career coach

 In the Investigation Stage, you are researching what work exists in the world. This stage is

characterized by feelings of confusion, in that you are not sure what career options exist for you. You

may feel overwhelmed with all of the different jobs and opportunities that exist as you begin the

process of researching the modern world of work. But if you approach this stage with a positive frame

of mind, you will find that you will learn about many possibilities you may have never considered.

Key Tasks:
 Researching the world of work

 Conducting informational interviews with people in your chosen field

 In the Preparation Stage, you are still getting ready to do your life's work. This stage is characterized

by feelings of excitement, as you think of how wonderful it will be to perform meaningful work. However,

there is still much work to be done, and in order to be successful, you have to be prepared.

Key Tasks:

 Gaining knowledge and experience

 Setting goals and adopting a success-oriented mind-set

 In the Commitment Stage, you feel confident, in that you have figured out what you are meant to do.

Sometimes people have known all along what they were meant to do, but were not able to commit to

the process of making it happen. At this stage, more than ever, you must focus your energy and keep

your eye on the target.

Key Tasks:

 Conducting a job search

 Negotiating and accepting a job offer

 In the Retention Stage, you feel comfortable in your career field, as you now have figured out how

things work in your industry. You may want to remain committed to your career by continually updating

your skill set and staying current with industry standards.

Key Tasks:

 Providing first-class customer service skills

 Building a professional network

 The Transition Stage is characterized by feelings of discomfort, in that you are unsure of what you will

be doing next (and/or if you will be happy). In this stage, you learn to make conscious changes in your

career direction.

Key Tasks:

 Making career changes

 Developing resiliency

 It is important to note that, for most individuals, career development occurs without any intervention

from other people. There also isn't a set age for when it will begin—some people will start to think

about occupational choices very early in life, while others won't give this subject much thought until

they are relatively close to having to decide how they will earn money.

 It is seen as a very systematic and comprehensive process of targeting career development and

implementation of strategies, self assessment and analysis of opportunities and evaluate the results.

The career planning process involves both the organization and the individual responsibility. Thus,

the individuals must identify their aspirations and abilities, and through assessment and counseling to

understand their needs of training and development; the organization needs to identify its needs and

opportunities, to plan its employees and to ensure its staff the necessary information and appropriate

training for career development

 The specialized literature recommend that career counseling activities should be introduced for all the

employees, as a formalized activity of the human resources department. Creating a special service for

career counseling, consists of specialists with psychosocial and / or managerial trending, who knows

both individuals and organizations needs, would lead to a better alignment between the individuals

needs of fullfilment and organization objectives. According to the experts in human resources

management (Mathis et al., 1997) are the following models of career planning:

 chance and luck” model. This model is that employee, to get the desired position, is based only on

luck. He must be persevering and always be in place at the right time.

 organization knows best” model. The model is based on the fact that the employee is moved from

one job to another according to the needs. This model is supported mainly by young employees, who

are dependent on adults forall the views, and less than adults employees.

 self – oriented” model. This model provides importance to the individuals; the employees are

establishing their own development during their career, while having assistance too.

 There are two approaches to career planning (Manolescu, 2003)), depending on the emphasis on the

needs of the organization or on the individual objectives:

 a) the organization centered planning system which aims: the development of Human Resource


• to improve the quality of human resources to increase productivity;

• defining career paths;

• individual potential of job evaluation;

• harmonization of organizational and career needs;

• career counseling of work and life quality;

• audit and control of the planning and career development system. b) the person centered planning

system which aims:

• to identify the potential, skills and interests of the individual;

• to identify the purposes of his life and his career goals;

• to develop a written plan to achieve individual goals;

• researching or seeking and obtaining the best career start;

• to communicate the career plan directly to individual by his manager;

• request career guidance;

• internal and external opportunities’ assessment;

• request mentor or sponsor support;

• promote their self image or recognition of their own qualities.

 EMPLOYEES’ CAREER PLANNING RESPONSIBILITY An important aspect of career planning is to

establish the extent to which the two parties (individuals and organizations) are responsible in this

process. On one hand, the individual is responsible for its development along the stages of his life and,

secondly, the organization involved in planning and development of career helps to improve the

organizational environment and enhance employee satisfaction at work.

 Alignment with business need tends to segment strategies

 Senior manager and high potential staff. Are receiving renewed attention and are still expected to

have a career with the organization, even if not a career for life. Succession planning is being

strengthened, and the development of this groyp is usually planned.

 Highly skilled workers. Will indeed be managing their own careers, and need to maintain their

external employability. Their employment relationship is quite flexible both in duration and in the range

of tasks or jobs embraced over time.

 The wider workforce. presented the case study organisations with a real problem. The contribution

position (where self development is seriously supported in exchange for a broader contribution to

business performance)