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ECE-5522

Advanced Applications in
Power System Protection

Distribution Line/Feeder Protection


Instructor: D.V. Sorensen

Topics
• Radial versus non-radial lines.

• Zones of Protection and Device Coordination

• Criteria for setting and coordinating devices.

• Typical feeder protection schemes.

• Worked Examples

Readings and References:


• Blackburn - Chapter 12 (Sections 12.1 to 12.7)
• IEEE Std. C37.230-2007, Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Distribution
Lines

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 2

1
Radial versus Nonradial Lines – Terminals and Sources
• Terminal
– A terminal is a connection point that is a source of current to the line.
In general, current flowing from all terminals must be interrupted to
clear a fault.
– Lines can have one, two, three or even more terminals

• Radial vs. Network Lines


– Radial lines have only one positive-
sequence source terminal.
• Relays are inherently directional.
Polarizing (reference) quantities are
not needed to determine fault
direction.
• Most overhead distribution feeders
are radial.

– Network lines have two or more


positive-sequence source terminals.
• Fault currents can flow in either
direction.
• Directional relays are often needed.
ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 3

Radial and Nonradial Lines – Ground Sources

• Ground Sources
– Tapped load-serving transformers are not generally considered positive-
sequence sources.
• Negligible fault current would be supplied from the radial feeders supplied by
the transformer.

• If feeders supply DGs then these taps can become positive-sequence


sources.

– When transformer connections can supply zero-sequence (ground)


current, the transformer must be treated as a ground source for ground
fault purposes.
• Although I0 flows from this source for ground faults, once all positive-
sequence sources are interrupted, I0 ceases.

• The added I0 contribution must be included in relay setting calculations.

• It is generally only necessary to interrupt this source if there is a positive


sequence source behind it.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 4

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Zones of Protection and Device Coordination

• Objective of coordination is to
assure that primary protections
assigned to an element (or terminal)
operate first to clear a fault before
other backup protections operate.

• On radial systems coordination


needs only be checked in one
Recloser
direction.

OVERCURRENT
• On network systems, coordination RELAY

may have to be evaluated in both


directions.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 5

Overcurrent Device Reach


• The “reach” of an overcurrent device varies with the strength of the source
behind it.

• For a given relay pickup setting, the distance along the line for which an
overcurrent relay will detect a fault is reduced as the source is weakened,
such as removing one transformer.
OVERCURRENT RELAY “REACH” WITH TWO
TRANSFORMERS IN SERVICE

OVERCURRENT RELAY “REACH” WITH ONE


TRANSFORMER IN SERVICE

OVERCURRENT
RELAY

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 6

3
End of Zone Uncertainty of Operation

• Relay operation is uncertain when a


fault produces voltage and current
quantities near (generally mean within
5% of) a relay’s pickup or reach.

• This may cause delayed tripping or


erratic operation (lack of repeatability).

• Relay schemes must remove this


uncertainty by providing properly
overlapped relay elements and Recloser

sufficiently sensitive settings.

OVERCURRENT
• A common end-of-zone reach criterion RELAY

is 1/2 to 1/3 of the available fault


current.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 7

Coordinating Time Interval (CTI)

• CTI is the difference between the


operating times of series protective
devices for the same fault. It is
intended that the closer device be
faster and backup devices operate
only if the closer device does not.

• A minimum CTI is chosen to account


for:

– Breaker or fuse clearing times.


Recloser

– Induction disk overtravel due to


inertia. Even numerical relays have
small uncertainties in operating OVERCURRENT
times. RELAY

– Additional margin for other


unexpected phenomena.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 8

4
Coordinating Time Interval (CTI)

• Published curves for relays include only


the relay time. The total clearing time
must also include the circuit breaker
clearing time (typically 2-5 cycles) and
possibly aux tripping or lockout devices.

• Typical minimum CTIs range from 0.3


to 0.5 seconds between
electromechanical relays and 0.2 to 0.4
seconds between numerical relays.

• Fuse curves include the arc interrupting


time so shorter CTI margins are often
Recloser
used between fuses and between
relays overreaching fuses.

• Recloser curves may or may not OVERCURRENT


RELAY
include the the total interrupting time
depending on the manufacturer.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 9

Device Application and Setting Considerations

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 10

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Device Application and Setting Considerations
Application of Fuses
• Fuses often used where the cost of a circuit breaker or
circuit switcher plus associated battery, relaying,
enclosures, etc. is not justifiable.
– Small power transformers
– Small capacitor banks
– Distribution circuit side taps

• Two types of fuses


– Standard zero-crossing type where the current is interrupted at a natural
current zero. Common types are expulsion (i.e. cutouts) and power
fuses.
– Current limiting type where a high resistance is inserted as the fuse is
interrupting; which reduces clearing time and let-through energy,
achieving fault clearing before the first natural current zero.
ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 11

Device Application and Setting Considerations


Application of Fuses EEI-NEMA “K” Continuous
or “T” Rating Current (A)
Fuse Characteristics 6 9

• Fuses are rated by their 8 12

maximum continuous current, 10 15

nominal voltage and 12 18

maximum voltage. 15 23
20 30
• The maximum voltage is
25 38
typically from 5 to 14% above
30 45
the nominal voltage.
40 60*
• Continuous current ratings for 50 75*
EEI-NEMA fuse links are 65 95
given to the right. 80 120**
100 150**
* Only when used in a 100 or 200 A cutout 140 190
** Only when used in a 200 A cutout
200 200
ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 12

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Device Application and Setting Considerations
Application of Fuses 15K (fast) Fuse MMT and TCT Curves

Fuse Characteristics
• Fuses have a maximum melt characteristic
(MMT) defined by a current vs. time curve
above which the fuse element may be
damaged, permanently altering its
characteristic.

• Fuses also have a total clear characteristic


(TCT) defined by a current vs. time curve
MMT Curve
above which the fault will be cleared,
including melting and arcing times. TCT Curve

• Downstream fuses should clear the fault


(TCT) before the upstream fuses melts
(MMT) to prevent upstream fuse element
damage and future miscoordination.

From Power System Protection, P. M. Anderson, IEEE Press, 1999, p. 53

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 13

Device Application and Setting Considerations


Application of Fuses
T- vs K-Speed Fuse Link Characteristics
• These curves simple compare the MMT
characteristics for a 15K (fast) fuse versus a
15T (delayed) fuse.

From Power System Protection, P. M. Anderson, IEEE Press, 1999, p. 53

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 14

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ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 15

Setting Considerations for Phase Relays


Available Three-Phase Fault Current

• Current pickup must be less than Must see faults.


the minimum available fault current
for all faults within the protected
zone.

– The pickup setting defines the end


of the protected zone.

– Consideration for phase-to-phase


faults is necessary since the fault
current level is approximately 87% Recloser
of the three-phase fault level.

• Fault study used to determine the OVERCURRENT


worst-case contingency for which RELAY

the relays must detect a phase fault.

– Generally be when one or more


lines or generators “behind” the
relay are out of service.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 16

8
Setting Considerations for Phase Relays
Highest Short-Time or Transient Load Current
• Current pickup must be greater
than the maximum phase (load) Must carry the load.
current during normal or
contingency conditions.

• Current pickup is usually related


to the short-time emergency
(STE) rating of the line or other
defined ratings.
Recloser

• Some T or D owners define a


“drastic action limit ” (DAL) for
which system operators must take
OVERCURRENT
RELAY

immediate action to reduce the


line loading. Protections should
not trip for these conditions.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 17

Setting Considerations for Ground Relays


Available Ground Fault Current

• Current pickup must be less than Must see faults.


the minimum ground fault current
for all faults within the protected
zone.

• Fault studies are needed to


determine the maximum and
minimum zero-sequence fault
current levels at the relay location
for faults in the protected zone. Recloser

• Minimum ground fault levels OVERCURRENT

generally occur for a fault at the RELAY

remote end of a line or feeder


zone with one or more ground
fault sources behind the relay out
of service.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 18

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Setting Considerations for Ground Relays
Maximum Load Unbalance
• Current pickup must be greater than Must carry expected
the maximum expected unbalance in
the system. unbalance.

• For distribution systems, unbalance


is due to unequal single-phase loads
connected to each phase.

– Can result from single phase


switching.
– Can result from a blown fuse or
single-phase recloser on a Recloser

distribution feeder that interrupts a


large block of single-phase load.
– The ground relay on a feeder should OVERCURRENT
have a pickup above the maximum RELAY

loading on the largest single-phase


tap on the feeder.

• For transmission lines, unbalance is generally lower and so not as prone


to single-phase loading issues.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 19

Setting and Coordination Criteria


Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays (50, 67/50, 50N, 67/50N)

• Instantaneous relays are generally


set to not overreach the next
downstream overcurrent relay.

• Cannot coordinate two


“instantaneous” devices that both
sense the same fault current.
Recloser

• Therefore, instantaneous relays are


normally used in locations where
substantial impedance exists OVERCURRENT
RELAY
between the relay location and the
next downstream device. One
common application is to cover a
long underground cable.
• Pickup Current Setting
– Set at least 125% of maximum fault current (phase or ground, as appropriate) at
next downstream device or at the end of the intended zone of protection.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 20

10
Setting and Coordination Criteria
Phase Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays (51, 67)
Following are general criteria applicable to
most situations.

• Pickup Current Setting


– ≥ 125 to 150% of the maximum short
time load due to switching or
contingency conditions.
– ≤ 33% to 50% of minimum available
phase fault current in the protected
zone.
– When coordinating across a
transformer, adjust for transformer turns
ratio and per unit multiplier for Δ-Y
transformers.

• Curve Shape (“Inverseness”)


– Degree of inverseness depends on
downstream devices with which relay
must coordinate.
– Coordination is necessary only over the
range of current available in system.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 21

Setting and Coordination Criteria


Ground Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays (51N, 67N)
Following are general criteria applicable
to most situations.

• Pickup Current Setting


– ≥ 125 to 200% of the maximum
unbalance current expected for the
application.
– ≤ 33% to 50% of minimum available
ground fault current in the protected
zone.
– On distribution feeders, ground relay
pickup settings are typically about 1/3
of the phase relay pickup settings, or
less.

• Curve Shape (“Inverseness”)


– Degree of inverseness depends on
downstream devices with which relay
must coordinate.
– Coordination is necessary only over
the range of current available in
system.
– Coordination is sometimes sacrificed
for overreached phase devices like
fuses.
ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 22

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Coordination Examples

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 23

Overcurrent Schemes – Coordination

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 24

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Overcurrent Schemes – Coordination

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 25

Coordination
Example 1

Relay A Pickup:
CTI = 0.4

Relay B Pickup
CTI = 0.4

Relay C Pickup

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 26

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HV BUS A HV BUS B

Coordination Example 2

Time 51B/A

8500 A
NO
LV BUS A

51B/A 51/F1
8500 A
51/F2

FEEDERS

51/F1 Maximum Fault


Current = 8500 A

CTI
Bus Relay
Operate Time

Feeder Relay
Operate Time
0
0 8500A Current
ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 27

Distribution Line Protection


Special Considerations for Feeder Coordination

Simultaneous Feeder Faults Sequential Feeder Faults


• CB1 carries full fault current which • FDR1 is initially faulted. Fault
splits between FDR1 & FDR2. moves to FDR2 as FDR1 opens.
• CB1 must coordinate over slower of • CB1 must coordinate over
OTFDR1 and OTFDR2 times. (OTFDR1 + OTFDR2)

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 28

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Coordination Example 2 with Double Circuit Fault
Assume there is a downstream HV BUS A HV BUS B

tie switch at a location on the


Time feeders where a total fault
current of 6000 A is available.
51B/A

6000 A
51B/A LV BUS A
NO
LV BUS B

51/F1 51/F2
Feeder Relay 3000 A 3000 A
Operate Time 51/F1
FEEDERS

Bus Relay
Operate Time

MISCOORDINATION FOR
DOUBLE-CIRCUIT
FEEDER FAULT

0
0 3000A 6000A 8500A Current

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 29

Coordination Example 2 with Double Circuit Fault


HV BUS A HV BUS B

Time

51B/A
CTI 51B/A

6000 A
NO
LV BUS A LV BUS B
Bus Relay
Operate Time 51/F1 51/F2
51/F1 3000 A 3000 A
FEEDERS
Feeder Relay
Operate Time

Miscoordination resolved by
coordinating bus relay with
slower feeder relay OT.

0
0 3000A 6000A Current

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 30

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Example 2 Double Circuit Fault with
Creative Relay Logic Solution

• Numerical relay can facilitate still more creative


solutions using inter-relay communications.

• Following slide is one example of how inter-relay logic


can overcome this particular miscoordination by
lowering the feeder trip delay if both feeders are
faulted.

• Though tempting, these logical solutions can easily


overcomplicate what should be relatively simple
schemes.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 31

Note: 50/F1 and 50/F2 are set with the


XMTR1 same pickup at the respective feeder
51/F1 and 51/F2.
TRIP
50/F1 PU FEEDER 1

DO

RCVR1 Feeder Relay for F1

XMTR2

TRIP
50/F2 PU FEEDER 2

DO

RCVR2 Feeder Relay for F2

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 32

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Coordination Example 2 with Sequential Circuit Fault
HV BUS A HV BUS B

51/F1
Time

51B/A
51B/A

8500 A
NO
LV BUS A

51/F1 51/F2
6000
8500 A
A
Bus Relay Op Time 6000 A
FEEDERS

F2 Relay Op Time

CTI
F1 Relay Op Time Miscoordination resolved by
coordinating bus relay with
the sum of F1 and F2 feeder
relay OTs.
0
0 6000A Current

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 33

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 34

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Additional Topics

• Reclosing schemes (fuse saving vs fuse blowing)

• DG/DR Considerations

• Load Encroachment

• Voltage Application and VT Connections

Reference for following diagrams and text:


IEEE Std C37.230-2007, IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Distribution Lines

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 35

Distribution Line Protection – Reclosing


Fuse Saving Schemes

• In a fuse-saving scheme,
breakers or reclosers are set
fast to trip before the fuse
operates and then
automatically reclose.

• In many cases, faults are only


temporary and the line will
successfully reclose, causing
only a momentary disruption.

• This type of scheme is


effective on long multi-tapped
rural distribution feeders with
primarily residential load that
is not as sensitive to
momentary outages.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 36

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Distribution Line Protection – Reclosing
Fuse Blowing Schemes
• Where feeders loads are
sensitive to momentary outages
and significant disruption occurs
if the line is momentarily
deenergized, a fuse blowing
scheme limits the number of
main feeder trip/reclose cycles.

• Often used on feeders serving


industrial plants and urban load
centers where a number of trip-
reclose cycles could result in
equipment damage or added risk
of personnel injury.

• In this scheme, the OC relay or


recloser is set above fuse curves
such that fuses operate first to
clear the faulted line section.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 37

DG/DR Considerations

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 38

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DG/DR Considerations – Faults at F1

• For protective devices beyond the DR, the available current for faults at F1
will be greater than without the DR.

• Results in more circuit coverage from the protective device, which may or
may not be desirable. Device coverage may extend through additional
lateral circuits and possibly require greater operating times to coordinate.

• Coordinating devices on
the upstream side of the
DR will be subject to infeed
effects, resulting in a larger
coordination interval.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 39

DG/DR Considerations – Faults at F2

• Faults upstream of the DR will cause reverse current to flow in


Recloser 1.

• This could cause confusion for sectionalizing schemes if a device


downstream of the fault is tripped and delays restoration of customers’
loads for temporary faults.

• It is normally not desirable


for the DR to be islanded
with other customer loads.
Therefore, DR protections
must coordinate with
Recloser 1, to disconnect
the DR before Recloser 1
opens. Otherwise,
clearing is solely
dependant on DR island
detection.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 40

20
DG/DR Considerations – Faults at F3

• Faults on adjacent
feeders (location F3)
show effects similar to
both of the previous
faults.

• The magnitude of fault


current on the circuit will
be greater for the entire
circuit.

• The current at breaker CB 2 will be reversed. If the protection at


breaker CB 2 is not coordinated with breaker CB 1, then circuit 2 may
trip unnecessarily. This coordination becomes further complicated if
more than one circuit contains DR.

• Backup protection from the substation breaker may have trouble with
coverage of circuit 1 due to infeed from circuit 2.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 41

Load Encroachment (Impedance Supervision)


What you do if the max load current you must carry is high enough
to be indistinguishable from load current? Remember, you must
carry the load AND you must see faults.

• Impedance elements are often used to supervise overcurrent


elements. Supervision leverages the difference of impedance
angle using the angle of the measured current.

• Two common methods for supervising overcurrent elements are


these:

• A traditional mho circle characteristic is common with


electromechanical relays.

• Numerical relays typically offer a “butterfly” shaped


characteristic that mimics the planned load region, referred
to as a load encroachment element.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 42

21
Load Encroachment Torque Control Using a
Mho Circle Characteristic Element

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 43

Load Encroachment Torque Control Using a


Numerical Load Encroachment Element (P-Q Plane View)

50/51
51 Relay Trip Region
(Assuming tripping at
50MVA)

LE Restrain
51 Relay No Trip Region (No Trip) Region
LE Restrain (Assuming tripping at
(No Trip) Region 50MVA)

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 44

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Load Encroachment Torque Control Using a
Numerical Load Encroachment Element (R-X Plane View)

50/51

Transformer
LE Restrain impedance LE Restrain
(No Trip) Region (No Trip) Region

51 Relay Trip Region


(Assuming tripping at
50MVA)

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 45

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 46

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Voltage Applications

• OV and UV sometimes used for equipment protection.

• Voltage elements are sometimes used to supervise other relay


functions.

• OV function used in conjunction with sync check and reclosing


functions.

• OV and UV functions used in ground voltage (3V0) sensing on


ungrounded systems.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 47

Voltage Applications
VT Connections – 3PH, 4-Wire Systems

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 48

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Voltage Applications
VT Connections – 3PH, 3-Wire Systems Using 2 VTs

This is simply not


suitable on 3PH-4W
(grounded) systems

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 49

Voltage Applications
Zero Sequence Voltage Filter for Ground OV Sensing.

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 50

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Questions?

ECE-5522 Distribution Line/Feeder Prot. 51

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