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Sacking the Citadel

The History, Theory and Practice

of the Classic Bishop Sacrifice


Jon Edwards

Foreword by

Karsten Muller

Russell Enterprises, Inc.
Milford, CT USA
Sacking the Citadel

The History, Theory and Practice of the Classic Bishop Sacrifice

by Jon Edwards

ISBN: 978-1-888690-74-3

© Copyright 20 11

Jon Edwards

All Rights Reserved

No part of this book may be used, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system

or transmitted in any manner or form whatsoever or by any means, elec-
tronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the express written permission from the publisher except in the
case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews.

Published by:
Russell Enterprises, Inc.
P.O. Box 3131
Milford, CT 06460 USA

Cover design by Janel Lowrance

Printed in the United States of America

Table of Contents

Signs & Symbols 5

Foreword 7

Introduction 8

The Classic Bishop Sacrifice

Part I: History

Chapter 1
The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco 13

The Classic Bishop Sacrifice

Part II: Theory

Chapter 2
"On Attacking the Castled King" 26

Chapter 3
The Art ofChess Combination 30

Chapter 4
The Art ofAttack 36

Chapter 5
Contemporary Theory 49

The 'itJg8 line 50

The 'itJg6 line 56
The 'itJh6 line 72
The ~xg5 line 78
The 'itJh8 line 84
The '/¥txg5 line 88
The Classic Bishop Sacrifice
Part III: Practice

Chapter 6
Games 94

Greco's Sacrifice, the Early Years 94

Greco's Sacrifice, through 1910 95
Greco's Sacrifice, 1911-1935 126
Greco's Sacrifice, 1936-1959 161
Greco's Sacrifice, 1960-2010 200

Chapter 7
Greco's Quiz 361

Chapter 8
Related Literature 381

Bibliography 387

Index of Openings 390

Index of Asset Combinations 392

Index of Players 394

Signs & Symbols

1-0 White wins

0-1 Black wins
'i1-'i1 Draw agreed
+ check
"" a strong move
!! a brilliant or unobvious move
? a weak move, an error
!? a grave error
!? a move worth consideration
an equal position
~ White stands slightly better
± White has a clear advantage
+- White has a winning position
'f Black stands slightly better
Black has a clear advantage
-+ Black has a winning position
00 an unclear position
00 with compensation
ol Olympiad
m match
ch championship
wch world championship
corr correspondence game
(D) see the next diagram

Sacking the Citadel


Greco's Greek Gift

A whole book on the single motif Axh7+? Is this really worth it and is enough
relevant material available, I hear you ask. I can assure you that there is. The theme
is so deep and rich that Jon Edwards has even decided to deal only with Greco's
version of the classical Greek Gift sacrifice, Axh 7 +.

After .tlg5+, Black's king can go to g8, h8, g6 and h6, when White again has
different ways to continue the attack. Edwards deals with all of them in detail and
even constructs a complete taxonomy of all motifs. Usually this is not done, as
there is simply not enough space in a book to cover all themes and to analyze when
it is likely that the combination of assets makes the sacrifice successful. Edwards
does it, and does it well. Consequently, important motifs lie entirely open before
your eyes and you can see how all the details and aspects of the "Greco" tactics
work. This attention to detail is very important to the understanding of the royal
game both in a general way and in great depth.

Tactical motifs like Axh7+ followed by .tlg5+ are the ABC of chess, and under-
standing their essence will enable you to use them almost on intuition alone. But
accurate calculation is of course also an extremely important skill. So you might
want to try to figure out on your own if the sacrifice works, ifit is speculative or
just unsound, then find Black's best defense and calculate to the end. As a result,
you will have fun enjoying the fireworks, while learning one of the most important
skills ofthe royal game.

Karsten Muller
November 20 10

Sacking the Citadel


In or around 1620, Giaocchino Greco, an aspiring chess master from the Italian
province of Calabria, made a remarkable discovery, a complex bishop sacrifice on
h7 that often results in mate or material gain. More remarkable perhaps, he recorded
the idea.

This book attempts to fill two voids in the literature. The first is an accessible
biography of Greco, whose unearthing of and willingness to share the sacrifice
surely warrants some historical reward. His usual biographical treatments fill a few
paragraphs. With a bit of sleuthing, I've been able to offer a somewhat lengthier
narrative and to place his life within the broader context of his times and his
contribution to modem chess. The second, and of more immediate interest to
chess players, is my attempt to construct a comprehensive taxonomy of Greco's
bishop sacrifice, to classify the conditions required for the sacrifice to succeed, to
delineate its possibilities, and to chart its progress through the years.


abc d e f g h

Greco's Sacrifice on h7 (or h2 by Black) has figured in thousands of games and is

well known by all serious chess players. The sacrifice is almost always accepted to
prevent the loss of a pawn (there are a few, interesting exceptions), and the attacker
soon follows with 4:\g5+ and then often with a queen move to attack h7 seeking a
quick checkmate, a king hunt, or material (or positional) gain. The defender has
four and sometimes five options, retreating the king to g8 (common) or h8
(uncommon and almost always awful), advancing the king to g6 (a dangerous but
often stubborn defense), 'it'h6 (an interesting defense when White's dark square
bishop has been exchanged or cannot easily reach the c I-h6 diagonal), or capturing
the 4:\g5 (dangerous, especially if White has a pawn on h4 and a rook on hI).

Some call the bishop sacrifice the "Greek Gift," likely an obscure reference to the
Trojan Horse and Virgil's famous intonation in Aeneid 11.49 "timeo danaos et dona
ferentes." ("I fear the Greeks even when they are bringing gifts.") It is possible
that another master, the Italian Giulio Cesare Polerio, discovered it first. Simply


put, we will never know for sure. And some have named it after Edgard Colle, who
used it to secure a brilliancy prize in 1930 at Nice (see game 62).

In my view, the sacrifice, at least in the classic line involving 4:Jg5+, should be
named after the Italian master who effectively shared it with the world. In The Art
ofAttack in Chess, (London, 1965) Vukovic proposed that the name ought to be
the Classic Bishop Sacrifice in deference to its early origin and simplicity. To make
the question more confusing, there are other interesting sacrifices on h7 that do
not involve a subsequent 4:Jg5+ or queen attack upon h7. Although it truly does
not matter, I suggest simply that the notion ofthe Classic Bishop Sacrifice or Greek
Gift ought to apply generically to the sacrifice of the bishop on h7. When the
maneuver is followed classically within two or three moves by 4:Jg5+ and a queen
attack upon h7, it is then a Greco Sacrifice, the focus of this book.

As Vladimir Vukovic reminds us, Greco's Sacrifice "is the oldest and most explored
of all the sacrifices involved in the attack of the castled king." Modern chess
players are fully acquainted with the sacrifice and work hard to prevent it. And yet,
thousands of modern games involve the sacrifice, often in complex, sophisticated,
and pleasing circumstances.

Greco's Sacrifice has been a regular topic in the popular chess literature. It appears,
notably, as a 14-page chapter in Eugene Znosko-Borovsky's The Art of the Chess
Combination (1936); chapter five of George Renaud and Victor Kahn's The Art of
the Checkmate (1953); chapter six (and part of chapter 7) of Vladimir VukoviC's The
Art of the Attack in Chess (1965); section 27 of Euwe and Kramer's The Middle
Game, Book 2 (1965); sections 32-35 of Murray Chandler's popular How to Beat
Your Dad at Chess (1998); in a delightful article by Pete Tamburro "A 400 Year-Old
Attack," Chess Lifefor Kids (June, 2007); as a four-page section in Karsten Milller's
challenging Chess Cafe Puzzle Book; and just last year (2009) in approximately half
of J!xh7+ by David Rudel.

The individual game with Greco's first bishop sacrifice appears notably as game
#25 in Hoffmann's The Games of Greco, as game #199 in Irving Chernev's 1000
Best Short Games of Chess, and as game 31 in ChessBase's MegaBase 2010.

Most publishers place strict limits on how much material authors can include in
their work. Authors of books about chess tactics agonize over what they can
include and what they must leave out. The point? The depth and length required
for a complex taxonomy of the Greco Sacrifice are incompatible with publishers'
usual requirements for more generalized texts. With regard to the Greco Sacrifice,
Renaud and Kahn acknowledge:

"A complete description of Greco's Mate would need at least one hundred pages
and cannot, therefore, be included in this book, especially as this sacrifice does
not necessarily lead to a forced mate."

Sacking the Citadel

Although Euwe and Kramer emphasize the importance of noting even "little
accidental circumstances which may prove vital in assessing the correctness of
the offer," they add:

"It would not be possible to make a systematic explanation of every possible

variation of the Bishop sacrifice on KR7 (h7) within the compass of this book. We
shall have to limit ourselves to some of its most typical forms."

And, despite coverage in four sections of his book, Murray Chandler agrees:

"There are so many different positions where the classic Greek gift sacrifice can be
played that an entire book could be written on the subject."

And so, apart from Greco's biography in Chapter 1, that's what this book attempts
to do.

The book contains three sections. The first section provides the brief history of
Greco and his discovery. The second section winds through the efforts made by
Edwin Voellmy, Eugene Znosko-Borovsky, Vladimir Vukovic and others to explain
the inner workings of the sacrifice. It ends with chapter 5, a contemporary classifi-
cation that contains useful explanations for beginners and surprises even for the
strongest chess players.

The third and, by far, longest section contains more than 300 annotated games. I
have made an effort to locate every published game that involved the sacrifice
through to 1959 when Vukovic wrote about the sacrifice. More than a few ofthose
127 games have appeared in the literature, but often with significant errors. I have
made an effort to correct the record.

Among these games, for those who simply want to sample the remarkable history
of the sacrifice, I recommend several of these contests. Game number 1, Greco's
discovery, is of more than historic importance. Play through it, and marvel at the
care required to achieve victory. It is not a coincidence that many sources include
games 12 (Fritz- Mason 1883), 41 (Capablanca-Molina 1911), 65 (Alekhine-
Asgeirsson 1931), and 95 (Kottnauer-Kotov 1946). The most complex game by far
in these early years was game 62 (Colle-O'Hanlon 1930) which will continue to
challenge chess players for decades to come. I have made every effort to offer a
verdict on the game, but the strongest players will want to examine that game and
its many variations carefully.

In the period from 1960 to the present, I was able to include less than ten percent
of all the sacrifices I found. I spent months playing through every game and hand
selecting the games that appear here. They form a remarkable lot, with varied and
often quite challenging themes.


Those looking for a more instructive experience might start with chapter 5, the
modern classification, and then run through this interesting set of games: 137
(Kranzl-Matrisch), 151 (Vieweg-Kadner), 170 (Short-Agdestein), 183 (Chandler-
Anagnostopoulos), 195 (Harris-Trimpi), 237 (Hellsten-Jakobsen), 251 (Avrukh-
Ramesh), and 284 (Fridman-Tan).

For more advanced players, one group of the games are notable because they
have significant theoretical interest within their respective openings. Such games
include 147 (polugaevsky-Tal), 168 (Borg-Veer), 181 (Sax-Timman), and 261 (Blanco
Gramajo-Salcedo Mederos).

Although you can surely treat every game in the book as a test, I have also added
a separate quiz in chapter 7. Some of you may be tempted to start there, but you will
undoubtedly fare better by first reviewing the modern classification and at least an
assortment of games.

I must express my profound appreciation to the publisher, Hanon Russell. He was

throughout willing to support this lengthy undertaking, and he was memorably
compassionate when I underwent surgery earlier this year. I acknowledge a special
debt of gratitude to Peter Tamburro, a well-known chess author and regular
contributor to Chess Life, for his persistence in locating published examples and
his many words of personal and chess encouragement. And, of course, I would
never have completed the book without the love and support of my wife Cheryl,
who has never once complained about my passion for the royal game.

I express my gratitude to Alessandro Sanuito for permission to use the photograph

of the Lisbon codice. Just before press time, German grandmaster Karsten MUller
forwarded two remarkable games that were included as games 307 and 308. I thank
Lorene Lavora for her friendship and for transforming many of the book's images.

I hope to complement this effort in the years ahead by looking at other great
players, notably Damiano, Philidor, Boden, Blackburne, Morphy, and their mates.
Who were the people who passed down such wonderful mating patterns and
sacrifices? How did their lives and times affect the contemporary game and our
modern chess culture? And look at what their ideas have wrought!

Jon Edwards
Pennington, NJ
December 20 10

Sacking the Citadel

The Classic Bishop Sacrifice

Part I: History

Chapter 1

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco

Despite many disadvantages, a shortened lifespan, underprivileged roots, and no

formal education, Giaocchino Greco (1600-1634) brought chess almost single-
handedly from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment and, in important respects,
established the discipline for modem chess play. I would agree with Euwe, himself
a former world champion, that Greco "was the first great genius in the history of
modem chess."

A short but prolific life

Very little is known of Greco's first two decades. He grew up in Southern Italy, in
Celici (East ofCosenza) in Calabria, and hence his affectionate nickname, il Calabrese.
As a common man, his life just two centuries earlier would have been significantly
restricted. In an inventory of households, Wickrnann records that most households
of the late Renaissance had a chess set. Even a man of average means, now with
some spare time and growing self confidence, could have chess as part of his life.
Greco's creative talent could find a memorable outlet.

The Kingdom of Naples, of which Calabria was a province, was, with Madrid, one
of the world's great chess centers. Under secure Spanish rule since 1501, the city
of Naples had become a cosmopolitan city of approximately 400,000 people, in
Europe second or third in population only to Paris and London. Home to artists
such as Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, and Salvator
Rosa, philosophers such as Giordano Bruno, Tomrnaso Campanella, and Bernardino
Telesio, and writers such as Giovan Battista Marino, Naples represented an
important cultural center that undoubtedly encouraged the freedom for personal
exploration and philosophical inquiry that cultural breakthroughs usually demand.

During the culmination of the Renaissance, the century before Greco was born,
Italy had produced other chess masters, notably Paolo Bol, "il Siracusano" (1528-
1598), Giovanni Leonardo, "The Wandering Knight" (1542-1587), Giulio Cesare
Polerio (c. 1550-1610), Dr. Alessandro Salvio (c. 1570-1640), and Michaele di Mauro.
It is a tribute to the Renaissance and its ideals that these were not nobles but
common men who could marshal their talent and aspire to greatness in the art of
chess. The last of Italy's Renaissance chess masters, Greco acquired knowledge
ofthe game in local Italian clubs and improved quickly by reading the work ofRuy
Lopez Libro de la invencion liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez ("Book of the
Liberal Invention and Art of Playing Chess" 1561) and Salvio's first book, Trattato

Sacking the Citadel

Dell' Inventione Et Arte Lieberale Del Gioco Di Scacchi (1604). On showing

promise, Greco began studying with Don Mariano Marano, a celebrated local
player who invited Greco into his home.

Johanes Gutenberg's invention of moveable type printing in 1439 enabled the

mass production of books. Years ago, I had the good luck to tour the rare book
vault at Princeton University. Here were the fruits of Gutenberg's efforts. What
struck me the most was that the bibles and other religious texts from that early
period were magnificent and quite pristine. By remarkable contrast, the early chess
books were haggard and worn to the bone, a clear sign of their esteem and use
through the years.

Among Greco's Italian contemporaries, only Salvio published books during his
lifetime. Salvio's writings drew upon his own knowledge and experiences as well
as others, and so it was natural perhaps that Greco's writings would borrow heavily
from those he had read, especially Salvio's. His three chess works were all published
in Naples, and so the two masters were very likely personally acquainted. By 1600,
when Greco was born, Salvio was considered a leading player and perhaps even
the unofficial world champion. Given to criticisms of other players and perhaps
irritated that Greco appropriated his writings, Salvio intimated that Greco had not
surpassed the ability of his instructor, Marano, but there seems little doubt that
Greco, not unlike many modem prodigies, quickly surpassed the ability of his
teacher and moved on.

In 1513, Niccolo Machievelli (1469-1527), perhaps the Italian Renaissance's most

famous political thinker, wrote The Prince, a summary of his political thinking. One
of the book's key themes dealt with those qualities that a prince would need to
prosper, to retain honor, glory, and fame. More than just a sound army and good
fortune, a prince required certain qualities of leadership or "virtus." The Prince
contains no definition of the word, but it appears to be a set of qualities that permit
leaders to withstand blows to fortune. While a prince might not have all of the
needed qualities for leadership, it was vitally important that he appear to have
those qualities. Chess was a very small part of the equation, but its characteristics
were well suited to a leisurely life, and it seems clear that an aristocrat incapable of
playing well had at least to appear capable of doing so. Moreover, a merchant
aspiring to a higher social level would be inclined to adopt the social trappings of
the aristocracy. Skill at chess would help.

In order to maintain their power and legitimacy, Renaissance rulers and noblemen
understood the need for conspicuous sponsorship of the arts. Indeed, they
competed amongst themselves to attract the finest practitioners. Jakob Burckhardt's
"the state as a work of art," expresses in a single phrase the central role of the arts
in personal and institutional settings. The role of chess and its masters appears
remarkably similar to other forms of Renaissance creativity. Like Renaissance art,

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco

music, mathematics, and architecture, chess could provide its experts with
recognition and remuneration.

Mathematicians and musicians, for example, traveled from town to town, impressing
the local gentry with their skill in return for their financial support. In these areas
of culture and inquiry, Italy exerted an almost hypnotic influence over the western
world. Kings, princes, and affluent merchants competed for the services ofItaly's
great painters and sculptors in an effort to bring culture and distinction to their
courts and so, it was natural that they would also seek to attract Italy's great
chess players. During the 16th century, it was common for artists to travel to Italy
to work with the masters, and that may have been true with chess as well, but by
1620 when Greco set out to travel, the Renaissance was ebbing in Italy in the wake
offoreign invasions and the Church's conservative reaction to the Reformation.

And so, following the course of many accomplished chess players in the 15th and
16th centuries, Greco sought fame and fortune through matches and patronage.
Around 1619, he obtained support from a number of Rome's wealthy prelates by
providing them with a personally written collection of openings "Trattato del
nobilissimo e militaire esercitio dei Scacchi, nel quale se contengano molti bellissimi
tratti." In Rome, Monsignor Corsino della casa Minutoli Tegrini, Cardinal Savelli,
and Monsignor Francisco
Buoncompagni all received
manuscripts. Copies of these
manuscripts, dated 1620, are in the
Corsiniana library in Rome. This
member of the Buoncompagni
family, who inherited his interest
in chess from his father, the Duke
of Sora, later became Archbishop
of Naples.

Later, as was also the custom for

chess masters of the time, Greco
traveled through France,
England, and Spain, searching for
the adventure of worthy
opponents and the financial
support oflocal nobility. Leaving
Italy at the young age of 21, he
impressed the court of Duke
Enrico of Lorraine at Nancy and
then took on Paris, where he
earned the considerable sum of
5,000 crowns for defeating the
leading players of France, Amault

Sacking the Citadel

Ie Carabon. Chaumont de la Salle, and the Duke de Nemours. That may make Greco,
suggests Andy Soltis, the world's first great money player. Unfortunately, we are
told that Greco soon thereafter lost that sum to thieves while en route to London,
although he regained at least a portion of his monies by defeating the best English
players, notably Sir Francis Godolphin and Nicholas Mountstephen.

Greco so impressed the English public that he very likely inspired the playwright
Thomas Middleton to write A Game o/Chess. The satirical play, an allegory for the
strained relationship between England and Spain, enjoyed considerable success
until the Spanish Ambassador officially protested the play's insults.

A contemporary French poem commemorated Greco's skill and provides some

estimation ofthe French reverence for Greco's aggressive style of play:

A peine dans la carriere (Barely having begun the game)

Contre moi tu fais un pas, (Against me you make a move,)
Que par ton demarche fiere (Which, by your proud step)
Tous mes projets sont abas (Bring all my projects down)
Je vois, des que tu t'avances (I see, as soon as you advance)
Ceder tous mes defenses, (Crushing all my defenses)
Tomber tous mes champions (The defeat of all my champions)
Dans ma resistance vaine, (In my vain resistance)
Roi, Chevalier, Roc, and Reine (My King, Knight, Rook, and Queen)
Sont moindre que tes pions. (Are less than your pawns.)

Having achieved entrepreneurial success and recognition as one of the world's

best players, Greco spent three years towards the end of his short life at the
Madrid court of Philip IV who, like his more famous predecessor, Philip II, took
delight in the game.

Spain had become the foremost western European power while Philip II (1527-
1598) was king (from 1556 until his death). He massively increased the importation
of silver, established the first Pacific trade routes, began settlements in the
Philippines (which was named after him), and launched the famed Armada against
England (which helps to explain the glaring antipathy of English historians). A
Spanish priest, Rodrigo (Ruy) Lopez de Segura (c. 1540-1580) became the first
modem chess writer and analyst and a favorite at the court of Philip II. An article in
Harper's, "The Game of Chess: A scene in the Court of Philip II," describes the
extent to which the King adored and embraced the game.

History records that, at age 31, Greco died in the West Indies. He was in the
company of a Spanish nobleman, undoubtedly another supporter. Apart from his
obviously premature departure, there is no hint of impropriety in the history,

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco

although other Italian chess masters of the time met untimely deaths, poisonings,
at the hands of jealous adversaries.

Leonardo, "the Wandering Knight," had traveled to the court of Philip II to challenge
the great Ruy Lopez and Alfonso Ceron. In a match played before Philip II,
Leonardo lost. Later, in Portugal, he defeated EI Morro, the strongest player there.
He died years later in Naples, apparently poisoned by rivals. Having defeated the
competition in Italy, Paolo Boi also traveled to the court of Philip II. Later, he
became a favorite of Pope Pius V. On his return to Naples, Boi played Salvio. A five
move combination won Salvio's queen, but Salvio had seen two moves deeper and
won back his queen. Boi is said to have commented: "Youth can do more than age.
You are in the prime of life, and I am seventy years old." Three days later, Boi also
died from poison, though perhaps of his own doing.

Greco's manuscripts

It was common at the time for masters to maintain notebooks offrequently played
variations, the rough equivalent of today's databases. In an era when openings
were not deeply analyzed, ideas were more easily discovered or improved, and
masters seeking an edge would gather up and try to improve upon the ideas of the
day. It is natural that Greco would have done so as well.

In return for the support of patrons,

Greco shared with his benefactors
handwritten manuscripts or
codices that set forth his theories
and thoughts about chess. His
documents were all written in
Italian and most have decorated
title pages dedicated to a patron.
Most included a dedication, a
history of the game, a detailing of
the game's remaining regional
variations, summaries drawn from
the works ofRuy Lopez and Salvio, and collections of Greco's own opening ideas,
page after page ofthem. It is likely that others prepared the elaborate introductions,
and that the sloppier Italian script of the games was in Greco's own hand. There are
also variations within Greco's manuscripts. Not all contain introductions and, over
time, they appear to be longer and somewhat better written. His handwriting, like
his grammar, "improves by degrees," suggests White in Greco and His
Manuscripts. And, suggests White, "there is so great a difference in the various
signatures that it may be doubtful whether they are all by him." It may be, as White
believes, that Greco had the early parts of the manuscripts calligraphed by artists
and then wrote himself the body of the text, a hypothesis confirmed in part by the
simplistic chess errors in the calligraphed portions of the manuscripts.

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Their handwritten nature imposed practical limits on their length and number.
Approximately 22 of his manuscripts have survived including several from the
early Italian period. Alessandro Sanvito provides a detailed bibliography with
wonderful images of the existing Greco manuscripts. Murray and White list and
describe the existing manuscripts from Italy, France, and Great Britain. Murray,
observes that by the time of Greco's second visit to France, the manuscripts "are
no longer collections of openings only but are collections of games in which the
play is continued until the mate is reached or in sight." He adds that these
manuscripts "were treasured by their owners and their friends."

By sharing complete games rather than simple opening variations, Greco departed
from the practices of the other masters of his age. We know that Greco presented
a beautiful copy of the manuscript to the Duke of Lorraine dated July 5,1621. In
London, Greco presented copies of his manuscript to Sir Francis Godolphin and
Nicholas Mountstephen. These, the first two manuscripts that contain complete
games, are preserved today in the Bodleian Library and the British Museum. His
recording ofthe games and their variations relied on a wordy notation that seems
primitive by today's standards but which nonetheless permits any reader to replay
Greco's exact moves and thoughts. Although the games contain many simplistic
mistakes, they are particularly noteworthy for their consistent commitment to rapid
development, the use ofthe initiative, and for the compelling punishment of weak play.

When Greco returned to Paris in 1624, he replaced the longer and less attractive
games and variations with many spectacular brilliancies. Throughout, Greco's
notes were written in a style that exposed his limited education, but they also
reveal a wondrous time of the exploration of new opening lines, not just the Giuoco
Piano and Two Knights' Defense but also the Queen's Gambit, the Sicilian Defense,

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco

many lines of the King's Gambit, and even some fianchetto defenses. Greco appears
to deserve the credit for discovering the Sicilian Wing Gambit (1.e4 c5 2.b4),
From's Gambit (1.f4 e5) and an aggressive variation of the Falkbeer Counter Gambit
(l.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.c x d5 c6).

Chess in the Renaissance

While the literature ofthe late Middle Ages occasionally portrayed lower classes
as chess players, the reality was that chess was the predominant preserve of the
nobility. The still preserved jewel-encrusted sets are clearly regal. Only slowly did
the game map European social structure into the rules and the pieces.

When chess arrived in Europe, the rules of the contemporary Arabic game were
preserved. Indeed, until about 1200, Europeans played with Muslim rules and sets.
But the Muslim pieces were abstract in deference to the Koran's prohibition of
casting naturalistic figures in art. With time, medieval Europe, with its tradition of
animistic worship, preferred more realistic images.

At first, members of the aristocracy vied to commission the most unusual sets
depicting real or legendary conflicts. In the process, the male counselor, the vizier,
having no place in the European political order, became the queen, the tusks ofthe
elephant, rising as two points, began to resemble the animal itself and then became
the headdress of the bishop (in France, the jester), the horse became the knight
(with eyes), and the chariot became the tower, today's rook. Only the king and
pawn, at opposite ends of the social hierarchy, retained their original identities,
even though their form also became far more realistic.

The emergence of more schematic pieces, less pretentious and less expensive,
appealed to the emerging group of serious players who could travel from region to
region and still recognize the pieces. Indeed, Greco's pieces would be recognized
instantly today.

It is remarkable, to me at least, that the histories of the Italian Renaissance almost

never mention chess, especially given the game's long-standing association with
intellectual achievement. One of the rare exceptions is Fernand Braudel's
Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800 in which, within the context of humanism
and the urgent desire for order and human control, he discusses an emerging cadre
of European town planners during the Renaissance to put forth plans in chessboard
patterns. The transformation may help to account for such configurations in
European colonies and even for the town square in Marostica, a small town in the
province ofVicenza where, every two years, the townspeople play out a game of
human chess in the town's square, itself a giant chessboard.

The "Renaissance" or rebirth, sought to emulate the glories and high civilization
of the Greeks and Romans. Renaissance humanism emphasized the notion that

Sacking the Citadel

while God created the universe, humans developed and industrialized it. And so,
the Italian Renaissance, the rebirth, is best remembered for its human achievements,
its music, its art, its literature, its architecture, and its science. Inevitably, perhaps,
these efforts also laid the foundation for our modern world, the emergence of
secular states, and the remarkable growth of the natural sciences. As it transpired,
the great cultural change and achievements ofthe period also involved remarkable
changes in the game of chess.

Within 20 miraculous years at the end of the 15th century, near the penultimate
years of the Renaissance, the game of chess emerged with a set of invigorating,
new rules. During the same era in which Michelangelo carved the Pieta, Copernicus
gazed into the stars, da Vinci conceptualized a helicopter, and Columbus began his
journeys across the Atlantic, the chess queen and bishop gained the ability to
move more than a single square, the king and rooks could now castle, the pieces
representing the king and queen now towered over all the others, and pawns that
had not yet moved could thrust forward two squares. This latter adjustment in the
rules required one additional change, the en passant pawn capture, which was
undoubtedly introduced to prevent a pawn from queening without the opponent's
pawn on an adjacent rank having a chance to stop it.

Marilyn Yalom offers a wonderful discussion in Birth of the Chess Queen about
how the queen, initially the weakest piece resting at the side of the king, came to
assume such great powers despite her secondary status in society. When the
game reached Europe, all ofthe pieces were of approximately the same size. By the
16th century, the king and queen tower above the other pieces. To what extent did
the emergence ofthis powerful piece reflect the growing power of real-life queens
and women of privilege? Did her presence on the chessboard symbolize an
enduring, monogamous partnership, and perhaps also the reality that in some
European countries, most notably Isabella of Castile, women ruled alone and
determined the inheritance ofland?

Undoubtedly inspired by Europe's desire to see itself in the game and to speed it
up, the new moves harmonized astonishingly well. The books and travels of masters
like Greco helped to standardize the rules and spread enthusiasm for the superior,
new version. Under the old rules, even slight material advantages were easy to
sustain. Players tended to build up their positions patiently, laying siege to their
opponent's positions over dozens of moves. I suspect that the former rules suited
Europe's aristocracy because anyone could quickly learn and feel that they were
playing competitively. In this regard, chess differed dramatically from the other
arts. Not every prince could paint or play an instrument well, but all could claim
some ability at chess.

Now, in the new, more dynamic game, material could be sacrificed even early in the
game to obtain significant counterplay or to achieve attractive checkmates.
Wonderfully complex combinations could net significant material gain or significant

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco

strategic advantages. In many ways, chess now brought to Europe the kind of
harmony and beauty that we normally attribute to the art, music, and architecture
of the period.

To the detriment of the aristocracy, the new rules appealed to the growing
intellectual elite in Europe and, over time, helped to change chess from a noble
pursuit to one in which even a common man like Greco could hope to achieve
greatness. I have already noted the widespread availability of inexpensive sets
during the Renaissance which obviously reduced the exclusivity of the game.
During the Renaissance and through Greco's life, as we have seen, the nobility
sought to sustain its command over the game by contracting for lessons and
information from the most talented players. Over a century or more, however, the
nobility grew discouraged with chess as a leisure activity, abandoning the game to
players recognized for their skill.

Perhaps it is more remarkable, as suggested by Colleen Schafroth, that chess

survived at all during this period of re-examination and inquiry. As a consequence
of the apparent powers of concentration required to play the new game, youngsters
were advised by Baldassare Castiglione Libro del Cortegiano (Book of the
Courtier), 1528 to seek out more profitable endeavors.

Around the time of Greco's youth, England's King James I, who was evidently
frustrated with the royal game, revealed: "I thinke it over fond because it is over-
wide and Phiosophicke a folly. For where all such light playes, are ordained to free
mens heads for a time, from the fashious thoughts on their affaires; it by the
contrarie filleth and troubleth mens heads, with as many fashious toyes of the
play, as it was filled with thoughts on his affaires" (Yachnin, p.316).

Ironically, Greco's travels throughout Europe did not include a return to Italy
where the new castling conventions were not yet agreed upon in every community,
notably that a king, once placed in check, could not subsequently castle. The
centers of chess would soon pass to the other locales in Europe that adopted all of
the modern rules. Starting a chess game in Italy would for years require that
competitors first agree on the rules, while elsewhere in Europe, players could
benefit from a consistent approach. Italy, perhaps the most important chess region
in the world, would quickly become its backwater.

Into the Enlightenment

By the late 18th century, with a growing leisure class, interest in chess was exploding
throughout Europe. A game that had been dominated by kings and princes was
now the rage, especially in French and English coffee houses. And, in the restless
age of the enlightenment, ambitious common men could aspire to excel at chess,
and they had Greco largely to thank.

Sacking the Citadel

Like many artists whose work becomes celebrated only after their death, Greco's
legacy became apparent only decades and centuries after his life had ended. The
first English edition of Greco's work appeared in London in 1656 when Francis
Beale published The Royale Game of Chesse-play, Sometimes the recreation of
the late King, with many of the Nobility, Illustrated with almost an hundred
Gambetts, Being the Study of Biochimo the famous Italian, a selection of games
from one of Greco's English manuscripts. This edition by Beale was the most
important chess book written in English to that time, and inspired the poet Richard
Lovelace to pen an epigraph:

Sir, now unraveled is the Golden Fleece:

Men that could only fool at Fox and Geese
Are new made politicians by thy book,
And both can judge and conquer with a look.
The hidden fate of princes you unfold;
Court, clergy, commons, by your law controlled;
Strange, serious wantoning, all that they
Blustered, and cluttered for, you play.

A more usefully compiled and combined edition, "Chess Made Easy, or the Games
ofGioachino Greco, the Calbrain, with additional games and openings, illustrated
with remarks and general rules" appeared in 1750 and thereafter generated 41
editions in French, English, German, Dutch, Danish, and Italian. A facsimile of the
German edition, which was compiled in 1784 by Moses Hirschel, appeared as
recently as 1979. These editions of Greco's treatise on chess play made Greco the
first chess master to supply the masses with complete games that illustrated carefully
honed opening and middlegame strategies.

Greco's games

Most ofthe Greco games that fill these editions contain brilliant combinations and
sacrifices that anticipate remarkably the 19th century's Romantic Age ofAnderssen,
Morphy, and Blackburne. Here, the first recorded smothered mate:

Giuoco Piano [C50]
Europe 1620

1.e4 e5 2.4)0 4)c6 3.Ac4 Ac5 4.0--0 4)f6 5.13e1 0--0 6.c3 fIe7 7.d4 exd4
8.e5 4)g4 9.cxd4 4) xd4 10.4) xd4 fIh4 1l.4)f3

The Life & Times of Giaocchino Greco


abc d e f g h

11 ... ~xf2+ 12.\fIhl ~gl+ 13.{)xgl {)f2# 0-1

(b) Greco - NN
Europe 1620
Sicilian Defense [B20]

l.e4 c5 2.b4 cxb4 3.d4 e6 4.a3 bxa3 5.c4 11,b4+ 6.11,d2 11,xd2+ 7. ~xd2 d5
8.e5 dxc4 9.11,xc4 {)c610.{)e2 {)ge711.laxa3 0-012.0-0 {)f513.lad3 a6
14.f4 b515.J1.b3 a5 16.g4 {)h617.h3 a418..1lc2 b419.f5 exf5 20.g5 b3
21.Jl.dl ~a5 22. ~f4 ~b5 23.lag3 11,d7 24.gxh6 g6 25. ~g5 f6 26.exf6laf7
27.{)f4 {) xd4 28.{) xg6 {)e6


abc d e f g h

29.{)e7+ \fIh8 30.~g7+ {)xg7 31.fxg7+ laxg7 32.hxg7# 1-0

Sacking the Citadel

(c) Greco Composition 1623

Black to move and draw


abc d e f g h

1...~a1+ 2.~f1 ~xf1+ 3.~xf1 Ah3 4.~f2 Axg2 when White, unable to
control the h8-queening square, cannot force the h-pawn home. VI-VI

More than simply learning the rules, seventeenth century readers might discern
from these complete games appropriate lines of opening play and even middlegame
strategies. Here were also magnificent finishes, with breathtaking queen sacrifices,
king walks, and checkmates. Perhaps, Greco found that placing such ideas and
games in his manuscript would boost his immediate standing and his financial
support, but there is no doubt that the games had a powerful impact on the 17th-
and 18th-century public.

There is considerable debate among the chess historians regarding whether these
were real games or composed variations. None of his opponents' names are
recorded, for example, and many seem simply to be interesting variations chosen
for their appeal rather than complete games. For most players, the discussion is
unimportant because there is no debate about the lasting effect of these editions,
revelation of the enchanting possibilities of chess to a public hungry for such
knowledge. And so, the 1750 English edition promised, as a subtitle, "The whole,
so contrived, that any person may learn to play in a few Days without any farther
Assistance. "

Losing no opportunity to appeal to the common man, the edition also contains a
clever frontispiece, an image by C. D. Moor that represents an older man and
young boy sitting and playing chess, with a man overlooking them holding a glass
of wine. Note also the guitar hanging upon the wall, and the cloth and furniture
representative of common usage in the 16th century. Having risen from humble
and uneducated roots, Greco had emerged long after death as an educator of the
masses, a true Renaissance man in the age of the Enlightenment.

The Classic Bishop Sacrifice

Part II: Theory

Made Eafy:

With Additional
llluJ\.nteJ with
RemarkJ and Gmeral Rilles.
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Printed {(It J 3114 P«K)'APT.'
Jlmt, and W £.\111)' \" 1111
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Sacking the Citadel

Chapter 2

"On Attacking the Castled King"

In his 1000 Best Short Games o/Chess,

Irving Chernev's coverage of Greco's
1620 sacrifice was especially notable for
its mention of Erwin Voellmy's
taxonomy. Without that mention,
subsequent writers might well have
failed to credit Voellmy with his fine
Erwin Voellmy
In 1911, Dr. Erwin Voellmy (1886-1951)
was the first chess player to attempt to (On Attacking the Castled King), was
construct a functional taxonomy or the first to examine the conditions that
classification of Greco's sacrifice. must exist for the Greco sacrifice to
succeed. Voellmy's first attempt leaves
Voellmy taught mathematics, authored useful principles, the basis for every
several chess books, notably Die future taxonomy. Voellmy's efforts fall
An/angsgriinde des Schachspiels, well short of a comprehensive
(Basel: H Majer) 1927 and Schachtaktic classification, but given the material
(in three volumes) (Basel: H.Majer) and tools available to him in 1911, he
1928, and for 40 years contributed a certainly provides a remarkably firm
chess column in Basler Nachrichten, a foundation.
German-language daily newspaper
published in Basel, Switzerland. He won Voellmy adds annotated games at the
the Swiss chess championship in 1911, end of each part of his two-part article.
1920, and 1922 and represented Finding the games in 1911 without the
Switzerland in the first three chess help of a database was itself an
Olympiads. Undoubtedly his most impressive achievement. The 13 games
notable chess achievement was a he provides are especially useful because
shared first with Alexander Alekhine at seven of them do not appear in the
Bern 1932. Unfortunately, I have found ChessBase's large Mega database.
no record of a Voellmy game using the
Greco sacrifice. Three of the 13 games that Voellmy
includes are entertaining but strangely
His 1911 article in Schweizerischen are not Greco Sacrifices. All three
Schachzeitung, the Swiss Chess involve bishop sacrifices onh7, but are
Review, "Vom Rochadeangriff: Ein not followed at any point by a
Beitrag zur Theorie des Mittelspiels" subsequent knight check on g5 or any

"On Attacking the Castled King"

of the themes that Voellmy discusses. following diagram fragment to illustrate

One of the games is simply an that it is often best to capture first on f7
instructive but concocted variation of rather than on h7. In this fragment, it's
the French Defense, provided below. mate in five if Black defends with
The remaining nine Greco sacrifices are 1...1:!e8, but only if White continues
discussed in chapter 6 as games 7, 8, correctly with 2.i!ltxf7, setting up the
12,17,21,22,23,36,and38. checkmate by removing the black f-
pawn. For implementations of the
I review his efforts at classification in checkmate that Voellmy might well have
detail because his article is very difficult seen, see games 6,14,22,32,36 and 39.
to locate, because many readers may
not be able to read or translate VoeUmy's fragment
effectively Voellmy's original German
text, and because the following findings Mate in five moves after 1...1:!e8
are useful for what follows.

Voellmy begins his essay by

emphasizing that the Greco Sacrifice is
marked first and foremost by the bishop
capture on h 7. A successful subsequent
attack, he continues, requires a
combination of factors such as better 1 ... §e8 2. ~xf7+ 2.~h7+ <M8 3.~h8+
development, superior control of space, ~e7 4.~xg7 2 •.• ~h8 3.~hS+ ~g8
and the displacement of key defending 4.~h7+ ~f8 S.~h8+ ~e7
pieces. When these factors are present, 6.~xg7.
the defending side can be exposed to a
ferocious assault. These observations Voellmy draws useful principles from
are generalized fore bearers of the the above example.
observations put forth in 1959 by
Vladimir Vukovic (see chapter 4). (1) For the sacrifice to succeed, Black's
h7-square must be protected only by
In his second paragraph, Voellmy the king. The normal 4Jf6 defender has
presents basic and sound strategy for left or been driven off, customarily by
the ~g8 line. In the following diagram, e4-e5 advance. And the defender will
when the queen arrives on h5, it not have control over the bl-h7
threatens checkmate on h 7 but also diagonal or be able to play ~c8-f5
brings influence over the f7-square. It owing to the closed nature of the pawn
often proves to be impossible to defend structure with a black pawn on e6, a
against both attacks. In this fragment, structure common in several openings,
we can presume that the black queen notably the Queen's Gambit and the
cannot defend safely with ~d8-d3. French Defense. In such openings,
Therefore, to create a safety square for White often advances the e-pawn to
the king, the 1:!f8 must often leave f8, in e5, driving off the 4Jf6 to d7.
this case to e8, giving the white queen
the choice of capturing either the f-pawn Note that Voellmy does not mention the
or the h-pawn. Voellmy uses the possibility of maneuvering the black

Sacking the Citadel

queen onto the b1-h7 diagonal, a theme often rests on d8 or c7) or other
that will occur regularly in later chapters. significant material, and ii1txg7 +. In order
It is also odd that the fragment does for White's attack in this line to
not include a black pawn on e6, a succeed, Voellmy emphasizes that Black
customary feature whose absence will must not be able to force the white
often result in a successful defense with queen off the g-file.
Voellmy draws no distinction whatever
(2) For checkmate to occur after the between the two variations (1.~d3 and
~h7-gS retreat, the d6 and dS escape 1. ii1tg4) and offers no other possibilities
squares must be occupied or controlled, for White or Black in the ~g6 line.
and the attacking queen must be able There's no hint, for example, ofh4-h5
to capture safely on f7 once the ~fS as a main line, of the effect of Black's
moves away. Therefore, there must be .. .£7-f5, or the complexities of White's
no .£\g6 or ~d7. The defender must not en passant capture on f6.
be able to distract the attack with a
successful counter-attack on the Voellmy expressed surprise that it was
attacking king or queen. If Black retains hard to find an example to illustrate
a knight on e7, White should play adequately his points about the ~g6
ii1txh 7 + rather than ~xf7. line. "Examples with a straight forward
character are far more rare than one
As we will see later in some detail, Voellmy would think." He therefore offered the
is substantially correct in these following example, an interesting line in
observations but lacking in the detail that the Steinitz variation of the French
generations of future chess now allow. Defensem[Cll].

It is remarkable, given the lack of any 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£le3 .£lf6 4.e5
supporting games or examples, that .£lfd7 5.f4 e5 6.dxe5 .£le6 7 ..£lf3
Voellmy recognized that Black might Axe5 8.Ad3 O-O? (S .. .f6 Probably
have a successful counter-attack. best, challenging the center)
Although he acknowledges its
importance, Voellmy gave no example
of why a black knight on e7 significantly
changes the analysis.

Ifthese criteria are set for the ~gSline,

continues Voellmy, the only hope for
the defender will lie in the advance of
the king to g6.

(3) In the line with ... ~g6, White should abc d e f g h

seek to play 1.ii1td3+ f5 2.~g3 or 1.ii1tg4
f5 2.ii1tg3 when the discovered check 9.Axh7+!? 9.a3!? 9 •.. <it>xh/lO..£lg5+
by the knight will have at least two <it>g6! 10 ... ~h6? 11.~d3! with the idea
threats: .£\e6+ winning the queen (which of ~h7# (11.~g4+) 11...~hS

"On Attacking the Castled King"

12.<£lxf7++- (12.f5+-). The 'it'gBline makes only three brief observations in

involves the usual mate in two, a single paragraph.
10 ...'it'gB? 1 I.~h5 §eBl2.~xf7+ ~hB
13.~h5+ ~gB14.~h7+ 'it'fB15:~hB+ First, the h4-pawn is often required to
~e7 16.~xg7#; 1O ... ~hB?? 1I.~h5+ support the knight's movement to g5.
~gB 12.~h7#. 1l.~d3+ Voellmy Second, capturing the knight on g5 will
misses an opportunity to discuss usually activate the White rook on hI.
1I.h4!? and to point out one of the in- And third, forward movement of the king
teresting differences between ~d3 and to g6 leads frequently to challenging
~g4. After 1I.~d3 f5, White gains the positions in which the mating attack
option to play 12.<£lxe6. The most chal- can be quite complex.
lenging try is 1 I.h4!? f5 12.<£lxe6 ~a5
when White, with promising moves The few readers with copies of
such as ltd2, g4, ~xd5, and even h5 Voellmy's original articles will observe
has a tangible advantage. 1l •.. f5 that I have written more about Voellmy
12. ~g3 Not 12.exf6+? ~xf613.<£lh7+ than he did about Greco's Sacrifice. I
~f7 14.<£lxfB <£lxfB'I=; or 12.<£lxe6 ~a5 have done so out of respect and
13.<£lxfB+ <£lxf814.ltd2 <£lb415.~g3+ admiration. His was the first effort to
~h7=. 12 •.• ~e8 The only move given classify the sacrifice. His efforts are
byVoellmy, but 12 ... ~a5! 13.ltd2 ~b4 certainly limited and flawed. He spends
14.<£lxe6+ 'it'f7 15.<£lxfB <£lxf8=. most of his print time on the ~gB line
13.~xe6+ ~f7 14.~c7 ~d8+- but never even mentions lines
15.e6+ "with material advantage," ac- involving ~h6. There is very little
cording to Voellmy, but Black can gain coverage of lines involving a capture
equality. Far better is 15.<£lxaB! +-. on g5. And his classification provides
15... ~g816.exd7 ~xc717.dxc8~ little help in the complex lines and the
~xc8= many variants that modern chess
reveals. But given the surprising
The second part of the article, published paucity of the evidence available to him,
in December 1911, looked at Greco Voellmy did remarkably well. He
Sacrifice lines in which White has certainly advanced the conversation
already played h4. Accompanied by constructively, and he deserves his
games 8, 12, 17, and 23 (and a non-Greco place in the history and practice of the
game, Pillsbury-Hanham, 1893), Voellmy Greco Sacrifice.

Sacking the Citadel

Chapter 3

The Art of Chess Combination

Eugene Znosko-Borovsky (1884-1954)

was a Russian chess master, writer,
teacher and literary critic. Born in St.
Petersburg, he debuted in international
chess at Ostend 1906, winning the
Brilliancy Prize for his game against
Amos Burn. His chess career was
interrupted repeatedly by military
service. He served in the Russo-
Japanese battles of 1904 and 1905 and
then during World War I. Thereafter, he
settled in Paris.

Znosko-Borovsky most notable chess

result was a first in Paris, 1930 ahead of
Eugene Znosko-Borovsky
Tartakower, Lilienthal, and Mieses.
During his career, he defeated Voellmy's important essay." Although
Capablanca, Rubinstein, Euwe, and the quote suggests that many authors
Bogoljubov and beat Colle in a short were guilty of the omission, the existing
match in 1922. literature shows that Renaud and Kahn
were referring only to Znosko-
He is well remembered for his widely Borovsky's The Art of Chess
selling short book, How Not to Play Combination. In my opinion, the failure
Chess, and his contributions to to mention Voellmy's obscure articles
middlegame theory. It was in his 1936 does not meaningfully bear upon
book, The Art of Chess Combination, Znosko- Borovsky's treatment. It
that he devoted fourteen pages to the suggests simply that there may have
Greco Sacrifice. His treatment is more been bad blood between the Frenchmen.
detailed and far more wide-ranging than
Voellmy's. He sets a somewhat higher Given the obscurity of Voellmy's
standard for a classification of the taxonomy, Znosko- Borovsky's
sacrifice by looking in more depth at treatment was for most chess players
two of the main variations. their first overview of the Greco
Sacrifice. Znosko-Borovsky places the
Writing in 1953, Renaud and Kahn state sacrifice within the context of attacks
that "most people who have studied this upon a castled king. While castling is
sacrifice have omitted to mention often played to provide safety to the

The Art of Chess Combination

king, he notes that the reality can be almost always required for the sacrifice
that the king is left alone in these to succeed in all variations.
positions to protect the pawn cover,
leaving the pawns weaker than they In the \t>g8 line, Znosko-Borovsky
were prior to castling and the target of correctly observes that the 4Jg5 and
potentially dangerous and appealing ~h5 are usually sufficient with their
attacks. combined attack on h7 and f7. Like
Voellmy, he adds that the attack is called
Znosko-Borovsky states that White's into question ifthe defender can defend
assault upon the black king often the f7 pawn with a piece other than the
involves three pieces, a knight that can Elf8.
reach g5, a light-square bishop on the
bl-h7 diagonal, and the queen which In the \t>g6 line, Znosko-Borovsky
can exert additional pressure on h 7 from becomes the first commentator to
the h-file, usually h5 or h4, or from distinguish between the ~d3+ and
along the bl-h7 diagonal. The sacrifice ittg4, but here too his conclusions are
is often needed because playing 4Jg5 simplistic and misleading. We shall later
first would permit Black in many observe that there are conditions under
instances to repel the attack against the which each move can be superior.
h7-square by playing ... g6 or ... h6. Znosko-Borovsky concludes his
Znosko-Borovsky later adds that, for introductory remarks instead that the
the sacrifice to succeed, it is necessary check along the diagonal seldom leads
to drive off the defending 4Jf6 usually to gain because the 4Jg5 is often en
and most effectively with the e5-pawn prise and because Black can parry the
advance but, depending upon attack in several ways, notably with f7-
circumstances, with a ~g5xf6 capture f5. He therefore recommends ~g4,
or with 4Jg4 or 4Je4, though White must when White, even after .. .f5 ~g3 .. .f4
preserve at least one knight to follow ittg4, gains the immediate threat of a
the sacrifice with 4Jg5+. The proceeding powerful discovered check that often
observations and conclusions are will net a queen, a rook or a powerful
unobjectionable. double attack upon the g7 pawn. In the
main, these observations are inaccurate
Znosko-Borovsky then suggests: "this and unhelpful.
triple force (the bishop, knight, and
queen) is normally sufficient to assure Znosko-Borovsky suggests that even
the success of the attack." This simple- the capture of the ElfS in the \tlg6 line
sounding principle may have seemed provides adequate compensation, a
useful to early chess readers but it is finding that is very often inaccurate. He
inaccurate and unhelpful. We can concludes that "When none of these
collectively compliment Znosko- threats is realizable, the combination is
Borovsky for attempting to provide the doomed to failure; but it is rarely that
first generalized advice, but it is discovered checks are innocuous."
seriously flawed. As we have already Again, his conclusions are simplistic,
seen in general terms, additional even in the first main example that he
support beyond the three pieces is reviews. As we shall see, the \tlg6 is

Sacking the Citadel

often the most complex of the lines, but There were certainly far more instructive
there are other possibilities for White games at Znosko-Borovsky's disposal.
in this line beyond the choice of ~d3
and ~g4. It is often useful to use the Colle-O'Hanlon, 1930
continuing threat of the discovered
check to bring in reinforcements, but Znosko-Brorovsky switches abruptly
there are also many positions in which from a simplistic, unhelpful example to
the discovered checks are indeed, one that is unarguably the most complex
remarkably innocuous. Greco Sacrifice at his disposal, Colle-
D'Hanlon, from 1930 (see game #62).
Yates - Marin, 1930
Here too, he notes that the three pieces
Rather than use Greco's discovery from are appropriately posted for the sacrifice
1620, Znosko-Borovsky starts his and the white ~c1 assists the attack by
discussion of specific examples with guarding the .£lgS.
Yates-Marin, 1930 (see game #64), a
strange choice because the position in He emphasizes from the start that the
that game at the time of the sacrifice black kingside is insufficiently defended
involves a white queen on g4 rather and yet we know from even a casual
than on dl. After the acceptance of the glance at Black's position that the
sacrifice, White's best continuation is previous movement of the black rook
not the usual 2 ..£lgS but rather the more to e8 (creating the flight square to f8)
powerful and unthematic 2.~hS+! and the absence of a white pawn on e5
forcing the black king back to g8 and controlling the key f6-square should
obviating even the possibility of the cause at least some pause in drawing
other variations. optimistic conclusions. Without the
need to create a flight square for the
Znosko-Borovsky suggests that this king in the 'it>g8 line by moving the rook
first example "Shows the matter very from fB-e8, Black can use that move to
simply," because all three pieces, the bring a piece to f6 or to defend the f7
bishop, knight, and queen are present, square laterally, with a queen on f6, or
because the black king defends the h7- with a knight on eS.
pawn by itself, and because there is no
black knight on f6 to prevent the Although he provides no analysis
combination from succeeding. But in whatsoever, he concludes that careful
tenns of pedagogy, the use of the Yates analysis demonstrates that White wins
-Marin game is a poor choice. Its in all lines.
sacrifice involves only the single
variation, it involves an inversion of the "We see the valuable lesson for White
usual attacking move order, and does that in such a case the sacrifice may be
nothing to show off even the possibility made without hesitation and for Black
of~g6, ~h6, ~h8, or a capture ofthe that he must foresee the sacrifice and
.£lgS. Given the queen's placement and parry the menace. In the present
its quick access to h5, the game barely position, Black's previous move was
meets my definition of a Greco Sacrifice. cxd4, a grave blunder, for a defending

The Art of Chess Combination

move such as 4Jf6 would have removed Black is lost whenever the king goes
all danger." there, without emphasizing the key role
of White's dark-square bishop and
There are numerous errors and whether Black can successfully play
distortions in this quotation. There are ... §'h8. As we will see, there are many
world-class players who are willing to positions in which ~h6 comes into
rely primarily upon intuition, at least in consideration because the dark-square
simultaneous exhibitions, but the bishop has been traded or is off the c1-
sacrifice in the Colle game was so h6 diagonal.
remarkably complex that at least some
preparatory analysis was advisable. In His most useful observations in the
the actual game, Black crumbled under Colle game come in the ~g6Iine, in no
the defensive chore, a common small part because that line represents
occurrence as we will see throughout a convincing win for White. Although
the games, but few players would want he began the chapter by emphasizing
to bank regularly on their opponents' the importance of following ~g6 with
future errors. 4Jf6 would have ~g4, this queen sortie does not
prevented the sacrifice, but its absence succeed in the Colle game because Black
cannot be reasonably faulted given the can play 4Jf6 or f5 and the white queen
ultimate unsoundness of Colle's move. cannot successfully retreat to g3. "We
Finally, Znosko-Borovsky's failure to see then that this attack is only possible
offer any analysis of this amazing game, when the g3-square is neither blocked
and his overarching desire simply to nor attacked."
draw intuitive conclusions, seem to me
to brand his treatment as intellectually Znosko-Borovsky's final generalization
lazy and pedagogically unhelpful. These that "generally the king's flight to g6 is
are, for me, strong conclusions, but as not advisable, for there he is too
we shall see, not as strong as the exposed to attacks" is simply unhelpful.
conclusions that Vukovic reached. There are, as we will see, many times
when '<!tg6 represents the defender's
To further the embarrassment, Znosko- best or only shot at surviving (or
Borovsky asserts that success is easy winning). Given Black's control over g4
against the ~g8 retreat owing to the and g3, White's attack in the Colle-
double threat against the undefended o 'Hanlon game succeeds only with h4-
h7- and f7-squares when the knight h5. The attack there in the ~g6 line
reaches g5 and the queen reaches h5. works, Znosko-Borowski correctly
As we will see in the analysis of the points out, because the h5 threat is
game, Black's best hope rests precisely accompanied by another threat, iii'd3,
in this challenging line. There are and because Black cannot successfully
perpetual checks to be had and Black defend with 4Jf6 owing to iii'd3+ and
may obtain drawing if not winning 4Jxf7.
chances when able to run the king to
the queenside. Alekhine - Asgiersson, 1931

Throughout his entire chapter on the He uses this game, our Game #65, to
Greco Sacrifice, Znosko-Borovsky has note an additional role for white h-pawn,
only two mentions of the ~h6Iine, that not simply as support for the 4Jg5 and

Sacking the Citadel

to threaten h5+ as in Colle-O'Hanlon,

but to respond to the capture of the 8
knight by a ~e7 with the h-pawn and 7
using the opening of the h-file to fuel 6
the attack and "to justify the original 5
sacrifice." These are useful 4
observations, but they are again spoiled 3
by Znosko-Borovsky's lethargic lack of

"It is impossible to analyze all the abc d e f g h

variations here, or even the principal
one, comprising as it does no less than There is enormous pedagogical power
19 moves. It is plain, too, that White in comparing variations from very
could not imagine all of the tactical similar positions. In these two games,
combinations which sprang out of the White's position is identical. In
main combination. The essential point Alekhine-Asgiersson in the first
is to have so favorable a position that diagram, Black has played t!e8 and c5,
without a clear vision of the result a while in Mason Fritz, Black chose a
bold sacrifice is justified ... In our queenside fianchetto that leaves the
example, the bishop sacrifice is justified rook on f8.
because the essential conditions which
we have laid down are fulfilled. There is Znosko-Borovsky correctly observes
nothing to fear." that the rook on f8 hurts the defense
because 'it'g8 is no longer a viable
Mason - Fritz, 1883 option. The black king must therefore
migrate forward to g6, "which as we
Znosko-Borovsky redeems himself know," suggests Znosko-Borovsky,
somewhat by comparing two nearly "leads to disaster." The verdict, of
identical positions from Alekhine- course, is correct, but the reliance on
Asgiersson, 1931 and Mason-Fritz generalizations rather than some
(Game #12): analysis leaves much to be desired.

Mason-Fritz is one of the few games in

8 Il!lli!~§~"..!~I.i.• which Znosko-Borovsky offers an
opinion based on calculation. He
suggests that, after 'it'g6, White cannot
play 12.~g4 owing to ~xg5, 13.hxg5
4 ~xg5 when "the attack is repulsed," but
3 he overlooks a much stronger, winning
2 plan, 13 ..£Je2! with the idea of .£Jf4 and
abc d e f g h

The Art of Chess Combination

Capablanca-Molina, 1911 to demonstrate that White does indeed

have significant winning chances with
After looking at three games, Marshall- 16.i£1g4 e5 17.4Je6+ (a powerful
Bum (Paris, 1900), Capablanca-Becker discovered check, but the knight is self-
(Carlsbad, 1929), and lanowski-Chajes pinned!) 17 ... 'it>fB IB.~adl (lB.4JxdB
(New York, 1916) in which Black Axg4) IB ... i£1eB19.i£1d6 "with manifold
prevents a possible Greco Sacrifice by threats," but Black wins trivially there
compromising each kingside with f-, g-, with 19 ... 4Jxe6. Along the way, Znosko-
and h-pawn advances, Znosko- Borovsky also misses an easier win for
Borovsky concludes with a discussion Black with IB ... Axe6! 19.i£1h4+ g5
ofCapablanca-Molina (Game # 42). He 20.i£1h6 4Jg6 21.~xdB ~axdB-+.
correctly notes that the 'ittgB line loses
quickly owing to blocking of the king's I have no meaningful knowledge about
escape by the ~fB. In the 'ittg6 line, the machinations among the French
Black's only hope, White's i£1g4, is not chessplayers of the 1930s, but I cannot
decisive, he adds, because the queen help but wonder whether Renaud and
cannot safely remain on the g-file after Kahn, in expressing consternation over
14.i£1g4 f5 15.i£1g3 f4! 16.exf4 4Jf5 Znosko-Borovsky's failure to cite
17.i£1g4 4Jh6 with a perpetual. Voellmy's work, may rather have been
using that complaint as a substitute for
Not content with the verdict of a forced the kind of criticism that The Art of
draw, having already suggests that the Chess Combination, or at least his
'it>g6 line is inherently too dangerous coverage of the Greco Sacrifice, appears
to consider, Znosko-Borovsky attempts to deserve.

Sacking the Citadel

Chapter 4

The Art of Attack

Vladimir Vukovic (1898-1975), a Croatian

chess player and writer, obtained his
international master title in 1922,
represented Yugoslavia on second
board at the first Chess Olympiad in
London in 1927, and for decades edited
8ahovski Glasnik, the official chess
magazine of the Yugoslavian chess Vladimir Vukovi6
The sixth and seventh chapters of his
Vukovic is best remembered for The Art book were able to draw upon more
ofAttack in Chess. Published originally material and helped him to reach
in Croatian in 1959 and soon thereafter remarkably useful insights. Most
translated into English, the volume notably, Vukovic postulates that at least
became an instant classic, appearing in two active supporting pieces (other
most masters' lists of the top ten chess than the light-square bishop, the knight
books. Having read the general that reaches g5, and the white queen)
considerations contained in VukoviC's are required for the Greco Sacrifice to
third chapter, "On castling and succeed.
attacking the castled position in
general," one amateur on the web Although new technologies, more
lamented, "I will never castle again." games, and the test of time have
permitted me to draw more detailed
Aware of both Voellmy's and Znosko- conclusions in my fifth chapter, there
Borovsky's work, Vukovic significantly is no doubt that Vukovic deserves
expanded our understanding of the enormous praise for this observation
conditions required for Greco's Sacrifice which appears to be substantially
to succeed. Vukovic correctly logged correct. He uses this observation to
the most common attributes of the estimate intuitively that Colle's 1930
sacrifice and helped to guide effort must be unsound, but he
generations of chess players to pursue mysteriously fails to apply that same
the sacrifice intuitively and correctly. In intuitive grasp to Kottnauer-Kotov,
evaluating VukoviC's work, I have relied 1946. In that game, the attacking side
upon the modem 1993 edition because does not have at least two additional
it contains a preface and editorial notes assets, and indeed the sacrifice is
and corrections by grandmaster John flawed, but Vukovic incorrectly
Nunn that make the book that much concludes that the sacrifice is sound.
more valuable.

The Art of Attack

Like the other annotators of the period, The sacrifice is indeed sound here, as
Vukovic did not have a computer to test White has enormous advantages in this
his findings. The result is that errors do position, including the secure e5-pawn
infiltrate the analysis in the book, in no and the dark-square bishop as
small part because Vukovic admirably additional assets. The e5-pawn has
attempts to analyze the positions in driven off the 4:Jf6, the dark square
substantial depth. Readers of his work bishop itself discourages the ~h6 line,
will gain a significant intuitive feel for and the e6-pawn and Black's poor
when the sacrifice works, and I must development prevents Black from
acknowledge that his analytical errors gaining control over the bl-h7 diagonal.
do not significantly detract from the
worth of his effort. Here, the ~g8 line results in the
instructional mate in five. The ~h6line
To his credit, Vukovic begins with a permits devastating discovered checks
summary of Greco's 1620 game that on e6 or f7, but Vukovic, committed to
involves the sacrifice (game #1). With pedagogy, remarks that the discovered
an obvious interest in sound pedagogy, check succeeds because Black's queen
he then presents a series of composed is within easy reach on d8. Were the
situations to illustrate the main black queen on a5, for example, White
concepts. would win with the ~g4-h4 maneuver.

His first diagram is unlikely to occur in The most interesting line is the ~g6
real life because, as in the game score I line. Vukovic correctly notes that h4
have created, Black has to lose a tempo with the idea ofh5 is often the strongest
with ... c6 and ... c5 to reach it. idea, at that time a new addition to the
writing about the line.
(a) Vukovic, page 122
12.Axh7+ 'it'xh7 13.{)g5+ 'it'g6
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.{)c3 {)f6 4.e5 13 ... ~h614.4:Jxe6+; 13 ... ~g814.~h5
{)fd7 5.{)f3 Ab4 6.a3 j'txc3+ Ele8 15.~xf7+ ~h8 16:i*h5+ ~g8
7.bxc3 c6 8.j'td3 c5 9.0-0 cxd4 17.~h7+~f818.~h8+~e719.~xg7#
10.cxd4 {)c61l.c3 0-() 14.h4 .§h815.h5+ .§xh516..~d3+
f516 ... ~h617.~h7# 17.exf6+ 'it'xf6
8 17 ... ~h6 18.~h7# 18.'~f3+ 'it'e7
7 18... ~g619.~f7+ ~h6 20.4:Jxe6+ Elg5
6 (20 ... ~h7 21.~xg7#) 21.~xg7+ ~h5
22.~h7+ ~g4 23.~h3# 19"~xh5+-
Vukovic uses this example to introduce
important pedagogical ideas and to
pose the question: how to judge the
correctness of the sacrifice. What are
abcdefgh the necessary conditions in the white
and black positions required for the
classic bishop sacrifice?

Sacking the Citadel

Ovemll: • It is more important that no

black knight should be able to
• The sacrifice involves three reach f6 and that neither the
main lines ...'ittg8, ... 'itth6, and bishop nor queen should be
... 'ittg6; able to reach the bl-h7
• All three variations must be diagonal.
sound for the sacrifice to be
sound. If any contain a For the attack to succeed:
loophole, the combination
"falls to the ground."
• The defender should not be
able to decline the sacrifice
For White:
(here, I have found only a
single example);
• White must have a queen, a
knight, and a bishop; • The arrangement of the Black
• The White bishop must attack pieces should not deviate
h 7 "to force the tempo of the greatly from the normal (a dis-
attack"; appointing conclusion, as the
• It is not essential that the games in chapter 6 make abun-
attack be check (worth dantly clear);
mentioning, though the • White, in addition to the
database contains only 18 bishop, queen, and knight,
games in which the sacrifice must have at least two other
commences without check by supporting pieces for the at-
the bishop); tack to succeed. The two most
• It is not essential that Ah7 common members ofthis sup-
capture a pawn. (here, I found porting cast are the e5-pawn
no such examples); and the dark-square bishop
• A knight must be able to be (as we will see, this asset com-
within easy, safe reach of the bination is actually the second
g5-square; most common pair), but many
• The queen must have access other combinations are also
to h5 ... though in some cases possible involving the queen's
enough to be able to get to the knight and an active rook on
the e-file or occasionally, on
an open f-file.
For Black:
The final point just above is, without
• Black will customarily have
pawns on fl, g7, and h7; question, Vukovic's most important
• There will be a bishop rather contribution to the taxonomy. He
than a pawn on g7 on rare arranges the additional assets into fine
occasions; categories, distinguishing for example,
• The presence of the ~d8 and the specific location of the dark-square
~f8 points to but does not bishop on cl or f4. There- are a few
assure the correctness of the missing possibilities as I point out in
sacrifice; chapter 5, but his main point is clear,

The Art of Attack

and correct. It is, as he suggests, a 6.4Je4+ ~e7 7.AgS+ +-; 4 ... 4Jb8
simple, practical criterion for the S:~h7 ~e7 6:ffxg7 ~e8 7.4Jh7 4Jd7
sacrifice and away for both attacker and 8.§xe6++-] S.~h4+- )3 ... §h84.~d3+
defender to get their approximate (4.hS+ §xhS S.~d3+ fS; and not4.~g4
bearings. when Black can force the queen off the
g-file with ... 4Jf6-hS and ... fS) 4 .. .fS
To explore these findings, and to S.~g3 ~g8 (S ... ~f6 6.§xe6#)
illustrate the importance of each of the 6.4Jxe6+ ~f7 (6 ... ~h7 7.hS +-)
three main variations, Vukovic turns 7.4JgS+ ~g6 (7 ... ~f8 8.Ad6#; 7 ... ~f6
next to eight additional composed 8.§e6++-) 8.hS+ §xhS 9.§e8 ~xe8
positions. lO.4Je6+ ~f7 1l.~xg7+ ~xe6
12.§el ++-. 3.'lth5 ~f64.'lth4~e8
(b) Vukovic, page 124 4 ... g6 S.~h6 with AeS and §e3-h3;
4... eS! (Vukovic fails to mention Black's
8 best defense, which succeeds in getting
7 the Ac8-fS) S.dxeS AfS 6.exf6 ~xf6
6 preventing the mate and halting White's
attack, but Black remains a clear pawn
down. 5.-'le5 'lte7 S... Ac7 6.§e3 +-
(c) Vukovic, page 125

abcdefgh 8
In this composed position, White has 6
two additional assets, the dark-square
bishop on f4 and the active §el.
Vukovic created this position to
illustrate the ~g8 line, in which White
must compensate for the lack of control
over f6 by seizing control over eS with
the bishop and then swinging the §el abc d e f g h
to h3. The '<t'g6 line is more difficult
than Vukovic suggests. His White has additional assets in the dark-
recommendation permits Black to equalize square bishop, the strongly defended
quickly. Once again, 3.h4 is the key. eS-pawn, and the active §el. Vukovic
uses this creation to illustrate the
1.-'lxh7+ \fIxh7 2.~g5+ \figS! importance in the ~g8 line of keeping
2 ... ~h6? 3.4Jxf7+; 2 ... ~g6 3.h4 the black bishop offfS. White therefore
(3.i{yd3+ '<t'f6 [3 .. .fS 4.i{yg3+-] 4:'~h3 continues with 3.~e4+ continuing to
[4.i{ye4 recommended by Vukovic, the h-file only after 3 .. .fS.
since White threatens 4Jh7+ and 4Jxe6,
and ~e7 falls to i{yxe6, but Black has 1.-'lxh7+ l.AgS ~d7 2.~e4 g6
4 ... g6!=.] 4... i{ye8 [4 ... g6 S:~h7 i{ye8 3.Axa6 1. •• \fIxh7 2.~g5+ \figS

Sacking the Citadel

2 ... 'it'g6 3.iJ'e4+ f5 (3 ....M5 4.iJ'h4+-) (7.g4 <£\f6 8.<£\xe6+ ~h7 [8 ... g5
4.iJ'h4+- 3.'~e413.~h5ili5-+ 3 ...fS 9.itxg5#] 9.~xg7#) 7 ... <£\f6 8.§h3+
3... g6 4.~h4 +- 4.'~h4 4.exf6 <£\xf6-+ <£\h5 9.§xh5#. 3.t\'hS when Black
4 •.• Etf7 S.t\'h7+ 5.~h8+ ~xh8 cannot successfully defend the f7-
6.<£\xf7+ +-; 5.e6 §f6 (5 ... ~xg5 is the pawn. 3 ..• t\'e7 3 ... §e7 4.iJ'h7+ 'it'f8
only way to avoid mate) 6.~h7+ ~f8 5.~h8#; 3 .. .f6 4.iJ'h7+ 'it'f8 5.~h8+
7.e7+ ~xe7 8.~h8#. S... <i!»fS 6.e6+- ~e7 6.iJ'xg7#; 3 ... <£\xe5 4.dxe5 'it1c7
5.§e3 <£\c6 6.§h3 'it'f8 7.<£\h7+ 'it'e7
(d) Vukovic, page 125 8.~g5+ ~d7 9.~xf7+ <£\e71O.<£\f8++-.
4.t\'h7+ <i!»fS S.t\'hS#
One might quibble about the use of
compositions rather than existing
games, but Vukovic appears to use
5 these not simply to illustrate some of
4 the interest variations in the 'it'g8 line,
3 but also to suggest how such positions
2 can be sensitive to even small changes.
Advance the white h-pawn to h4 in any
of the previous three examples and the
abc d e f g h
sacrifice, he suggests, no longer
succeeds. Having a pawn on h4 assists
This is another interesting creation by
White in the ~g6 line, but it represents
Vukovic. It is unclear just how White
a liability in the ~g8 lines. In examples
managed to exchange the <£\bl for (b) and (c), for example, the white queen
Black's dark-square bishop. That said, will no longer have access to h4. In
the exchange is clearly advantageous example (d), Vukovic adds, the h4-pawn
for White, who emerges here with the blocks the white rook's ability to reach
e5-pawn, the unopposed dark-square an open h-file in the ~g6 line. True
bishop, and the §el. Black has an extra enough, though in example (d), it's still
tempo for the defense with the rook on a win, a remarkable one in fact.
e8, but White's position is so strong in
other respects that the attack still Vukovic example (d) with an h4-pawn
breaks through. In the ~g8 line, Black
cannot effectively defend the f7-square. 8
And in the ~g6Iine, ~d3+ overwhelms 7
1.Axh7+ <i!»xh7 2.JilgS+ <i!»gS 2...'it'g6
3. iJ'd3+ (3.h4 also wins, but Black can
delay the mate by playing ~xg5; 3.~g4 3
f5 4.~g3 ~e7 5.<£\xe6+ is crushing but 2

does not mate) 3 .. .f5 (3 ... ~h5 4.~h7+

~g4 5.f3#) 4.exf6+ ~xf6 (4 ... 'it'h5 abcdefgh
5.~h7+ ~g4 6.f3#) 5.~f3+ ~g6 With the pawn on h4, White has to rely
(5 ... ~e7 6.§xe6#) 6.~f7+ ~h6 7.§e3 upon the third asset, the §el, to swing

The Art of Attack

to g3 in the 'ittg8 line. The pawn on h4 Another creation that is unlikely to

can assist White in the 'ittg6 line with occur, in this case because Black has
h5+, although it's mate in seven with an additional tempo. The extra time is
3.~d3+. unhelpful, given that it involves pawn
moves such as a6 and b6. Black has
1..11,xh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g8 2...'ittg6 clearly castled into danger. White has
3. ~d3+ (3.h5+ 'itth6 [3 ... 'ittf5 4:~f3 #] two assets, the e5-pawn and the dark-
4.4:lxf7++-) 3.. .f5 (3 ... 'it'h5 4.g4+ 'it'xh4 square bishop. The 'it'g8 line is
(a) 4 ... 'ittxg4 5.~f3+ 'ittxh4 6.~h3#; (b) interesting only because Black has a
4 ... 'itth6 5.~h7# [5.4:lxf7#]; 5.~h3#) knight on e7. White should therefore
4.exf6+ 'it'xf6 (4 ... 'it'h5 5.~h7+ 'ittg4 capture on h 7 and proceed with ti'h8+,
6.4:lf3 gxf6 7.~g6# [7.4:lh2 #]) 5.ti'f3+ 4:lh7+, and Ag5+. In the key 'it'g6Iine,
'ittg6 (5 ... 'itte7 6 ..§.xe6#) 6.~f7+ 'itth6 i*d3+ is met adequately by 4:lf5, and h4
7.4:lxe6+ +- 3:li\'h5 4)f8 4.4) xf7 ~d7 gives Black a chance to defend with
5.~h8+ ~xf7 6 . .§e3 ~e7 7 ..§g3 .§.h8 and ~g8.
1..11,xh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 2 ...'it'gB
Vukovic turns to the 'ittg6Iine, showing 3.ti'h5 .§.e8 4.ti'h7+ (4.ti'xf7+ Vukovic
four compositions in which the 'ittg6line questions this move, suggesting that
is critical. Again there are mistakes in Black has an adequate defense, but
the analysis (which John Nunn surely White also wins here easily after 4 ... 'itth8
should have corrected), but Vukovic 5 ..§.ael- idea .§.e3-h3 - [5.~h5+ 'ittg8
deserves substantial praise for being 6 ..§.ael 4:lf5 7.i*f7+ 'itth8 8.i*g6 'ittg8
the first commentator to attempt an 9 ..§.e3 +- ] 5 ... cxd4 6.ti'h5+ 'ittg87.Acl!
explanation of when to play h4 and - with the horrific threat of Aa3 and
when to try ~g4. Careful readers will i*h7 mating - 7 ... 4:lxe5 8.Aa3+-)
observe that placing the queen on the 4 ... 'ittf8 5.ti'h8+ 4:lg8 6.4:lh7+ 'it'e7
b I-h 7 diagonal, usually with ti'd3+, 7.Ag5+ f6 (7 ... 4:lf6 8.ti'xg7 +-; 7 ... 'ittd7
deserved to be in this mix of candidate 8.Axd8 +- ) 8. ti'xg7 #. 3. ~g4 Vukovic
moves. suggests that 3.~g4 is stronger
because after 3.h4 .§.h8 4.~g4 f5
(e) Vukovic, page 126 5.~g3 (5.e xf6 but this capture is
stronger here because 5 ... 'ittxf6 6.Ae5+
8 4:lxe5 7.dxe5+ 'ittg6 [7 ... 'it'xe5 8.4:lf7+]
7 8.4:lxe6+ 'ittf7 9.4:lxd8+ .§.xd8 1O.e6+
6 Axe6 11. ti'f4+ 'ittg8 12. ~e5 'ittf7
13 ..§.fel +-) 5 ... ti'g8 6.dxc5 bxc5
7.4:lxe6+ 'ittf7 8.4:lxc5±; 3.~d3+?! 4:lf5
4.g4 f6 5.gxf5+ exf5 6.exf6 gxf6 7.4:lf3
c4 8.ti'd2 .§.g8 9.'itthl 'it'f7 10 ..§.gl ~.
3 ••. f5 4.~g31 4.exf6 'ittxf6 5 ..§.fel
(5.Ae5+ 4:lxe5 6.dxe5+ 'ittxe5 when the
abcdefgh .§.f8 prevents 4:lf7+) 5 ... g6 6.4:lxe6
Axe6 7.i*xe6+ 'ittg7 8.Ae5+ 'itth7
9.~h3+ 'it'g8 10.~h8+ 'ittf7 11.ti'h7+

Sacking the Citadel

~e812 ..\.tg3+-. 4 •• .'~eS 5.h4 5.~fe1 6 ..\.tg5+ ~e8 7 ..\.txd8 <£lxd8 8.~ xe4 +- ;
cxd4 6.<£lxe6+ ~t7 7.<£lc7 +- 5 ••. ElhS 4 ... ~h8 the only move offered by
Black does not have to permit the Vukovic (4 ... ~g6 - Nunn suggests that
following mate in four (5 ... ~g8! 6.h5+ White must now repeat the position, but
~h6 7.<£lxe6+ ~h7 8.<£lc7 'l!lIxh5 White is winning easily after 5.'l!lIg3
9.<£lxa8 g5 10.'l!l'h2 'l!l'xh2+ 11..\.txh2 ~f6 6.<£lxe6 fxe6 [6 ... .\.txe6 7.'l!lIg5 #]
cxd4 12.cxd4 <£lxd4 13.<£lxb6+-). 7 ..\.tg5++-) 5.'l!l'f4+ ~g6 (5 ... <;t>e7
6.{)xe6+ ~f7 7.~xg7+ ~xe6 6.'l!l'xt7+ ~d6 7.~xe6+ .\.txe68.'l!l'xe6#)
S.~f6+~d79.~d6# 6.'l!lIxf7+ ~h6 7.g4 g6 8.<£lxe6+ g5
9.'l!lIh5#. 4.~g3 f4 4 ... ~f6 5.<£lxe6
(0 Vukovic, page 127 .\.txe66 ..\.tg5++- 5 ..1lxf4 5.'l!lIg4 'l!lIxg5
5 .•. ~f5 5 ... \t>f6 6.<£lxe6 .>lxe6 7 ..\.tg5+
6.h3 VukoviC's suggestion, which
wins, but better is 6.<£lh7 e5 7 ..\.txe5 +-.
6 •.• ~eS 6 ... <;t>f6 7.<£lxe6 7.{)h7 ~h5
S. ~d3+ ~xf4 9.g3 #

(g) Vukovic, pages 127-8

abc d e f g h
In this creation, White has two
additional assets, the ~e1 and the dark-
square bishop. Without direct control 3
over e5, the ~g8 line involves a 2

lengthier but straight-forward treatment

when the black king reaches d6. abc d e f g h
Without the pawn on e5, White must
select 'l!lIg4 here, since h4 gives Black Vukovic created this position to explore
time to defend with f5 and 'l!l'd3+ simply a critical ~g6 line, but the <;t>g8 line is
permits the black king to escape to f6 far more challenging here because
and e7. Black's queen is already defending the
t7 -pawn. White's additional assets here
1 ..1lxh7+ ~xh7 2.{)g5+ ~g6 2...<;t>g8 are the e5-pawn and the <£ld2, whose
3.'l!lIh5 ~e8 4.'l!l'xt7+ ~h8 5.'l!l'h5+ ~g8 development requires creative
6.'l!lIh7+ ~f8 7.'l!lIh8+ ~e7 8.~xg7+ planning. In the ~h6 line, White wins
~d6 9 ..\.tf4+ <£le5 10.<£lt7++- 3.~g4 quickly without the dark-square bishop
3.h4? f5; 3.'l!l'd3+?! ~f6:j: 3 •••f5 3... ~f6 simply by playing 'l!lIg4-h4. In the ~g6
4.'l!l'h4 (a) perhaps the simplest win is line, White wins with the same
4.<£lxe6 fxe6 (4 ... .\.txe6 5. 'l!l'g5 #) maneuver because 'l!lIh7+ leads to a
5 ..\.tg5+; (b) 4.<£le4+ Nunn's quick mate. In the 'it'g8 line, White
recommendation, and probably the most succeeds slowly by developing the
accurate move. 4 ... ~e7 5.'l!l'xg7 dxe4 king's rook and then the queen's knight.

The Art of Attack

1.1txh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 2...'it'h6 from making meaningful use of the bl-
3.i£yg4+- Ad7 (3 ... <tIxe5 4.dxe5 i£yxe5 h7 diagonal. The 'it>h6line is interesting
5.<tIdf3 i£yf5 6.i£yh4+ 'it>g6 7.g4+- ~f4 because, with the queens facing off on
S.<tIh7) 4.i£yh4+ 'it>g6 5.i£yh7+ 'it>xg5 the d-file, White gains the marvelous
6.f4+ 'it>g4 7.~h3#; 2 ... 'it'gS! 3.~h5 <tIxf7+. In the key 'it>g6 line, the threat
EleS 4.Elfel (Vukovic instead of a queen trade requires ~g4, which
recommends 4.<tIdf3 <tIdS 5.<tIh4 <tId7? wins quickly after f5 because White can
[5 ... 'it>fS 6.<tIg6+ fxg6 7.i£yhS+ 'it'e7 safely retreat the queen to g3 or proceed
8.i£yxg7+ <tIf7 9.<tIxf7 'it'd7 IO.<tId6+ more actively with the en passant capture,
Ele7 11.i£yxg6±] 6.i£yh7+ 'it'f8 7.Elael when the <tIc3 again enters the position
[7.<tIg6+! fxg6 S.i£yhS+ 'it'e7 9.i£yxg7+ with force.
<tIf7 I O. i£yxf7 + 'it'dS Il.<tIxe6+ El xe6
I2.~xe6+- ] 4 ... 'it>f8 5.Ele3 <tIdS 6.Elf3 1.1txh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 2...'it'h6
<tIa4 7.Elbl when White succeeds with 3.<tIxf7+; 2 ... 'it'gS 3.~h5 ~d3
i£yh4 and by bringing in the <tId2 with 4.<tIce4 +- using the extra piece to
b3, bxc4, and <tIe4) . 3.'~g4!3.h4 'it'h6! recapture control over h7. 3. ~g4 3.h4
3 •.•f5 4. ~h4 Possible because Black's ~xdl 3 ..• f5 4.exf6! 4.~g3 ~eS
queen is off d8. White's powerful threat 5.<tIxe6+ 'it'f7 6.<tIc7 ~c6 7.<tIxaS <tIxaS
is 5.i£yh7+ 'it>xg5 with mate in two to S.Elfdl +- 4 .•• ~xf6 4 ... gxf6 5.<tIxe6+
follow. 4 ... 4)xe5 5.dxe5 ~xe5 5.4)ce4+ ~e5 5 ... 'it'g6 6.<tIxe6++-
6.4)df3 ~c7 7.Etael +- 6.f4+ ~d5 7.Etac1 mates most quickly.

(h) Vukovic, page 128 Vukovic created a single example to

illustrate that the 'it>h6 variation can also
8 be critical. One of the curiosities in his
7 book is that, in composing these
examples, Vukovic had the opportunity
to create fully sound pedagogy. In the
following example, he certainly makes
the point at a glance that the 'it'h6 line
3 is especially challenging when White,
2 in this case, does not have a dark-
square bishop and has a pawn on h4
abcdefgh blocking the ~g4-h4 maneuver. As will
soon be clear, he created the right
This final composition for the 'it'g6line impression, but the example itself is
is very similar to Capablanca-Molina ironically flawed. He acknowledges that
(Game 42). In that position, White's e- there is no forced win in the 'it'h6 line,
pawn was on e3. Here, with the <tIc3, it but he assures readers that there is a
represents an important additional promising attack. The line he suggests
asset. In the 'it>gS line, White is able to is unsound, and the best alternative
use the <tIc3 to prevent the black queen offers nothing more than a draw.

Sacking the Citadel

(i)Vukovic, page 129 ... 4Je7. (3.~d2 ~e7 4.4Jxe6+ 'itth7

5.4JxfB+ .§xfB= and Black is better
placed, says Vukovic, but the dynamic
equality here is the best that White can
hope to achieve.) 3 ... ~d7 4. ~d2 4.h5
f5-+ 4 ...g6-+

(j) Vukovic, page 130

Declining the Sacrifice

It is clear that Vukovic aimed to be

abc d e f g h comprehensive in his coverage. He was
the first to mention the notion that ltxh7
In this composition, White has only one could come without check and the first
additional asset, the e5-pawn. In the to mention that there might not even be
~gB line, White has the familiar mate in a pawn on h7. He then became the first
five. In the ~g6line, ~g4 and ~d3 both commentator to mention the possibility
provide White with promising, nearly of declining the sacrifice with ... 'itthB.
winning positions. The ~h6 line is the Normally, if the defender declines the
best choice for Black. VukoviC's sacrifice, the attacking side will simply
suggestion, 3.f4, fails quite rapidly. win a pawn. Says Vukovic: "The
White's best chance in the line is to attacker must therefore consider what
place the queen on the dark squares. will happen ifhis opponent plays ... 'itthB
and does not take the bishop."
1.~xh7+ CjfjIxh7 2.~g5+ CjfjIh6
In the ChessBase database, I have
2 ... ~gB 3.~h5 .§eB 4.~xf7+ ~hB
found a single example in which the
5.~h5+ ~gB 6.~h7+ ~f8 7.~hB+ ~e7
defender declines the sacrifice
B.~xg7#; 2 ... ~g6 and White wins
successfully. I could quibble about
easily, suggests Vukovic, though it is
whether the attacker must consider this
not so easy to work out, even with the possibility, but my real concern is that
pawn already on h4. 3. ~g4 (a) 3. ~d3+ the composed example does not
f5 (3 .. .'itth5 4.~h7+ ~g4 5.f3+ ~g3 actually make the point. Although the
6.4Je4+ dxe4 7.~xg7+ ~f4 [7 ... ~xh4 bishop on h7 appears to be trapped,
8.~g4#] B..§ael+-) 4.exf6+ (4.~g3
White still wins quite easily.
~d7 5.4Jxe6+ ~h7 6.4JxfB+ '§xfB=)
4 ... ~xf6 5 . .§ael ltcB 6 . .§e3 ~e7
7.~g6 ~eB 8.~xg7+ ~d6 9 ..§fel ~e7
lO ..§xe6+ Axe6 11..§xe6+ ~xe6
12.4Jxe6 ~xe6 13.~xc7±; (b) 3.h5+?
~xg5-+; 3 ... ~h6 (3 .. .f5 4.h5+ ~h6
5.4Jf7+ ~h7 6.~g6+ ~gB 7.4JxdB+-)
4.4Jxf7+ .§xf7 5.~xe6+ .§f6 6.exf6
~xf6 7.~xd5 ±). 3.f4 Recommended by
Vukovic as White's best chance to win
but Black has ... ~d7 -+ rather than hi~ abc d e f g h

The Art of Attack

1..1lxh7+ ~h8 2.~g5 ~xdl part to the presence of the Ag7 rather
3 ..§fxdl g6 And now, according to than a pawn. VukoviC's analysis of that
Vukovic, with the better prospects, line is complex and correct. He was the
owing to the threat of '3ilg7 and E1h8, first to discover the importance of
but White is clearly winning after 20.Af4! rather than 20.f4.
4 ..1le3 ~g7 4... E1c8 5.b4 ~g7 6.Axb6
axb6 7.E1d7 ~d5 8.a4 E1c7 9.E1xc7 tzJxc7 In the critical '3ilg6 line, however, he
10.a5 bxa5 11.E1xa5 f6 l2.exf6+ ~xf6 mysteriously abandons the principle
l3.h4 ~c6l4.E1a7 tzJd5 l5.tzJe4+ '3ile5 that two additional assets are required
l6.tzJc5 5.bxc4 ~xc4 5 ... bxc4 6.E1d4 for the sacrifice to succeed. He argues
Ad5 7.E1f4 tzJd7 8.Ad4 '3ilh6 9.Ae3 that White is able to overcome the
\ttg7 10.~d4= 6 . .1lc5 .§h8 7 . .§d7 normal deficiency because a bishop
.1ld5 8 •.§xf7+ ~h6 9.f4+- rather a pawn rests on g7. As a result,
White gains the important idea of tzJxe6
Vukovic concludes his chapter on the discovered check and the threat of a
Greco Sacrifice with an analysis of capture on g 7 of a bishop rather than a
several critical games. His ambition is pawn. That threat, suggests Vukovic,
evident in his selection, unarguable the gives White the opportunity to bring
most challenging sacrifices at his up the reserves with E1f1-el.
disposal. And in selecting these games,
he invites comparison with Znosko- As it turns out, Vukovic is both right,
Borovsky's earlier, shabby treatment. and wrong. With only the single
There are small and large mistakes in additional asset, the sacrifice does not
the analysis, but the fact is that Vukovic work owing to l7 ...'3ilg6 l8.~g4 f5
provides a powerful sense of the effort 19.~g3 E1g8!, a move that appears to
required to master the sacrifice. have eluded generations of
commentators. His analysis, painstaking
Kottnauer-Kotov 1946 (Game 95) as it was, contained flaws. But his
general insight, that at least two
8 additional assets are generally required
7 for the sacrifice to succeed, was right
6 on target.
Capablanca-MoJina, 1911 (Game 41)
Vukovic uses this game as an example
of a successful sacrifice despite the fact 3
that the attacking side has only one 2

additional asset, the dark-square Acl.

The \ttg8line is not trivial owing in large abc d e f g h

Sacking the Citadel

Another ambitious game to annotate, impressed by the depth and

and here, VukoviC's analysis, with only sophistication ofthe game's variations.
one minor flaw, reaches the correct It is therefore difficult to understand
conclusion, that there is a loophole in VukoviC's point of view.
the 'it'g6 variation that Capablanca's
opponent failed to exploit. Vukovic Despite the game's complexities,
emphasizes that White has only one Vukovic insists that two of the
supporting piece, and a weak one at variations are unsound, and he uses the
that, the <£Jc3. Vukovic found Black's game as an illustration of a sacrifice that
draw with 15 .. .f4, and had only one is not correct. Although there are two
unjustified observation in the line with supporting assets, the ~el and the
15 ... 'it'f6 that N unn corrects in the dark-square bishop, Vukovic suggests
algebraic edition. A significant that the verdict of an unsound sacrifice
improvement over the coverage by ought to have been immediately
Znosko-Borowski and an impressive job apparent, with the <£Jd7 ready to defend
byVukovic! at f6, the lack ofa pawn on e5, with the
rook on e8 saving a key tempo in the
CoUe-O'Hanlon, Nice 1930 (Game 62) ~g8 line, and with Black unable to
prevent White from occupying the g-
file in the ~g6Iine.

Once again, there are again serious flaws

in VukoviC's analysis, but as I discuss
in chapter 6, I agree that with him that
Colle's sacrifice was ultimately
unsound. And in chapter 5, I build on
what was apparent in Vukovic's thinking
about this game, that additional assets
abc d e f g h are required to overcome key positional
Vukovic begins his harsh discussion of
Colle's effort by stating that, while some The Greco Sacrifice with a pawn on h4
have come to name the sacrifice after and a rook on the h-file
Colle in honor of this game, there is no
such justification "as Colle never played Vukovic concludes his discussion
a good game which contained the about the Greco Sacrifice towards the
sacrifice ... " end of his next chapter on ranks, files,
and diagonals in the attack on the
"A great lover of the classic sacrifice, castled king.
Colle here too is unable to control his
temperamental passion for sacrifice ... " In these variations, he adds, the pawn
on h4 acts as a support for the <£Jg5. He
One may quibble about whether the provides two games in which the h-file
game truly deserved the Brilliancy Prize opens up as part of the attack.
at Nice, but all readers will be duly

The Art of Attack

I include here the first of the two, and h6, the 'it'g6 line fails quickly to
Steinitz-Galmayo, Havana, 1888 because 11.~d3 .§.hS (to prevent mate on f7)
the classic Greco Sacrifice did not 12A~xf7+ winning the queen. The
actually occur and the actual game, challenge is the 'ot>g6 line, the reason
which involves a knight sacrifice on g5 that Steinitz rejected the sacrifice. After
prior to a .llxh7+ sacrifice, does not 11.~d3+ f5, Steinitz saw that there was
appear in the games section. no win after the discovery with
12.4Jxe6+, but White wins quickly with
(k) Steinitz-Golmayo Zupide the usual 12.~g3 when a somewhat
French Defense [C 11] patient buildup pounds Black into
Havana 1888 submission.

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 4)f6 4.e5 With but one analytical mistake which
4)fd7 5.f4 c5 6.dxc5 Jl.xc5 7.4)f3 0- Nunn addresses, Vukovic's analysis is
08.Ad34)c6 correct. But this game remains a strange
example to show offthe importance of
h4 in protecting the 4Jg5 and in opening
the h-file, when indeed, h4 is not
required at all and the 4Jg5 and its
capture precede the sacrifice on h7.

2 . .llxh7+ 'ot>xh7 10.4Jg5+ 'ot>g6! (a)

10 ... 'ot>gS 11.'l1Yh5+- .§.eS 12.'l1Yxf7+
'it'hS 13.'l1Yh5+ 'ot>gS 14.'l1Yh7+ 'ot>fS
15.~hS+ 'ot>e716.'l1Yxg7#; (b) 1O ... 'ot>h6
abc d e f g h 11.~d3 (11.~g4+-) 11.. . .§.hS
(11...~xg5 12.fxg5+ 'it'h5 13.~h7+
In this game, Steinitz, apparently 'it'g4 14.'l1Yh3 #) 12.4Jxf7+) 1 1. 'l1Yd3 + f5
believing that the Greco Sacrifice was 12.~g3 (According to Vukovic, Steinitz
flawed, prepared it with h4 rather than rejected the Greco Sacrifice because he
executing it immediately. Intent on saw only 12.4Jxe6? and concluded that
giving an example with h4, Vukovic itdoesnotwork.12 ... ~h4+ [12 ... ~a5!
does not dwell on the immediate the move that Steinitz apparently feared
sacrifice itself, save to correct Steinitz's leads to a win for White. 13 ..lld2 is an
beliefs and to note that the sacrifice improvement over the immediate
works. 13.4JxfS. 13 ... 4Jb4 14.~g3+ 'it'f7
15.4Jg5+ 'ot>eS 16.4Jxd5 +-]13.g3 'l1Yh3
And well it should. White has 14.'l1Yxd5 .§.eS15.4Jxc5 4Jcxe516.4Jxd7
additional assets in the e5-pawn, the 4Jxd7+ 17.'ot>f2 4Jf6 lS.'l1Ydl 4Jg4+
dark-square bishop, and the knight on 19.'ot>f3 b6+) 12 ... 'l1Ya5 (12 ... ~eS
c3. In the 'ot>gS line, the the presence of 13.4Jxe6++- 'it'f7 14.4Jxg7! - Nunn-
the rook on the fS escape square [14.4Jc7 ~dS 15.4JxaS+- Vukovic]
enables the customary mate in five. 14 ... .§.gS 15.4JxeS .§.xg3 16.e6+ 'ot>xeS
Even though the dark-square bishop 17.exd7++-) 13.h4 4Je7 14 ..lld2! (a)
does not have immediate sway over g5 14.4Jxe6+ 'it'f7 15 . .lld2 .llb4

Sacking the Citadel

(15 ... ~xe616.4Je4 fxe417.~xa5 4Jxe5 This more helpful example of the
18.fxe5 ~f2+ 19.'l?xf2 .§.xf2 20.'it'xf2 sacrifice with h4 "is correct," says
b6 2Ulc3±) 16.4JxfB=; (b) 14.h5++- Vukovi6, "even though it demands
~h615.4Jxe6'§'f716.'l?g5+ ~h717.h6 extreme precise and high quality play
g6 IB.'l?h4 ~hB 19.4Jg5 .§.fB 20.e6 d4 from the attacker." White can rely upon
21.~d2+- 14 ... 'l?a6 15.4Jxe6+ ~f7 three assets, the e5-pawn, the 4Jc3, and
16.4Jc7+- h4-pawn since the .§.hl joins the attack
after captures on g5. And by castling
9.h4f610..£lg5fxg5 queenside, the .§.dl can also enter the
fray usefully. But the sacrifice requires
great care in the 'it'gBline because Black
has already created the fB escape
square. Vukovi6 somewhat unfairly
critiques Alekhine's play, offering an
impressive improvement, but the real
story in his notes is the depth of his
annotations. Many of these sacrifices
are indeed complex, but players of every
level will benefit from the intuitive nature
abc d e f g h of his approach and the certainty that
great care is often required.
1l.j',txh7+ ~xh7 12.hxg5+ ~g8
13.~h5 .£ldxe514.fxe5 !U515.g4 Overall, Vukovi6 produced a
§,xe5+ 16.~dlj',te317.j',txe3 §,xe3 pathbreaking taxonomy with helpful
18..£lh5 §,f3 19.96 ~f8 20.~h8+ coverage of most lines. He was
~e7 21.~xg7+ 1-0 dedicated to useful pedagogy and in-
depth analysis. Nunn corrects many,
Alekhine-Asgeirsson, Reykjavik, though by no means all of the mistakes.
1931 (Game 65) Despite the analytical errors, the whole
book will remain a classic for
generations to come.

abc d e f g h

Chapter 5

Contemporary Theory

Chapters two, three, and four rare cases, an over-loaded 4Jf6

summarized historic efforts by Edwin will also defend the h7-pawn;
Voellmy, Eugene Znosko-Borovsky, and • The sacrifice is almost always
Vladimir Vukovic, to explain the Greco accepted. Declining it costs a
Sacrifice. Their efforts and tournament pawn and the attack can often
experiences over the past century make proceed with 4Jg5.
it possible now to attempt a more
comprehensive taxonomy. This chapter .£\g5+
examines all ofthe main lines with both
simple and more complex examples as • The white knight will almost
well as additional illustrative games and always move from f3, but other
squares are possible.
relevant references to the games in this
For purposes of discussion, I refer to
• The queen will usually have
the sacrifice on h7 only. Of course, the access to a square that can
sacrifice is often carried out by Black reach h7, preferably h5, but
on h2. also including h3, h4, bI, c2,
The Greco Sacrifice relies primarily • When possible, playing ~h5
upon three pieces: before 4Jg5 forces the black
king back to g8, eliminating
Axh7 other options usually available
to the defender.
• White's light-square bishop
captures the black h7-pawn,
A brief note on pawn structure: Most
almost always with check, of the games, a clear majority, involve a
usually from d3 but pristine defensive pawn structure with
occasionally from other pawns on f7, g7, and h7. But the
squares along the b I-h7 sacrifice occurs successfully against a
diagonal; variety of structures, notably black
• There is no requirement that pawns on f6 rather than f7, a bishop
there actually be a black pawn rather than a pawn on g7, as well as the
on h7, but it is almost always absence of f- and g-pawns.
• The h7-square is defended In response to the 4Jg5 check, Black
only by the black king. In very has five possible responses, all of which
are discussed within this chapter:

Sacking the Citadel

'it'gS; '.t'g6; '.t'h6; 'it'hS; Capturing the 1.Jlxh7+~xh72.4)g5+~g83.~h5

knight - with a dark-square bishop, the
queen, or with an f- pawn. 8
To succeed, as we learned from Vukovic,
the attacking side will usually need at
least two additional assets beyond the
light-square bishop that captures on h7, 4
the knight that reaches g5, and the 3
queen. Generally, the more challenging 2
the defense, the more additional assets
will be required to succeed. The final abc d e f g h
section of this chapter provides a
survey of additional assets and more
With the obvious threat of ~h7#.
specific conclusions regarding the
3 ... §eS creating an escape square on
situations that require them.
f8 for the king. Should the white queen
now capture on f7 or deliver check on
h7? 4. ~xf7+1 Launching a checkmate
After 1.~xh7 '.t'xh7 2.<£\g5, the defender in five. (4.~h7+ 'it'fS 5.~hS+ 'it'e7
may find some immediate comfort in the 6.Yffxg7 when Black can defend f7 with
'.t'gS retreat because the king regains §f8 or continue to run the king towards
some degree of safety behind the re- the queenside with ... 'it'd7). 4 ••• ~h8
maining kings ide pawns. In the 'it'gS 5.~h5+ ~g8 6.~h7+ ~f8 7.~h8+
line, White will almost always move the ~e78.~xg7#
queen to attack the h7-square. Ifavail-
able, White's best move is almost al- 8
ways 3.'l1i'h5 where the queen will at- 7
tack both the h7- and f7-squares. The
double attack is often the key to the
success ofthe attack in this line because
the defender can often defend one but 4
not both of the squares. 3
The basic checkmate
abc d e f g h
7 The obvious point, first noted by
6 Voellmy, is that the checkmate is enabled
5 by White's asset on e5, which controls
4 the d6 escape square, and the presence
3 of the white queen on d8.
Two additional assets were required for
success. The e5-pawn controlled the
abc d e f g h escape square on d6 and White's dark-

Contemporary Theory

square bishop defended the 4Jg5, A defender blocks the escape route
discouraging Black from playing ~xg5.
This basic mate appears in many games 7
within this volume. It appears, often as 6
a rejected line, in games 141, 148 (with a 5
black piece blocking the d6-escape
square), 168, 192,234,240,258 (with
White's dark-square bishop controlling
d6), 259, and 264.

Even when this "mating" combination abc d e f g h

does not lead to an immediate mate
because one of the d6 or d8 escape Here, the Ae8 covers f7 but more
squares is vacant, it still can expose the importantly blocks the retreat by the
king to a scintillating attack. For such rook. 1.Jlxh7+ 'i!}xh7 2 ..£jg5+ 'i!}g8
examples,seegames 149, 154, 159, 167, 3.~h5 when Black must sacrifice the
211,220,250,251, 256, 257,260,267,270, queen to prevent the mate in one.
and 273.
8 7
7 6
6 5
5 4
4 3
3 2

abc d e f g h
abc d e f g h
Here, the queen is off d8, protecting the Here, the rook can run, but the ~e7
f7-pawn, but White still prevails by blocks the escape path. 1.Jlxh7+
activating the dark-square bishop on a3 'i!}xh7 2 . .£jg5+ 'i!}g8 3.~h5 Eld8
where it covers the f8 escape square. 4.~h7+ 'i!}f8 5.~h8*
1.Jlxh7+ 'i!}xh7 2..£jg5+ 'i!}g8 3.~h5
Eld8 4.Jla3! when Black can only delay For other examples of blocked escapes
the mate by sacrificing the major pieces. leading to quick checkmates in the ~g8
line, see games 182, 185, 198,216,223,
243,248,253, and 306.

Sacking the Citadel

Defending with tl/c7 The defender can shut down the attack
if ... 4::If6 is playable. White has only one
8 additional asset here, the dark-square
7 bishop. The absence of the e5-pawn is
6 sorely felt. 1 ..1lxh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+
~g8 3. tl/h5 Once again, the white
queen enters with attacks upon h7 and
t7. Here's however, the ~f8 need not
leave its defense of t7. 3 ... ~f6. The
attack is over. To overcome this
defense, White would need a rook on
abc d e f g h an open f-file or to be able to capture
on f6 with a knight or with the dark-
The defense can succeed when a queen square bishop.
or rook defends the t7-pawn laterally.
Here, the black queen is already For examples of defending with ... 4::If6,
defending f7 when the white queen see games 187, 199, 213, and 233.
arrives on h5. As a result, the ~f8 can
create a escape square without allowing Defending with ... ~f8
~xt7. 1..1lxh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g8 Elb8. White's only entry into
the position is now on h7. 7
can choose between running the king 6
to the queens ide and further defending 5
the f-pawn. 6 ••• Elf8 Even here, White 4
may have an edge in the endgame ifhe 3
is able to push aggressively the 2
kingside pawns.

For examples of the ~c7 defense, see abc d e f g h

games 152, 155, 173,206,212,269,290,
and 295. Here, the rook is already off f8. White
has an e5-pawn preventing the black
Defending with ••• ~f6 knight from returning to f6, but the
knight can also defend well from f8.
8 1..1lxh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g8
~f8 Of course, White can still enter
the position here on t7. If the black rook
were off f8 and the queen or rook
defended f7, White would need
substantial additional forces to prevail.
3 4.~xt7+ ~h8 White can draw trivially
2 here with a perpetual checK. With an
additional rook swing to h3, White
abc d e f g h would quickly prevail. Black, in turn,

Contemporary Theory

hopes to end the attack with ... '«rd7 or

".'«re7. 8
For examples of...4::\f8, see games 158, 6
228,252,268, and 292. 5
Defending with JUS
d6 diagonal. With additional assets, for
example a 4::\c3 and ~el to block the
3 queen's on e4, the attacking side can
2 often overcome such resistance.
1.Jlxh7+ Cifi'xh7 2..£JgS+ Cifi'gS 3.~hS
abc d e f g h ~d3 when now, to win quickly, White
would need to block the queen's reach
Here, a small change makes a huge toh7.
difference. Black's light-square bishop
is not blocked by the e6-pawn and has For examples in which Black defends
easy access to the key b I-h7 diagonal. by placing the queen on the bl-h7
Black has excellent chances to hold in diagonal, see games 135, 161, 165,214,
the <;!;>g8 line when a bishop or queen 224,229,239,277,297, and 304.
can reach f5 or another square along
the key diagonal. 1.Jlxh7+ Cifi'xh7 Attacking with an active rook and dark-
2 . .£JgS+ Cifi'g8 3. ~hS 3. '«rd3 The square bishop
attacking side can prevent ".Af5 at a
price, because the '«rd3 attacks h7 but 8
not also n. 3".g6 Black can therefore 7
simply prevent the mate threat on h7. 6
4.'«rh3 and another advantage of the 5
~c8 is that it prevents movement to the
h3-square. 4".Axh3 3 •.• JlfS stymieing
the attack.

For examples of defending by placing

the bishop on the bl-h7 diagonal, see abc d e f g h
games 151, 194,231,246, and 266.
The pattern is different when White has
Defending with ~d3 an active rook rather than an e5-pawn.
1.Jlxh7+ Cifi'xh7 2..£JgS+ Cifi'gS 3.~hS
In this case, Black defends with 5". ~d3 Once again, the queen reaches h5 with
again reaching the key bl- attacks upon f7 and h7. 3 ••• E!e8

Sacking the Citadel

4"~xf7+ ~h8 White does not have For games in the 'it'g8 involving a €Je7,
the usual mate in five because the e5- see games 160, 162, 164, 178, 200, 204,
pawn is not there to cover the d6 escape 205,249,255,262,278,296,302, and 305.
square. 5.E!e3 So the rook enters the
fray, threatening Elh3 "". Black has knights on e7 and d7

For examples of rook swings in the 'it'g8 8

line, see games 138,210,218,280,294, 7
298, and 304. 6
~e7 with protection on e6 4
8 2
abc d e f g h
4 With knights on both e7 and d7, White
3 can take advantage of the fact that the
2 Jlc8 no longer defends e6 to capture
that pawn with €Jxe6, threatening both
the queen and checkmate on g7.
abc d e f g h
1..1l,xh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g8 3.~h5
E!e8 4. ~xf7+ ~h8 5.~ xe6 when
As Voellmy pointed out first in 1911, the
Black can stave off an immediate mate
attack changes when Black has a knight
by sacrificing the queen with ... €Jf5.
on e7. 1 ..1l,xh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g8
3. ~h5 again entering the attack with
For relevant examples, see games 190,
additional pressure on both fl and h7.
226, and 271.
3 ... E!e8 4.~h7+ Often with the €Je7,
White should enter on h7 rather than
When the queen cannot reach h5
fl. The following variation should be
part of every attacker's arsenal. 'i:i'fxfl is
thought to be a mistake because White, 8
without any additional assets in the 7
position, may have to settle for a 6
perpetual check. In reality, 'i:i'ffl often 5
works too, so long as there are 4
additional assets. A rook swing might 3
deliver mate on the h-file, or even here,
bringing the Jlc1-a3 with its pin of the
€Je7 will often be enough. 4.'i:i'fxf7+
'it'h8 5.'i:i'fh5+ 'it'g8 6.'i:i'fh7+ 'it'f8 7.'i:i'fh8+ abcdefgh
€Jg8 8.€Jh7+ 'it'f7. 4 ••• ~f8 5.~h8+
~g8 6.~h7+ ~e7 7.Ag5+ f67 ... €Jf6 Here, the white queen does not have
8.'i:i'fxg7 'it'd7 9.€Jxf6+; 7 ... 'it'd7 8..llxd8 immediate access to the key h5-square.
8.~xg7# 1.Axh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g8 3.~h3

Contemporary Theory

The queen can still reach the h-file, but White has four additional assets, the
at h3, where it attacks h7 but not also e5-pawn, the dark-square bishop, the
f7. 3 ... E!eS-Black can therefore create 4Jd2, and the §eI. Nonethless, Black's
an escape square on f8 without having bishops are very active and Black has a
to wony about ~xf7. 4. ~h7+ ~f8 and significant counter attack on the white
although there is no quick mate, White center. 15.Axh7+ ~xh7 16..£)g5+
may still sustain an attack with ideas ~g8 Selecting the wrong line. Black
like ~h8-g7 or ~h5 and 4Jh7-f6 or with survives in the ~g6 line owing to his
the assistance of additional assets. development and especially the
connected rooks, which support §h8.
There are many examples in the book of 16 ... ~g6! 17.h4 §h8 18.~g4 f5
attacking queens that cannot reach h5 19.exf6 .llxf2+. Sacrificing back the
directly. For examples of the queen material in order to re-post the queen
entering on h3, see games 145, 150,203, on f5. 20.~xf2 ~c5+ 2I.~f1 ~f5+
215,245,265, and 275. For examples ofthe 22.~xf5+ 4Jxf5 23.fxg7 §xh4 24.4Jxe6
queen reaching h4, see games 146, 147, 4Jxg7 25.4Jxg7 §hl + 26.~f2 §xel
163,177,188,197,201,279,303. The white 27.~xel ~xg7 28.4Jf3;1;. 17.~h5
queen may also need to attack from d3, Axf2+ A common theme, sacrificing a
occasionally just to prevent the defender piece in order to reach the key bl-a7
from reaching the bl-h7 diagonal. diagonal. 18.~hl ~c2 Reaching the
Examples are games 157, 170, 181, 183, 191, diagonal, but White's additional assets
202,235,254,263,299, and 300. are able to block the queen's reach to
h7. 19•.£)de4 Axe4 20.E!xe4 and the
Gleizerov - Ganguly ~h5 covers the dl square. 20 ••• E!fc8
Calcutta 1999 21.~xf7+ ~h8 22.~h5+ ~g8
Queen's Gambit Accepted [026] 23.Ae3 A beautiful move, protecting
c1 and inviting the capture on e3 when
1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e3 .£)f6 4.Axc4 §h4 decides. 23 ••• .£)f5 23 ... .llxe3
e6 5..£)f3 c5 6. ~e2 a6 7.dxc5 Axc5 24.~f7+ ~h8 25.§h4+ ~h7 26.§xh7#
8.0-0 0-0 9.e4 b5 10.Ab3 Ab7 24.~h7+ ~f8 25.~g6 .£)xe5
1l..£)bd2 ~c712.e5 .£)fd713.E!el 26.~xe61-0
.£)c614.Ac2 .£)e7
Radu - Bondoc
8 Bucharest 2007
7 Sicilian Defense [B22]
1.e4 c5 2.c3 .£)f6 3.e5 .£)d5 4.d4
cxd4 5.cxd4 e6 6 ..£)c3 d6 7.exd6
Axd6 8 •.£)f3 0-0 9.Ad3 .£)c6 (D)
2 Il~f~.~~~J,~'Y~~~~~'~1 White has two additional assets, the
4Jc3 and the dark-square bishop, but
abcdefgh the real story is that Black can trivially

Sacking the Citadel

15.~h4e516..£Jd2 Black is better, but

8 both parties agreed to a draw. ~-~
6 In several games within this collection,
5 the defender forces a knight back to the
f6-square, sacrificing one so that the
second can defend. See games 171, 227,
228, and 244.

The 'ifjlg6line
In the 'itJg6 line, Black, often in
bring the 4Jd5-f6. 10.Axh7+ 'ifjlxh7 recognition that other alternatives are
l1.l~)g5+ 'ifjlg812. ~h5 .£Jf6 With one hopeless, boldly brings his king in front
move, White's attack has ended. 0-1 of the kingside pawns. It is not
surprising that Voellmy and Znosko-
Valickova - Stodolova Borovsky both concluded that the
Alekhine's Defense [B03] entire 'itJg6 line was simply too
Czechia 2001 dangerous to play. When they wrote,
they focused upon two alternatives for
1.e4 .£Jf6 2.e5 .£Jd5 3.d4 d6 4.Ac4
White, ~g4 and ~d3+. Vukovic added
e6 5.~e2 dxe5 6.dxe5 Jl.c5 7 ..£Jf3
analysis of a third alternative, h4 with
c6 8.0-0 0-0 9.c3 .£Jd710.Ad3 ~c7
White has two additional assets, the e5- the idea ofh5+. The reality is that White
pawn and the dark-square bishop, but has six variations for the attacking
Black has a counter-attack on the center arsenal.
and both knights are poised to retake
the f6-square. • ~g4, the traditional option,
provides protection for the
8 4Jg5 and threatens a
discovered check that can
decimate the defender.
• ~d3+ offers no immediate
protection for the knight, but
the check is annoying and
3 substantially limits the
2 defender's options.
• h4 provides useful support for
abc d e f g h the 4Jg5 and, when played with
a dark-square bishop, often
11.Axh7+ 'ifjlxh712 ..£Jg5+ 'ifjlg8 By threatens h5+ forcing the
far the best line for Black. 12 ... ~g6 ~g6-h6 where it will
13.'~e4+ f514.exf6+ ~xf615.~xe6#. encounter a devastating
13.~h5 .£J5f6 Giving back a piece to discovered check- from the
prevent the mate. 14.exf6 .£Jxf6 4Jg5.

Contemporary Theory

• Rook swings to g3 threaten

discovered checks, and an
immediate fih3, when
available, threatens i£fh5+.
• f5+ pries open the f-file and
the diagonal for the dark-
square bishop, but more
importantly opens the f4-
square for .t\e2-f4. At first glance, it appears that White
• .t\g3, or .t\fl-g3, which must have a forced win here. The queen
supports i£fh5+. covers f5, g5, and h5. The e5-pawn
covers the f6-square. The .t\g5 covers
The sections on each move will help f7 and h7. And White will often have a
you to determine the situations in dark-square bishop to discourage 'i11h6.
which each of the moves is optimal. And even without the dark-square
White often prevails in this variation bishop, 'i11h6 will now meet an
and indeed, there are many situations immediate i£fh4-h7 when Black will often
in which more than one move will win. walk into a mating net after 'i11xg5.
But the 'i11g6 line is by no means a walk
in the park. A substantial amount of For the moment, and often for quite a
experience is needed. while, the black king simply cannot
safely move and White has an
... ~g6, White plays ~g4 aggressive plan, .t\g5xe6 with a
discovered check that hits the fifS, the
i£fg4 has always seemed the most g7-square (which usually contains a
natural response to ... 'i11g6. Down a pawn but on rare occasions a bishop),
piece, the i£fg4 has many positive and from time to time the i£fdS. Other
features: discovered checks are also possible,
and so the defender must carefully keep
• It adds protection to the .t\g5; loose pieces and the queen from
• It immediately limits the squares such as c5 and c7.
defenders options;
• It threatens a discovered How can Black defend successfully
check that will win at least a once the queen reaches g4? One key is
rook and sometimes a queen; whether the e5-pawn is defended. An
• When the black rook is not on immediate .t\xe5 can fully disrupt
h8, the i£fg4 can move to h4 White's attack. Black may be able to
with the idea of i£fh7 # . force a knight back to the f6-square.
Black may have control over g3 making
Here's the basic position after i£fg4. it impossible for White to sustain the
queen on the g-file after .. .f5. And Black
may be able to defend with .. .f6, forcing
the .t\g5 to commit to a discovered
check before White has an opportunity

Sacking the Citadel

to bring other assets to bear. Note that A simple example. White has a secure
4Jxe6, when it nets only the ~fS, is often e5-pawn and the dark-square bishop as
insufficient for White to achieve a additional assets. Note that Black's .>lb7
sustainable initiative. no longer defends the e6-pawn, a
significant target if Black defends by
The advance of the f-pawn to f5 is the advancing the f-pawn. 1 . .1lxh7+
most frequent response to ~g4. With <it'xh7 2.4)g5+ <it'g6 2 ... ~g8 3.~h5
the ~g4 en prise, White, unless there ~e8 4:~h7+ \ftfS 5.'l11h8+ 4Jg86.4Jh7+
is an immediate check or checkmate on '!)e7 7.,ilg5+ 4Jf6 8.~xg7 +- 3. ~g4
e6 (~xe6), must either capture the pawn 3.~d3+ f5 4.4Jxe6 (4.e xf6+ \ftxf6
on f6, giving the black king some air, or 5.~f3+ 4Jf5) 4 ... ~e8 5.4Jxf8+ ~xfS
move the queen. When possible, a 3 ... f5 3 ... f6 4.4Jxe6+ Note that the
retreat to g3 preserves a discovered knight would be walking into a self-pin
check by the knight. When the black if the .>lb7 were instead on e8. 4.exf6
~f8 cannot be anchored on h8, ~g4- Had the e6-pawn been far better
h4 is another powerful idea, aiming for defended, White would have
~h7 and a thematic mate if the 4Jg5 is considered the retreat with ~g3 to
defended and an interesting mating net sustain the threat of a discovered
if the black king captures an check. 4 ... <it'xf6 4 ... gxf6 5.4Jxe6++-
undefended 4Jg5. 5.~xe6# It is not common for strong
players to fall into this checkmate. Of
Black's other option, an immediate .. .f6, course, when Black defends the e6-
is a useful resource when the black pawn, White can add ~el to pressure
queen is not reachable by a discovered the pawn further.
check from the 4Jg5. The advance to f6
has the merit of forcing the action and For other examples of the mate, or
eliminating the discovered check, which pressure from a rook on e6, see games
after .. .f5 might otherwise remain as a 161,232,246, and 302.
resource awaiting the arrival of
additional forces. The importance off6

The basics of~g4

1...f5 The typical reaction to ~g4.
2. ~g3 White is able to maintain the
queen on the file and the threat of
4Jxe6+. 2 ... §h8 A horr!ble move,
abc d e f g h removing the rook from its needed
defense of the f6-square. 3.4)xe6+

Contemporary Theory

~f7 Avoiding the mates after 'ttYxg7. piece, the<£lgS.17 ••• ~xg518.h4+The
4. 't\'xg7+ A key to the 'ttYg4 variation. mating net varies with the assets at
The <£Ie6 supports this capture, which White's disposal. In many of these
is more powerful still in rare positions positions, White can profitably play
when Black has a bishop rather than a i*xg7(+). 18 ••• ~g4 19.£3+ ~g3
pawn ong7. 4 ••• ~xe6 5.'t\'f6* 2O.'t\'h5+-

Thedangerof~x~e6 For relevant examples, see games 167,

169, 173,200,206,227,248,256,266,and
8 271.
6 't\'g4 without an e5-pawn
abc d e f g h
Even when the rook remains on fB, if 2

can still be very dangerous for Black to

capture the <£Ie6. 1.~ xe6+ ~f7 abc d e f g h
2.'t\'xg7+ ~xe6 2 ... '<t>eB 3.'ttYxfB#
3.~d4* Even without an eS-pawn, 'ttYg4 can
prevail. White relies here on the dark-
Sacrificing the ~g5 square bishop and §.fel as the
additional assets in the position.
8 I.Jlxh7+ ~xh7 2.~g5+ ~g6 3.'t\'g4
7 f5 4.'t\'g3 Maintaining the queen on the
6 g-file. 4 ••• f4 4 ... i*cB S.<£Ixe6+ '<t>f7
6.i*xg7+ '<t>xe6 7.§.el + '<t>d6 B.i*h6+
'<t>c7 9 ..1lf4+ 5.'t\'g4 Jlc8 S ... i*cB
6.<£Ixe6+ '<t>f7 (6 ... '<t>f6 7.§.el g6
B.i*h4+ '<t>f7 9.'ttYh7+ '<t>eBIO.<£IxfB+-)
7.i*xg7+ 'it'xe6 (7 ... 'it'eB B.i*xfB++-)
B.§.el+ '<t>d6 (B ... '<t>fS 9.§.eS #)
abcdefgh 9.i*xe7++-; S...'<t>f6 6.§.el.1lcB 7 ..1lxf4
<£IfS B.<£Ixe6 .1lxe6 9 ..1lgS++- 6.§el
Here, after .. .fS, White should play 'ttYh4- ~f6 Even though the eS-pawn is not
h7 because the black rook cannot reach present to prevent this retreat, the king
the hB-square. It is generally wise to move does encourage the.1lc1 to reach
consider this maneuver when the §.hB gS. 7.Jlxf4 ~f5 7 ... eS 8..1lxeS+ 'it'g6
cannot be anchored. 16. 't\'h4 f4 9.<£Ie6+ '<t>f7 lO.i*xg7+ ~xe6
17. 't\'h7+ Sacrificing an additional 1l.J1c7++- 8.~xe6 and the threat of

Sacking the Citadel

~gS is more important than the knight. obvious problem is that ii:l'g4 is not
8 ... Axe69.Ag5+ check, giving Black an opportunity to
capture on d4. 3 ..• ~xd4 Hitting the
For other examples, see games 138, 190, ~g4 as well as the eS-pawn. 4. ~g3
211,258,278, and281. f51 4 ... ii:l'xeS S.~f4 ii:l'fS 6.<£\xe6+ \!tf6
7.ii:l'xg7+ ~xe6 8..§.ael + .£leeS 9.~xeS
~g4 can fail to ••• 4) xe5 .£lxeS 1O.f4+- 5.4)xe6+ Check, and
attacking the ii:l'd4. 5 ••• ~g4= White's
8 attack is over. .£lxf8 will not sustain the
7 initiative.
~g4 can fail if Black controls g3
abc d e f g h

The undefended eS-pawn by itself need 3

not discourage the sacrifice, but here, 2

Black can control both g4 and g3.

1.-'txh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 3. ~g4 abcdefgh
More common, without the eS-pawn,
For examples, see games 141, 168,223, Black's dark-square bishop controls g3.
259, and 289. 1.-'txh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 3.~g4
f5 -+ and White cannot capture the f-
~g4 can fail to ~xd4 pawn en passant.

8 For examples, see games 149, 153, 188,

7 240,244,262,268,282, and 292 .•
Black forces a knight to f6
abc d e f g h

Black has two obvious attacks upon the 3

d4-pawn, which will become vulnerable 2

once the <£\f3 moves to gS. 1.Axh7+

~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6 3.~g4 The abc d e f g h

Contemporary Theory

White initiates the sacrifice with only

the e5-pawn as an additional asset, and 8
Black can -force a knight back to f6. 7
1.Axh7+ 'iflxh7 2.4)g5+ 'iflg6 3.~g4 6
4)5f6 The move obviously returns a 5
piece, but it foils White's hope to retain
the queen on the g-file. 4.exf6 4) xf6
5.~g3 4)h5 6. ~g4 4)f6=

For an example, see game 171.

abc d e f g h
Phanthomas2004 - Mertens 2004 12...f513.~g3 ~e814.4)e2 A knight
Owen's Defense [A40] that can reach f4 is a very useful asset
in this line. 1-0
l.d4 e6 2.4)f3 b6 3.Ag5 Ae7
4.Axe7 4) xe7 5.e3 0-0 6.Ad3 Ab7 Chow-Yeten
7.0-0 d6 8.Axh7+ 'iflxh7 9.4)g5+ Queenstown 2009
'iflg610.~g4 Queen's Gambit [D06]

8 1.d4 d5 2.c4 4)f6 3.cxd5 ~xd5

4.4)c3 ~a5 5.4)0 e6 6.Ad2 AM
7 Ir"':~.,.r":~" . ...:r. 7.e4 0-0 8.Ad3 c6 9.e5 4)d5
10.Axh7+ 'iflxh7 1l.4)g5+ 'iflg6
abc d e f g h 5
10••• 'iflf6 Trying to take advantage of
the absence of a pawn on e5.
1l.4)h7 # Don't letthis happen to you.
abc d e f g h
Freyberg - Koeppe
Germany 200 1 12 •.•f5 13. ~h4 The .§.f8 cannot safely
Caro-Kann Defense [BI2] move to h8. 13•.• f414.~h7+ 'iflxg5
15.4)e4+ 15.h4+ ~g4 16.~g6#;
1.e4 d5 2.d4 c6 3.e5 e6 4.4)f3 c5 5.c3 15 ..£\e4+ ~g4 16.h3# 1-0 16.f3#;
4)c6 6.Ad3 cxd4 7.cxd4 Ab4+ 16.~h3#
8.4)c3 4)ge7 9.0-0 0-0 10.Axh7+
'iflxh711.4)g5+ 'iflg612. ~g4

Sacking the Citadel

Lednicky - Seben else return to g6, when ~h7 is

Slovakia 2001 checkmate if the knight defended or will
French Defense [C 19] force the capture of the 4::lg5. It is also
e.vident that the e5-pawn, as in the ~g4
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.1~c3 .1lb4 4.e5 c5 Ime, plays a key role in controlling f6.
5.a3 .1lxc3+ 6.bxc3 J£\c6 7.J£\f3
J£\ge7 8 . .1ld3 .1ld7 9.0-0 0-0
10..1lxh7+ ~xh7 1l.J£\g5+ ~g6

~g3 ~d3+

The practical result is that Black's

options are also quite limited after
~d3+. If the king is unable to capture
the 4::lg5, usually because White has a
abc d e f g h
dark-square bishop on the c1-h6
diagonal or because ~xg5 leads to
12...f513.~g3 ~a5 13 .. .f4 14.~g4
mate, Black will have three choices.
~c7 15 ..Ilxf4+- 14.h4 E!h8? Fatally
~g6-h6 will meet ~h7 checkmate. 'it'h5
weakening the f6-square. 15.J£\xe6+
will meet a mate in two, with ~h3-h7 or
~f7 15 ... ~h7 16.~xg7#; 15 ... ~h5
16.4::lxg7# 16.~xg7+ ~xe6 16... 'it'e8
17.~xh8++- 17.~f6# 1-0
In almost all ofthe games, Black has no
choice therefore but to play .. .f5. Note
••. ~g6, White plays ~d3
that unlike ~g4, Black loses the option
here of playing .. .f6 because the king is
~d3 is often given as an alternative to
in check. After .. .f5, White has several
~g4 without a great deal of comment.
pleasant options:
Unlike ~g4, in the left fragment below,
~d3 places the 'it'g6 in check. As a
result, the defender must remove the • 4::l( x)e6 will be playable when
the e6-square is undefended;
king from check and does not have time
to capture a central pawn, remove the • White can transpose to the
~g4 f5 line with ~d3-g3 while
queen from danger, or maneuver a knight
having eliminated options
back to f6. Of course, the ~d3, unlike
other than .. .f5 after ~g4;
the ~g4, does not provide direct
support for the 4::lg5. One of the key • ~d3-h3, which is similar to
~g4-h4 except that the ~h3
variations, therefore, is the immediate
does not help to defend the
~xg5. Note also that the black king has
4::lg5; -
access to h5, but after ~d3-h3, it is clear
that Black will either capture the 4::lg5 or

Contemporary Theory

• The remarkable en passant For examples of games with .£\xe6 as an

discovered check with e5xf6; alternative to the en passant capture,
• And occasionally when see 250, 251,295, and 299.
White does not have an e5-
pawn, even .§.xe6+. ~d3<i!;>xg5

~d3mates 8
8 6
7 5
6 4
5 3
4 2
2 abc d e f g h

abcdefgh Normally, White could count on two

additional assets, the .£\c3 and the
Black must play .. .f5. All king moves lead secure e5-pawn. After Black captures
to simple checkmates. 3 ••. f5 when the .£\g5, White can also count on the
White has four candidates from which advance of the kings ide pawns, notably
to select the best move. 3 ... \tlh6 the f-pawn. 1.A.xh7+ <i!;>xh7 Vdg5+
4.~h7#; 3... \tlh5 4.~h7+ (4.~h3+ ~g6 <i!;>g6 3.~d3+ <i!;>xg5 4. ~h7 A critical
5.~h7#) 4 ... ~g4 5.~h3#, (5.h3#, or maneuver, cutting off all of the king's
5.f3 #) 4.exf6+ A remarkable check, retreats. The idea often works even
when once again, king retreats to the h- when Black can respond with an
file are harshly punished. 4 ..£\xe6 is anchored .§.h8 because White can
certainly an option worth considering; advance the kingside pawns with check
4. ~g3. A position identical to the and because the g-pawn is en prise.
variation 3.~g4 f5 4.~g3; 4.~h3 is 4 ••• Jdxe5 5.dxe5 g6 6.f4+ <i!;>f5
similar to ~h4 when White first plays 7.~h3# The final mate makes good
~g4. This is a very nice option when use of the .£\c3 controlling the e4
the black rook, as here, cannot be escape square.
anchored on h8 4 .•. <i!;>xf6 4 ... \tlh6
5.~h7 #; 4 ... ~h5 5.~h7+ (5.g4+ ~xg4 For other games after ~d3+ involving
[5 ... ~h4 6.~h3#] 6.~h3# [6:~'f3+ a successful attack after \tlxg5, see
~h4 7.~h3#]) 5... \tlg4 6.h3# ,6.f3#, games 171,250,251,252,255,273, and
or6.~h3#) 5.'§xe6# 279. The attack does not always prevail.
For examples when White does not
The immediate checkmate with .§.e6 is have adequate additional assets here,
rare, but White often follows up after see games 173,260, and 292.
the en passant capture with .§.fel. See
games 143, 171,202,223,240,268,279,
282,284, and 30 I.

Sacking the Citadel

~d3 with no blackf-pawn 3.~d3+ f5 3 ... ~h64.~h7#; 3... ~h5

4.~h3+ (4.~h7+ <;!;>g4 5.f3# [5.h3#;
8 5.~h3#]) 4 ... <;!;>g6 5.~h7# 4.~h3
7 Often the best move when the defender
6 cannot safely respond with §h8.
For examples of~d3-h3 when the rook
cannot reach h8, see games 157, 206,
221,255, and 283.

abc d e f g h
The absence of the f-pawn, which gave 7
Black useful options in the ~g8Iine, is
a significant liability here. 1.,1lxh7+
Cjf}xh7 2.4)g5+ Cjf}g6 3. ~d3+ Etf5
Black cannot block the check with .. .f5.
3 ... <;!;>h6 4.~h7#; 3 ... <;!;>h5 4.~h3+ 3
(4.~h7+<;!;>g45.h3# [5.~h3#]4 ... <;!;>g6 2

5.~h7#). 4.4)xe6 Of course, g4 also

wins, but 4Jxe6 penn its White to win abcdefgh
even more. 4 ••. ~h4 5.4)f4++-
White has three additional assets, the
For examples, see games 186,270,272, e5-pawn, the dark-square bishop, and
and 274. the 4Jc3, but Black has significant
pressure upon e5. 1.,1lxh7+ Cjf}xh7
~d3-h3 2.4)g5+ Cjf}g6 3.~d3+ Using the check
to avoid the capture of the e5-pawn.
8 3.~g4 fails because Black can capture
7 the e5-pawn with tempo, and escape
6 the discovered check on f5. 3 ... 4Jcxe5
5 4.~g3 <;!;>f5!= 5.~f4+ ~g6 6.~g3 'ittf5.
3 .••f5 4. ~g3 Reaching the traditional
position without having had to deal
with ~g4 4Jxe5. 4 •.• ~a5 5.4) xe6+
Cjf}f7 6. ~xg7+ Far superior to the
capture of the §f8. 6 •.• Cjf}xe6 7.~g6+
abc d e f g h 4)f6 7 ••• Cjf}e7 S.Jlg5+ +-

White relies here on two additional For additional examples of~d3-g3, see
assets, the e5-pawn and dark-square games 159 and 168.
bishop. The key in this example is that
the §f8 cannot be anchored on h8.
1.,1lxh7+ Cjf}xh7 2.4)g5+ Cjf}g6

Contemporary Theory

~d3 with a loose piece on c5 The attack with ~d3+ fails here because
Black can block the b 1-h7 diagonal with
8 4Jf5, exposing the ~d8's attack upon
7 the undefended 4Jg5. 1..1l,xh7+ ~xh7
6 2.~g5+ ~g6 3.~d3+? 3.'iii'g4 f5
5 4.~g3 +- 3 ... ~f513 ... ~xg5 4:l*h7 +-
4Jg6 5.f4+ 4Jxf4 6Jhf4 +-; 3 ... f5
4.4Jxe6+- 4.g4 4.4Jh3 'iii'h4-+
4 ••. ~xg5-+

For similar examples, including knight

abcdefgh moves to e4 to block the check from
the ~d3, see games 153, 181, 190,205,
Note the black queen on c5 and White's 226,249,285, and 296.
4Jc3 ready to fork the black king if it
reaches f6. 3.Jlxh7+ ~xh7 4.~g5+ A much more compelling defense would
~g6 5.~d3+ White's attack can also be Jli5 to block the check, but no games
be potent after ~b1 and especially in the book match that criterion.
~c2. There are positions in which the
white queen can reach b1 or c2 but not
Baudifier - Saatdjian
d3 directly, and there are times when
Lyon 2000
~c2 has the added benefit of attacking
French Defense [C02]
a loose piece on the c-file. 5 ...f5 Once
again, the king moves get mated.
5 ... ~h6 6.~h7#; 5 ... <i!th5 6.~h7+ 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.~f3 ~h6
(6.~h3+ ~g6 7.~h7#) 6 ... <i!tg4 5.Jld3 ~c6 6.0--0 cxd4 7.Jlf4 Jlc5
7.~h3#. 6.exf6+ ~xf6 7.~ge4+ 8.lael ~ge7 9.h3 0--0 lO•.1l,xh7+
Black can capture only one of the ~xh711.~g5+ ~g612. ~d3+
knights (7.4Jce4+).
For other examples of such captures on 7
c5,seegames 181, 191,235,239,263, 6
and 264. 5
~d3 against ~f5 and ~xg5
abc d e f g h
12... ~f5 13. ~h3 Taking advantage
ofthe 1=:([8's inability to defend from h8.
3 13 ... ~h6 13 ... 4J xe5 14.Axe5 d3
2 15.~h7+<i!txg516.4Jd2Axf2+ 17.~h1
Axel (17 ... 4Je3 18.4Jf3+ ~g4
abcdefgh 19.~h3#) 18.4Jf3+ <i!tg4 19.~h3#

Sacking the Citadel

14.g41 Threatening~h5#.14 ••. .£)xg4 ••. ~g6, White plays h4

15:~h7# 1-0
Many chess players are familiar with the
Sziraki - Olah idea ofpreparing the Greco Sacrifice with
Eger 1991 h4. The pawn helps to defend 4Jg5,
Semi-Slav Defense [047] especially when Black has a bishop on
e7. A later section of this chapter
1.e4 e6 2 •.£)e3 d5 3.d4 .£)f6 4 •.£)f3 focuses exclusively upon positions in
e6 5.e3 A,e7 6.A,d3 dxe4 7.A,xe4 0- which Black defends with .Ilxg5.
08.0-0 .£)bd7 9.e4 ~e710.e5 .£)d5
11.~e2 .£)7b612.A,d3 e513..£)b5 The h2-h4 pawn advance is useful in
~e6 14.dxe5 A,xe5 15.A,xh7+ other situations as well, especially
~xh716..£)g5+ ~g6 when White has a dark-square bishop
and a rook on hl. Indeed, the advance
8 can manufacture an effective,
7 additional asset out of White's pristine
6 kingside structure.
In the section that focuses upon the
'it'h6 line, we will see that h4 can be a
distinct liability there when White does
not have a dark-square bishop. But here,
many players have selected the ~g6
abcdef line in part because the ~h6 was not a
viable choice owing to the presence of
White wins in several variations. ~c2 a dark-square bishop on the cl-h6
places winning pressure upon the ~c5, diagonal.
~e4-h4 penetrates to h7 effectively,
and 17.~g4 wins too, because after We have already seen that there are
l7 ... f6, White has 18.~e4 f5 19.~h4. situations in which White cannot play
17.~d3+ 17.~c2+ f5 18.exf6+ ~xf6 'l:;i'g4 or ~d3+ after 'it'g6. But White
19.4Je4++-; 17:~e4+ f5 18.~h4+-; retains a viable alternative, especially
17.~g4 f6! 18.~e4+! f5 19.~h4 when the attacking side has a dark-
17 •.. f5 18. ~h3 f4 Aiming for square bishop. Rather than play ~g4,
complications by disrupting the ~c1 's for example, when the most frequent
communication along the key diagonal. response, ... f5, attacks the queen,
19.~h7+ ~xg5 20.h4+ The quickest requiring the capture of the pawn or the
path. 20 .•• ~g4 21.~g6+ ~xh4 retreat of the queen, White can consider
22.g3+ fxg3 23.~g5+ 1-0 23.'l:;i'xg3+ playing h4 first, threatening rather than
'it'h5 24. 'l:;i'g5 #; 23. 'l:;i'g5+ ~h3 executing ~g4. With the pawn already
24.~h5# on h4, White gains the threat ofh4-h5+,
often forcing the black king to h6, when
the dark-square bishop gains enormous
influence, or to f5, where the king is
often mated simply with g2-g4 or 'l:;i'f3.

Contemporary Theory

Once the pawn is on h4, White can play

~g4 knowing that ... f5 will now meet 8
h5+, driving the king to h6. 7
8 5
7 4
6 3
5 2
abc d e f g h

16.h5+ ~h6 16 .. .'~f6 even without

abcdefgh the e5-pawn, the king is too exposed
without a retreat to e7. 17.~f3#.
The h4-advance works best when 17.4)xti++-,or17.4)xe6++-.
White has a dark-square bishop, a
secure e5-pawn, and a rook on hI. For examples ofh4-h5 against <it>g6, see
Remarkably enough, the advance of the games 131, 178, 199, 217, and 291.
h-pawn often still succeeds even when
White has castled kings ide and a black h4 when the black rook cannot reach
rook can reach h8 in no small part h8
because .§h8 once again weakens f7.
1.j'txh7+ ~xh7 2.4)g5+ ~g6
Without a dark-square bishop, the king
can often hide effectively on h6, 8
although White does have the idea of 7
following up with ~d3 threatening 6
~h7#. If Black is forced to play ... g6to
prevent the infiltration of the queen on
h7, h4-h5 promises to open the h-file
for the .§hl.

Black defends best when the king's rook

can reach h8 with an anchor, but there abc d e f g h
are many examples in which the black
rook's ability to reach h8 by itself is 3.h4 ~d7 4.h5+ ~h6 4 ... <it>f5
insufficient to blunt the white attack. 5.~f3#; 4 ... <it>f6 5.~f3+ ~f5 6.4Jh7#
5.4)xti+ ~d3 will often work here.
The pawn is already on h4 5 ••. ~h7 6.Ele6 4)f5 7.4)g5+ ~g8

With the pawn already on h4, White

wins quickly and effectively with h5+, For similar examples, see games 134,
forcing the king to h6 where the dark- 139, and 237.
square bishop ends the discussion.

Sacking the Citadel

hS forces EthS, weakening f7

1.-'lxh7+ <i!}xh7 2.~gS+ <i!}g6 7
8 5
7 4
6 3
5 2
3 abcdefgh
Once again, h4 is playable even without
abc d e f g h a rook on hI. 3.h4 3.~g4?! .£\xe5 4.~g3
<it'f5 and the win is elusive. 3 .. :~e7
h4 and ~g4 both prevail, and most Seeking to safeguard the queen from
players might avoid h4 without having the coming discovered checks. 4. ~g4
the rook on hI. Here, the threat of h5 only now, since ... f5 meets h4-h5+.
forces the §.f8 to give up its defense of 4.h5+ <it'h6 5.~g4 f5 6 ..£\f7+ <it'h7
the f7-square. 3.h4 3.~g4!? la,xf2+ 7.~g6+ ~g8 8 ..£\g5+-. 4 .••fS S.hS+

4.~xf2 f5 5.~h4 §h8 6.~g3 +- <i!}h6 6.~f7+ A double discovered

3 .•• EthS 4.hS+ A nice surprise. The check, and the queen now has access
to the g6 entry-square. 6 ..• <i!}h7
push still works despite the fact that
7.~g6+ <i!}gS8.~gS+-
the §h8 can capture it. 4.~d3+ f5
(4 ... ~h5 5.g4+ <it'xg4 6:iii'f3+ ~xh4
For similar examples, see games 141,
7.~h3#) 5.exf6+ 'it'xf6 6.~f3+ ~e7
160,213, and 234.
(6 ... ~g6 7.~f7+ ~h6 8 ..£\xe6++-)
7.~f7+ ~d68.§xe6+ la,xe69.M4++-;
Sanchez Almeyra - Rodriguez
4.~g4 f5 5.exf6 (5.~g3 ~e7 6 ..£\xe6+
Maringa 1991
'it'h7 7 ..£\xc5 ~xc5 8.e6±). 4 ••. EtxhS French Defense [C 16]
S:~d3+ fS 5 ... <it'h6 6.~h7# 6.exf6+
And Black has no good move. 'it'h6 1.e4e6 2.d4dS 3.~c3 .11,b44.eS ~e7
finds a mate in one, and the alternative S . .11,d2 b6 6.~f3 0-0 7 ..11,d3 cS
cedes the §h5 and, more important, the S ..11,xh7+ <i!}xh7 9.~gS+ <i!}g6
f7 entry square. 6 ..• <i!}xf6 6 ... <it'h6
7.~h7# 7:~f3+ <i!}e7 S:li\'f7+ <i!}d6 8
9.Af4++- 7
For similar examples, see games 137,
192,207,231, and 287.

h4 with a castled king 3


1 •.11,xh7+ <i!}xh7 2.~gS+ <i!}g6

abc d e f g h

Contemporary Theory

10.h4! More accurate than 'l£rg4 - method will depend here upon Black's
1O.~g4 f5 11.~g3 f4 12.~g4 'l£re8±. full set-up. Obviously, White could also
10 ... ~eS 11. ~g4 Only now, when play 7.4::If7 and 8.Ag5.
l1...f5 meets 12.h5+.11 ..• ~f511...f5
12.h5+ ~h6 13.4::Ixe6+ ~h7 For additional examples of the Elh3
14.~xg7# 12.h5+ <t>h613.~ge4+! swing, see games 130, 189, 194,210,218,
13.4::Ixf7+? ~h7 14.~g6+ ~g8-+ 280, and 304.
13 ... <t>h7 13 ... g5 14.hxg6+ ~g7
15.Elh7+ ~g8 16.4::If6# 14.h6 1-0 Rook swings to g3
14 ... h6 g615.4::If6+ ~h816.4::Ixe8+-
••• <t>g6, White swings a rook to the 7
kingside 6
Rooks play an important part as
additional assets in most lines, but they
are especially effective when they can
reach g3 and h3 quickly.

Rook swings to h3 abc d e f g h

8 I.Jlxh7+ <t>xh7 2.~g5+ <t>g6 Once

7 again, the fastest method is with a rook
swing, here to g3. 3.Etg3 Retaining the
4::Ig5 and threatening 4::Ixe6+. 3.El h3
'l£rxg5 4.Elg3+-. 3 •.. f6 3 ... f5
4.4::Ixe6++- 4.~d3+ f5 5.~xe6+
3 When the knight will often threaten at
2 least the Elf8, if not more, and aim for
Elxg7. 5 .•. <t>f7 5 ... ~h6 6.Elxg7+-;
abcdefgh 5... ~h7 6.Elxg7++- 6.~xf5+ One of
many advantages to the rook swing,
I.Jlxh7+ <t>xh7 2.~g5+ <t>g6 Many when it is available, is that it frees the
moves win here for White, but the queen up for other duties, notably this
fastest and most compelling method is powerful capture. 6 ••• <t>e7 6 ... ~g8
with Elh3 threatening 'l£rh5. 3.Eth3 7.Elxg7++- 7.Etxg7++-
3.Elg3 f5 (3 ... ~f5 4. i1i'd3 #) 4.4::Ixe6+
3 .•• EthS To defend the h5 entry square, For additional examples of the Elg3
the rook must cede its defense of f7. swing, see games 96, 216, 229, 248, and
4. ~d3+ f5 5.exf6+ Here, Black has 294.
only one move because king retreats to
the h-file are covered by the rook. Gharamian - Waquet
5 .•. <t>xf6 6.Etf3+ And now, the rook La Fere 2003
enters powerfully on the unopposed f- French Defense [C06]
file. 6 ••• <t>e7 7.Etf7+ The winning

Sacking the Citadel

l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~d2 ~f6 4.e5 ••• <i!(g6, White plays ~g3
~fd7 5.Ad3 c5 6.c3 ~c6 7.~e2
'll\'a5 8.0-0cxd4 9.cxd4 Ae710.~f3 Having or moving a knight to g3 is so
f611.exf6 ~ xf612.~f4 0-0 13.Etel powerful that it trumps other
.Q.b4 14.Ete3 ~e4 15.Axe4 Etxf4 considerations. Here are the basic
White undertakes the sacrifice relying examples. The 4Jg3 permits the white
upon two additional assets, the dark- queen to infiltrate powerfully upon h5.
square bishop and the E!.e3 ready to Black's best hope, when White does
swing to g3 or h3. 16..Q.xh7+ <i!(xh7 not have a pawn on e5, is to run the
17.~g5+ <i!(g6 king to f6 and e7.

8 ~g3 mates on h5
6 8

5 7
4 6
3 5
2 4
abc d e f g h 2

When the rook swings to g3 and h3 abcdefgh

both win convincingly. 18.Eth318.E!.g3
E!.f5 (lB ... e5 19.4Je6+ 'it'f7 20.Axf4 White has three additional assets, the
'it'xe6 21.dxe5 +-) 19.4Jxe6+ 'it'f7 e5-pawn, the dark-square bishop, and
(19 ... 'it'h7 20.E!.xg7+ 'it'hB 21.~g4+-; the 4Jg3, which plays a key role in its
19 ... 'it'f6 20.4Jxg7 Ad6 21.4Jxf5 Axf5 support of both h5 and f5 and
22.Ag5+ 'it'e6 23.E!.e3+ 'it'd 7 discourages Black from bringing the
24.~h5 +-) 20.4Jxg7 +- 18 ••• Etxd4 king to g6 or h6. Note that the e5-pawn
1B ... 'it'xg5 19.Axf4+ 'it'f6 (19 ... 'it'xf4 also has an important role to playas
20.'l*h5 +-) 20.~h5 'it'e7 21.E!.g3 'it'd7 well in guarding f6.
22.E!.xg7+ 4Je7 23.E!.c1 +-; 1B ...'it'f6
19.Axf4 +- 19. 'll\'h5+ <i!(f6 19 ... 'it'f5 1..Q.xh7+ <i!(xh7 2.~g5+ <i!(g6 Black,
20.E!.f3+ 'it'e5 21.4Jf7+ 'it'e4 22.~g4# perhaps seeing the mate in five in the
20.'ll\'f7+ <i!(e5 21 ..Q.e3 Etc4 21...'it'd6 'it'gBline, takes a stab at an alternative.
22.~xg7 Ad2 23.4Jf7+ 'it'c5 24.Axd4+ 2 ... 'it'gB 3.~h5 E!.eB 4.~xf7+ 'it'hB
4Jxd4 25.~fB+ 'it'b6 (25 ... 'it'b5 5.~h5+ 'it'gB 6.'l*h7+ 'it'fB 7.'l1i'hB+ r:te7
26.4Jd6+ +- ) 26.~dB+ 'it'a6 27.E!.a3 +- 8.~xg7#; 2... 'it'h6 3.~h5# 3.'ll\'h5#
22.h31-0 The knight supports the ~h5 and even
cuts off the f5-retreat.

For other examples of this quick mate,

see games 79, 155, 180,and230.

Contemporary Theory

4)f1-g3 Here, .§.fel and a nice 4Jg3-f5 maneuver

overcomes the absence of an e5-pawn.
8 1 . .1lxh7+ \t'xh7 2.4)g5+ \t'g6
7 3. ~h5+ Without a pawn on e5, the king
6 can run to f6. If Black had a piece on
5 e7, 4Jh7 would mate. 3 ••. \t'f6 4.4)f5!
exf5 4 .. .';!ilxf5 5.4Jh7+ 'it>e4 6 ..§.dl with
itrf3# to follow; 4 ... e5 5..§.el +-. Likely
with a winning advantage, depending
of course on the rest of the Black set-
up. 5.lael g6 6.~h6 lahS 7.4)h7+
abcdefgh laxh7S..1lg5#

The 4Jg3 is so powerful that moving a Trangoni - Rigo

knight there from f1 or e2 is often the Venice 2005
most efficient path for the attack. Queen's Pawn Game [DOS]
1•.1lxh7+ \t'xh7 2.4)g5+ \t'g63.4)g3
Black has only one move to prevent l.d4 e6 2.4)f3 4)f6 3.4) bd2 c5 4.e3
~h5. 3 ..• lahS But the rook move
4)c6 5.c3 d5 6 ..1ld3 .1le7 7.0--0 0--0
weakens the f7-square. 4.~d3+ f5 S.~e2 b6 9.dxc5 bxc5 10.e4 ~c7
4 ... ~h6 The .§.hB prevents ~h7, but the
1l.h3 .1lb7 12.lael 4)d7 13.4)f1
obvious knight fork is also checkmate,
laaeS 14.4)g3 .1ld6 15.e5 4)cxe5
5.4Jxf7 #. 5.4) xe6 With two powerful
16. .1lxh7+ \t'xh7 17.4)g5+ \t'gS
threats, 4JxdB and ~xf5. 5.exf6+ If
17 ... ~g6
Black has a bishop defending e6, White
can try the en passant capture.
5 ... \t'xf6 Avoiding the mate after 'it>h6,
but now giving the queen a path to f7
with ~f3+. 5 ... 'it>h6 6.4Jf7#. 6.~f3+
\t'e7 7. ~f7+ with a powerful attack.

For examples involving 4Jf1-g3, see

games 115, 135, 161,240, and 295.

4)g3 without e5
abc d e f g h
7 IB.4Jxe6! Here, the immediate itrh5+
6 permits the Black king to reach e7.
IB.itrh5+ 'it>f6. IB .. .fxe6 allows a pretty
mate in two. IB ... 'ltfbB 19.4Jxf8+ AxfB
20.'ltfh5+ 'it>f6 21.Ag5+ 'it>e6 22.f4 +-
19.~h5+ '<t>f6 20.Ag5#.

IS.4)h5 f619.4) xg7 \t'xg7 20. ~h5

abcdefgh lahS 21.4)xe6+ laxe6 0--1

Sacking the Citadel

.•• <it>g6, White plays f5

8 7
7 6
6 5
5 4
4 3
3 2

abc d e f g h
convincing continuation. 16.h4 .I1b6+
Another interesting resource for White, 17.~h2 .I1f5 18.h5+ ~f6 (18 ... ~h6
f5+, opens the diagonal for the dark- 19.4Jxf7+) 19.94 ~c8 20.gxf5 ~xf5
square bishop and the f4-square for the 21.Jld2 'It'e7 22.E!.el + 'It'f8 23.E!.xe8+
knight. 1.ltxh7+ <it>xh7 2 ..£)g5+ <it>g6 ~xe8 24.~e2+ ~f8 25.E!.e1 4Jd7
3.f5+ It should be evident that the 26.~e7+ 'It'g8 27.E!.eU. 16... Axf5
combination has sting even without the 17.Elxf5! Ab6+ 17 ... 'lt'xf5 18.~f3+
E!.f1 in support. 3 ...exf5 4 ..£)f4+ with ~g6 (18 ... 'lt'e5 19.~e4+ ~f6
the obvious threat of~h5 #. 4 ... <it>xg5 20.4Jh7#) 19.~xf7+ ~h6 20.4Je6++-;
4 .. .'it'h6 5.~h5# 5.~h5# 17 ... ~d7 18.E!.xf7+- 18.<it>hl ~e7
19 . .£)e6 <it>h7 19 ... fxe6 20.~h5#
For examples off5 in action against the 20.Elxf7 ~xf7 21..£)g5+ <it>g8
'It'g6Iine, see games 151, 170,205,219, 22 . .£) xf7 <it>xf7 23. ~h5+ <it>f8
and 253. 24.Jtg5 .£)a6 25.~h71-0

Yanayt- Grabowski The <it>h6line

Las Vegas 2009
Schmid Benoni [A60] The 'It'h6 line is a much less common
defensive choice for an obvious
1.d4 .£)f6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 e6 4 •.£)c3 exd5 reason. When White has a dark-square
5.cxd5 Ad6 6.e4ltc7 7.f4d6 8.Ad3 bishop on the c1-h6 diagonal, the ~h6
0-0 9 •.£)f3 Ele810.0-0 c411.ltxc4 is often subject to a brutal discovered
.£)xe412..£)xe4 Elxe413.Ad3 Ele8 check from the 4Jg5, which has a
14.Axh7+ <it>xh715..£)g5+ <it>g6 (D) versatile reach notably including the
d8-square where the black queen often
White cannot successfully play either resides.
~d3 or ~g4 owing to the influence of
Black's Jlc8. Even 16.h4 meets Jlb6 The number of squares that the knight
check and .I1f5. 16.f5+ The only can reach in one or two moves is
impressive. Practically speaking, the list
includes d8, the queen's starting
square, as well as many of the squares
to which the queen often develops, c7,

Contemporary Theory

d6, c5, d4, and f6. Add the h8-square games 217,255, and 270). When the 4Jg5
to the list, an important square because is anchored, as is almost always the
Black may move a rook or the queen case when White has a dark-square
there to prevent the i;l'd3-h7 and ~d3- bishop on the key diagonal, ~d3
h3-h7 maneuvers. threatens ~h7 as well as ~d3-h3-h7
(which works well after ... g6).
7 With the bishop on the diagonal but
6 blocked by a mobile f-pawn, f4-f5,
activating the discovered check is often
the answer. See games 133,200, and 242.
One of the disadvantages off4-f5 is that
the e6xf5 capture can open the e-file to
the defender's advantage (see game
abc d e f g h
White plays ~d3
When unable to prevent the discovered
check, the defender will often move the Even when the dark-square bishop has
queen to a safer square. Movements off been traded or cannot easily reach the
the eighth rank, however, run the risk key c1-h6 diagonal, White has other
that 4Je6+ or 4Jf7 + will snag a now resources, notably ~g4-h4 and ~d3,
undefended rook. again with the idea of~h7 # as well as
For the defender, there are three useful,
central squares that are immune in one 8
or two moves from the 4Jg5 's 7
discovered checks, e8, d7, and
especially e7. For examples of games
involving a black queen on those three
squares, see games 131, 141, 160, 165,
216,219,237, and 306, all still won by 3
White because the attacking side often 2

has possibilities even more powerful

than the discovered check. abc d e f g h

Even when the black queen can be Both ideas work well here .... §f8-h8
caught by a discovered check, White's defending on h7 simply encourages
best move with the discovered check in 4Jxf7 forking the king and queen.
the air is often not actually to move the
4Jg5, but rather to threaten mate with 1.~d3 1.i;l'g4 §h8 (1...~c7 2.i;l'h4+
i;l'g4-h4-h7 (see games 159, 162, 167, 'it'g6 3.~h7#) 2.4Jxf7++- 1 ... Eth8
242, 243, and 255) or with ~d3 (see 1...g6 2.~h3+ <:t;g7 3.i;l'h7# 2 •.£!xf7+

Sacking the Citadel

When White does not have a dark-

8 square bishop
6 The ~h6 line is clearly more complex
when White no longer has a dark-square
bishop, or at least when that bishop is
not on the cl-h6 diagonal. Even under
such circumstances, White has
considerable chances, depending of
course upon the number of additional
abc d e f g h assets that can join in the attack.

1.~d31.~g4'§'h82.~h4+~g63.~xh8 In the ~h6 line, when White no longer

1 ••• ~h8 2~h3+ ~g63.~xh8 has a dark-square bishop, or it is off the
key diagonal, White still has multiple
Rook swings to h3 options and possibilities:

Another recurring theme is a rook swing • Return the bishop to the c1-
to the h3-square. Note in the following h6 diagonal (see game 296);
example that the 4Jg5 is again immune • Place the queen on the
from capture thanks to the collaboration diagonal, usually with ~d2 or
between the queen and rook, with a nice i1¥e3 (which may have the
assist from the e5-pawn eliminating the additional merit of ~e3-h3)
f6-e7 escape route. and the usual discovered
check with the 4Jg5 (see games
8 9,24,86,245 and 285);
7 • Use the queen to launch an
attack along the bl-h7
diagonal with ~e4, ~d2,
~bl, or most often with i1¥d3.
See games 29,74, 127, 131,
164,181, 183, 198,250,268,270,
272,274,283,291,299, and 306;
• Storm the defender's kings ide
abc d e f g h with a patient pawn storm (see
game 18).
1.~g4 1..§.e3 g6 (1...~xg5 2 ..§.g3+
~h6 (a) 2 ... ~f4 3.~g4# [3.i1¥f3#]; (b) Voellmy was the first to emphasize that
2... ~h4 3.i1¥g4#; (c) 2... ~f5 3.~g4# the defender is often well advised to
[3.~f3#]; 3 . .§.h3+ ~g5 [3 ... ~g6 select the 'it'h6 line when White does
4.~h5# (4.i1¥g4#)] 4.'§'h5+ [4.~h5+ not have a dark-square bishop and
~f4 5..§.h4# ]4 ... ~g6 5.~g4#) 2..§.h3+ when White has already played h4,
~g7 3.i1¥g4 .§.h8 4.'§'xh8 ~xh8 5.~h4+ blocking the h-file and ruting out the
~g8 6.i1¥h7+ ~f8 7.4Jxe6+ 1. .. ~h8 ~g4-h4 and the i1¥d3-h3-h7
2.~h4+ ~g6 3.~xh8 maneuvers.

Contemporary Theory

It turns out that it's not at all that simple.

It is true that 'ffi'd3 still threatens 'ffi'h7, 7
and so Black will often counter with ... g6 6
(especially when ... §h8 is not an option) 5
blocking the queen's access to h7. After
... g6, White can try h4-h5, using the
pawn as an asset rather than a liability.
(see games 10,74,127,198, and 274).
Here's the basic idea.
abc d e f g h
7 18.Eldhl.Q.f(719.gxf/+ Elxf/ 2O.~g6
CjfjIfS 21.Elxg7 Elxg7 22.ElhS+
In addition to whether or not there's a
dark-square bishop, the other key
3 consideration is whether Black can play
2 ... §h8 defending the h7-square with
support from the other rook or queen.
abc d e f g h Obviously, without such support, the
white queen in the 'ffi'd3-h3 line will
1:~d3 The h4-pawn blocks the usual simply capture the §h8. For games with
'ffi'g4-h4 maneuver, and the e3-pawn rook support when White has a dark-
blocks 'ffi'd2, but White has another square bishop, see games 159, 162,242,
interesting idea. The threat, of course, 243, and 255. For games with a dark
is 'ffi'h7 #. Defending with ... §h8 invites square bishop without support for the
the knight fork on f7, and so 1 .••g6 2.h5 §h8, see game 167 .
.Q.xg5 2 ... r,t>xg5 3.hxg6; 2 ... r,t>g7
3A:'lxe6+ +-. The knight is immune For games without rook support when
since fxe6 allows 'ffi'xg6 3 ... fxe6 White has a dark-square bishop, see
4.'ffi'xg6+ r,t>h8 5.'ffi'h6+ \t>g8 games 129, 173,201,227,246,247,248,
6.§cgl + +-; 2 .. .f5 3.exf6 §xf6 4.hxg6+ and 256. For games without a dark-
'it'g7 5.§h7+ r,t>f8 (5 ... r,t>g8 6.§chl +- ) square bishop and without support for
6.4Jxe6+ +-. 3.hxg6+ ~g7 3... Ah4 the §h8, see games 161, 166,226,251,
4.§cgl r,t>g7 5.§g4+- 4.Elh7+ ~gS and 270.
5.gxf/+ Elxf/ 6:~g6+ +-
Rendle - Guido
In game 127, Teschner-Spassky, the Bratt02005
verdict hung by a tempo. Here is the Sicilian Defense [B40]
position in that game after move 17 in
which White has an extra tempo, 0-0-0. 1.e4c5 2.~f3 e6 3.b3 ~f6 4.e5 ~d5
5 •.Q.b2 .Q.e7 6.~c3 ~ xc3 7 ..Q.xc3 0-
o S..Q.d3 ~c6 9.h4 f510.exf6 .Q.xf6

Sacking the Citadel

1l.exf4 Af6 12.-'\.xh7+ <it'xh7

8 13.{)g5+ <it'h614. ~d3 g6
6 8
5 7
4 6
3 5
2 4
abc d e f g h 2

12.Axh7+ <it'xh7 13.{)g5+ <it'h6 abcdefgh

Black selects the 'it'h6 line in part
because White's dark-square bishop By no means is h5 a reliable
has no ready access to the c1-h6 continuation. To be sure, after h5,
diagonal. Still, White has a winning White again threatens <£\xf7 and
attack, in part because the ~c3 controls ~xg6#, but Black's ~f6 eliminates the
the e5 and f6 flight squares. 14.~d3 threat. 15.h5 .Q.xg515 ... 'it'g716.hxg6
g614 ... ~xg515.hxg5+ 'it'xg516.~g3+ §hB17.§xhB~xhB-+ 16.fxg5+~xg5

'it'f5 17.§h5+ g5 1B.~d3+ 'it'g4 17.hxg6+ <it'g718.f4 ~xg6 ~1

19.~h3+ 'it'f4 20.~f3#; 14 ... §hB
15.<£\f7++- 15.h5 threatening ~xg6#. Van Malde - Metzen
With a pawn on f7, White's threat Karlovy Vary 2009
would be the <£\xf7+ fork and ~xg6#. French Defense [C 13]
15 ... {)e7 15 ... 'it'xg5 16.f4+ 'it'xf4
1.d4 d5 2.{)c3 {)f6 3.-'\.g5 e6
17.~f3+ 'it'g518.~g3+ 'it'f519.~xg6+
4.Axf6 ~xf6 5.e4 dxe4 6.{)xe4
'it'f4 20.0-0#; 15 ... 'it'g7 16.~xg6+
~d8 7.{)f3 Ae7 8.,1ld3 {)d7 9.~e2
'it'hB 17.~h7# 16.{)f7+ 16.hxg6+! 0-0 10.h4 {)f6 1l.{)xf6+ ,1lxf6
'it'g7 (16 ... 'it'xg517.~g3+ 'it'f51B.§h5+ 12.~c613.<it'b1 a514.Axh7+
'it'e4 19.d3#) 17.§h7+ 'it'gB 18.~h3 <it'xh715.{)g5+ <it'h6
~xc3 19.~h6 §xf2 20.§f7 ~xd2+
21.'it'xf2 ~e3+ 22.'it'fl ~xg5 23.~h7 # 8
16... Etxf7 17.hxg6+ 1-0 17.hxg6+
'it'g7 1B.§h7+ 'it'gB 19.9xf7+ 'it'fB
Mocquard - Herdier 4
Guingamp 1999 3
Slav Defense [D 13] 2

.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.cxd5 cxd5 4.{)f3 abc d e f g h

{)f6 5.{)c3 e6 6 ..Q.f4 .Q.e7 7.e3 0--0
8.Ad3 {)c6 9.Etc1 {)h510.h4 {) xf4 16.~e4 g6 17.h5 Axg5 18.hxg6+
<it'g719.Eth7+ <it'f619 ... 'it'gB 20.gxf7+

Contemporary Theory

!':Ixf7 21.~g6++- 20 ..~e5+ ~xg6 Pinilla Santibanez - Fernandez

20 ... 'it'e7 21.~xg5+ 'it'd6 22.'~f4+ ~d7 Aranguiz
23.g7 !':1gB- 24.~xf7+ ~d6 25.~f4+ Euskadi 1992
'it'd726.~f8+- 21.E!g7+ 1-0 21.~g7+ French Defense [C05]
'it'f5 22.g4+ 'it'xg4 (22 ... 'it'e4 23.~e5+
'it'f3 24.!':Ih3+ 'it'xg4 (a) 24 ... ~xf2
25.~h2#; (b) 24 ... 'it'g2 25.~g3# 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~d2 ~f6 4.e5
[25.~h2#]; 25.!':Igl + 'it'xh3 26.~g3#) ~fd7 5.f4c5 6.c3 ~c6 7.~df3 ~b6
21...'it'h6 22.!':Ihl + .llh4 23.!':Ig4+- 8.a3 Ae7 9.~h3 0-0 10.Ad3 f6
11.b4 cxd4 12.cxd4 fxe5 13.dxe5
Dawkins - Stupak ~xb414.axb4 j'txb4+ 15.~f1 ~c5
IECG e-mail 2004
Queen's Indian Defense [EI4] 8
1.d4 ~f6 2.~f3 b6 3.e3 Ab74.Ae2 5
e6 5.c4 Ab4+ 6.Ad2 Axd2+ 4
7.~bxd2 d5 8.cxd5 j'txd5 9.0--0 0--0
10.j'td3 ~bd7 11.e4 j'tb7 12.e5
~d5 13.h4 c5 14.j'txh7+ ~xh7
abc d e f g h
7 16.j'txh7+ ~xh7 17.~fg5+ ~h6
18. ~g4 The usual idea of ~g4-h4;
18.f5? !':Ixf5+-+. 18••• ~b5+ 19.~gl
~e8 Preventing h4, but now, of course,
White can safely advance the f-pawn.
3 20.f51-0
Schmitz - Heisterhagen
abc d e f g h Bad Zwesten 2005
Sicilian Defense [B22]
White's sacrifice should not succeed
here. The h4-pawn blocks the idea of 1.e4c5 2.c3 ~f6 3.e5 ~d5 4.d4cxd4
~g4-h4. ~c2, with the idea of~h7, is 5.cxd4 e6 6.~f3 d6 7.Ac4 ~c6 8.0-
stuffed by ... g6 because there is no !':Ihl o Ae7 9.Ad2 0-0 10.~c3 ~xc3
behind the h-pawn to support h5. 11.Axc3 dxe5 12.dxe5 b613. ~e2
16. ~g4 16.4::lc4 is White's best chance Ab7 14.E!ad1 ~c7 15.Ad3 ~b4
here, providing protection for the e5- 16.Axb4 j'txb417.Axh7+ ~xh7
pawn and preparing ~d2. 16 ... ~e7 18.~g5+~h6
17.~de4cxd418.f4 ~e319.~xti+

Sacking the Citadel

White has a dark-square bishop but it

8 is off the key diagonal. White can win
here with two lines, itl'd3 and 'lfig4, but
6 notwithAc1 or'lfic2.16.~d3116.'lfic2
5 g6 and the itl'c2 does not have access
to h3; 16.~g4 'lfib4 17.~g3 f5 IB.h3
f4 I9.'lfih4+ 'it1g6 20.'it1h2 f3 21.'lfih7+
'itlxg5 22.~xg7+ 'it'f5 23.~h7+ 'itlg5
24.Ac1 + +-; I6.Ac1 'it'g6I7.'lfid3+ f5
IB.'lfig3 4Jxe5 +. 16 ... f5 I6 ... g6
abc d e f g h I7.itl'h3+ 'it1xg5 (17 ... 'itlg7 IB.'lfih7#)
I8.Ac1 + Ae3I9.Axe3+ +-; I6 ... 'itlxg5
The E!d4 rook swing gains a useful I7.~g3+ ~h6IB.itl'h4+ 'itlg6I9.g4+-
tempo against the Ab4. Note that, 17.~h3+ <it>xg5 I7 ... ~g6 IB.'lfih7+
should Black capture the 4Jg5, the rook 'it1xg5 I9.h4+ 'itlf4 (19 ... 'itlg4 20.'lfig6+
and queen, with a small assist from the 'it1xh4 [20 ... ~f4 21.~g3+ 'itle4
e5-pawn, easily overwhelm the lone 22.~f3#] 21.g3+ ~h3 22.'lfih5#)
king. 19.Eid4119.E!d3 g6 20.E!h3+ ~g7 20.~h5withamatingnet.18.~h71-0
21.E!h7+ 'it1gB 22:~e3 'lfic6= 19•.•f5 I8.~h7 4Jxe5 I9 ..ilxe5 itl'b4 20.'lfixg7+
19.. .'i!j1xg5 20.itl'g4+ 'it1h6 21.itl'h4+ 'itlg6 ~h5 21.~hI +-
22.E!g4+ 'it1f5 23.E!g5 #; 19 ... g6
20.E!xb4 (20.itl'e3 +-) 20.Eih4+ 1-0 The .1lxg5line

Janecek - Petricek In addition to the normal king moves,

ICCF e-mail 2004 ~gB, 'it1g6, and ~h6, Black will often
French Defense [C06] have the option of capturing the knight
on g5 with his dark-square bishop.
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~d2 ~f6 4.e5
~fd7 5 •.1ld3 c5 6.c3 ~c6 7.~gf3 As in Greco's original example from 1620
~b6 8.0-0 cxd4 9.cxd4 ~ xd4 (game #1), ... Axg5 is an important
10.~ xd4 ~xd411.~f3 ~b612.b3 variation of the sacrifice. In the line, in
.1lc513..1lb20--0 14..1lxh7+ <it>xh7 addition to the light-square bishop's
15.~g5+ <it>h6 attack upon h7, a knight reaching g5,
and the queen reaching the h-file,
8 White's h-pawn will be at h4, defending
7 the 4Jg5 when it joins the attack. Black
6 will usually have a dark-square bishop
5 on e7 or f6, and it is also common for
4 the black queen to add support to the
3 attack from dB. Obviously, in the
following fragment, Black retains other
options. As we will see, the 'itlgB line
usually transposes after ~h5 forcing
abc d e f g h the bishop capture on g5. The 'itlg6line
is especially interesting when White

Contemporary Theory

does not have a dark-square bishop The attack tends to be more challenging
because, as we have seen, the h4-pawn and the defense substantially eased
blocks the usual 'l11g4-h4 maneuver. But when the f8-square is vacant at the time
the 'it'g6 line is fraught with danger of the sacrifice because Black can
because White has, in addition to 'l11d3+ escape the immediate mate with ~g8-
and 'l11g4, the powerful idea ofh5+. f8. White has two primary options in
that line, continuing with ~h8xg7, or
Here, after the ...1.l.xg5 capture, White playing the immediate g5-g6.
will recapture with the h4-pawn, h4xg5,
opening the h-file for a White rook When Black's rook rests at f8 and the f-
which usually rests on hI but may
file is open, Black gains the opportunity
require posting there. As a result of the
to play ... .§.f5, pinning White's g5-pawn
capture, the black king will often be in
to the queen, preventing or at least
check from the .§.hl.
delaying g5-g6. The obvious problem
for Black in that line is that the .§.f5 is
vulnerable to attack from White's
kingside pawns.
5 After 4Jg5+, Black's move order does
4 matter because the immediate ... ~g8
3 ~h5 eliminates even the possibility of
2 'it'g6. By playing ...1.l.xg5 first, Black
usually gains the choice between ... ~g8
abcdefgh and ... ~g6.

On the retreat to g8, White will usually On 'it'h7-g6, ~h5 will force the king to
continue naturally on the next move f5 where the black king is extremely
with 'l11h 5 threatening mate on h 7 or h8. exposed and almost always subject to a
If Black's rook is on f8 and the f-pawn mate, the form of which will however
on f7, White's attack will usually depend upon the position and the
succeed quickly. additional assets at White's disposal.

The horrific threat of'l11h8 '"' eliminates Perez Alvarez - Rios Rebollo
defenses such as .§.f8-e8, ... 4Jf6, or even Madrid 2009
occupying the bl-h7 diagonal. French Defense [CII]

To create an escape square, Black will 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£\c3 .£\f6 4.e5
need to advance the f-pawn to f6 or f5, .£\fd7 5..£\f3 Jl.e7 6.Jl.d3 0--07.h4
when g5-g6 will end the discussion. c5
Indeed, many dozens of quick mates
follow that monotonous pattern. Black's Here is the sacrifice with ... 1.l.xg5 in its
defensive hope is to have a knight simplest form. Once again, only the
capable of capturing the g-pawn or else black king defends the h7-pawn, the
a very convincing counter attack on the 1.l.d3 is set to sacrifice on the h 7 -square,
queenside or in the center. the 4Jf3 can reach g5, the ~dl eyes h5,

Sacking the Citadel

and White even has a dark-square 10.hxg5+ Cit'g81O ... 'itfg611.~h5+ 'itff5
bishop to discourage ... 'iti'h6. 12.g4# mate in one, of course, butthere
are also three instructive mates in two.
8 (a) 12.~h7+ 'iti'g4 (12 ... g6 13.~h3#)
7 13.~h3#; (b) 12.~h3+'iti'g613.~h7#;

(c) 12.g6+ ~g5 13.~xg5# or 13.g4#.
1 t:~h5 f6 11...f5 12.g6 12.g6 1-0
Muller - Brueckner
3 Hanau2008
2 Owen's Defense [BOO]

abc d e f g h l.d4 b6 2.~c3 e6 3.a3 .Q.b7 4.e4 d6

5 . .Q.d3 ~d7 6.~f3 .Q.e7 7 . .Q.f4
White initiates the sacrifice with four ~gf6 8. ~d2 0--0 9.0--0--0 a610. ~e2
additional assets, the secure e5-pawn, a51l.g3 ~h512.h4 ~xf413.gxf4
the dark-square bishop, the h4-pawn, b5 14.§dgl c5 15.e5 cxd4
and the .£\c3, which controls the e4-
square should Black attempt to run his
king forward to g6 and f5. The sacrifice
works easily here for many reasons.
Black's rook occupies the f8-square,
Black cannot play ... §f5 to inhibit the
later advance of White's g5-pawn,
Black's knights will not be able to
capture the g-pawn when it reaches g6,
and Black has no counter-attack on the
queenside or center. 8 •.Q.xh7+ Cit'xh7 abc d e f g h
9.~g5+ In addition to ... i.txg5, Black
has the customary array of choices. The The sacrifice is especially notable here
because the Black i.tb7 reaches straight
'iti'h8 line results in the usual mate in
through to hI. White attempts the
two. The 'iti'g8 line transposes quickly
sacrifice counting on the .£\c3, the e5-
because, after 10.~h5, Black must
pawn, and the h4-pawn!§hl as
capture on g5 to prevent mate. The 'iti'h6
additional assets. 16..Q.xh7+ Cit'xh7
line is quite hopeless given the presence 17.~g5+ .Q.xg5 17 ... 'itfg8 18.~h5
of the dark-square bishop. 9 ••• .Q.xg5 i.txg5 transposing to the game;
9 ... 'itfg8 10.~h5 ~xg5 (10 ... §e8 17 ... 'itfh618.~d3 g6 (18 .. .f519.exf6 g6
11.~h7+ 'itff8 12.~h8#) Il.hxg5 20 ..£\f7+ §xf7 21.~xg6#) 19 ..£\xf7+
transposing; 11...f5 (11...f6 12.g6) §xf7 20.~xg6#; 17 ... 'itfg618.~d3+ f5
12.g6; 9 .. .'~h6 10 ..£\xf7++- Fritz 12 (18 ... 'iti'h6 19.~h7#; 18 ... 'iti'h5
suggests instead 10 ..£\ge4 with mate in 19.~h7#) 19.exf6+ 'iti'xf6 20.'£\h7+ 'itff7
12; 9 ... 'iti'h8 10.~h5+ 'iti'g8 11.~h7#; 21.~g6+ 'iti'g8 22.~xg7#. 18.hxg5+
9 ... 'iti'g6 10.~d3+ f5 (a) 10 .. .'~h6 .Q.xhI18... 'itfg619.~h5+ 'itff5 20.~g4+
11.~h7#; or (b) 10 ... 'itfh5 Il.g4+ ~g6 2l.f5+ exf5 22.~h5# 19.~h5+
'iti'xg4 (11...'iti'h6 12.~h7#) 12.~f3#. Cit'gS 2O.§xhl f5 21.g61-0

Contemporary Theory

Sharafiev - Gazizov 1l •.£)f3 f612.e4 .£)b613.e5 fxe5

Oktjabrsky 2004 14.fxe5 Jte715.h4 b4
French Defense [COO]
1.e4 e6 2.b3 .£)f6 3.e5 .£)d5 4.c4 7
.£)b6 5.d4 Jte7 6.,£)0 0-0 7 •.Q,d3 6
d5 S.h4 f5 9.exf6 Jtxf6 5

abc d e f g h

White has the secure e5-pawn, the dark-

square bishop, and the ~h1 as
additional assets. Black's only hope in
abc d e f g h this dangerous line is bringing the {'\c6-
e7 where it can capture the g6-pawn
With the open f-file, Black gains two and prevent the usual mate on h7.
options, ... ~eS with the idea of<it>gS-f8, 16..Q,xh7+ !ifjlxh7 17. .£)g5+ Jtxg5
and ... ~f5, pinning the advancing g5- 17 ... <it>gS IS. ~h 5 .llx g5 The only move
pawn. 10.Jtxh7+ !ifjlxh7 1l. .£)g5+ to prevent ~h7-hS#. 19.hxg5
!ifjlgS 11...<it>h6 12.~d3+-; 11...<it>g6 transposing to the game; 17 ... <it>h6
12.~d3+ 'iti'h6 (12 ... <it>h5 13.g4+ <it>h6 lS.{'\g4+ 'iti'h5 (lS ... <it>g6 19.h5+ <it>f5
[13 ... <it>xg4 14.~f3#] 14.~h7#) 20.0-0#) 19.{'\f6+ <it>g6 20.~c2+ <it>h6
13.~h7#; 11...Jlxg5 12.hxg5+ <it>g6 21.~h7# or 21.{'\f7#); 17 ... <it>g6
(12 ... <it>gS transposing to the game) lS.h5+ 'iti'h6 (lS ... <it>f5 19.94#)
13.~h5+ 'iti'f5 14.g6+ (14.~h7+ <it>g4 19.{'\g4#. 1S.hxg5+ Black's move
[14 ... g615.~h3+ 'iti'e416.{'\c3+ <it>xd4 order preserves the option of playing
17.~e3#] 15.~h4# [15.~h3#]) lS ... 'iti'g6. 1S•••!ifjlgS1S... <it>g619.~h5+
14... 'iti'e415.~e5+'iti'd316.~e2+'iti'xd4 'iti'f5 20.g4 # 19. t\'h5 .£)e7 20.g6
17.~e3#. 12.t\'h5 Jtxg5 13.hxg5 20.{'\g4+- 20 ••• .£)xg6 21.t\'xg6And
EteS13 ... ~f5 fails immediately because White, with three assets aiming at the
the ~dS is unanchored. 14.t\'hS++- kingside, wins easily. 21. •• t\'eS
14.g6'iti'fS15.Jla3+ 1-0 15 ..llg5+-or 22. t\'h7+ ctIfi 23.Jtg5 f!g8 23••• EthS
15 ..lla3+ ~e716.~hS#. 24.t\'xhS+- 24..£)g4 1-0 With the
idea of 0-0+.
Chomistek - Csefalvay
Trencin 1995 Kulhanek - Fuchs
Queen's Pawn Game [DOO] Bm02001
French Defense [COO]
1.d4 .£)f6 2.e3 e6 3.Jtd3 d5 4 •.£)d2
c5 5.c3 .£)c6 6.f4 .Q,d6 7. t\'e2 0-0 1.e4 e6 2 ..£)f3 d5 3.e5 c5 4.b4 cxb4
S..£)h3 .£)d7 9 . .£)f2 c410.Jtc2 b5 5.d4 .£)e7 6.a3 .£)ec6 7.axb4 Jtxb4+

Sacking the Citadel

8.c3 .1le7 9 . .1ld3 0-0 10.h4 f6 16.~h5 E!.f5 17.~h7+ '<t'f8 lS.E!.h5
1l.exf6.1lxf6 ~d6-+ ) l3 ... b4

8 8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2

abc d e f g h abc d e f g h

White misses the e5-pawn, and has to For additional assets, White has the
rely upon the dark-square bishop and 4Jc3 and E!.h1, unlikely enough given
the E!.hl. 12..1lxh7+ <i!lxh7l3./f)gS+ Black's counter-attack on the
.1lxgS 13 ... 'it1gS 14.~h5 Axg5 queenside. To survive, Black employs
transposing; 13 ... '<t'g6? 14.h5+ +- ... E!.f5 pinning the g-pawn. 14..1lxh7+
(14.~d3+ 'it1h5 15.g4+ 'it1xg4 <i!lxh7 15./f)gS+ <i!lg8 lS ... '<t'g6?
16.~f3#). 14.hxgS+ <i!lg814 ... '<t'g6? 16.~d3++-; 15 ... 'it1h6? 16.~d3 g6
15.~h5+ '<t'f5 16.~h7+! g6 (16 ... '<t'g4 17.h5 4Je7 (17 ... 'it1xgS 18.~g3+ '<t'fS
17.E!.h4# or 17.~h3#) 17.~h3+ 'it1e4 [lS ... '<t'h6 19.~xg6#] 19.E!.dfl#)
lS.~e3+ 'it1f5 19.~f4# (19.~f3#) lS.hxg6+ '<t'g7 19.E!.h7+ '<t'gS
IS. ~hS /f)e7 Once again, Black 20.4Jf7+- 16.~hS .1lxgS 17.hxgS
depends upon 4Jxg6 to prevent the fifSI White is unable first to secure the
mate. 16.g6 /f)xg6 17.~xg6 Here, g5-pawn with f4.18.g41? 18.E!.df1! bxc3
White retains an advantage after (lS ... E!.xfl+ 19.E!.xfl ~e7 20.g6+-)
17 ... 4Jc6 or 17 ... 4Jd7 or even 17 ... e5 19.94 E!.xfl + 20.E!.xfl +- 18 ... fixgS
but Black has some play. 17.•• ~f6? 19.~h4 fig619 ... '<t'f7! 20.E!.dfl + '<t'eS
18.~h7+ <i!lf7 19.fih3+- ~d8 21.axb4 ~e7+ 20.~h7+ <i!lf7
20.fif3+ <i!le8 21.fixf8+ <i!lxf8 21.fidfl + fif6 = 22.gS fixfl+
22.~h8+1-0 23.fixfl+ <i!le7 24.axb4 24.~xg7+
'<t'd6 (24 ... '<t'eS 2S.~f7#) 2S.axb4
MaIinin - Ivanova 4Jxb4 26.E!.fS ~e7 27.E!.f7 ~dS=
Soukhumi2007 24 ••• /f)xb4 2S.~xg7+ <i!ld6 26.fif8
Staunton Gambit [A82] ~e7 27.fif7 ~d8 28./f)e4+ dxe4?
And now, the win is quite pleasing;
l.d4 fS 2.e4 fxe4 3./f)c3/f)f6 4.f3 2s ... 'it1c6=. 29.~eS+ <i!lc6 30.~c5+
exf3 S./f) xf3 e6 6 ..1ld3 .1le7 7 ..1lgS <i!lb7 31.~xb4+ <i!la7 31...'<t'c6
/f)c6 8.a3 a6 9. ~e2 0--0 10.0--0--0 bS 32.g6 +- 32. ~cS+ <i!lb7 33.g6 eS
1l..1lxf6 .1lxf6 12.h4 dS l3.<i!lbl 34.dS e3 3S.g7 e2 36. ~b4+ 36.~c6+
Preparation, removing the king from the '<t'b837.~c3+- 36•.• <i!la73-7.~d21-
cl-h6 diagonal (13.Axh7+ 'it1xh7 o 37.gS~ ~xgS 3S.E!.xc7++-
14.4Jg5+ Axg5+ 15.hxg5+ '<t'gS

Contemporary Theory

Antony - Eide
New Zealand 1996 8
Queen's Pawn Game [D02] 7
l.d4 4)f6 2.4)f3 d5 3.Af4 e6 4.e3 5
Ae7 5.Ad3 0-0 6.4)bd2 c5 7.c3 c4 4
8.Ac2 h5 9. ~e2 Ab7 10.e4 4)c6 3
1l.e5 4)d712.h4 ~e8 2

abc d e f g h
Here, White initiates the sacrifice with
5 insufficient additional assets, only the
4 dark-square bishop, and Black can suc-
3 cessfully use the vacated f8-square to
2 escape the pressure. 10.Axh7+ ~xh7
11.4)g5+ ~g8 12.~h5 Axg5
abc d e f g h 13.hxg5 ~f8 14.g6 14.~h8+ ~e7
15.~xg7 Ae616.g6 Elg817.~h7 Elxg6
Black has conspicuously played Ele8, 18.~xg6 fxg6 19.~g5+ ~f8 20.~xd8
vacated the fB-square for the king's Elxd8+ 14... ~f6-+ 15.gxf7 ~xf7
escape. White counts nonetheless on 16.~g5 ~f6 17.~h8+ ~e7
the secure e5-pawn, the dark-square 18.~xe8+ ~xe8 19.~h5+ g6
bishop, and, after the capture on g5, 20. ~h7 4)e7 21.0-0-0 Ae6 22.~el
the Elh1.13.Axh7+ ~xh714.4)g5+ ~d7 23.Ad4 ~f7 24.~h4 4)f5
~g8 14 ... ~g6 15.~g4+-; 14 ... ~h6 25. ~e4 d5 26. ~e2 4) xd4 27.cxd4
15.<£Jxf7+ +- 15. ~h5 Axg5 15 ... <£Jf8! a6 28.f3 ~e8 29. ~f2 ~h8 30. ~e3
16:tii'xf7+ ~h8 17:tii'h5+= 16.hxg5 ~h2 31.~gl ~f4+ 32.~bl Af5
~f8 16 ... f5? 17.~h8+ ~f7 18.g6+ 33.~f1 ~xd4 34.~e2 ~6 35.~e8+
~xg6 19.~h5#; 16 ... f6 17.g6 ~f8 ~d6 36.~e3 ~xg2 37.~a3+ ~d7
18.~h8+ ~e719.~xg7# 17.g61+- 1- 38.~a4+ ~c6 39.~d4 ~xc2+
o 17 ... ~e7 17 ... fxg6 18.~xg6 <£Je7 4O.~al ~d241.~g7+ ~c642.~6+
19.Elh8+ <£Jg8 20.<£Jf3 with the idea of ~b5 43.a3 ~dl + 0-1
<£Jg5 and Elxg8; 18.gxf7 ElfBI9.~g5+.
Schwarz - Barth
Papp-Nagy Berlin 1999
Pecs1998 French Defense [CI4]
Petroff Defense [C42]
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 4)f6 4.Ag5
l.e4 e5 2.4)f3 4)f6 3.4) xe5 d6 4.4)f3 Ae7 5.Axf6 Axf6 6.4)f3 0-07.e5
4) xe4 5.4)c3 4) xc3 6.dxc3 Ae7 j},e7 8.Ad3 c5 9.h4 cxd410.Axh7+
7.j},d3 0-0 8.h4 ~e8 9.Ae3 4)c6 ~xh7 1l.4)g5+ Axg5 11 ... ~h6-+
12.hxg5+ ~g6 12 ... ~g8 13.~h5 f5
14.g6+- 13.~h5+ ~f5

Sacking the Citadel

It's mate in three. 15.g6+! <llxf4

8 15 ... 'ifte416.~e5#; 15 ... 'it>f616.~g5#
7 16.~e5+ 1-0 16 ... 'iftg417.f3#

The <llh8line
The retreat of the king to hB is an ex-
tremely rare occurrence because the
move typically results in a quick mate
in two moves. Obviously, ~h5+ now
abc d e f g h occurs with an attack upon the black
king, leaving no opportunity whatever
It's mate in 10. Can any human find it? for a meaningful defense.
14.g6+ 14.g4+! 'iftf4 (14 ... 'iftxe5
15. ~h2 #) 15.4Je2+ 'it'e4 (15 ... 'it'f3 8
16.~h3+ 'ifte4 17.~d3+ 'it'xe5
18.~g3+ 'it'e4 19.~f4#; 15 ... 'it>xe5
16.~h2+ 'it'e417.~f4#) 16.~h2 ~xg5 6
(16 ... ~a5+ 17.'it'fl ~d2 18.f3+ 'it>xf3 5
[IB ... 'it>e3 19.~f4#] 19.~g2+ 'it>e3 4
20.E!.h3#)17.~g3+- 14••• ~g515.g4+ 3
<llf4 16. .£Je2+ Winning the queen, 2
which is surely enough. 1-0
Jayaram - AIlahverdiyev
Baku 2008
French Defense [ClO] 1.j},xh7+ <llxh7 2 . .£Jg5+ <llh8?
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£Jd2 dxe4 4 ..£J xe4
j},e7 5 . .£Jf3 .£Jf6 6 . .£Jxf6+ j},xf6 This mate is so easy to see that it never
7.j},d3 b6 8.Ae4 c6 9.Af4 0-0 occurs outside scholastic events. I have
10.h4 Ab7 1l.Axh7+ <llxh7 mentioned the 'ifthB line only twice in
12 . .£Jg5+ j},xg5 13.hxg5+ <llg6 this book, in games 230 and 288, and no
13 ... 'it>gB 14.~h5 f5 15.g6+- commentator has to date provided a
14.~h5+~5 reason why the 'it'hB line might have
any independent significance.
7 As it happens, there are at least three
6 reasons why the 'it'hB line might be the
continuation of choice.
l. When the defender's f7-pawn has
moved, retreat of the king to g8 might
expose it to attack along- the a2-bB
diagonal. The 'it'hB line is worth
abc d e f g h considering when the mate on h 7 is off

Contemporary Theory

the table (in other words, the attacking

queen does not have ready access to 8
the h-fiIe) and when ~h7-g8 would 7
result in a useful, tempo-winning 6
movement of a bishop or queen to the 5
key a2-b8 diagonal.
2. When the attacking queen and ~g5
are both already attacking an
undefended pawn on f7, the defending
king may not want to retreat to g8 and abc d e f g h
permit ~xf7+. The ~h8 line may be
preferable in the above scenario, 20.Jlxe5 Jlxe5 21.§c4+-; 18 ... ~h6
especially when the queen does not 19.~e6++-; 18... ~g6!? also avoids the
have easy access to the h-file and when capture on d5 with check. 19.ii¥xd5
~xf7+ does not involve a game winning when Black can hope to survive with
fork. ... §f5 or ...§ad8. 19..£Jd4.1leS19 ... g6
20.~b5 ~b8 21.§el ~f3+ 22.ii¥xf3
3. When Black has a major piece, most ,ilxf4 23.gxf4 ii¥xf4= 20.E!e120.We6;!;
often a rook, on f6 (f3 for White), ~h8 20 •.• .1lg6 21 •.£Jb5 ~d7 22 . .£Jxd6
(~hl) may be the safest choice given .£Jd3 23.E!e6 E!f6 24..£Jdf7+ \t'gS
the possibility of §f6-h6, not only 25 ..£Jh6+ \t'hS 26..£Jhf7+ Yz-Yz
preventing the checkmate but
potentially augmenting the defender's Zelkind - Kharroubi
pressure down the h-file. Philadelphia 1998
French Defense [C02]
Here are five examples of games that
correctly defended in the ~h8 line. 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.c3 .£Jc6
5 ..£Jf3 ~b6 6.a3 .£Jh6 7.b4 cxd4
Kupsys - Zikharev S.cxd4 .£Jf5 9.Ae3 Ad7 10.Ae2
ICCF correspondence 1998 E!c811.0-0 Ae712.~d3 a613..£Jc3
French Defense [C06] .£Ja7 14.E!ac1 0-0 15.E!fe1 ~dS
16..1ld1 .£J xe3 17. ~xe3 a5 lS.E!b1
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 •.£Jd2 .£Jf6 4.e5 ax b4 b4 .£Jc6 20. .£Ja2 E!aS
.£Jfd7 5 ..1ld3 c5 6.c3 .£Jc6 7 ..£Je2 21.E!e2 .£Ja7 22..£Jc3 .£J b5 23 ..£J xb5
cxd4 S.cxd4 f6 9.exf6 .£J xf610..£Jf3 .1lxb5 24.E!eb2 ~b6 25.Ac2 E!fcS
Ad61l.0-0 ~c712.g3 0-0 13..1lf4 26.h4 ~c6 27. .£Je1 ~c3 2S. ~f4
Ad714.E!c1.£Jg415.h3 e516.dxe5 E!c4 29 ..£J0 E!xb4 30.E!xb4 Axb4
.£Jgxe517.Axh7+ \t'xh71S..£Jg5+ 31.Axh7+ \t'xh7 32..£Jg5+ (D)
Note here that the White queen cannot
The normal ~g8 line has no merit here quickly reach the h-fiIe, and Black will
because 19.~xd5 arrives with check. clearly want to avoid ~xf7 +. Given the
lS ••• \t'hS 18 ... ~g8 19.~xd5+ ~h8 weakness on f7, the ~h8line is Black's

Sacking the Citadel


abc d e f g h abcdefgh

only hope of survival. 32 ••• ~hS White has two additional assets, the
32 ... ~gS 33."ili'xf7+ ~hS 34."ili'h5+ ~gS .£Jg3, which eliminates the ~g6 and
35."ili'h7+ ~fS 36."ili'hS+ ~e7 37."ili'xg7+ 'ifth6 lines, and the .§c1. For his part,
~dS (37 ... ~eS 3S."ili'f7+ ~d8 39 ..£Jxe6+ Black has an interesting decision here
~cS 40 ..§xb4+-) 3S ..£Jxe6+ ~eS between ~gS and ~hS. The .§f6 plays
(3S ... ~cS 39."ili'gS+ ~d7 40."ili'f7+ Ae7 an interesting role in defending the key
41..£Jc5+ +-) 39 ..£Jc7+ ~dS g6-square and also eyes h6 in the event
40 ..£Jxb5+-; 32 ... ~h6 33 ..£Jxe6+ ~h7 that White tries "ili'h5. 17 .•. ~hS
(33 ... ~g6 34."ili'g5+ ~h7 35."ili'xg7#; 17 ... 'iftg6 lS."ili'h5 #; 17 ... ~h6
33 ... ~h5 34."ili'g5#) 34."ili'xf7 .§gS lS."ili'h5#; 17 ... ~gS lS."ili'h5 .§f4
35."ili'h5#; 32 ... ~g6 33."ili'xf7+ ~h6 (1S ... .§h6 19."ili'f7+ ~hS 20."ili'xd7 +-;
34 ..£Jxe6+- 33.~xf7 33 ..£Jxf7+? ~gS 18. .. .£JdS 19."ili'h7+ ~f8 20 ..£Jh5 ~e7
34 ..£Jg5 '§fS~ 33 •.. JlfS? 33 ... AeS! 21."ili'xg7++-) 19."ili'h7+ ~fS 20 ..£Jh5
34."ili'xb7 '§al 35 ..£Jxe6 .§xb1 + 36.~h2 "ili'xd4 21."ili'hS+ ~e7 22."ili'xaS .§fS
.lli837."ili'xb1 Jl.b4= 34.~xb7 34."ili'h5+ 23."ili'xb7 .£JdS 24."ili'a6 "ili'h4 IS.~d3
~gS 35."ili'h7# 34 ••• ~al 35.~xal 18."ili'h5+ .§h6 19 ..£Jf7+ 'ifth7 20 ..£Jg5+
~xal + 36.~h2 ~xd4 Yz-Yz Yz-Yz Daurelle-Zebre, corr 2006;
20 ..£Jxh6!? Jl.eS! 21..£Jf7+ ~gS 22 ..£Jh6+
Maksimenko - Nosenko gxh6 23."ili'xh6 .£Jxd4 24."ili'g5+=.
Alushta 1999 IS ••• g6! lS ... .§h6 19 ..£Jf7+ ~gS
French Defense [C06] 20 . .£Jxh6+ gxh6 21. "ili'g6+ ~fS
22 ..£Jf5+- 19.4)3e4 ~g7! 19 ... dxe4
20."ili'h3+ ~g7 21."ili'h7+ ~fS 22."ili'hS+
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)d2 4)f6 4.e5 ~e7 23."ili'g7+ ~dS 24."ili'xf6+ +-
4)fd7 5.Jld3 c5 6.c3 4)c6 7.4)e2 20.4)xd6 4)xd4 21.~fel e5 22.~xe5
cxd4 S.cxd4 f6 9.exf6 4) xf610.4)f3 ~xd6 23.~e7+ ~gS 24.~cel ~fS
Jld6 11.0-0 ~c7 12.Jlg5 0-0 24 ... .§c8 25.4)e6 4)f5 26.~xd7 ~xd7
13.4)g3 Jld714.~c1 ~b615..1l.xf6 27.4) xfS ~xfS 2S.g4 4)e7 0-1
~xf616.Jlxh7+ ~xh717.4)g5+
Kubacsny - Auer
Nord Baden 2004
Sicilian Defense [B95]

Contemporary Theory

l.e4 c5 2.4)£3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.4) xd4 ~xg5 S.4)f3 ~c5 9.4)c3 4)f6
4)f6 5.4)c3 a6 6.Ag5 e6 7.~d2 10.~d3 0-0 11.0-0-0 ~xf2
Ae7 S.£3 0--0 9.0-0-0 b5 10.h4 b4 12.§.hfl ~xg2 13.~xd6 ~g4
1l.4)ce2 ~b612.Ae3 ~a513.~bl 14.§.gl 4)eS 15.~d2 ~e6 16.e5
d514.e5 4)fd715.f4 4)c516.4)b3 4)d7 17.~f4 4)c5 IS.b4 4)d7
4)xb3 17.cxb3 Ad7 IS.4)d4 §.cS 19.Ad3 ~e7 20.§.del f5 21.exf6
19.Ad3 Ab5 20.f5 4)d7 21.fxe6 ~xf6 22.Axh7+ The sacrifice counts
fxe6 22.4)xe6 4)xe5 23.Axh7+ on three additional assets, the two
~xh7 24.4)g5+ active rooks and the 4Jc3. 22 .•• ~xh7
7 8
6 7
5 6
4 5
3 4
2 3

abc d e f g h
The r,!th8line is Black's only chance for
survival here. In the 'it'g8 line, ~xdS+ Black probably selected the 'i11h8 line
picks up the 4JeS. 24 ... ~xgS activates using the process of elimination. 'i11h6
the E'!hl. And in the 'it'g6 line, 2S.hS meets a mate in two. 'i11g6 loses the
forces the king to h6 where White has a queen to E'!e6. And the 'i11g8 line
killing discovered check. 24 ••• ~hS exposes the king to a powerful check
24 ...'i11g8 2S:i!1fxdS+ 'i11h8 26.~xeS+-; from ~c4. 23••• ~hS 23 ...r,!tg8 24.~c4+
24 ... 'i11g6 2S.hS+ r,!th6 (2S ... 'i11f6 'it'h8 2S.E'!g4 ~h6 26.E'!h4 +- ; 23 ... 'i11h6
26.~f2++-; 2S ... 'i11fS 26.~f2+ 'i11g4 24.~h4+ 'i11g6 2S.~h7#; 23 ... 'i11g6
27.E'!d4#) 26.4Jf3++-; 24 ... ~xgS 24.E'!e6+- 24.~e4 When Black can
2S.hxgS+ 'it'g6 26.~xdS+- 25.~xd5 defend the mate with either ~h6 or
Af6 2S ... ~c7 26.~d4 ~c2+ 27.'i11al ~f4+. 24••. ~h6 24 ... ~f4+ 2S.~xf4
~f6 28.~xeS E'!d8 29.4Jf7+ 'i11h7 E'!xf4 26.E'!xe8+ E'!f8 27.E'!e7 4Jf6
30.4Jxd8 E'!xd8 31.~xd8~xd8 32.E'!xd8 28.4Jf7+ 'i11g8 (28 ... 'i11h7 29.4Je5 4Je8
~xg2 33.E'!ddl +- 26.~e4+- g6 30.4Je4 ~f5 31.4JgS+ 'i11g8
27.h5 ~gS 2S. ~d5+ ~fS 29.4)h7+ 32.E'!xb7 +-) 29.4Je5 4Je8 30.4Jg6+-
~e7 30.4) xf6 ~xf6 31.§.dfl + 1-0 25. ~xeS! ~f6 25 ... aS!? 26.h4 'i11g8
27.~e4 axb4 28.~xb4 4Jf6 29.E'!e7
Sherwood - Just 4Jd5 30.4Jxd5 cxd5 31.~d4 E'!a6
IECG e-mail 2006 32.~xd5+ 'i11h8± 26.~e4 ~h6
Philidor's Defense [C41] 26 ... ~f4+ 27.~xf4 E'!xf4 28.E'!e8+ E'!f8
29.E'!e7 4Jf6 30.4Jf7+ 'i11h7 (30 ...'i11g8
l.e4 e5 2.4)f3 d6 3.d4 exd4 4.4) xd4 31.4Je5+-) 27.~bl 4)f6 2S.~c4
c6 5.Ae2 Ae7 6.Ae3 Ag5 7.Axg5

Sacking the Citadel

~h5 29.lae7 a5 30 . .£)f7+ laxf7 examples of this defensive maneuver.

31.laxf7axb432.lafxg7 Jl,e61-0 Attackers and defenders should
certainly include the resource in their
The ~xg5!? line middlegame arsenals.

Under the right circumstances, Black Durao - Heidenfeld

can successfully sacrifice his queen for N etanya 1961
the 4:Jg5! The move is a remarkable French Defense [C 14]
defensive possibility that only one
chess author, grandmaster Karsten 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£)e3 .£)f6 4.Ag5
Miiller, briefly mentioned in his Ae7 5.e5 .£)fd7 6.Jl,xe7 ~xe7 7.f4
ChessCafe Puzzle Book 1, (p.50), albeit 0--0 S..£)f3 e5 9.Jl,d3 exd4
without an example.
The simple principle: the defender may 7
be able to sacrifice the queen 6
successfully for the attacking knight if 5
the defender already has or will soon
obtain sufficient material compensation.
This finding appears to be independent
of whether the attacking side can count
on the two additional assets that
Vukovic suggested were needed for the abc d e f g h
sacrifice to succeed. In other words, the
... ~xg5line appears to be an exception White has the basic requirements for
to Vukovic's hypothesis. the sacrifice here. The .ild3 reaches h7,
the 4:Jf3 can follow immediately to g5,
Keep in mind that the attacking player and the ~dl stands ready to reach h5.
has already sacrificed a bishop on h7 However, the 4:Jc3 is en prise.
(or h2 by Black). The queen's capture 10.-'ixh7+ ~xh7 11..£)g5+ The
ofthe knight on g5 nets a second piece. king's retreat to g8 invites 12.~h5.
The sacrifice therefore merits 11.r.t>h6 would meet 12.~d3+ or
consideration in positions in which the 12.~g4 with the idea of ~h4-h7.
attacking side had previously sacrificed 11. •• ~xg5! An impressive move. For
an additional piece or exchange, or the queen, Black nets three pieces and
when the Greco-type sacrifice against the e5-pawn. 12.fxg5 dxe3 13.0-0
h 7 (or h2) occurs while the attacker has .£)xe5 14.~h5+ ~gS 15.laf4 .£)g6
another piece en prise. 16.laf3 e5 And Black has emerged
with all the play. White has no mean-
There are 11 examples, several in sub- ingful action on the h-file, and just look
lines, of the queen sacrifice, games 76, at the center and those minor pieces!
82,120,129,144,172,216,219,237,246, 17.bxe3 .£)e6 lS.laafl Jl,e6 19.94
and 306. To better make the point, I .£)ee7 20.lah3 lafeS 21.~h7+ ~fS
present below four additional modem 22.lahf3 lae4 23.h3 laaeS 24.lae3

Contemporary Theory

Elxc3 25.Elxc3 Elxc3 26.h4 Elg3+ nal. Can White force the black queen
27.<it'h2 Elxg4 2S.h5 Elh4+ 29.<it'gl off the diagonal? 22.Elf14)b6 23.Elf2
4)f4 30.h6 gxh6 31. ~hS+ 4)gS ~b1 24.Elb2 ~f5+ 25.g4 4)d3
32.~xe5 hxg5 33.~bS+ <it'g7 26 ..Q.g3 and now, where is the black
34.~xb7 4)f6 35.~xa7 d4 36.a4 queen to go? (26.gxf5 4.Jxf4+ -+ fork-
4)h3+ 37.<it'h2 4)d5 3S.a5 4)e3 ing the king and queen.) 26 ... ~xg51
39.Elf3 4)f4+ 40. <it'gl E!g4+ 41. <it'h2 27.~xg5 4)xb2 with a very easy win
Elg2+ 42. <it'h1 Eld2 0-1 now that mate is no longer threatened.
28. <it'g2 .Q.d7 29.h4 Elf7 0-1
Altrock - Kamp
Oberliga 1985 Juan Roldan - Alvarez
French Defense [Cll] Almeria 1989
Ruy Lopez [C63]
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)d2 4)f6 4.e5
4)fd75.f4c56.c34)c67.4)df3cxd4 1.e4 e5 2.4)f3 4)c6 3 ..Q.b5 f5 4.d4
S.cxd4 ~b6 9.4)e2 .Q.b4+ 10.4)c3 f6 f xe4 5.4) xe5 4) xe5 6.dxe5 c6 7 ..Q.c4
1l.g3 fxe512.fxe5 0--0 13..Q.f4 ~a5 ~a5+ S..Q.d2 ~xe5 9.0--0 d510..Q.b3
14. .Q.d3 .Q.xc3+ 15.bxc3 ~xc3+ 4)f6 l1..Q.c3 ~g5 12.f4 ~g6
16.<it'f14)b4 13. .Q.d4 .Q.d6 14.c4 0-0 15.cxd5

abc d e f g h
abc d e f g h
17. .Q.xh7+ The sacrifice counts on
two additional assets, the secure e5- An ambitious move aiming to undermine
pawn and the dark-square bishop on the d5-pawn. 17... .Q.xh2+ Better is
f4, but Black has an impressive 17 ... .llxf5 lS.4.Jxd5 4.Jxd5 19 ..llxd5+
counter-attack on the queens ide that ~hS 20.~b3 §adS. For the sacrifice,
will only improve once White plays Black counts on the light-square
~h5. 17 ••. <it'xh7 lS.4)g5+ <it'gS bishop, the secure e4-pawn, and the
19. ~h5 and White is poised to deliver §fS as additional assets. lS.<it'xh2
a simple checkmate on h7.19 ... ~xa1 + 4)g4+ 19.<it'gl ~h5 With the obvious
20.<it'g2 ~xa2+ Black now has over- mate threat. 20. ~xg41 Once again, our
whelming material superiority, but can theme must have come as quite a shock.
he prevent the checkmate? 21.<it'h3 20 ... ~xg4 21.fxe6 Netting a third
~c2 The first key to the defense, plac- piece, and Black clearly cannot hold the
ing the queen on the key c1-h7 diago- central pawns. 21 .•. ElfeS 22.4)xd5+-

Sacking the Citadel

e3 23 . .1lxe3 ~hS 24.~c7 ~e4 A final comment on assets

25 . .§ael .§acS 26.~ xeS .§xeS
27..1lxa7 ~b4 28.M2 h6 29..§cl h5 In 1959, Vladimir Vukovic postulated
30..§fdl ~f4 31 ..§c3 ~g4 32..§g3 that at least two active supporting
~e2 33..§d71-0 pieces (other than the light square
bishop, the knight that reaches g5, and
Kallio - Marin the White queen) are usually required
Gothenburg 2001 for the Greco Sacrifice to succeed.
Nimzo-Indian Defense [E20] Specifically, he suggested that two
additional supporting assets include
1.d4 ~f6 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 .1lb4 4.f3 some combination of two of the
0-0 5.e4 d5 6.e5 ~fd7 7.cxd5 exd5 following features:
S.f4 c5 9.~f3 ~c6 lO.a3 .1la5
1l..1ld3 cxd4 • The dark square bishop
(usually along the cl-h6
8 diagonal, discouraging the
7 black king from h6).
6 • A second knight (from c3, d2,
5 or e2 reaching e4 or f4).
• A rook (often on the open e-
file, the semi-open h-file, or
sometimes the f-file).
• A secure pawn on e5 (to
prevent Black from defending
abc d e f g h with4Jf6).
• A pawn on h4 (with a rook on
Once again, White initiates the sacrifice
with a piece en prise. 12..1lxh7+ ~xh7 With access to a wide variety of
13.~g5+ ~xg51 The queen sacrifice complex games, I have added some
should be obvious at this point. The additional assets to the original list:
rest ofthe game is a remarkable display
of the unleashed power of the minor • With regard to the rooks,
pieces. 14.fxg5 dxc315.0-0 ~dxe5 adding other files that permit
16.h4 .1lg417. ~xd5 .§adS And now swings to the kingside, from
the black rooks also join the fray. the a- through the f-file;
lS.~e4+ ~gS19.bxc3 .§fe8 20.~c2 • Additional squares for the
.1lh5 21 ..1lf4 ~d3 22 ..1lg3 .1lb6+ second knight, including fl,
23.~hl.§e3 Or just .. .1::!e2. 24.~h2 f2, g3, g4, b5, and d6. In game
.§e2 25. ~a4 ~c5 26. ~b5 .§dd2 257, even a knight on a4
27 . .§ael .§xg2+ 2S.~h3 .1lc7 proved to be a needed asset;
29..§eS+ 29..1lxc7 .1lg4* 29 ... ~h7 • Kingside expansion, with at
30.g6+fxg60-1 least two connected pawns f-
g or g-h on the fourth rank or

Contemporary Theory

• Consideration for pawns on It is clearly apparent in his book that

e5 that are not secured but are Vukovi6 was prepared to bend his gen-
mobile or viable nonetheless. eral principle about assets with circum-
stances. In this regard, he implicitly in-
To test his proposition, I have indexed corporates the main finding ofVoellmy's,
all of the asset combinations. Many that a successful attack requires a com-
readers will find it fascinating to view bination of factors such as better de-
how certain asset combinations appear velopment, superior control of space,
to grow and wane in popularity. The and the displacement of key defending
index is also extremely useful for those pieces.
interested in comparing and contrast-
ing games with similar characteristics, I offer the following summary from the
a powerful technique that I use often in games in this volume.
my correspondence chess games.
Fewer additional assets may be required
More remarkable is the apparent evolu- when:
tion and refinement on the collective think-
ing about the sacrifice. I reviewed statis- • The white queen has access
tically the distribution of asset combina- to h5 prior to {jg5, eliminating
tions over time. The asset combinations the 'it'g6 and 'it'h6 lines;
in the early games played through 1935 • The white rook is already on
reflect, I believe, a distinct lack of overall the third rank ready to swing;
clarity with regard to the assets required • The black §.f8 cannot move;
for the sacrifice to succeed. • The black queen on e7 blocks
the escape route;
In the sacrifices played until 1911, • White has a knight already
slightly more games involved three as- poised on g3 or f4.
sets than two, and three games involved
no additional assets whatever. A third More than two additional assets are
of the games played between 1911 and often required in complex positions
1935 contained only a single additional when, for example:
asset. The games played between 1936
and 1959 reflect, I believe, a more com- • Black has a pawn on f6;
prehensive appreciation for the sacri- • The black bishop or queen
fice, with most of the games involving can reach the bl-h7 diagonal;
two or three additional assets. The • Black's rook has vacated the
games played after 1960, illustrate not f8 escape square;
just that refined understanding, but also • Black has a knight, bishop, or
the fact that the games have become queen protecting the f7 -quare;
more complex, somewhat more fre- • Knights can force one knight
quently requiring three or four addi- back to f6;
tional assets to overcome strong de- • Black has an uncontested rook
fenses or significant counter-play. on an open f-file, especially on
f6 where it can safely reach h6;

Sacking the Citadel

• Black has a counter-attack on Finally, I should add that Vukovic also

the e5-pawn; suggested that most common combina-
• In the 'it'h6 line, when White tion of additional assets was the dark-
does not have a dark-square square bishop and e5-pawn. It is sur-
pawn but does have a pawn prising, perhaps, but that combination
on h4; runs a close second to another asset
• White enters the position with pair, the dark-square bishop and an ac-
a significant material deficit; tive rook.
• In the 'it'g8 line, when the
white queen cannot reach h5
in one move.

The Classic Bishop Sacrifice

Part III: Practice

Sacking the Citadel

Chapter 6


Greco's Sacrifice, the Early Years But it is undeniably interesting that

only 39 of the 3,500 Greco Sacrifices I
In their second volume on middlegame have found were played prior to 1911.
strategy, Dr. Max Euwe and H. Kramer
relate the story of a wealthy man who, David Rudel, the author of the recent
as he lies dying, stipulates that his sons book jlxh7!, somehow found the fol-
will receive their inheritance only after lowing game. I offer it with my notes as
they carry out a sound bishop sacrifice part of this introduction as evidence that
on the h7-square. I personally hope that even a world champion could miss a
the story is apocryphal, but it speaks historic opportunity.
directly to Greco's profound legacy.
Steinitz - NN
A century ago, Euwe and Kramer's The Hague, simul. exhibition 1873
story would likely have specially Queen's Gambit Accepted [020]
touched the chess community. A sacri-
fice that we think oftoday as quite com- 1.d4 dS 2.c4 dxc4 3.e3 4)f6 4.Axc4
mon and often "in the air" was then ac- e6 S.4)f3 .1lb4+ 6.4)c3 c6 7.0-0
tually a rarity in tournament practice. In .1lxc3 8.bxc3 4)bd7 9.Jla3 4)b6
this first section, I present all of the 10..1ld3 4)fdSll.c4 4)e712.e40-0
Greco Sacrifices that I have been able 13.eS4)d7
to unearth before 1911, the year in which
a Swiss mathematician, Erwin Voellmy, 8
produced the sacrifice's first taxonomy, 7
the topic of the second chapter. Obvi- 6
ously without a database to assist his 5
search, Voellmy located only eight of
the games in this section. Of course, to
be completely fair to Voellmy, four of
the games here come from Voellmy's
study but do not appear in ChessBase's
MegaBase. abc d e f g h

The results suggest that it is quite likely Steinitz played 14Ajg5 h615.'l;,Yh5 and
that many other early Greco Sacrifices so the following variation, obviously a
are out there, either unpublished and missed opportunity, does npt show up
lost to the ether or tucked away in ob- in a database search.
scure journals and newspaper columns.


14.Axh7+ ~xh7 15.4Jg5+ ~g6 should be proof enough that Greco's

Black is mated quickly after 15 ... ~g8 name belongs alongside such company,
16.'lifh5 ~e817.'l£th7+ ~f8 18.'l£th8#; and that he helped to bring chess not
And little better is 15 ... ~h616.'l£tg4.f:lf5 only to the enlightenment but to the
17.f4 ~h8 18 ..f:lxf7++-. 16.~g4 f5 modern age as well.
17.~g3 f418.~g4 Staying on the g-
file to sustain the threat of the discov- The Greco Sacrifice through 1911
ered check. 18.•. ~e8 19.4J xe6+ ~f7
20.4Jc7 +- In ChessBase's chronologically orga-
nized Mega Database 2009 of nearly
Despite the rarity of the games, and 4,000,000 games, Greco's recorded
despite Steinitz's oversight, I think it "games" occupy places 15 through 102.
likely that all serious tournament play- None of the names of his adversaries
ers of the day were aware of the sacri- was ever listed, adding evidence that
fice, in no small part thanks to Greco. If the games were never played. But there
anything, players a century ago were is little debate that game number 31
far better acquainted with Greco's leaves Greco with lasting immortality,
games. For chess at least, it was a sim- with a profound impact on modern
pler time, certainly in terms of the chess. As you can see here, it involves
amount of infonnation at their disposal. the first ever "Greco Sacrifice." Anno-
They had far fewer distractions in and tators seem to delight in noting that the
out of the game. early moves are undistinguished. Given
the beauty and soundness of the sacri-
I have organized the 39 games in this fice, their observation seems moot. The
section chronologically. That means, of finale is spoiled somewhat by Greco's
course, that Greco's contribution comes failure to find the faster checkmate.
first. There, I have incorporated the Greco may have been unaware of the
annotations and thoughts of Greco, better 11 th move. He makes no note of
Renaud and Kahn, and Chernev who it in any of his manuscripts.
previously annotated the game. The
annotations in the other games, unless (1) Greco, Gioacchino - NN
otherwise noted, are entirely mine. Europe 1620
Throughout, I have sought to lay the French Defense [COl]
foundation for the taxonomy in Chap-
ter 5 by presenting the most important 1.e4 e6 2.d4 4Jf6 3.Ad3 4Jc6 4./clf3
variations in each game. Ae7 5.h4 0-0 6.e5 4Jd5

Note, of course, the remarkable list of

talent in these early games. Alekhine,
Bernstein, Bird, Blackburne, Burn,
Capablanca, Labourdonnais, Lasker,
Marshall, Maroczy, Morphy, Paulsen,
Pillsbury, Schleeter, Steinitz, and
Zukertort. Here are the great names of
the Romantic period in the 19th century,
as well as four world champions. That
abc d e f g h

Sacking the Citadel

The general criteria for the sacrifice are and (3) The further advance of the king
set and easily discemable. Only the to g6 or h6." 8 ••• J:txg5 After the retreat
black king defends the h7 -pawn. to g8, S... ~gS, White wins quickly with
White's 4Jf3 can easily reach g5 and 9.i*h5 Axg5 (9 ... .§eS lO.i*h7+ 'ittf8
the white queen can follow to h5. And 11.'i';j<hS#; 9 ... 4Jf6 lO.exf6 .§eS
so, after 8.4Jg5, retreats of the black 11.i*h7+ 'ittfS 12.i*hS#) 1O.hxg5 f5
king to g8 or h8 will meet 'i';j<h5, winning (lO .. .f611.g6) 11.g6 'i';j<h4 12.'i';j<xh4 with
quickly. The presence of White's dark- mate next move; s... ~g6 9.h5+ wins
square bishop clearly discourages Black quickly because 9 ... ~h6 (9 ... ~f5
from playing S ... 'itth6. And finally the lO.g4#) lO.4Jxf/++- 'itth7 11.4JxdS;
line with s... 'ittg6 faces 9.i*d3, 9.h5+, After the retreat to h8, White usually
and even 9.i*g4. mates quickly, as here, after 8. .. ~hS?
9.'i';j<h5+ 'ittgSlO.'i';j<h7#. The retreat to
One of the key criteria in judging intu- h6 is especially dangerous when White
itively the soundness ofthe Greco Sac- has a dark-square bishop. S ... ~h6
rifice is the number of additional assets 9.4Jxe6+ wins a queen and initiates a
(beyond the basic bishop, knight, and mate in II, says Fritz 12. 9.hxg5+ ~g6
queen) that the attacking side can bring 9 ... 'ittgS lO.i*h5 f5 11.g6 when Black
to bear upon the position. Vukovic was can only delay the mate by pitching his
the first to note that the attacking side queen. 11...i*h4 12.i*xh4 10.~h5+
needs at least two additional assets. In ~f5 11.~h7+ Chernev was first to
this first position from 1620, White has mention a quicker checkmate with
a secure pawn on e5, the dark-square 11.i*h3+! ~g6 (11...'itte4 12.'i';j<d3#)
bishop, and, in lines involving a cap- 12.i*h7# 1l ... g6 12.~h3+ ~e4
ture on g5, the rook on the h-file. 13.~d3# 1-0

7.J:txh7+! ~xh7 After 7 ... 'itthS, (2) De LaBourdonnais - Lecrivain

Renaud and Kahn state: "Black may Paris 1837
refuse the sacrifice, in which case White French Defense [COO]
may withdraw his bishop with S.Ad3
and be content with the extra pawn, or The French master Louis-Charles Mahe
he may play S.4Jg5 and give increased de LaBourdonnais (1795-1840) was con-
momentum to the attack; this was sug- sidered the unofficial world chess cham-
gested by Greco himself and we also pion during the early 19th century. Af-
think that this continuation is far stron- ter squandering his family fortune on
ger." S.4Jg5! g6 9.4Jxf/+ .§xf/ 10.Axg6 ill-advised land deals, LaBourdonnais
i*gS (10 ... .§g7 11.i*h5+ 'ittgS 12.Ah6 began to play chess professionally
i*fS13.i*g4 d614.Axg7 i*xg715.h5) when he defeated his chess teacher
S ... 4Jdb4 9.4Jg5 g6 lO.4Jxf/+ .§xf/ Alexandre Deschapelles in 1821. He
11.Axg6 .§g712.'i';j<h5+ ~gS13.c3 4Jd5 fought an unofficial world champion-
14 ..§h3+- 8.4)g5+ When Renaud and ship match against Alexander
Kahn suggest "Black now has three McDonnell in 1834. He earns further
lines of play: (1) Withdrawal ofthe king recognition here for the second Greco
to gS; (2) The capture of the knight; Sacrifice to be recorded for posterity.


l.e4 e6 2.f4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.4)f3 4)c6 17.g4 fxgS 18.gxfS+ §xfS -+) 16.. .fxgS
5.c3 ~b6 6.Jld3 a6 7.Jlc2 Jld7 17.gxfS+ §xfS lS.fxgS <£\e7-+.
8.d4 cxd4-9.cxd4 Jlb4+ 10.4)c3 14.~h5 §fc8? The weakness ofthe
4)ge711.0-0 0-0 white d4-pawn after 13.<£\gS should
have encouraged Black to play
8 14 ... ~xd4+!= lS.§f2 §fdS (lS ... ~d3
7 16.fS §fcS 17.~xf7+ 'it'hS lS.~hS+
6 <;t>gS 19.~h7+ <;t>fS 20.fxe6++- 'it'e8
21.~hS+ <£\g8 22.~xgS+ <;t>e7
23.§f7#) 16.~xf7+ <;t>hS 17.~hS+
<;t>g8=. 15.~xf7+ ~h8 16.~h5+
Faster is 16.§f3! ~xd4+ 17.<;t>h1 +-.
16...~g817:~h7+ 17.§f3 is still more
accurate.17 ... ~f8 18.~h8+ 4)g8
abc d e f g h 19.4)h7+ White should aim to activate
the §fl with19.fS exfS 20.e6 ~xd4+
The white pawn on f4 introduces an in- 21.<;t>h1 <£\ce7 (21...'it'e7 22.<£\xdS+
teresting twist. The pawn move secures ~xdS 23. ~xg7 + <;t>d8 24.~e3 +- )
the e5-pawn but hems in White's other 22.exd7 §c6 23.<£\h7+ 'it'f7 24.<£\e2
additional asset, the dark-square bishop when the threat of <£\gS gives White a
on c I. The advance of the white f-pawn strong and likely winning advantage.
also opens the a7-g1 diagonal for Black 19 ..• ~f7 20.4)g5+ Missing 20.fS!
and enables an effective counterattack. ~xd4+ 21.<;t>h1 ~xeS 22.fxe6+ +-.
12.Jlxh7+ ~xh713.4)g5+ ~g8 As 20 ..• ~f8 21.f5 ~e7 Other Black tries
here, there is rarely hope in 13 ... <;t>h8 do not fare better. 21...~xd4+ 22.<;t>h1
14.~hS+ <;t>g8 lS.'~h7 #. After exfS 23.e6 'it'e7 24.<£\xdS+ (or 24.~e3!)
13 ... 'it'h6 many players would be 24 ... ~xdS 2S.~xg7+ 'it'dS 26.M4+-;
tempted to play fS to open the diagonal 21...exfS 22.e6 ~xd4+
for the bishop, but far faster is the idea 23.<;t>h1+-22.~xg7+ ~d8 23.fxe6
of~g4-h4. 14.'ili'g4 ~xd4+ (14 ... §h8 4)ge7 24.§f8+ ~c7 25.4)xd5+ 4)xd5
prevents 'ili'h4, but gives up the defense 26.~xd7+ ~b8 27.~xc8+ ~a7
of the f7-pawn. lS.<£\xf7+ 'it'h7 28.~xa8* 1-0
16.~hS+ <;t>gS 17.~xhS+ 'it'xf7
18.~xaS+-) lS.'it'h1 §hS 16.<£\xf7+ (3) Cochrane - Staunton
'it'h7 17.~h3+ 'it'gS lS.~xhS+ 'it'xf7 London 1842
19.'ili'xaS+-. Black missed the best de- Bishop's Opening [C24]
fense with 13 ... <;t>g614.~d3+ (White's
center crumbles after 14.~g4 ~xd4+ A Scottish chess master and barrister,
lS.§f2 <£\xeS 16.~g3 <£\fS 17.<£\xe6+ John Cochrane (1798-1878) became a
<£\xg3 lS.<£\xd4 ~cS -+; 14. ~c2+ fS very strong chessplayer while study-
lS.exf6+ 'it'xf6 16.<£\h7+ <;t>f7 17.<£\xfS ing law. His book, A Treatise on the
<£\xd4 18.~h7 <£\dfS+ 19.'it'h1 §xfS-+) Game of Chess, introduced the
14 ... <£\fS! when the threat on the d4- Cochrane variation of the King's Gam-
pawn prevents White from playing bit: l.e4 eS 2.f4 exf4 3.<£\f3 gS 4.~c4
15.g4. lS.~e3 f6 16.g4 (16.exf6 gxf6 g4 S.<£\eS ~h4+ 6.'it'fl f3. He played

Sacking the Citadel

matches against the two strongest upon the active rooks and the 4Jc3. It is
French players, Deschapelles and a very unusual position in which the
Labourdonnais. After a tour of military sacrifice occurs without check, and in
duty in India, he helped Howard which White's active rooks and their
Staunton prepare for a match against pressure on the black bishops on d6
the Frenchman Saint-Amant. On return and e6 more than compensate for the
to India, he was a leading member of lack of an e5-pawn. After the capture,
the Calcutta Chess Club. without which Black is simply a pawn
down, White could have improved with
After defeating Saint-Amant in 1843, 16. ~e4+, eliminating the 'it'g6Iine. With
Howard Staunton (1810-1874) was gen- help from several white inaccuracies,
erally regarded as the strongest player Black defends well enough to draw,
in the world. His standardized chess missing his way only on move 20.
sets became the norm. He organized the 15.Axh7! White had another oppor-
first international chess tournament of tunity to win quickly with 15.~e4 g6
1851 that resulted in the Adolf 16.Axb5 cxb517.4Jxb5 +-. 15... 'it'xh7
Anderssen's emergence as the unoffi- The effort to trap the bishop loses
cial world champion. A prolific chess quickly:15 ... g616.Axg6fxg617.~xe6.
writer and commentary, his Chess- 16..£Jg5+ The most efficient path here
Player's Handbook (1847) helped to is 16.~e4+ ~g8 (16 ... 'it'h6 17.~h4+
popularize chess in England during the 'it'g6 18J~xd6 ~xd6 19.4Je5+ 'it'f5
19th century. 20.g4+ ~f4 21.l':'!.e4#. Note that the
obvious 16 ... g6 17.4Jg5+ 'it'g7
l.e4 e5 2.Ac4 .£Jf6 3.d4 c6 4 ..£J0 18.~d4+ is winning because the queen
.£Jxe45.dxe5d56.exd6.£Jxd67.Ad3 now swings to h4+-.) 17.4Jg5 g6
Ae7 B.O-O 0-0 9.Af4 Ag4 10..£Jc3 18.~h4 f6 19.4Jxe6+-. 16 ... 'it'gB
h5 1l.E!el 'it'hB A fine positional White does not have a dark-square
player, Staunton may well have hoped bishop, but 16 ... ~h6 invites 17.4Jxe6
with this move to steer clear of the Axh2+ (17 ... fxe6 18.~xe6+ l':'!.f6
Greco Sacrifice. 12. ~e2 Ae6 19.~h3+ ~g6 20.g4 'it'f7 21.g5 l':'!.f4
13.Axd6 Axd614.E!adl ~c7 22.~e6+ ~f8 23.~e8#) 18.'it'h1 fxe6
19.1':'!.d3+- when the rook reaches h3
8 with powerful effect. The black king is
7 far too exposed after 16... 'it'g617.4Jxe6
6 Axh2+ 18.~h1 fxe6 19.~e4+ 'it'h6
(19 ... l':'!.f5 20.g4+-) 20.l':'!.d3 with a com-
mon theme, a powerful rook swing to
the kingside+-. 17..£Jxe6 17.~e4! is
an efficient alternative, avoiding ...
Af5 -+. The immediate threat is obvi-
ous, but the queen can also reach the
abc d e f g h h-file safely after 18 ... g6 18.~h4 f6
19.4Jxe6+-, avoiding 17.iMl5 Af5-+.
For additional assets, beyond the Ad3, 17 ... Axh2+ IB.'it'fl White's best
the 4Jf3, and the queen, White relies chance lies with 18.~h1 fxe6


19.~xe6+ ~h7 (l9 ... §.f7 20.g3+-) when White has three mates from which
20.g3 .\lxg3 21.~h3+ +-. 18 ... fxe6 to choose: 17.'l£th3+ 'it'g6 1B.'l£th7#;
19.~xe6+ ~f7 Missing an opportu- 17.'l£th7+ ~g4 1B.'l£th3 #; 17.g4+ ~xg4
nity to reach an even game with 19 ... ~f7 (17 ... ~h4 1B.'l£th3#; 17 ... 'it'h6
20.~xf7+ §.xf7 21.§.eB+ ~h7 22.4:\e4 18.~h7# or 1B.4:\f7#) 18.'l£tf3+ 'it'h4
M4 23.g3 .\lc7=. 20.Jile4 j},f4 Or sim- 19.'l£th3#. 14 ... 'it'h6 is much too dan-
ply 20 ... 4:\d7=. 21.g3 j},h6 22.~e5 a5 gerous with the dark-square bishop on
23.~e8+ <;t>h7 24.~d8 ~a6 25.~e4+ the board. 15.4:\f7+ 'it'g6 (15 ... 'it'h7
g6 26.~xa8 ~xe5 27.~d4 j},g7 16.'l£th5+ ~gB 17.~xhB#) 16.'l£td3+
28.~h4+ jlh6 29.~h8+ <;t>xh8 'it'h5 17.'l£th7+ ~g4 1B.§.f4# or
30.~xh6+ 1-0 lB. 'l£th3 #. Black cannot consider
... Axg5 because the Ae7 is required to
(4) Vexin - Thompson anchor the §.fB. 14 ... Axg5 15.'l£th5+
Philadelphia 1845 Ah616.§.xfB+- .15.~xf8+ <;t>xf8Cap-
French Defense [COO] turing with the bishop robs the black
king of its needed escape square.
l.e4 e5 2.f4 e6 3.~f3 d5 4.e5 ~e6 15 ... AxfB 16.~h5 Ae7 (16 ... Ad6
5.e3 j},e7 6.j},d3 f6 7.j},e2 ~h6 17.exd6+-) 17.'l£th7+ 'it'f818.~xhB#.
8.d4 0-0 9.0-0 ~b6 10.<;t>hl fxe5 16. ~h5 j},xg5 Black obtains no relief
1l.fxe5 ~f712.b3 ~h8 even by ditching the knight with
16 ... 4:\g617.'l£txg6 Axg518.Axg5 ~c7
8 19.'l£th7+-. 17.~xh8+ <;t>f717 ... 'it'e7
7 1B.'l£txg7+ and the black bishop falls
6 +-. 18.j},xg5+- ~b519.~d2 <;t>g6
5 20.h4 20.g4 wins by capturing key
squares. Or White can win in style with
20.Ah6! gxh6 21.'l£tgB+ with a fun mat-
ing net, a common theme when the black
king captures the 4:\g5 in an open board.
The variations are long but well worth
abcdefgh reviewing to become familiar with the
recurring themes. 21... 'it'f5 (not 21... ~h5
White has three additional assets, the 22.4:\f3+-) 22.'l£tf7+ ~g5 (22 ... 'it'g4
e5-pawn, the dark-square bishop, and 23.h3+ 'it'h4 [23 ... 'it'g5 24.4:\f3#;
the active §.fl. The open f-file is the 23 ... 'it'g3 24.~f3+ ~h4 25.~g4#])
story here. Black selects the ~gB line, 23.'l£tf6+ 'it'h5 (23 ... 'it'g4 24.h3+ 'it'g3
stepping into a nightmarish attack after 25.'l£tf3+ 'it'M 26.'l£tg4#) 24.g4+ 'it'xg4
the exchange of rooks. 13.j},xh7+ 25.§.gl + +- . 20 ... ~e2 21.~f1 exd4
<;t>xh7 14.~g5+ <;t>g8 The ~g6-line 22.-'1,f6 Fritz 12 found a mate in eight
produces two thematic mates after with the pretty 22.§.f6+ gxf6 23.'l£txf6+
~d3+. On 14 ... ~g6 15.§.xfB .\lxfB ~h5 24.'l£tf7+ 'it'g4 25.'l£tf4+ 'it'h5
(15 ... Axg5 16.~d3+ 'it'h5 [16 ... ~h6 26.g4+ 'it'g6 27.'l£tf6+ 'it'h7 2B.'l£tf7+
17.§'xhB#] 17.~h3+ 'it'g6 [17 ... Ah4 ~hB 29 .Af6 #. 22 ... ~ xd2 22 ... 'l£txfl +
1B.g4+ ~g6 19.~d3#] 1B.g4+-) only delays the inevitable. 23.~xg7+
16.~d3+ ~h5 (16 ... ~h6 17.'l£th7#) <;t>h5 24.g4# 1-0

Sacking the Citadel

(5) Schulten - Morphy 17 ... Jtxh2+! 18.cifj>xh2 .£)g4+

New York (blindfold) 1857 19.cifj>g3 Once again, the attacking side
King's Gambit Accepted [C29] mates quickly after 19.'i!thl ~h4+
20.'i!tgl ~h2#. In the 'i!tgl line, the
Defined by aggressive, tactical games black queen quickly reaches h2. 19.'i!tgl
and energetic combinations and sacri- ~h4 and, with the pawn on e3, Black
fices, The Romantic Era of chess in the can meet any lateral rook move such as
19th century immortalized the chess of flfel with 4Jf2 and ~hl mate. 20.flf4
Paul Morphy, Adolf Anderssen, and ~h2+ 21.'i!tfl ~hl + 22.4Jgl e2+ -+.
Joseph Blackburne. This remarkable It's the e-pawn, mobile once the knight
blindfold encounter integrates Greco's retreats to b 1, that decides the game in
Sacrifice into the era and further authen- this line. Black missed a tougher defense
ticates his legacy. with 'i!th3, but few players would have
happily consented to play like that
l.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Jtc4 d5 4.exd5 against Morphy. 19.'i!th3 is White's
.£)f6 5 ..£)c3 Jtd6 6 ..£)f3 0--0 7.0--0 best defense, but 19 ... ~g5 is winning
Ag4 8.d4 .£)bd7 9 . .£)e2 .£)b6 because 20.4Jg3 (20.g3 4Jf2 -+)
10.Jtb3 .£) bxd511.c4 .£)e312.Jtxe3 20 ... e2-+ (21.flf3 4Je3 with the idea
fxe3 13.~d3 Ete8 14.Jtc2 Jth5 of ~h6). 19 ... ~g5 20.Etf5 gxf5
15..£)h4 Jtg616..£) xg6 hxg617.c5 21.~xf5 ~xf5 22.Jtxf5 .£)f6-+ With
a clearly winning material advantage.
23.cifj>f3 g6 24.Jtc2 Etad8 25.Etdl
cifj>g7 26 . .£)f4 .£)d5 27 . .£) xd5 e2
28.Etel Etxd5 0-1

(6) Bird - Steinitz

London 1866
Ruy Lopez [C84]

The Englishman Henry Edward Bird

abc d e f g h (1830-1908) played in the first interna-
tional tournament in London, 1851. A
This blindfolded effort by the great practicing accountant, not a profes-
Morphy is the first recorded game to sional chess player, he played in tour-
carry out a successful Greco Sacrifice naments for more than 50 years. Among
with the black pieces. The conditions many highlights, he lost a match to Paul
are fully set. For additional assets, Morphy in 1858. In 1876 in New York,
Black has a mobile e3-pawn and the he received the first brilliancy prize ever
fle8. White must accept the sacrifice, awarded for his game against James
and here, after ... 4Jg4+, the black pawn Mason. He is well remembered for Bird 's
on e3 plays an important role in pre- Opening (1. f4), as well as Bird's De-
venting the white king from escaping fense to the Ruy Lopez (l.e4 e5 2.4Jf3
to f2. 4Jc6 3.~b5 4Jd4). -


The Austrian Wilhelm Steinitz (1836- harder by the absence of an eS-pawn

1900) was the first undisputed world covering d6. It is interesting to add that
chess champion from 1886 to 1894 when White has no additional assets in the
he lost his title to Emanuel Lasker. A position, a clear clue of its inaccuracy.
commitment to all-out attacks defined 15.Jtxh7+ Cit'xh7 16..~h5+ Cit'gS
his early career, but Steinitz developed 17..£lg5 EteS The great Steinitz fails to
and became renowned for a positional see that Black can defend effectively
approach that often still resulted in along the b1-h7 diagonal with
memorable, and likely sounder, attacks. 17 ....~d3!-+. IS.~xf7+ Cit'hS
In match play, Steinitz defeated all com- 19.~h5+ Cit'gS 20.~h7+ Cit'fS
ers between 1862 and 1892 including his 21.~hS+ Cit'e7 22.~xg7+ 1-0 With
match against Henry Bird in 1866. This the obvious finale: 22 ...'i!td6 23.<tlt7+
game represents one of his five losses or§d1+.
to Bird, unnecessary had he found the
correct defense on move 17. (7) Goring - Minckwitz
Leipzig 1871
1.e4 e5 2..£lf3 .£lc6 3.1tb5 .£lf6 4.d4 Ruy Lopez [C63]
exd4 5.e5 .£le4 6.0-0 a6 7.1ta41te7
S.c3 dxc3 9.bxc3 0--0 10..~d5 .£lc5 l.e4 e5 2. .£lf3 .£lc6 3.1tb5 f5 4.d3
1l.1tc2 b6 12.Jte3 Jtb7 13.Jtxc5 .£lf6 5.exf5 Jtc5 6.0--0 0--0 7.1txc6
Jtxc514.e6dxe6 dxc6 S . .£lxe5 Jtxf5 9.Jte3 ~e7
10.d4 EtadS 1l.c31td6 12..£lc4 (en-
8 abling the sacrifice. 12.f4 maintains a
7 grip on the position.)
5 8

4 7

3 6
2 5


A remarkable position so early in the

life of the Greco Sacrifice. <tlg5, of abc d e f g h
course, is unplayable immediately fol-
lowing the sacrifice on h 7. Instead, Bird Black initiates the sacrifice with several
cleverly inverts the normal move order additional assets, the light-square
by playing 16.'lii'hS before 17.<tlgS. By bishop and both active rooks. Once
so doing, White forces the king back to again the defender misses the toughest
g8, avoiding even the possibility ofthe defense. So early still in the history of
~h6, ~g6, and ~h8 lines. Missing the sacrifice, and yet one immutable fact
17 ... 'lii'd3, Steinitz instead permits a is becoming clear. The sacrifice gener-
quick win with 17 ... §e818.'lii'xt7+ with ates significant and often overwhelm-
the customary mate made only slightly ing challenges for the defending side.

Sacking the Citadel

White correctly sees that control over

the h2-bS diagonal is key to the de-
fense, but White misses 16. 'l*d2 or
even 16. 'l*c1 defending rather than re-
treating the Af4. Black's nice 16th move
is well worth a look. 12 .•• Axh2+
13.lit>xh2 ~g4+ 14.lit>g114.'i!tg3 b5
(forcing the knight off d6) 15.4Jcd2
(15.4Jbd2 bxc4 16A:Jxc4 ~e6+)
15 ... ~d6+ (the queen cannot move to
g5, but Black is able to play ~d6-g6 abc d e f g h
still seizing control over the key g-file)
16.ltf4 'l*g6 17.~f3 §deS-+. An instructive example. The sacrifice
14... ~h4? 14 ...lte6! Opening the f-file works because White can bring up key
first, preparing rather than playing reserves, the ltb2-c1 in the ~h6 line
14 ... ~h4 15.4Je5 (15.4Jcd2 'l*h4 and the §c5-c3 in the ~g6 and ~gS
16.§e1 ~h2+ 17.'i!tfl ~h1 + lS.'i!te2 lines. In the game, note especially
'l*xg2-+) 15 ... 4Jxe5 16.'~c1 4Jg4+. White's patience on move 20, avoiding
15.JU4+- -'l,e416.Ag3? Still winning a tempting discovered check.
is 16.'l*d2+- . 16... ftxf2! 17.-'l,xh4Al- 16.Axh7+! Iit>xh717.~g5+ Iit>g6 In
ternatives fare no better: 17.§xf2 the ~gS line, with the black knight on
'l*xg3 -+; 17 .ltxf2 ~h2 # 17... ft xg2+ e7, White would normally play 'l*xh7-
18.lit>h1 fth2+ 19.1it>gl fth1# 0--1 hS, 4Jh7, and ltg5. Of course, the white
ltb2 cannot reach g5 in one move, and
(8) Paulsen - Schwarz so White captures on f7, driving the
Leipzig, 1879 king to hS, and uses the §c3-h3 rook
French Defense [C02] swing to finish up. 17 ... ~gS lS.'l*h5
§feS19.'l*xf7+ 'i!thS 20.§c3+-. In the
Louis Paulsen (1833-1891) was among 'i!th6 line, the rook swing is again re-
the top five players in the world quired should Black attempt to defend
through the 1860s and 1870s. In 1862, with an anchored ... §hS. 17 ... ~h6
he narrowly lost the world champion- 18.'l*g4 (with the ideaof'l*h4-h7. White
ship by tying Adolf Anderssen, though also has lS.Ac1 with the idea of 4Jxe6+)
Paulsen later defeated Anderssen in lS ... 'l*cS (attempting to safeguard the
matches in 1876 and again in 1877. Con- queen from the discovered checks. [If
sidered one of the top defensive play- instead lS ... 'i!tg6 19.'l*g4 'l*cS
ers of all time, Paulsen nonetheless un- 20.4Jxe6+ 'i!th7 21.'l*xg7#] 19.'l*g4
corks a brilliant attack in the following ~g6 [19 ... 4Jf5 20.'l*h3+ ~g6
game. 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 e5 4.e3 21.~h7#] 20.4Jxe6+ ~h7 21.'l*xg7#)
~e6 5.~f3 ~b6 6.a3 Ad7 7.b4 lS ... §hS (attempting to prevent the
exd4 8.exd4 ~ge7 9.~e3 ~f5 main idea of'l*h4-h7)19.§c3 (but now
10.~a4 ~e7 1l.-'l,b2 Ae7 12.fte1 the rook swing to the kings ide decides)
a6 13.~e5 Axe5 14.ftxe5 0-0 19 ... g6 20.'l*f4 ~g7 21.'l*f6+ ~h6
15.Ad3 ~fe7 (21...~gS 22.'l*xf7#) 22.§h3#.
18. ~g4!? In the ~g6 line, White can


improve with ~d3-g3 or 'ltYf3 and h4 'it'xe6 (26 ... 'it'e8 27.Elxh8#) 27.'ltYf6#
because ~g4 first penn its Black to play with a thematic checkmate when the rook
.. .f6, an additional and often effective is offf8; and not 2S ... 'it'e8 26.Elxh8+ +-.
option when Black is over-protecting 26.~g6+ ~e7 27.~xg7+ 1~ Black
the e6-pawn, here with the Ad7. must cede the rook or succumb to an
18.~d3+! ( .. .f6 is not possible, and the immediate checkmate. 27.'ltYxg7+ 'it'd8
queen is not required to move after 18 (27 ... 'it'e6 28.'ltYf6#) 28.Elxh8+.
.. .fS) 18. ..fS 19.h4! (with the idea ofh5+)
19 ... b6 20.hS+ 'it'h6 (20 ... 'it'xgS 21.h6! (9) De Soyres - Skipworth
'it'g6 22.'ltYg3+ 'it'f7 23.'ltYxg7+ 'it'e8 Boston 1880
24.h7 +-) 21.Ac1 +- 'ltYb7 22 ..£lxe6+ French Defense [C 14]
'it'h7 23 ..£lxf8+ ElxfB 24.Elc3+- .IS•••f5
18. ..f6! 19..£lxe6+ (Black is saved by the l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4.ltg5
self-pin on the .£le6) 19 ... 'it'f7 20 ..£lxc7 lte75.ltxf6ltxf6 6.~f3 0--0 7.ltd3
(20.'ltYxg7+? 'it'xe6 when White does c5 S.e5lte7 9.h4 c4
not have assets ready to exploit the
'it'd6) 20 ... Axg4 21..£lxa8 El xa8;J; . 8
19. ~g3 ~cS 19 .. .f4 (a common defen- 7
sive try, but here, White gains the pleas- 6
ant option of either ~g4 or ~h4) 5
20.~h4 Elh8 (ceding control over the
f-pawn) 21.~xf4 .£lfS 22.h4 Elaf8
23.hS+ ElxhS 24.ElxhS 'it'xhS 2S.g4+
'it'g6 26. ~h2 +-. 20.Elc3! The rook
swing is powerful, and as is often the
case, there's simply no reason to rush abc d e f g h
the discovered check. 20 ..£lxe6+!? 'it'f7
21. 'ltYxg7 + (or simply 21..£lxf8!) White initiates the sacrifice counting
21...'it'xe6 (21...'it'e8?? 22.~xf8#) upon the .£lc3-e2-f4, the secure eS-
22.~h6+ 'it'f7 23.'ltYf6+ 'it'e8-+. 20•.•f4 pawn, and the h-pawn as additional as-
21. ~g4 ~f5 After 21...ElfS White has sets. White can patiently build up with
the attractive 22 ..£le4+ (aiming for d6) c3 and ~c2. In the game, this was the
22 ... 'it'h7 (22 ... 'it'f7 23 ..£ld6+ forks the first serious defense with ... 'it'h6, made
king and queen) 23 ..£ld6 ~d8 (now the plausible by the absence of White's
rook adds its voice to the attack) dark-square bishop and the presence
24.Elh3+ 'it'g8 2S.~h4 'it'f8 26.g4 Elf7 of the white h4-pawn, which prevents
(26 .. .fxg3 27.~h8+ .£lg8 28.Elxg3+-) the powerful 'ltYg4-h4 idea.
27.~gS .£lg8 28 ..£lxf7 'it'xf7 29.'ltYxf4+
+-. 22.Elh3 ElhS 23.~ xe6+ ~f7 10•.Q.xh7+ ~xh711.~g5+ ~h6 The
24.~xf5+ ~e7 There's also no hope 'it'g8 line ends quickly with mate in the
in 24 ... 'it'e8 2S.~g6+ 'it'e7 26.'ltYxg7+ corner. 11...'it'g8 12.'ltYhS Axg5
'it'xe6 27.'ltYf6# or in 24 ...'it'g8 2S.Elxh8+ (12 ... Ele8 13.i*h7+ 'it'f8 14.i*h8#)
'it'xh8 26. 'ltYhS + 'it'g8 27 ..£lgS +- . 13.hxgS fS 14.g6+- when Black can
25. ~g5+ ~xe6 Black might as well delay the mate only with ... i*h4. In the
capture the knight. 2S ... 'it'f7 26.~xg7+ 'it'g6Iine, .£lc3-e2-f4 provides sufficient

Sacking the Citadel

assistance. 11...'it'g6 12.4:Je2 (the im- l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4.j},g5
mediate 12.~g4 meets 12 ... Axg5 [or j},e7 5.j},xf6 j},xf6 6.~f3 0-0
12 ... 'it'h6 13.~f4 'it'g6 14.h5+ 'it'h6 7.j},d3 b6 8.h4 j},b7 9.e5 j},e7
15.4:Jxe6+ Ag5 16.4:Jxg5 ~xg5
17. ~xg5+ 'it'xg5 IS.4:Jxd5=] 13.4:Je2 8
(aiming forf4) 13 .. .f5 [13 ...§hSI4.4:Jf4+
7 Ir....~,?....;
'it'h7 15.hxg5+ 'it'gS 16.0-0-0+-] 6
14.4:Jf4+ 'it'f7 15.~h5+ 'it'e7 and the 5
king finds a measure of safety.
16.~xg5+ 'it'eS 17.~xg7~) 12 ... 'it'h6
13.~d2 (taking the role of the dark-
square bishop) 13 ... ~b614.c3 making
room for~c2-h7. l4 ... 4:Jc615.~c2 g6
The rook is needed on f8 to defend the abcdefgh
f-pawn. 16.h5 +- when White wins
nicely in all three lines: 16 ... A similar position to the last game, with
'it'g717.hxg6 f51S.exf6+ Axf619.§h7+ the same additional assets, although
'it'gS 20.g7 +-; 16... 'it'xg517.~d2+ 'it'f5 here, White has easy access to the d3-
(17 ... 'it'g4 IS.~f4#) IS.~f4#; and square. In the game, White proceeds
16 ... Axg5 17.hxg6+ 'it'g7 IS.§h7+ too patiently but Black fails to find the
'it'gS 19.9xf7+ §xf7 20.~g6+ +-. most challenging defense. 10.j},xh7+
12.~d2 j},xg5 13.hxg5+ Iiflg6 Iiflxh711.~g5+ Iiflg6 In lines involv-
14.~e2 ~xg5 Advancing the f-pawn ing ... Axg5, White mates quickly with
doesn't relieve the pressure here. 14 .. .f6 the usual idea of ~h5 and g5-g6.
15.gxf6 §hS 16.0-0-0 gxf6 17.~f4 11...'it'gS 12.~h5 Axg5 (the capture
fxe5 (17 ... f5 IS.g4±; 17 ... 'it'f7 IS.g4 seeks to avoid the easier mate with
4:Jd719.g5 f5 20.g6++- 'it'g721.§dgl; 12 ... §eS 13.'iii'h7+ 'it'fS 14.~hS#)
17 ... 4:Jc6 IS.exf6 Ad7 19.~d6±) 13.hxg5 f5 14.g6+-. In the ... 'it'h6line,
18.~xe5 §h4 19.4:Jf4+ (the knight joins White can play ~d2, forcing ~d7, and
the attack) 19 ... 'it'f7 20.§del 4:Jc6 then ~d3 forcing ... g6 when the h4-h5
21.4:Jxe6 Axe6 22.~xe6+ 'it'g7 23.g3 pawn thrust is devastating. 11. .. 'it'h6
§xhl 24.§xhl +-. Still down material, 12.~d2! (it is premature to play
White's two majors provide a winning 12.~d3!? because Black survives after
advantage against the exposed king. On 12 ... g6 13.h5 Axg5 14.hxg6+ Ah4!
14 ... f5, 15.gxf6 transposing. 15.~f4+ 15.~g3 fxg6 16.§xh4+ 'it'g7 17.4:Je2
Iiflf5 16.E!h5 ~xh5 17.~xh5 g5 §hS IS.§xhS ~xhS 19.4:Jf4 'iii'h6
18.c3Iiflg619.~c2+ Iiflxh5 20. ~h7+ 20.4:Jxe6+ 'it'hS 21.4:Jxc7 4:Jc6 22.4:JxaS
1--0 With a fun mate in three to end the ~hl + 23.'it'd2 ~xal = with a likely per-
game. 20.~h7+ 'it'g4 21.~h3+ 'it'f4 petual) 12 ... ~d7 (interesting is
22.~f3#. 12 ... ~cS placing the queen out of the
knight's reach, but 13.§h3 successfully
(10) Crespi - Cavallotti activates the rook. 13 ... 4:Jc6 14.§g3
Milan 1881 §gS 15.4:Jxf7+ 'it'h7 16.~d3+ g617.h5
French Defense [CI4] Aa6 IS.hxg6+ 'it'g7 19.~d2 +-)
13.~d3! (only now, when the back


queen cannot reach g5) 13 ... g6 An easy, instructive example. White's

(13 ... 1.txg5 14.hxg5+ 'it'xg5 15.'l£rg3+ additional assets include the active
'it'f5 16.Eth5+ g5 17 . .§xg5 #) dark-square bishop, the secure e5-
14.h5 +- wins in all lines: 14 ... 'itJg7 pawn, and the .§f1. The game continua-
15.hxg6'§hS16.'§xhS'it'xhS17.~h3+ tion with ... 'it'g6 is the most challeng-
'it'g7 1S.'l£rh7+ 'itJfS 19.~hS#; ing, but the threat of a discovered check
14 ... 'it'xg5 15.'l£re3+ 'itJg4 16.f3+ 'it'g3 after ~g4 paralyzes the defense.
17.'l£rd2+-; 14 ... Axg5 15.hxg6+ 'it'g7 13.Axh7+! Cit>xh714.~g5+ Cit>g6Af-
16.'§h7+ 'it'gS 17.~h3 +-. 12.~e2 ter the 14 ... 'itJgS retreat, White mates
12.'l£rd3+! f5 (Black cannot move the quickly thanks to the Aa3's pin on the
king: 12 ... 'it'h513.g4+ 'it'xg4 [13 ... 'it'h6 black 4Je7. 14 ... 'itJgS 15.~h5 .§eS
14.'l£rh7#] 14.'l£rf3#; or 12 ... 'itJh6 16.~h7+ 'it'fS17.~hS#. In the ... 'itJh6
13.'l£rh7#) 13.exf6+ with a lovely en line, White has no trouble because the
passant discovered check. 13 ... 'itJxf6 'l£rg4-h4 maneuver is available.
(13 ... 'itJh5 14.g4+ 'it'xg4 15.'l£rf3#) 14 ... 'it'h6 15.~g4 .§hS 16.4Jxf7++-.
14.'l£rf3+ 'itJg6 15.h5+ 'itJxg5 when 15. ~g4! White can also win easily here
White has a mate in three starting with with a rook swing 15 ..§f3+- or with
16. ~g3+. 12 ••• Cit>h6 13.~f4 g6 15.'l£rd3+ 4Jf5 (15 ... f5 16.4Jxe6+-)
14.h5 Axg5? Black's only chance lies 16.g4+-.15••. f516.~g3~e8Theef­
in 14 ... Ab4+! 15.c3 'l£rxg5 but White fort to eliminate the pin with 16... 'it'h6
retains a large edge after 16.'l£rf3 'itJg7 walks into 17.~h4+ 'itJg618.~h7# and,
17.hxg6+-. 15.hxg6+ Cit>g716.Eth7+ of course 16 ... .§hS 17.4Jxe6+ 'itJf7
Cit>g8 17.~h5 Jtf6 18.Eth8+ 1-0 1S.4JxdS+ +- . But Black cannot avoid
White mates in two after 18.gxf7, .§hS+, danger with 16 ... ~cs 17.4Jxe6+ (initi-
or .§g7+. atingaquickmate) 17 ... 'it'f71S.~xg7+
'itJxe6 19.~xe7#. 17.~xe6+ Cit>f7
(11) Salvioli-Crosara 17 ... 'itJh6 walks into a mate in two,
Venice 1883 1S.'l£rg5+'itJh719.~xg7#.18.~xg7+??
Bogo-Indian Defense [A40] Easily winning is 1S.4Jxg7! +- .§gS
19.4JxeS .§xg3 20.4Jd6+ 'it'e6 2l.hxg3.
l.d4 e6 2.c4 Ab4+ 3.~c3 Axc3+ 18... Cit>xe6 -+ and suddenly, Black is
4.bxc3 b6 5.e4 d6 6.f4 Jtb7 7.Ad3 fine. The final result suggests that
~d7 8.~f3 c6 9.e5 d510.cxd5 cxd5 White actually played 18.4Jxg7! 1-{)
II.Jta3 ~e712.0--0 0--0
(12) Fritz - Mason
8 Nuremberg 1883
7 French Defense [C14]
Alexander Fritz (1857-1932) competed
regularly in German chess events. He is
best known for a variation in the Two
Knights Defense, known affectionately
today as the Fritz (l.e4 e5 2.4Jf3 4Jc6
3.Ac4 4Jf6 4.4Jg5 d5 5.exd5 4Jd4), and
abcdefgh for lending his last name to one of

Sacking the Citadel

today's most popular chess engines. Once again, the capture simply opens
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Jilc3 Jilf6 4.j},g5 the h-file to White's advantage:
-'le7 5.-'lxf6 j},xf6 6.Jilf3 0-0 11...Axg5 12.hxg5+ ~g6 (12 ... ~g8
7.-'ld3 b6 S.h4 -'lb7 9.e5 j},e7 13.~h5+-) 13.~h5+ ~f5 14.~h3+
(with another nice king hunt) 14 ...'iti'g6
8 15.~h7+'iti'xg516.~h5+'it'f417.g3#.
7 11 ... ~g8 12.~h5 with the familiar mates
6 12 ... .§e8 (12 ... Axg513.hxg5 f514.g6)
13.~h7+ 'iti'f8 14.~h8#. 12.Jile2
White's best is 12:~d3+! f5 when king
retreats lose quickly (a) 12 ... 'it'h5
13.g4+ 'iti'xg4 (13 ... 'iti'h6 14:~h7#)
14.~f3#; (b) 12 ... 'tTth6 13.~h7;
13.exf6+ ~xf6 14.~f3+ 'iti'g6 15.h5+
abc d e f g h (the h-pawn, which provided support
for g5, now becomes an offensive
A position remarkably similar to Greco's weapon) 15 ... 'it'h6(15 ... ~xg516.~g3+
game of 1620 and to games 9 and 10. 'iti'f5 17.~g6+ 'iti'f4 18..£)e2 #) 16.~d3
White has a secure pawn on e5 and the .§f5 (16 ... 'iti'xg5 17.~g6+ ~f4
possibility of bringing in the queen's 18 ..£)e2 #; 16 ... Axg5 17.~g6#)
knight with .£)c3-e2-f4. In the game, 17 ..£)xe6+-. The familiar alternative
White missed an opportunity after 12.~g4 fares less well: 12 ... Axg5
12.'~'d3 f5 to carry out a powerful dis-
13 ..£)e2 f514.'£)f4+ 'tTtf715.~h5+ 'it'e7
covered check with 13.exf6+. The score
16.~xg5+ 'iti'd7 17.~xg7+ ~e7
of Fritz-Mason appears (with the moves
18.~xe7+ 'iti'xe719 ..£)g6+ 'iti'f7 20.'£)xf8
8 and 9 reversed and without mention
of the players' names) as the second 'iti'xf8±. 12 .•• j},xg5 12 ... 'iti'h613.~d2
~c8 a frequent retreat to remove the
game in Emanuel Lasker's famous Com-
mon Sense in Chess. In his annotations, queen from the .£)g5 's reach, though the
Lasker also misses the more accurate disadvantage, an inactive queen, is ob-
12.~d3+. 10.-'lxh7+ <;!;>xh711.Jilg5+ vious. The main alternative 13 ... ~d7
<;!;>g6 The absence of the dark-square invites 14.'~d3 g615.h5 when White's
bishop should have encouraged Black attack prevails in all lines: (a) 15 ...'tTtg7
to find the best defense with ... 'iti'h6 16.hxg6+-; (b) 15 ... ~xg5 16.hxg6+
when White should again play ~d2- 'tTtg717 ..§h7+ 'iti'g818.~h3+-; and (c)
(to force 'iti'g6) ~d3 to setup ... g6 h5. 15 ... 'tTtxg5 16.~e3+ 'iti'f5 (16 ... 'it'g4
11...'iti'h6 12.~d2 ~d7 13.~d3 when 17.~f4#) 17.~f4#. After 13 ... ~c8,

Black can try 13 .. .f5 14.exf6 g615.h5 White wins easily by bringing up the
.§xf6 16.hxg6+ 'iti'g7 (16 ... ~xg5 .§hl, another advantage to having the
17.~g3+'iti'f518.'§h5#) 17.~h3+- or h-pawn on h4. 14 ..§h3 Aa6 15 ..§g3
13 ... .§h8 14 ..£)xf7+ ~h5 15 ..§h3 with .§g8 16.~f4+-. 13.hxg5 f5 Alterna-
g4+ and ~f3#; or 13 ... g614.h5 itxg5 tives are worse. 13 ... .§h8 14.'£)f4++-
(not surprisingly, bringing the king out 'iti'xg5 15.'§h5+ '§xh5 16.~xh5+ ~xf4
into the open is fraught with danger: 17.g3+ 'iti'e4 18.~g4#; i3 ... ~xg5
14 ... 'iti'xg5 15.~e3+ ~g4 [15 ... 'iti'f5 14.'£)f4+ ~f5 15.~d3+; and 13 ... 'iti'xg5
16.g3+-] 16.f3+ 'iti'g3 17.~d2+-). 14 ..§h5+ starts a mate in four. 14.gxf6


Elh815.4)f4+ ~f716.~g4Elxhl+ many of the successful sacs, the e-file

17.~d2 gxf6 Greed makes it easy for is closed and a white pawn on e5 has
White: 17.:.1'hal 18.'ltrxe6+ 'itlf8 forced the black knight off its useful f6-
19..£)g6#.18.~g6+ 18.Elxhl +- brings square. Here, the white e-pawn has
on a faster mate, says Fritz. 18... ~e7 been exchanged on d5, with the result
19.~g7+ ~e8 20.~g8+ ~e7 that Black's light-square bishop can
21.~xe6+ ~f8 22.Elxhl j';te8 1--0 easily reach the key bl-h7 diagonal. As
It's mate in four with 22 ... Ac8 23.Elh8+ important, White does not have re-
'itlg7 24.Elh7+ 'itlxh7 25.'ltrf7+ 'itlh8 serves ready to bring up. Indeed, even
26 ..£)g6#. the white king is unprepared. 9.j';txh7+
~xh710.4)g5+ ~g811.~d311.'ltrh5
(13) Guest - Burn Af5 when Black gains control over the
London 1887 key bl-h7 diagonal. 11 ...g6 The white
French Defense [C 11] queen does not have access to h3.
12.0--0 4)e613.~g3 ~g714.j';tf4 f6
The Englishman Amos Bum (1848- 15.4)f3 4)d4 16.4)xd4 .1lxd4
1925) was a contending player at the 17.Elfdl.1le518.b4 .1lxb419.~b3
end of the 19th century. A student of ~b6 20.~xd5 .1le6 21.~0 ~e6
Wilhelm Steinitz, he reached an equal 22. ~e3 Elfe8 23.a3 .1lg4 24. ~g3
first at London, 1887 and first at Co- j';txdI25.Elxdl Elad8 26.Elfl.1ld6
logne, 1898. He also played in the fa- 27..1lxd6 ~xd6 (}-1
mous Hastings tournament of 1895, fin-
ishing in twelfth place. Remarkably, he (14) Blackburne - Zukertort
is involved in three games within this Frankfurt 1887
section; this is his only victory. Queen's Gambit Declined [D55]

l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)e3 4)f6 4.j';td3 Joseph Henry Blackburne (1841-1924)

e5 5.dxe5 j';txe5 6.exd5 4)xd5 was one of the best players in the late
7.4)xd5 exd5 8.4)0 0--0 19th century and an integral part of the
Romantic Age of chess. Nicknamed the
8 "Black Death," he popularized chess by
7 giving simultaneous and blindfold dis-
6 plays. The son of a temperance preacher,
Blackbume was known ironically for his
heavy drinking of whiskey while play-
ing. His best results included an equal
first with Steinitz at Vienna 1873, first in
London, 1876, and first in Berlin 1881,
three points ahead of Zukertort, his ad-
abc d e f g h versary in this game.

With only one additional asset, the dark- l.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3.4)e3 4)f6 4.Ag5
square bishop, the white position does j';te7 5.e3 b6 6.4)f3 Ab7 7.Elel 0--0
not satisfy key preconditions here, and 8.j';txf6 j';txf6 9.exd5 exd5 10.Ad3
indeed the sacrifice fails quickly. In e5 11.0--0 e4 12.j';tbl 4)d713.4)d2

Sacking the Citadel

EleS 14.t~\'f3 {)fS 15.{)xc4 {)g6 (15) Hodges - Blackmar

16.{)d2 '/Nd717.g3 {)e71S.Elfel a6 Brooklyn 1892
19.{)e2 EladS 20.{)f4 Jlg5 21.h4 French Defense [CI4]
Jlxf4 22.'/Nxf4 {)c6 23.{)f3 '/Nd6
A notable American player during the
8 late 19th century, Albert Hodges won
7 the U.S. Championship in 1894 but is
6 best remembered for playing inside
Ajeeb, the chess-playing automaton
that resembled a finely dressed sultan.
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.{)c3 {)f6 4 ..1l,g5
.1l,e7 5.e5 {)fd7 6.Jlxe7 '/Nxe7
7.'/Nd2 a6 S.f4 c5 9.{)f3 {)c6
abc d e f g h 10.{)dl0-0 1l.c3 b5 12.Jld3 cxd4
13.cxd4 .1l,b7 14.a3 ElacS 15.0-0
White's extra pawn going into the sac- {)b616.'/Ne2 {)a5
rifice greatly simplifies the calculations.
So does the absence of the black rook 8
from f8. Although the white queen does 7
not have easy access to the h5-square,
the double attack on f7 after <£\g5+ pre-
vents the black king from retreating to
g8, and the knight fork discourages ~h6
or ~h8. Finally, White's destruction of 3

~g6 is fun to watch. 24..1l,xh7+! ~xh7 2

25.{)g5+ 1-0 With the rook offf8, the

king retreats to h8 and h6 meet a brutal abc d e f g h
knight fork. 25 ... ~h8 26.<£\xf7+;
25 ... ~h6 26.<£\xf7+. 25 ... ~g8 meets a Hodges takes advantage of three addi-
variant of the habitual mate in five. Note tional assets, the strong e5-pawn, the
that the d6-square is occupied by the !!f1, and even the <£\d1-e3. The game
black queen rather than controlled by provides a nice opportunity to compare
an e5-pawn. 26.i*xf7+ ~h8 27.i*h5+ two responses, 19.~g4 and 19.~d3+
~g8 (27 ... i*h6 walks into 28.<£\f7+) in the ~g6Iine. i*g4 is more accurate in
28.i*h7+ ~f8 29.~h8+ ~e7 this instance because the queen exerts
30.~xg7"". 25 ... ~g6 a frequent theme influence over both e6 and g7.
is that h5 can be very powerful in the 17..1l,xh7+ ~xh71S.{)g5+ ~g6 ~g8
~g6 line. 26.h5+ ~xh5 (26 ... ~h6 fails very quickly to ~h5 because the
27.<£\xf7+) 27.g4+ ~h4 (27 ... ~g6 ~e7 blocks the king's escape route.

28.i*f5+ ~h6 29.<£\xf7 "") 28.<£\f3+ ~h3 18 ... ~g8 19.~h5 !!fd8 20.~h7+ ~f8
29.<£\e5+- . 21.~h8"" and although White does
not have a dark-square bishop, ~h6 fails
quickly in view of !!f3. 18 ... ~h6
19.!!f3+- . 19.'/Nd3+ 19.~g4! f5 (19 .. .f6


20.f5+ exf5 [20 ... 'ifth6 21.~h4.] 1.~f3 d5 2.d4 ~f6 3.c4 e6 4.~c3
21.~xf5+ ~h6 22.~h7+ 'it>xg5 c65.e3.Q.d66•.Q.d3~bd77.~e20-
23 ..!:!f5+ ~g4 24 ..£Jf2.) 20.exf6 'it>xf6 08.0-0 §.e8 9.§.dl e510.dxe5 ~xe5
21 f5 +- . Other tries for Black on move 11.~xe5 .Q.xe5 12.cxd5 cxd5
20 also fare poorly: (a) 20 ... gxf6 13.~c2 .Q.e614..Q.d2
21..£Jxe6+ 'iftf7 (21..5.t'h7 22.m3 +- )
22 ..!:!e1 .!:!g8 23:i!'Yh5+ .!:!g6 24.f5; (b)
20 ... ~xf6 21..£Je4+; and (c) 20 .. :i!'Yd7
21.fxg7 +- . The real surprise in this po-
sition is that White has another win-
ning maneuver in .£Je3-f5: 19 ..£Je3! f5
20.exf6 gxf6 21..£Jf5! (a remarkable
move) 21..:i!'Ye8 (the knight is immune!
21... ~xf5 22:i!'Yd3+ 'it>g4 23:i!'Yh3.;
21...exf5 22.~xe7 +- ) 22 ..£Jxe6 and the
knights are swarming: 22 ... .!:!g8 23 ..!:!ae1 abc d e f g h
~h7 24.~f3+-. 19 ••• f5 20.exf6+
~xf6 20 ... ~h5 when White can take A Greco Sacrifice attempted against the
h7 with check. 21."i!'Yh7+ 'iftg4 22 ..£Je3 •. great Lasker, with the black pieces no
21.§.el §.c6 22.~e3 g6 23.~g4+ less, fails to the future world champion's
~g7 24.~e5 §.f6 25. ~h3 ~g8 surgically accurate defense. After 18.f4,
26.§.e3 26 ..£Jg4 is the more natural con- driving the black queen to h6, there's
tinuation. 26••• ~bc4 27.~gf7? §.xf7
simply no way for Black to bring addi-
28.~ xg6 ~f6 29.§.g3 §.c8 Black is
tional pieces to bear against the ex-
also certainly better after 29 ... "i!'Yxd4+.
posed white king in part because the
30.§.el §.g7 31.f5 §.f8? Black is still
Ae6 blocks any possible rook swing.
surviving after 31.. ..!:!f7. 32.~h8+ ~f7
14•••.Q.xh2+ 15.~xh2 ~g4+ 16.~!
33.~xf8# 1-0
16.'iftg1 ~h4 17.Ae1= using the ~c2
and the bishop to protect f2. With fl
(16) Lasker,Em. - Golmayo
open, 'it>h1 does not get mated instantly,
Havana 1893
but there's still a mating net after
Queen's Gambit Declined [D46]
16.'ifth1 "i!'Yh4+ 17.~g1 ~xf2+ 18.~h1
"i!'Yh4+ 19.~g1 ~h2+ 20.'it>f1 ~h1 +
Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) reigned as
21.'ifte2 ~xg2+ 22.'it>e1 ~f2 •.
world champion for 27 years. He is still
16••• h5 There's no alternative for the
regarded as one of the strongest play-
attack, because 16 ... "i!'Yd6+ 17.f4 and
ers ever,joining a list that includes only
White seizes the initiative, and
Fischer, Kasparov, Capablanca,
16 ... ~g5 17.f4 when the queen cannot
Alekhine, and Botvinnik. In world cham-
remain on the g-file. 17.§.hl ttg5
pionship match play, he defeate~
18.f4+- tth6 19.e4 d4 20.~e2
Steinitz, Marshall, Tarrasch, Janowski,
§.ac8 21.ita4 ~e5 22.fxe5 White
and Schlechter, losing the title finally in
also wins with 22.Ah5 or 22.~a3 Ac4
1921 to the Cuban, Jose Raul
23.fxe5 ~xd2 24.ltxc4 '!:!xc4
25 ..£\[4+-. 22••• ttxd2 23.§.adl itg5+
24.Cit'h2 ~xe5+ 25.g3.Q.g4 26.§.del

Sacking the Citadel

h4 27"~xd4 hxg3+ 2S.Cjfjlg2 ~xd4 the third rank makes the sacrifice an
29.4:) xd4 ~cd8 3O.Jl.b5 ~eS 31.Jl.e2 easier calculation. Altogether, an im-
.Q.xe2 32.4:)xe2 ~xe4 33.Cjfjlxg3 ~d3+ pressive effort. 20 •.Q.xh7+ CjfjIxh7
34.<tf/f2 ~d2 3S.<tf/f3 ~e6 36.4:)f4 21.4:)gS+ <tf/gS In the ~g61ine, the ~c3
~xeI37.~xel ~xb2 3S.~e8+ <tf/h7 can immediately join the attack 21...~g6
39.~e2 ~xe2 40.4:)xe2 gS 41.4:)c3 22.~g3 +- or 22.<£)xf7 +- . Even the re-
CjfjIg6 42.4:)e4 bS 43.4:)d6 a6 44.<tf/g4 treat to g8 encourages Pillsbury to play
f6 4S.a3 fS+ 46.4:) xfS as 47.4:)d4 b4 ~h3 although 22:~h4 is fully satisfac-
4S.a4 <tf/f6 49.4:)b3 CjfjIeS SO.4:)xaS tory. 22.~h3 With the idea of ~h8+.
CjfjId4 SI.4:)b3+ CjfjIc4 S2.aS 1-0 22 ••• ~eS Vacating the e7 escape
square. 23.~h4 CjfjIfS 24.4:)h7+ CjfjIgS
(17) Pillsbury - Burn 2S.4:)f6+ CjfjIfS Alternatives are in-
Hastings 1895 stantly mated: 25 ... gxf6 26:~h8 #; and
Queen's Gambit Declined [055] 25 ... <£)xf6 26. ~h8 #. 26.4:) xeS More ef-
ficient is 26 ..~g5 +-. 26 ••• CjfjlxeS
Pillsbury, the young American, entered 27.~gS cxd4 2S.~hS+ 1-0
the great 1895 Hastings tournament as
a relative unknown, and yet placed first (18) De Visser - Young,J
ahead of Lasker, Steinitz, Tarrasch, Manhattan 1895
Chigorin, and many of the world's other French Defense [CI4]
great players. His win here in round 16
permitted him to retain a share of the l.e4 e6 2.d4 dS 3.4:)c3 4:)f6 4 ..Q.gS
lead with only five rounds to play. .Q.e7 S.Jl.xf6 Jl.xf6 6.4:)13 0-0
7.Jl.d3 cS S.eS Jl.e7 9.h4 fS 10.exf6
l.d4 dS 2.c4 e6 3.4:)c3 4:)f6 4.Jl.gS Jl.xf6
.Q.e7 S.e3 0-0 6.4:)f3 b6 7.~cl.Q.b7
S.cxdS 4:)xdS 9.Jl.xe7 ~xe7 8
10.4:)xdS .Q.xdS 1l..Q.d3 ~cS12.e4 7
J}.b713.0-0 4:)d714.~e2 a61S.~c3 6
c616.~fc1 bS 17.~e3 ~c71S.~f4 5
~ac819.eS cS
abc d e f g h
Without a pawn on e5, White must rely
3 upon the <£)c3-e2-f4 and the h4-pawn
2 as additional assets. Still, Black still
faces an enormous defensive task. In
abc d e f g h the game, Black played 12 ... ~h6 when
it is White who fails to find the best
The well defended e5-pawn and the path with 13:~d3! since 13 ... g6 meets
presence of the white rook already on 14.h5 +- . II.Axh7+ CjfjIxh712.4:)gS+


~h6 Black successfully rejects 'it'g6 27•.£!c1.£!d8 2S.Etfel ~fS 29 ..£!d3

(it's a pretty mate in three) 12 ... <;tJg6 .1lb5 30•.£!c5 ~xf4 31.Etxe6 Ethl
13.~d3+ <;tJh5 14.g4+ <;tJxg4 (14 ... 'it'h6 32.~xhl Etxhl 33.Etxhl ~xd4
15.~h7#) 15.'l:ii'f3#. In the 'it'gB line, 34.Ete7+ ~fS 35.Etc7 b6 36.Etfl +
White can select a quick perpetual or .1lxfl 37•.£!d7+ ~e7 0-1
try for more with 14.0-0-0. 12 ... <;tJgB
13.~h5 fieB (13 ... ~xg5 14.hxg5 fieB (19) Maroczy - Billecard
15.g6 <;tJfB16.dxc5+-) 14.0-0-0! see Hastings 1895
game 272 (14.'l:ii'f7+ <;tJhB15.'l:ii'h5+ =). French Defense [C14]
White gains a clear advantage after
12 ... ~xg5 13.hxg5+ <;tJgB (13 ... 'it'g6 is Geza Maroczy (1870-1951) won a side
much too dangerous, 14.'l:ii'h5+ 'it'f5 event at Hastings 1895 and, during the
15.~h7++- g6 16.~h3+ 'it'xg5 next decade, won or placed well in two
[16 ... <;tJf4 17.~g3+ 'it'f5 1B.fih4+-] dozen tournaments. He was, according
17.~h4+ and the king hunt is on <;tJf5 to Capablanca, one of the best players
1B.g4+ 'it'f4 19 ..£\e2+ 'it'e4 [19 ... 'it'f3 of the time. A match against Lasker was
20.~g3+ <;tJe4 21.~d3#] 20.g5+ <;tJf3 canceled and, in 1908, Maroczy retired
[20 ... <;tJf5 21.~f4#; 20 ... fif4 from chess. The Maroczy bind, a for-
21.~xf4#] 21.fih3+ 'it'g2 22.~g4#) mation with white pawns on c4 and e4,
14.~h5 fieB 15.g6 <;tJf8 the king es- bears his name.
capes, but White has a clear initiative
after 16.dxc5 and 17.0-0-0. 13.f4 Miss- l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£!c3 .£!f6 4 ..1lg5
ing the more accurate continuation with .1le7 5 . .1lxf6 .1lxf6 6 . .£!f3 0-0
13.~d3! threatening ~h7#. 13 ... ~xgS 7 •.1ld3 c5 S.e5 .1le7 9.h4 f510.exf6
(and not 13 ... g6 14.hS with the idea of Etxf6
~xg6# 14 ... figB [14 ... ~eB IS ..£\f7+
~xf7 16.hxg6+ <;tJg7 17.fih7++-]
IS.'£\f7++-) 14.hxgS+ <;tJxgS IS.fih7
when the white queen and rook com-
bine against the exposed king in all
lines: (a) IS ... figB 16.0-0-0 (bringing
up the third major) 16 ... cxd4 17.~g3+
<;tJf6 IB.fixd4 'it'e7 19.fig4+-; (b)
IS ... ~f6 16.~g3+ 'it'fS 17.'l:ii'f3+ 'it'gS
(17 ... <;tJg6 IB.~hS#) 1B.'l:ii'hS+ 'it'f4
19.93#; and (c) IS ... 'l:ii'c716 ..£\bS ~d7 abc d e f g h
17.~g3+ <;tJf6 (17 ... 'it'fS IB.fixg7 +-)
IB ..£\d6+- and White will likely con- The .£\c3 and h4-pawn serve as addi-
tinue with f4.13 •.• ~eSI4..£!e2 .£!c6 tional assets, but the rook on f6 should
15.c3 Ad7 16.g4 cxd4 17.cxd4 have discouraged White from the sac-
.1lxg5 Or simply 17... ~e71B.'l:ii'd2 ~b4 rifice. Black was unlikely to fall for
19..£lc3~d6-+ .18.~d3g619.hxg5+ 12 ... <;tJgB 13.'l:ii'd3 fifS 14.g4. After the
~g7 20.C}-O-() EthS 21 . .£!g3 ~f7 'it'gB retreat, the rook is ready to swing
22.Ethfl Etac8 23.~bl ~e7 24.~e3 to h6 to foil ~hS. Despite the unsound
Eth2 25. ~gl Eth4 26. .£!e2 EtchS nature of the sacrifice, White still tri-

Sacking the Citadel

umphs. 1l.Axh7+ ~xh7 12.~g5+ Ae7 9.Jtd3 EteSl0.0--0 e5 1l.dxe5

~gS In the ~h6Iine, a plausible choice ~xe512.~xe5Axe513.~e2
without a dark-square bishop for the
attack, White plays ~d2, threatening a 8
discovered check. 12 ... ~h6 13.~d2 7
~eS 14 ..£\xe6+ ~h7 15 ..£\e7±. In the 6
~g6 line, White can play ~d3 threat-
ening mate and again using the h-pawn
in the event of ... g6. 12 ... ~g613.~d3+
when White prevails in all lines: (a)
13 ... m5 unable to block the check with
... f5, Black can block it with the rook,
but 14.g4+-; (b) 13 ... ~h5 (it's mate in abcdefgh
six) 14.g4+ ~xg4 (14 ... ~h615.~h7#)
15 ..§.gl+ ~h5 (15 ... ~xh4 16.~h3#; Black must rely upon the light-square
15 ... ~f416 ..£\e2#) 16 ..£\f7+-; and (c) bishop and the .§.eS as additional as-
13 ... ~h6 14.~h7#. 13.~h5 Eth6 sets, but White's active bishops limit
14.~f7+ ~hSI5.0-0-0 ~fS More the possible scope of the attack.
accurate is 15 ... exd4 16 ..£\b5 ~d7 13...Jtxh2+ 14.~xh2 ~g4+ 15.~g3
17.~b1 .£\e6-+. 16.f4 Ad7 The ~gl retreat is the best line for
17.~xfS+ AxfS IS.~f7+ ~h7 White because the queen on e2 is al-
19.~xh6 ~xh6+ White's attacking ready covering the f2-pawn, permitting
prospects are gone, and Black has two the .§.fl to create an escape-square for
bishops for the rook. 20.dxe5 ~e6 the king.15.~gl ~h4 16 ..§.fe1 iii'h2+
21.f5 Axe5 22.fxe6 Jtxe6 23.~xd5 17.~f1 .£\e5 lS ..llf5 (1S ..£\a4 .llg4

EtdS 24.~e3 Etxdl + 25.Etxdl ~h5 19.f4 '£\f3 20.~f2 [20.gxf3 .llh3+-+]
26.Etel Af5 27.~e4 Axe4 2S.Etxe4 20 ... '£\h4 21..§.gl .llh3 22 ..llxh7+ ~fS
Af2 29.b4 Axh4 30.b5 ~dS 31.e4 23.~d1 .llxg2 24 ..llxg7+ ~xg7

Af6 32.~e2 ~g6 33.e5 ~f7 25.~g4+ ~hS-+) lS ... ~h1 + 19.~e2

34.~d3 ~e6 35.~e4 Ae7 36.b6 ~xg2 20 ..llxeS ~f3+ 21.~d2 (21.~fl
Axe5 Better is 36 ... axb6 37.exb6 .§.axeS +) 21... ~xf2+ 22 ..§.e2 '£\f3+
.£\dS=. 37.~d5 Axb6 3S.Etxe6 Ae5 23.~d3 .£\e5+=. The ~h3 line walks
39.Ete4 b6 4O.Eta4 a5 41.Etxa5 bxa5 into a devastating discovery: 15.~h3
42.~xe5 ~e6 43.~b5 ~d5 .£\xe3+ -+ and there's obviously no
44.~xa5 ~e5 45.a4 g6 46.g3 g5 point in 15.~h1 iii'h4+ 16.~gl ~h2#.
47.g4 ~e6 48.~b4 ~b6 49.a5+ ~a6 15... ~g5 16.Axh7+ White needed to
50.~a4 ~a7 51.~b5 ~b7 52.~e5 play 16.f4 to survive. 16.f4 iii'h5 17.e4
1--0 .£\e3 lS.~e2 ~g6+ 19.~h2 '£\xf1+
20 ..§.xfl dxe4=. 16... ~fS Also viable
(20) Skipworth - Jones is 16... ~hS 17.f4 .§.xe3+ lS ..§.f3 ~h5
Craigside 1897 19 ..§.xe3 .£\xe3 20.~e2 ~xe2 21..£\xe2
Slav Defense [A 13] ~xh7~. 17.f4 ~h5 IS.~dl g6
18. ..f5! traps the bishop. 19.jtxg6 fxg6
l.e4e6 2.~e3 d5 3.e3 e6 4.~f3 Jtd6 20.~e3 Ete7 Better is 20 ... ~h2+
5.d4 ~d7 6.b3 ~gf6 7.Ab2 0--0 S.e5 21.~f3 .§.e7~. 21.~el? Eth7 22.Etgl


~f5 22 ... 4Je5! -+ when the knight is 17 ... xt'h6 1S.i11td3+- or 1S.~g4+-.
immune in view of...~xg4and ... .§f7#. IS. ~d3+ Here in the '<t'g6line, the white
23..£)c3.£)e5 24.fxe5 ~h4+ 25.'if}f3 queen easily reaches g3 when the .§e1
~g4+ 0-1 It's mate after 26.'<t'f4 g5 #. provides useful control over the e6-
square. 1S.i11tg4+- and 1S.h4+- are
(21) Hulsen - Brody also winning. lS •.•f5 As usual, there's
Berlin 1897 no hope in IS ... '<t'h5 19.i11th7+ '<t'g4
Giuocco Piano [C56] 20.h3# or 1S ... '<t'h619.i11th7#.19.~g3
With the idea of 4Je6 +-. 19 ••• .£)c6
1.e4 e5 2.,£)0 .£)c6 3.~c4 ~c5 4.0- 20..£)e6+ 20 ..§e1 is a useful additional
o .£)f6 5.c3 .£) xe4 6.d4 exd4 7.cxd4 move to hold the 4Je6 for support of
~e7 S.d5.£)bS 9 . .§e1.£)d610.~d3 i11txg7. 20 .•• 'if}f7 21 . .£)xdS+ .£)xdS
0-0 1l . .£)c3 .£)eS 12.d6 .£)xd6 22 ..§e1 .£)e6 23. ~h3 g6 24. ~h4 c6
13.~f4 .£)e8 25. ~e7+ 'if}gS 26.j},h6 .£)Sg7
7 (22) Futterer - Zinski
6 Berlin 1897
5 Two Knights Defense [C58]
1.e4 e5 2 . .£)f3 .£)c6 3.~c4 .£)f6
4 ..£)g5 d5 5.exd5 .£)a5 6.d3 h6 7 ..£)f3
~d6 S.c3 0-0 9.h4.£) xc410.dxc4 c5
1l.a3 e412..£)fd2 '§e813.0-0
abc d e f g h
At first glance, Black's position at the 7
time of the sac has the appearance of
one fully lacking in development. For
additional assets, White has the 4Jc3,
the active .§e1, and the dark-square
bishop, but Black has the ~e7 poised 3
to prevent 4Jf3-g5. This is the first game 2
in which the Greco Sacrifice, to succeed,
requires an additional exchange sacri- abc d e f g h
fice, in this case 15 ..§ xe7, eliminating
the dark-square bishop to continue Another successful sacrifice by Black
safely with 4Jg5. 14.~xh7+ 'if}xh7 owing in large part to White having ig-
15..§xe7 ~xe716..£)d5 Gaining a free nored the center. Black has three addi-
tempo. 16.4Jg5+ would likely transpose, tional assets, the mobile e4-pawn, the
although Black has the option ofi11txg5. .§eS, and the light-square bishop.
16•.• ~dS 17•.£)g5+ 'if}g6 The '<t'gS re- 13...~xh2+ 14.'if}xh2 .£)g4+ 15.'if}g3
treat fails quickly because the .§f8 can- The checkmate after 15.'<t'g1 follows a
not create an escape square. 17 ... '<t'gS typical pattern, the usual mate in five
18.~h5+- and the .§fS cannot move; initiated by the capture first of the f-

Sacking the Citadel

pawn. IS.'it>gl ~h4 16 ..§el ii;Yxf2+ In the 'it>g6 line, White mates in four
17.'it>hl ii;Yh4+ 18.'<!igl ii;Yh2+ 19.'it>f1 with 12 ... 'it>g6 13.~c2+ '<!ihS 14.g4+
ii;Yhl+ 20.'it>e2 ii;Yxg2#; IS.'it>h3 walks 'it>xg41S.f3+ 'it>hS (IS ... 'it>g316 ..§h3*)
right into 15 .. .'ijxf2+-+ although 16.~h7*. 13.~e2 The main alterna-
IS ... ii;YgS with the idea of ii;YhS is also tives fare no better: 13.~d3 g6-+ and
devastating. 15 .• :~d6+ ... ii;Yd6 brings 13.~g4 ii;Ye7 14.~f4 cxd4 IS.lLle6+
on a quick mate thanks to the rook's 'it>h7 16AJxf8+ ~xf8-+. 13 ... ,Axg5
ability to reach e3. 16.f4 Both king re- Simpler is 13 ... g6-+. 14.hxg5+ 'It>xg5
treats walk into mates in one: 16.'it>h4 Clearly dangerous but the only chance
ii;Yh2*; 16.'<!ih3 ii;Yh2*. 16 ... exf3+ for a win. 14 ...'<!ig6 invites 1S. lLlf4 + '<!ifS
17.'lt>xf3 Eie3* 0--1 16..§hS +- . 15.~g3 After lS.lLlf4 Black
can run the king to f6 or try 15 ... .§h8
(23) Fahndrich - Mandelbaum 16 ..§hS+ '<!if6 (16 ... .§xhS 17.~xhS+
Vienna 1897 '<!if618.~eS *) 17.dxcS §.xhS 18.ii;YxhS
Queen's Gambit Declined [055] lLla6=+=. 15 ... g6?? Far more prudent is
running the king to safety with IS ... '<!if6
l.d4 d5 2.c4 ~f6 3.~c3 e6 4.J1g5 16.lLlhS+ 'it>e7 17.lLlxg7 §.h8=+=.
,Ae7 5.e3 0-06.,Ad3 b6 7.,Axf6 ,Axf6 16:~f3+- Once again, the attacking
8.cxd5 ,Ab7 9.~f3exd510.h4c5 side prevails despite an unsound sacri-
fice. 16... f517.~f4+ 'It>f618.~e5+
8 'It>g5 19.Eih5+! gxh5 20. ~g7+ 'It>h4
7 21.~xf5+ Eixf5 22.~g3410 1--0
(24) Pillsbury - Judd
St Louis 1898
Queen's Indian Defense [EI2]
l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 b6 4.~f3
,Ab7 5.,Af4 ,Ad6 6.,Axd6 ~xd6
abc d e f g h 7.cxd5 ,Axd5 8.e4 ,Ab7 9.Eic1 a6
10.Ad3 ~e711.0--0 0--0 12.e5 ~d8
White relies here on the lLlc3 and the
h4-pawn as additional assets. The ab- 8
sence of the dark-square bishop and the 7
closed nature of the c1-h6 diagonal
make 12 ... 'it>h6 a winning move. Yet
again, however, poor defense permits
White's attack to prevail. White finishes
the game with a lovely rook sacrifice 3
and a pretty mate. 1l.,Axh7+ 'It>xh7
12.~g5+ 'It>h6 White overwhelms
12 ... 'it>g8 with 13.ii;YhS-f7 and the cap- abc d e f g h
ture of the unanchored ilb7. 12 ... 'it>g8
13.ii;YhS .§e8 (13 ... ilxgS 14.hxgS fS Another lovely win for the American
IS.g6+- ) 14.ii;Yxf7+ 'it>h8 IS.ii;Yxb7 +-. champion. White has two additional


assets, the secure e5-pawn and the

4Jc3-e2-f4. Given the absence of 8
White's dark-square bishop, the ~h6 7
line is the real test. After 14 ... \t>h6 6
15:i£rd2 ~g6, White no longer has 5
16.~g4, but 16.4Je2 with the idea of
4Jf4, is fully sufficient for the win.
13•.1lxh7+! <if}xh714.~g5+ <if}h6 In
the \t>gS line, White can take advan-
tage of Black's lack of support on e6 by
playing 4Jxe6, hitting the queen and abc d e f g h
threatening mate on g7. 14 ... ~gS
15.~h5 E!eS 16.~xf7+ ~hS White relies here on the secure e5-pawn
17.4Jxe6+-; 14 ... ~g6 15:i£rg4! (not and the idea of E!c1-c3, but with the
15.~d3+ 4Jf5-+ [15 ... ~xg5? 16:i£rh7 white queen on d2, the variation with
4Jg6 17.f4+] ) 15 ... f5 16.exf6 ~xf6 ~gS was bound to be trouble. The
17.E!fe1 once again, a useful compan- queen cannot safely reach the h-file,
ion in the ~g4line to pressure the weak- and from d3, White exerts pressure on
ened e6-pawn. 17 ... ~d7 (17 ... ~cS h7 but not also f7. Note also that the f-
18.4Jce4++-) 18.E!xe6++-. 15.~d2 file is open, giving Black the opportu-
<if}g616.~e2 ~d5 Alternatives fare no nity to defend with E!f5 and g6.
better: 16... c517.4Jf4++- and 16.. :i£reS 16 ..1lxh7+ <if}xh7 17.~g5+ <if}gS
17.4Jf4+ ~h6 1S.E!c3+-. 17.~d3+! Black's development and pressure on
<if}xg5 Black can avoid a mating net only the d-pawn allows him to achieve ap-
with 17 ... f5 1S.4Jxe6+-. lS.f4++- proximate equality in the ~g6 line:
18.~h7! is mate in eight, says Fritz 12; 17 ... ~g6 1S.4Jxe6 4Jxd4 19.4Jxf8+
1S ... E!gS 19.h4+ ~g4 20.f3 #. 4JxfS 20.4Jc3lle6 21.4Ja4 'ff1a7 22.4Jc5
IS.••<if}h619. ~h3+ <if}g6 20.f5+ exf5 4Jc6 23. ~d3+ ~f7 24.0-0+ \t>gS
21.Etxf5 EthS 22. ~g4+ <if}h723.Etxfi 25.~h1 E!eS=. There's no point walk-
1-0 Here it's mate in three with ing into a pin with 17 ... ~h6
23.~h5+ ~gS 24.~xf7+ ~h7 1S.4Jxe6+ +-. The ~hSline is interest-
25.E!h5#. ing because the white queen has no
immediate access to the h-file, but
(25) Te Koiste - Swiderski White still prevails with 17 ... ~hS
Amsterdam 1899 18.~d3 E!f5 19.~h3+ ~gS 20.~h7+
French Defense [CI4] ~fS 21.'ff1hS+ \t>e7 22.'ff1xg7+ +-.
lS.~d3 Not 1S.4Jxe6 E!f7-+.
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4 ..1lg5 lS••• Etf5 19.~ xe6 ~ xd4 Far better is
.1le7 5.e5 ~fd7 6 •.1lxe7 ~xe7 19 ... g6 20.g4 4Jcxe5 21.dxe5 E!xe5+
7.~d2 a6 8.~d1 c5 9.c3 ~c610.f4 22.~f1 'ff1xe6-+. 20.~xd4? White
~ 11.~f3 f612 ..1ld3cxd413.cxd4 can hope to survive after 20.4Jxd4.
~b414.Etc1 fxe515.fxe5 ~b6 20 ••• ~xe6-+ 21.Etc3 ~xe5+
22.~xe5 Etxe5+ 23.<if}d2 ~f6
24.Etc7 ~e4+ 25. <if}e3 ~f6+ 26. <if}d4
Ete4+ 27.<if}c5 Etc4+ 2S.<if}b6 ~d7+

Sacking the Citadel

0-1 Winning the exchange since at Paris, 1867 tied with Steinitz. His first
29.~a5 b6 is mate. place finishes include Warsaw 1868,
Paris 1878, Nuremberg, 1883, and the
(26) DyckhotT - Trimborn German Chess Championship in 1883.
Munich 1900 He is, perhaps, best remembered for
Queen's Gambit Declined [DS3] several opening variations, notably the
popular Winawer variation of the French
l.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3 . .£le3 .£lf6 4.jlg5 Defense.
jle7 5.e3 0-0 6.jld3 dxe4 7.jlxe4
b6 S:~f3 e6 9.jlxf6 jlxf6 10.h4 One of the strongest players in Russia
'ifJe711.jld3 .£la612..£lh3.£lb4 in the late 19th century, Alapin (1856-
1923) is best known today for having
8 introduced a range of offbeat opening
7 variations, one of which, the c3-Sicilian
6 (l.e4 c5 2.c3) remains a popular choice
5 in modern tournaments.
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£le3 .£lf6 4.Ag5
Ae7 5.jlxf6 jlxf6 6.Ad3 e5 7 ..£lf3
0-0 S.e5 jle7 9.dxe5 f610.h4 .£le6

abc d e f g h 8
Without an e5-pawn or dark-square
bishop, White relies instead on the <tIc3
and the h4-pawn. With the white knight
on h3 rather than f3, White can again
play ~h5 first, eliminating the possibil- 3
ity of variations other than \t'gS. 2

13.jlxh7+! <i!lxh7 There's obviously

no point in 13 ... ~hS 14.~h5 +-. abc d e f g h
14.'ifJh5+ <i!lgS As is quickly evident,
Black has no reasonable defense and As we shall see later in the book, the
succumbs to the usual idea, after sacrifice can work with a black pawn on
15 ... Axg5 16.hxg5, of 17.g5- f6, but here, White simply does not
g6.15 ..£lg5 jlxg5 16.hxg5 f517.g6 have sufficient reinforcements. White's
1~ eS-pawn is under assault and there's no
dark-square bishop. White must there-
(27) Winawer- Alapin fore rely upon the <tIc3 and h4-pawn as
Monte Carlo 1901 additional assets. Black gets a winning
French Defense [CI4] position in the game with \t'gS because
the 14 ... <tIe5 capture eliminates the e5-
Szymon Wmawer(1838-1920) was a lead- pawn and eyes the White's-advancing
ing player during the 19th century. In g-pawn. 1l.jlxh7+ <i!lxh712 ..£lg5+
his first tournament, he finished second <i!lgS Perhaps the most interesting pos-


sibility is the immediate capture on g5, Revolution, a second in the Great De-
but careful defense results in a per- pression, and a third to the Nazis. In a
petual. 12 ... fxg5 13.hxg5+ ~gS chess career that spanned six decades,
14J''!hS+ ~f7 (not 14 ... ~xhS15.i£rh5+ Bernstein had many successes, nota-
~gS 16.g6 .§.f5 17.i£rh7+ ~fS blya first in Berlin 1902/3, a shared first
18.i£rhS#) 15.i£rh5+ g616 ..§.h7+ 'it>eS in Stockholm, 1906, and first in the Mos-
17.i£rxg6+ ~d7 18.4:Jxd5 exd5 (avoid- cow City championship of1911. Follow-
ing lS ... i£ra5+ 19.b4 4:Jxb4 20.4:Jxe7 ing the end of the second world war,
4:Jd5+ 21.~f1 4:Jxe7 22 ..§.d1+ 'it>c6 Bernstein represented France at the
23 ..§.d6+ ~xc5 24 ..§.xe7±) 19.i£rd6+ 11th Chess Olympiad in Amsterdam.
~eS 20.i£rg6+=. White fails in the 'it>h6
line, because 13. i£rd3 meets f5, and 1.e4 e5 2.~f3 ~f6 3.~c3 ~c6
13.i£rd2 meets fxg5. 12 ... 'it>h6 13.'~d3 4 ..1lb5 .1lc5 5.~xe5 0--0 6.0--0 fIeS
(13.'ii¥d2 fxg5 14.hxg5+ ~g6) 13 .. .f5. 7.~f3 ~ xe4 S.d4 .1lfS 9.~ xe4 fIxe4
In the ~g6Iine, 13.i£rd3 f5 when there's 10..1ld3 fIe8
no en passant capture to keep the at-
tack alive. 13.~h5 fxg5 14.hxg5 8
~ xe515.g6 ~ xg6 Black eliminates the 7
mating threats by giving back only one 6
ofthe two extra pieces. 16.~xg6 -'tf6 5
17.~h7+ ~f718.~h5+ g619.~e2
fIhS-+ 20.0-0-0 -'td7 21.~f3
fIxhl 22.fIxhl ~g7 23.~e3 .1lg5
24.f4 .1lf6 25.~e2 ~e7 26.g4 fIhS
27.fIel ~f7 2S.c3 fIcS 29.c6 bxc6
30.g5 .1lg7 31.~g3 ~d6 32.~xa7 abc d e f g h
~xf4+ 33.~bl ~eS 34.~e2 ~h4
35.~gl c5 36.~c1 fIbS 37.fIe2 Another game in which even inaccu-
j},xc3 38.~xc5 ~b4 39.~f2 -'td4 rate play by White garners the full point.
40.~h2 ~xb2+ 41.fIxb2 fIxb2+ For additional assets, White relies on
42.~xb2 -'txb2 43.~xb2 ~e7 the dark-square bishop and the .§.el.
44.~d3 ~d6 45.~c3 e5 46.~el For Black, only 'it>g6 makes sense here
d4+ 47.~b4 -'tf5 4S.a4 -'te4 49.a5 given the presence of White's dark-
~c6 50.~c4 ~b7 51.~b3 j},d5+ square bishop and the queen's access
52. ~b4 .1le4 53. ~c4 ~c6 54.~b4 to h5. Following the sacrifice, 13.h4
~d5 55.~b5 d3 56.a6 ~d4 57.a7 gives White a strong pull by forcing
~c30--1 the black king into the center.
1l..1lxh7+ ~xh712.~g5+ ~g6 With
(28) Bernstein - Kulomzin the bishop on fB, there's no point in con-
Kiev, 1903 sidering 12 ...'it>gS13.i£rh5+-.13.~d3+
Four Knights Game [C48] One of the advantages of the ~g6-line
is that the white queen cannot immedi-
A grandmaster and businessman, Ossip ately move to h5. On 13.d5!? Ae7! (su-
Bernstein (1882-1962) gained and lost perior to 13 ... 4:Je5 14.f4 and 13 ... f5
three fortunes, one to the Bolshevik 14.h4 4:Je5 15.h5+ 'it>f6 16.'ii¥d4+-)

Sacking the Citadel

14:~d3+ f5 15 ..£Jf31.lJ6 16.dxc6 dxc6 lit'xh711.4)g5+ lit'h6! The 'it'g8line

17.~b3;!;. White's best isI3.h4! f5 and the .Q.xg5 line fail in the usual way,
14.h5+ 'it'f6 15.d5 .£Je5 16.~d4 trans- with the opening of the h-file and the
posing to a favorable variation of the advance of the g-pawn to g6. 11...'lt'g8
13.d51ine.13...f514.~g3 Jld615.f4 12.~h5 Axg5 13.hxg5 f6 14.g6+-;
lit'f6 16.Ad2 White can take a per- 11...Axg5 12.hxg5+ 'it'g613.~h5+ 'It'f5
petual with 16 ..£Jh7+ 'it'f7 17 ..£Jg5+ 14.g4+ 'it'f4 (14 ... 'it'xe5 15.~h2#)
'it'f6=. 16••• Ab4? White's gamble pays 15 ..£Je2+ 'It'e4 16.~h2+-. Black can
off. 16... Ae7=; 16 ... .£Jxd4=. 17.Jlxb4 survive in the 'It'g6line because the king
4)xb418.~h3+- d519.~xb4~e7 can escape to the center after 11 ... 'it'g6
20.~c3 ~e3+ 21.~xe3 Elxe3 12.~d3+ f5 (12 ... 'it'h5 13.g4+ 'it'xg4
22.Elael Elxe123.Elxel Ad724.Ele5 [13 ... 'it'h6 14.~h7#] 14.~f3#)
c6 25.lit'f2 Ele8 26.lit'e3 c5 27.Elxe8 13.exf6+ 'it'xf614.~xd4+ e5=. 12. ~d3
cxd4+ 28.lit'xd4 Axe8 29.lit'xd5 With the idea of~h7 #. 12•••g613.4)e2
Jlc6+ 30.lit'd6 Axg2 31.c4 lit'g6 No better is 13.h5 'it'g7 14.hxg6
32.lit'e5 Ac6 33.b41~ fih8-+ .13... lit'g714.f4 Elh815.0--4-
o 4)c6 16.4)xd4 4)xd4 17.~xd4
(29) Kemeny - Schrader ~b618.~d3 Jld719.h5 AxgS Black
St Louis 1904 is close to winning after 19 ... Ab5
French Defense [C 14] 20.~g3 ite2 21.h6+ fixh6 22.fixh6
Axdl 23.'lt'xdl Axg5 24.fxg5 ~d4+
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 4)f6 4.Ag5 25.'it'c1 fih8=+'. 20.fxg5 gxh5
Jle7 5.Jlxf6 Axf6 6.4)f3 0-0 7.e5 21.Eldfl Jlh5 22.~3 Jlxfl23.Elxfl
Ae7 8.Ad3 c5 9.h4 cxd4 Elaf8 24. ~f6+ lit'h7 25. ~e7 ~e3+
26.lit'dl ~xe5 Or simply 26 ... ~d4+
8 IL__,_:;.I~~_~ 27.'it'c1 ~xe5 -+. 27.Elxf7+ Elxf7?
7 Sti11 winning is 27 ... 'it'g6-+. 28.~xf7+
6 ~g7 29.~xh5 = lit'g8 30.~e8+ ~f8
5 Yz-Yz
(30) Schlechter- Wolf
Ostend 1905
Queen's Gambit Declined [040]

abc d e f g h Carl Schlechter (1874-1918) is best re-

membered for seriously challenging
For additional assets, White relies upon Emanuel Lasker in the 1910 world chess
the .£Jc3-e2, the e5-pawn, and the h4- championship match, needing only a
pawn. For Black, the e5-pawn is inse- draw in the last game but falling short.
cure and Black hopes to dominate the Beginning in 1883, he played in more
dark squares on the kingside. Black than 50 international chess tourna-
gains a large edge with 11 ... 'it'h6, as in ments. He carne in first place at Munich
the game. After 24 moves, Black is win- 1900, Coburg 1904, Ostend 1906,
ning easily, but Black's horrible 27th Stockholm 1906, Vienna 1908, Prague
move tosses away the win. 10.Jlxh7+ 1908, Hamburg 1910, and in the


Trebitsch Memorial Tournaments in tives fare less well. 21.h4 ~cB+ keeps
Vienna (1911 , 1912, 1913). the queen off g4 and prepares ... ~f5.
And White wins only an exchange af-
l.d4 d5 2.4)f3 4)f6 3.e3 c5 4.c4 e6 ter 21.~c2+ f5 22.exf6+ 'iftxf6 23.4Jh7+
5.Ad3 4)c6 6.0-0 a6 7.4)c3 dxc4 'it'f7 24.4JxfB 'it'xfB~. 21 .•. f5 21...f6
S.Axc4 b5 9.Ad3 Ab7 10.a4 c4 without the attack upon the white
1l.axb5 axb5 12.E!xaS AxaS queen, White can afford to play
n.Abl ~b814.e4 Ae715.Ag5 0- 22.4Je6+ 'iftf7 23.exf6 gxf6 24.~g7+
o16.e5 4)d517.4) xd5 exd51S.Axe7 offering the 4Je6 24 ... 'it'xe6 (24 ... 'ifteB
4)xe7 25.~xfB++-) 25 ..§el++-. 22.exf6
Much less convincing is the familiar
8 22.~g3!? 4Jc6 23.4Je6+ 'iftf7 24.4Jg5+
7 'it'eB 25.4Je6=. 22 ••. gxf6 White's at-
6 tacks are instructive: 22 ... 4Jf5 23.4Je4+
the most powerful discovery 'it'f7
24.4Jg3 g6 25.4Jxf5+-; 22 ... 'it'xf6
23 ..§eltaking aim on e6. 23.4)e6+ ~f7
24.~g7+ ~xe6 25.E!el+ ~f5
26.~h7+ White has a slightly faster
mate with 26.g4+ 'it'f4 27.~h6+ 'iftf3
abcdefgh (27 ... 'it'xg4 2B.h3+ 'it'f5 [2B ... 'iftf3
29 ..§e3#] 29.~h5+ 'it'f4 30.~g4#)
The conditions are once again set for a 2B ..§e3+ 'iftxg4 29.h3+ 'it'f5 30.~h5+
successful Greco Sacrifice. The white 'iftf4 31.~g4#. 26 .•. ~g5 27.E!xe7+-
e-pawn has driven Black's knight off It's mate in six with 27.h4+ 'it'g4
f6, the white queen has quick access to (27 ... 'iftf4 2B. ~h5 +-) 2B.f3+ 'iftf4
h5 for use in the 'iftgB variation and to (2B ... 'it'g3 29.~g7+ 4Jg6 30.~xg6+
g4 if Black chooses to play 'ifth6 or 'it'xh4 31.~g4#) 29.~h6+ 'it'g3
'iftg6. And Black's poor development (29 ... 'it'f5 30.g4#) 30.~g7+ 4Jg6
gives White the time to bring up the 31.~xg6+ 'it'xh4 (31...'it'f4 32.~g4#)
.§f1-el-e3. White's 22nd move is espe- 32.~g4#. 27 ..• E!gS 2S.E!e3 b4
cially instructive, keeping the attack alive 29.E!g3+ ~xg3 30.~xgS+ 1-0
with 22.exf6 rather than 22.~g3, which
gives Black a chance to gain the develop- (31) Burn - Marshall
ment needed for a successful defense. Ostend 1906
19.Axh7+ ~xh7 20.4)g5+ ~g6! In Queen's Pawn Game [D02]
the 'iftgBline, White's makes good use
of the undefended e6-square. 20 ... 'iftgB Frank Marshall (1877-1944) was the U.S.
21.~h5 .§cB (21.. ..§eB 22.~xf7+ 'it'hB chess champion from 1909-1936 and
23.f4 with the idea of.§f3-h3) 22.~xf7+ competed unsuccessfully for the world
'ifthB 23.4Je6 4Jf5 24.~xf5+-. In the championship against Lasker in 1907.
'ifth6Iine, White has ~g4-h4, as well as He finished fifth at the 1914 St. Peters-
f4-f5 if Black plays ... 4Jg6 and ~cB. burg tournament behind Lasker,
20 ... 'ifth6 21.~g4 4Jg6 22.f4 ~cB Capablanca, Alekhine, and Tarrasch.
23.f5 +-. 21. ~g4! The usual alterna- Tsar Nicholas II is said to have con-

Sacking the Citadel

ferred the title of Grandmaster on ing for trouble. 23.g4+ ~xg4 (23 ... ~h4
Marshall and the four other finalists. 24.~f3+ ~xg4 [24 ... ~h3 25.~cgl +-]
Known for his great tactical skill, he in- 25.~cgl + ~h5 26.~h7+ ~h6
troduced the famous Marshall Gambit 27 .~g5 # ) 24.~hgl + +- . 22. ~h5 ~e5
in the Ruy Lopez. Simpler is 22 ... ~f5 -+ when Black can
sacrifice the exchange to relieve the
l.d4 d5 2.~f3 c5 3.c3 e6 4.M4 ~c6 pressure. 23.~h7+ ~fS 24.~hS+
~e7 25.~xg7+ ~d6 More accurate
5.e3 ~f6 6.~bd2 .1ld6 7.Ag3 0-0
S..1ld3 EteS 9.~e5 .1lxe5 10.dxe5 is 25 ... ~e8! 26.~g3 ~d7-+. 26.~g3
Not 26.~xf6 ~g4+. 26 ... ~d7 27.e4
~d711.f4 c412.Ac2 ~b613.~f2
~c6 2S.e5 ~fS? 28. .. ~f8 is playable,
~xb2 14.Etcl ~xa2 15.~e2 f5
but Black's best chance lay with
16.exf6 ~xf617.Ah4 EtfS1S.Axf6
28 ... ~xf4! 29.~xf4 ~c5 30.~c2 .ild7
Etxf619.~f3 ~a3
31.~bU. 29.exf6 ~xf6 30.~gS
Missing the transition to a winning
endgame with 30.'li11xf6 ~xf6 31.h4+-
when the h-pawn is a flier. 30 ... ~c5
31. ~eS+ Ad7 32. ~xaS e5 33.~h3
better is 33 .Rhfl ~g6+ 34. ~f2 ~d3+
35.~f1 ~xcl 36.~f2 ~c2 37.g3
~d3 -+ 38.~xa7d439.~xd3Ah3+

(32) Bernstein - Maroczy

abc d e f g h Ostend 1906
Queen's Gambit Declined [D37]
Down material against the future Ameri-
can champion, Bum prepares and plays l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 ~f6 4.~f3
the sacrifice. Black can easily parry the Ae7 5.Af4 0-0 6.e3 b6 7.cxd5 exd5
attack with ~h6 or, even better as in S.Ad3 a6 9.0-0 Ab7 10.~e5 c5
the game, use the ~f6 to aid the ~g8 11. ~f3 Eta712.Etadl c413.Abl b5
retreat. Marshall's errors on moves 25 14.e4dxe415.~xe4~bd716.~c6
and 28 ought to have cost him the full Axc617.~xf6+ ~xf618.~xc6 ~d5
point, but Bum returned the favor on 19.~b6 Etd7 20.Etfel Ab4 21.Ad2
moves 30 and 33 to decide the course Ad6 22. ~a5 ~xd4 23.Ac3
of the game. 20.Axh7+ ~xh7
21.~g5+ ~gS Bum lacks a dark-square
bishop to aid the ~h6 line and has no
meaningful way to bring up reinforce-
ments. 21...~h6! 22.~g4 ~b2+
23.~g3 ~f8 24.'li11h4+ ~g6-+. Less
convincing is 21...~g6? 22.'li11c2+ when
Black has 22 ... m5 23.g4 e5 24.~hgl
'li11e7 25.~g3=. Of course, Black should
avoid king retreats since 22 ... ~h6 meets
23.'li11h7# and 22 ... ~h5 is clearly ask-


Black does not appear to have the req-

uisite additional assets here, but the 8
~d4's starting position already exerts 7
pressure upon f2. The movement of the 6
white rook to the e-file relinquished 5
control over that key f2-square, permit-
ting Black, upon sacrificing on h2, to
infiltrate powerfully on f2 as well. In the
game, Bernstein settled upon 25.~h1,
a relative rarity in these positions, and
Black missed crushing shots on his next abc d e f g h
two moves. 23 .•• Axh2+ 24.~xh2
.£Jg4+! Black has to settle for a draw A rematch of the two competitors in
after 24 ... ~h4+ 25.~gl 4Jg4 26.'§'xd7 game 31 played at the same tournament
~xf2+ 27.~h1 ~h4+=. 25.~hl ~gl just one year later. Playing White this
faces ~xf2+ and it's mate in five be- time, it is Marshall's turn to try the Greco
cause the dl- and d3-squares are occu- Sacrifice which he prepares spectacu-
pied or covered. 25.~gl? ~xf2+ larly with an exchange sacrifice on h5
26.~h1 ~h4+ 27.~gl ~h2+ 28.~f1 that nicks Black's pawn structure.
~h1 + 29.~e2 ~xg2 #. Black's king is White's additional assets include the
too exposed after 25.~h3 4Jxf2+ dark-square bishop, the 4Jd2-f3, and
26.~g3 (26.~h2 ~h4+ 27.~gl the possibility, albeit slow, of bringing
4Jxd1-+ ) 26 ... ~g4+willingly ditching the '§'a1 into the game on hI. Note, of
the knight 27.~xf2 (27.~h2 .§.xd1-+) course, that a bishop rather than a pawn
27 ... .§.xd1-+. Black wins quickly after rests on g7, often a key in the ~g6line
25.~g3 ~xf2+ 26.~xg4 (26.~h3 because White will capture a bishop
g5-+) 26 ... ~xg2+ with a fun mating ex- rather than a pawn on g7. Black's only
ercise for the reader: 27.~f4 ~f2+ hope was to decline the Greco Sacrifice
28.~g4 h5+ 29.~h3 g5 -+. 25 .. :~xdl with ~f8 because, after 11.4Jg5, all of the
Simpler is 25 ... ~f4-+. 26.f3 It's hope- defenses crumble quickly despite the abil-
less even after White's best move ity of the black knight to reach f6.
26.Af5 4Jxf2+-+. 26 ... ~d5 Missing 10.Axh7+ ~xh711 ..£Jg5+ ~g6 In
a game ending shot with 26 .. ..§.eB! -+ . the ~gB line, White infiltrates on f7,
27.fxg4 .§d6 2S.~c7 b4 29.Ae4 driving the king to h8 where 0-0-0 de-
.§h6+ 30.~gl ~b5 31.Ad2 .§e6 cides. 11...~gB 12.~xh5+- 4Jf6
32.Af3 .§feS 33.'§xe61--O (12 ... 4JfB 13.~xf7+ ~hB 14.0-0-0+-
provides a similar end) 13.~xf7+ ~hB
(33) Marshall - Burn 14.0-0-0+- with .§.h1 to come.
Ostend 1907 12..£Jdf3 e5 The queen and knights
Queen's Pawn Game [A48] work harmoniously to deliver a mate in
four after 12 ... 4Jf8 13.4Jh4+ ~f6
1.d4 .£Jf6 2 ..£Jf3 d6 3.Af4 .£Jbd7 14.~xh5 4Jg615.4Je4+ ~e616.'~f5#.
4.e3 g6 5.Ad3 Ag7 6 ..£Jbd2 0--0 7.h4 13•.£Jh4+ ~f614..£Jh7+ ~e7There's
.§eS S.h5 .£J xh5 9 ..§xh5 gxh5 a remarkable mate in two after 14 ... ~e6
15.d5+ ~e716.4Jf5#. 15•.£Jf5+ ~e6

Sacking the Citadel

16.4) xg7+ There's a mate in six involv- There's simply no way for the attack to
ing a pretty knight sac with 16.d5+ progress meaningfully. 12... hS 13..11.f4
'it'xf5 17.~xh5+ 'it'e4 18.'lii'f3+ c;t>f5 4)g4+ 14.<i,!tg1 gS lS . .11.eS §gS
19.94+ 'it'g6 20.~e4+ f5 21.~xf5*. 16.Axg4+- hxg4 17.4)e4 4)d7
16... <i,!te7 Not surprisingly, 16 .. .'~d5 lS.~xg4 4)xeS 19.dxeS <i,!tfS
walks into a mating net: 17.c4+ 'it'c6 (or 20.§ad1 ~c7 21.4)f61-O
17 ... 'it'xc4 lB. 'lii'b3 * or 17 ... c;t>e4
1B.f3 *) 1B.'lii'a4+ 'it'b6 (lB ... b5 (35) Pestalozzi - Duhm
19.~xb5*) 19.~b5*.17.4)fS+ <i,!te6 Bern 1908
lS.dS+ <i,!txfS 19.~xhS+ <i,!te4 20.0- French Defense [CI4]
0--0 1-0 Black resigns in order to avoid
seeing 20 ... exf4 21.~d4*. 1.e4 e6 2.d4 dS 3.4)c3 4)f6 4.AgS
Ae7 S..11.xf6 Axf6 6.eS .11.e77..11.d3
(34) Lasker,Em. - Marshall cS S.dxcS .11.xcS 9. ~g4 0--0 10.4)f3
World Championship 1907 4)c6
French Defense [CII]
1.e4 e6 2.d4 dS 3.4)c3 4)f6 4.Ad3 7
cS S.4)f3 c4 6.Ae2 dxe4 7.4)eS 6
.11.d6 S.O--O a6 9.4) xc4 h610.f3 exf3 5
1l.AxO 4

abc d e f g h

White has additional assets in the e5-

pawn and the .£\c3, but the real story is
the ~g4 which, with early access to h5,
eliminates lines other than c;t>gB. The
abc d e f g h game provides a nice illustration of the
classic checkmate in five, showing also
This is, I believe, the only Greco Sacri- how the black king will escape if White
fice to appear in a world championship plays 'lii'h7 before ~t7. 1l.Axh7+!
game. Trailing badly in the match, <i,!txh712.~hS+ <i,!tgS13.4)gS §eS
Marshall makes a poor decision. 14. ~xf7+! Tempting, but a clear mis-
White's position was already prefer- take, is 14.'lii'h7+? c;t>fB 15.'lii'hB+ c;t>e7
ably, but Black can play on with 16.~xg7 'it'd7 when the king escapes.
1l ... .l1c7. The Greco Sacrifice fails
14... <i,!thS1S.~hS+ <i,!tgS16.~h7+
quickly because Black has no tangible
<i,!tfS17.~hS+ <i,!te718.~xg7# 1-0
additional assets, even .£\g4 requires
preparation, and because Lasker can
quickly gain control over the key h2-bB (36) Mackenzie - Billings -
diagonal. 1l ... Axh2+ 12.<i,!txh2 Binningham 1908
Queen's Gambit Declined [D60]


l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.4:}c3 4:}f6 4 ..11.g5 defend the <tJg5 because the queen
4:}bd7 5.e3 .11.e7 6.4:}f3 0-0 7 ..11.d3 alone cannot mate a lone king on g5.
c5 8.0-0 bb 9.cxd5 4:}xd510•.11.xe7 14.~c2+ 'it'xg5-+ and of course 14.h4
4:} xe711.dxc5 4:} xc5 Voellmy wrongly ~xd1-+. 14..•e5? Black can obtain a
attaches a question mark here, contend- perpetual check by activating the <tJe7-
ing that the knight is needed on f6. He f5-h6. 14 ... f5! 15.~g3 f4 (15 ... 'it'h6
would have been correct were the sac- 16.~h4+ 'it'g6 17.~g3=) 16.exf4 <tJf5

rifice sound. 17.'~g4 <tJh6 1B.'~g3 <tJf5=. 15.4:}e6+

\tIf616.f4 4:}c6 Other alternatives lose
more quickly (a) 16... ~d617.§ad1 +-
~xe6 1B.~g5#; (b) 16 ... ~xe6
17.~g5#; and (c) 16 ... e4 17.f5 ~xe6
6 1B.fxe6+ 'it'e5 19 .ext7 +-. 17.f xe5+
5 More accurate is 17.§ad1 <tJxe61B.§xdB
4 §xdB19.~h4++- . 17••• \tIe718.4:}xdS
3 .11.xg4 19.4:}xc6+ \tIe6 20.h3 .11.h5
2 21.g4 .11.g6 22.!!adl .11.d3 23.4:}e2
\tId7 24.4:}b4 \tIe6 25.4:}xd31--O
abc d e f g h (37) Salwe - Vidmar
St Petersburg 1909
The absence of additional assets be- Queen's Gambit Declined [D40]
yond the <tJc3 casts doubt upon the
sacrifice here. Black correctly selects l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.4:}c3 c5 4.e3 4:}f6
~g6, the best defense, but misses a 5.4:}f3 4:}c6 6.a3 .11.d6 7.dxc5 .11.xc5
drawing line courtesy of f7-f5-f4 and 8.b4 .11.d6 9 ..11.b2 0-0 10..11.d3 a5
<tJe7-f5-h6. 12 . .11.xh7+ \tIxh7 1l.b5 4:}e512.4:}xe5 .11.xe513.~e2
13.4:}g5+ \tIg6 White's attack is crush- ~e7 14.0-0 b6 15.4:}a4 .11.c7
ing in the ~gB line because White can 16.!!ac1 !!d817.c5 bxc518.4:}xc5
drive off the <tJc5 defender with a timely .11.d619. ~c2 e5 20.a4.11.g4 21.4:}b3
b4. 13 ... ~gB 14.'~h5 §eB 15.'~xf7+ !!ac8 22. ~bl e4 23 . .11.c2 .11.e2
~hB 16.b4 ~b7 (knight moves permit 24.!!fel
<tJxe6. For example, 16 ... <tJd7
17 .<tJxe6 +- and sacrificing the knight 8
provides no relief. 16... <tJf5 17:~h5+ 7
~gB 1B.§ad1 <tJd7 19.~h7+ ~fB 6
20.<tJxe6+ +-. The knight is immune in 5
view of ~hB when Black cannot ad- 4
equately defend his queen) 17.§ad1
~cB 1B.bxc5 bxc5 19.~h5+ 'it'gB
20.e4+-. With the black bishop still on
c8 where it disrupts the communication
between the §aB and the ~dB, White abc d g h
gains a nice resource in the 'ifi'h6 line
with 14.<tJxf7+. 13 ...'it'h614.<tJxf7+ §xf7 The sacrifice winds up winning quickly
15.~xdB+-. 14.~g4 White needs to here because the remarkable black

Sacking the Citadel

bishop on e2 controls key squares, and maneuvering the queen to h2 and then
of course because White's pieces are swinging the rooks to the kingside.
hopelessly bottled up on the queenside. 26 ... ~d6 27.l=!xe2 ~h2+ 28.'it'xg4
In the game after ~h3, Black mates ~xg2+ 29.'it'h4 (29.~f4 ~f3+ 30.'it'g5
quickly because the queen reaches h2 [30.'it1e5 ~f6,*] 30 ... h6+ 31.'~h4 g5 '*)
forcing the white king out into the open 29 ... l=!d6-+. 27.Axe4 Eth6+ 28.!;flg3
board. 24 .•• Axh2+ 25.!;flxh2 4)g4+ ~h4+ 29.!;flf4 ~h2+ 0-1 There's a
Missing a quick rout with 25 ...'l:Yd6+! forced mate after 30.g3 ~xf2+ 3UU3
26.f4 (26.'it'gl .£Jg4 27.g3 ~h6-+; ~xf3+ 32.~g5 f6+.
26.g3 .£Jg4+ 27.'it'g2 Af3+ 28.'it'fl
~h6-+) 26 ... exf3+ -+. 26.!;flh3 In the (38)NN-NN
'it'gl line, Black can accurately box out Basel 1910
White's dark-square bishop by playing Queen's Gambit Declined [D40]
~d6 and then the queen to the h-file
only after White commits with g3. l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.e3 c5 4.4)f3 4)f6
26.'it'gl ~d6 27.g3 (27.f4 ~h6-+; 5.Ad3 4)c6 6.4)c3 a6 7.a3 dxc4
27.l=!xe2 ~h2+ 28.'it'fl ~hl '*) 8.Axc4 h5 9.Aa2 Ah710.0--0 Ad6
27 ... ~h6 28.l=!xe2 ~h2+ 29.'it'fl 1l.dxc5 Axc512.~c2 ~e713.h4
~h 1 '*. White has surprising drawing Ad6 14.Ahl Etc8 15.Ah2 4)e5
chances after 'it'g3 because the Ae2 is 16.4)xe5 Axe517.~d2 0-0 18.4)e2
en prise and because White, after f2-f4 Etfd819.4)d4
exf3, has Axh7+ and ~f5 lurking in the
position, preventing Black from piling 8
on with ~g5. The key for Black is the 7
exchange sacrifice on c2, drawing the 6
white queen to c2 where it is vulnerable 5
to attack from a discovered check from
the .£Jg4. 26.'it'g3! l=!xc2! (26 ... ~g5 27.f4
~g6 [27 ... exf3 28.Axh7+ 'it'f8 29:~f5]
28.l=! xe2 +- when, without the ex-
change sacrifice on c2, the discovered
check cannot reach the queen) 27.~xc2 a h c d e f g h
(27.l=!xc2 ~d6+! 28.f4 [28.'it'h4 ~h6+
29.~g3 ~h2,*; 28.~h3 ~h2,*] A game found by Voellmy. For additional
28 ... exf3+ 29.'it'h4 [29.'it'h3 .£Jf2+ asserts, Black can rely upon the active
30.~h4 ~h6+ 31.~g3 ~g5+ -+; light-square bishop and the active
29.~xg4 f5+ 30.'it'xf5 ~g6+ 31.'it'f4 rooks. In the 'it'g3 line, the black queen
l=!f8+-+] 29 ... .£Jxe3-+) 27 ... ~g5 28.f4 reaches the g-file long enough to sup-
exf3 (28 ... ~g6 29.~xe2+-) 29.l=!xe2 port a compelling discovery. Once again,
(29.gxf3 .£Jxe3+ -+) 29 ... .£Jxe3+ the defender finds the best moves hard
30.~xf3 .£Jxc2 31.l=!cxc2 (31.l=!exc2 to find. 19... Axh2+ 20.!;flxh2 4)g4+
~f5+ 32.'it'g3 ~d3+-+) 31...~f5+ 21.!;flg3 The 'it'h3line again meets ~g5-
32.'it'e3 (32.'it'g3 ~d3+ -+ ) 32 ... l=!e8+ h5. 21.~h3 ~g5-+ 22.l=!hl ~h5+
33.'it'd4 ~g4+ 34.'it'd3=. 26 ... Etd6 23.'it'g3 ~xh1. The 'it'gl line loses
Black can win a bit more quickly by quickly to the usual idea of ~h4 since


the light-square bishop has both g2 and 13.4Jxf7+ +-; 12 ... .§.xh5 13.~xh5+ 'it'f5
f3 covered. 21.)fj>gl ~h4 22.4Jf3 14.g4#] 13.g4#) 12.~g4 4Jd5+
~xf3-+ . . 21. .. ~g5 Avoiding 13.)fj>f1 +-. Avoiding the tempting
21...~d6+ 22.f4+-. 22.Axh7+ Black 10 ... ~xg51Utxg5 4Jxc312.~d3++-.
triumphs with a queen sacrifice after 11. ~h5 E!eS When White has the cus-
22.f4 4Jxe3+ 23.fxg5 4Jxfl + -+. The tomary mate in five.12.~xf7+ ~hS
best try for White is 22.f3 4Jxe3+ 23.)fj>f2 13.~h5+ ~gS 14.~h7+ ~fS
4Jg4+! 24.'it'el (24.fxg4 ~xd2+) 15.~hS+~e716.~xg7# 1-0
24 ... ~h4+ 25.)fj>e2 4Je5 -+. 22 .•• ~xh7
23.f4 ~g6 24.E!hl + ~gS 25.E!agl (40) Capablanca - Davis
4)f6+0-1 Chicago 1910
French Defense [CI4]
(39) Lasker,Em. - Schenzen
Buenos Aires simul. exhibition 1910 Jose Raul Capablanca (1888-1942)
Queen's Gambit [D06] reigned as world chess champion from
1921 to 1927 and most rank him among
l.d4 d5 2.c4 4)f6 3.cxd5 ~xd5 the best players of all time. Among
4.4)c3 ~dS 5.e4 e6 6.4)f3 Ab4 many outstanding achievements was
7.Ad3 ()....() S.e5 4)d5 first place at San Sebastian 1911, one of
the strongest tournaments ever held,
and second place at the famous St. Pe-
tersburg tournament of 1914.

l.d4 d5 2.4)c3 4)f6 3.Ag5 e6 4.e4

Ae7 5.Axf6 Axf6 6.4)f3 0-0
7.Ad3 c6 S.e5 Ae7 9.h4 f510.exf6

abc d e f g h 7
White has two additional assets, the
secure e5-pawn and the dark-square
bishop, and Black has only a modest
counter-attack upon the queens ide. The 3
reality is that Black's development is 2

poor, and it's a quick win for the world

champion. The selected defense with abc d e f g h
'it'g8 leads to an excellent example of
the checkmate with ~f7+ followed by White's additional assets in the posi-
~h5+ and ~h7+. 9.Axh7+ ~xh7 tion are the 4Jc3-e2-f4, and the h4-pawn
10.4)g5+ ~gS In the )fj>g6line, the .§.hl that provides an entry for the rook after
supports the powerful advance of the a capture on g5. The black position,
h-pawn. 10 ... )fj>g6 11.h4 4Jxc3 though poorly developed on the
(11..J':l.h8 12.h5+ 'it'f5 [12 ... )fj>h6 queenside, features notably the .§.f8 on

Sacking the Citadel

an open file. In the game, Black selects The Greco Sacrifice: 1911-1935
the 'lttg8 line, which should lead to a
quick draw with 13 ... E!.e8. Black blun- History records as many Greco Sacri-
ders by capturing the knight, permitting fices in the 24 years after Voellmy's ar-
Capablanca to demonstrate his accurate ticle as it had in the 300 years following
technique. 1l.Jlxh7+ <iflxh712.~g5+ Greco's discovery. The credit for the
<iflg8 In the 'ltth6 line, White has ~d3 exponential increase is surely not
with the idea of~h7. That line is play- Voellmy's but rather the growth in both
able for Black because White does not tournament play and in publications
have a dark-square bishop to aid sup- able to record interesting contests.
port for the 4Jg5. 12 ... ~h6 13.~d3
i.txg5 (13 ... g614.h5 i.txg5 [14 ... 'lttxg5 As you will see, the games are begin-
15.~xg6+ ~f4 16.4Je2#; 14 ... ~e8
ning to take on a more interesting and
15.hxg6+ ~g7 16.E!.h7+ 'lttg8 17.g7 sophisticated character. In the games
i.txg7 18.E!.h8++-] 15.~xg6#) within the first section of this chapter,
14.hxg5+ ~xg515.~g3+ 'lttf6(15 ... ~f5 the defense was generally sloppy, and
even inaccurate combinations often
16.~xg7+-) 16.E!.h7 E!.g8 17.~e5+
won. Here, the improved defenses are
'it'f7 18.~h5+ ~e7 19.~g5+ ~e8
beginning to hold.
20.~g6+ 'lttf8 21.E!.h3 4Jd7 22.0-0-0
4Jf6",. The 'lttg6 line leads quickly to
Once again, the games feature a remark-
mate because Black does not have an f-
able cast of players: Alekhine,
pawn to block ~d3+.12 ... ~g613.~d3+
Capablanca, Cheron, Dus Chotimirsky,
'ltth514.g4+ 'lttxg415.~f3#. And cap- Fine, Kashdan, Koltanowski, Lasker,
turing on g5 only activates the E!.hl. Marshall, Purdy, Rubinstein,
12 ... i.txg5 13.hxg5+ 'lttg8 14.~h5+-. Spielmann, Winter, Yates, and Znosko-
13.~h5 Axg5? White has nothing Borovsky. This section also makes clear
more than a draw after 13 ... E!.e8 that these were very active years for
14.m7+~h815.~h5+'lttg8=.14.hxg5 Lasker on the exhibition circuit.
~e8 15.g6 <iflf8 16.~h8+ <ifle7
17.~xg7+ <ifld6 18.~e5+ <ifld7 Without question, the most important
19.~h7+ ~e7 20.0--0--0 The most ac- of the games in this section is Colle's
curate win is 20.E!.h8 E!.e8 21.g7 E!.g8 victory over O'Hanlon (game 62), a
22.~h5 'ltte7 23.~h4+ 'lttf7 24.~xd8 game that brought Colle the Brilliancy
E!.xd8 25.E!.xd8 ~xg7 26.E!.xc8+-. Prize at Nice in 1930. The game has been
20 ••• ~g8 21.~xe7+ <iflxe7 22.~g5+ subjected to intense scrutiny within
<ifld7 23.~hl <iflc7 24.g71--O tactical game collections, in opening
manuals on the Colle System, and of
course in most of the published cover-
age on the Greco Sacrifice. In The Art of
Attack in Chess, Vukovic is the first to
contend that Colle's combination was
deeply flawed, for both positional and
tactical reasons. In the mosfrecent edi-
tion, Nunn adds to the analysis and
seeks to restore the brilliancy to Colle.


My analysis suggests that Colle's sac- Black can count on the light-square
rifice is indeed unsound if by that we bishop as an additional asset, but the
mean that the defender had a path to at activity of the f1.f8 is well balanced by
least a draw. That path exists, although the white f1.fl. The sacrifice is unsound
it is fair to say that the defensive bur- here, but there are surely few defenders
den was steep indeed, and that most who would have willingly played 16.~g3!
annotators of the game, with consider- againstAlekhine. The remarkable point is
able time at their disposal, fared little that the discovered check with ... 4::\xe3+
better than O'Hanlon. in that line leaves the 4::\e3 self-pinned to
the black queen. Alekhine's opponent
(41) Rotlewi - Alekhine
selected instead to retreat with ~g1 and,
Cologne 1911
when Alekhine missed the more aggres-
Dutch Defense [A84]
sive 18 ... g5, White reciprocated by los-
Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946) de- ing outright, overlooking a winning ad-
feated Capablanca in 1927 to become vantage with 20.~f2. 14... .Q.xh2+?
the fourth world chess champion. He 15.<it'xh2 4:)g4+ 16.<it'gl In the ~h3
dominated tournaments play during the line, Black can try ... 'ii¥g5-h5, but with
1920s and 1930s. He also played first the weakness of the d5-pawn, Black
board for France in four Olympiads, simply advances the f-pawn to unveil
winning individual prizes in each. He the light-square bishop. 16.~h3 f4
successfully defended his world title 17.4::\xd5 4::\xe3+ 18.~h2 4::\xc2
against Bogoljubow in 1929 and 1934. 19.4::\xb6+ ~g7-+. In the ~g3line, the
After losing the title to Holland's Max discovered check on e3 walks into a
Euwe in 1935, Alekhine regained the self-pin when ~g3-f2 is fully winning.
crown in 1937. He had a fierce and imagi- 16.~g3! 'ii¥g5 (not 16... 'ii¥d6+ 17.e5 +- )
native attacking style, and actively 17.e5 4::\xe3+ (walking into a self-pin;
gave simultaneous exhibitions, as will 17 ... 4::\xe5+ 18.~f2+-) 18.~f2+-
be obvious from his several contribu- 4::\xc2 (18 ... 'ii¥xg2+ 19.~xe3 g5 20.4::\f4
tions to this chapter. gxf4+ 21.~d3 'ii¥h3+ 22.~e2 f3+
23.f1. xf3 +- ) 19.1.txg5 4::\xa 1
l.d4 e6 2.c4 f5 3.4:)c3 4:)f6 4.e3 d5 20.f1.xa1 +- .16..• ~h417.E!f41 White
5 ..Q.d3 c6 6.4:)ge2 Ad6 7.0 0-0 8.0-- can settle for a perpetual with 17.f1.f3
o 4:)bd7 9.~c2 g6 10 . .Q.d2 e5 'ii¥h2+ 18.~f1 'ii¥h1 + 19.4::\g1 4::\h2+
1l.cxd5 e4 12.Ac4 4:)b6 13..Q.b3
20.~f2 4::\g4+ 21.~f1 4::\h2+=.
17••. ~h2+ 18.<it'fl ~hl+ Black's
best try is 18...g5 19.4::\xd5±. 19.4:)gl
4:)h2+ Or 19 ... fxe4 20.f1.xf8+ ~xf8
21.4::\ceU. 20.<it'e2? White's last try for
an advantage was difficult to judge given
the exposure of the white king. 20.~f2!
4::\g4+ 21.~3 'ii¥h5 (21...fxe4+ 22.'ii¥xe4
.Ilf5 23.f1.xf5 f1.xf5+ 24.~xg4+-) 22.~e2
fxe4 23.f1. xf8+ ~xf8 24.f1.f1 + 1.tf5
25.~e1 +-. 20••. ~xg2+ 21.&2 ~g4+

0--1 White shows respect in the face of a

Sacking the Citadel

beautiful variation: 22.4Jf3 4Jxf3 23.§.xf3 In the <it'g8 line, White is able to bring
fxe4 24:~xe4 Jle6 25.~xg4 ~xg4-+. up reinforcements with §.dl-d4.
13 ... <it'g8 14.~h5 §.e8 (14 ... ~d3
(42) Capablanca - Molina Carranza 15.e4) 15.~xf7+ <it'h8 16.~h5+ ~g8
Buenos Aires 1911 17.§.fdl ~d7 18.b4 +-. The ~h6 line
Queen's Gambit Declined [D53] involves an instructive combination
with 14. 4Jxf7+! exploiting the
1.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3.~e3 ~f6 4.Ag5 unanchored black queen. 13 ... ~h6
~bd7 5.e3 e6 6.~f3 Ae7 7.exd5 14.4Jxf7+ §'xf715.~xd8. 4 ..~g4 With
~ xd5 8.Axe7 ~ xe7 9.Ad3 e510.0- the exchange of queens in the air, White
00-0 1l.dxe5 ~ xe5 cannot select a quiet continuation, and
14.~c2+ meets ~xg5-+. 14... f5! The
normal move to gain time against the
~g4. The alternative 14 ... e5? 15.4Je6+
walks into another self-pin when
15 ... <it'f6 adds to the pressure on the
knight. The other two king moves,
15 ... <it'h616.~xg7+ <it'h5 17.~g5# and
15 ... ~h716.~xg7#, fail very quickly.
After 15 ... <it'f6 Capablanca tried to make
16.f4 work. But 16... 4Jc617.§.adl4Jd3
abc d e f g h 18.~g5+ <it'xe6 19.f5+ ~d7
20.§.xd3++- is a clear improvement
With only one additional asset, the 4Jc3, over Capablanca's 17.~g5+ <it'xe6
White ought not expect success here. 18.f5+ <it'd7 19.§.fdl + ~c7!. Against
Black plays the toughest defense, the 16 ... e4 17.f5! fxe6 18.fxe6+ ~e5
<it'g6 line, which should have held. Per- (18 ... 4Jf5 19.§.xf5++-) 19.~xg7+
haps hoping for more, Black turns down <it'xe6 20.§.xfB +- is slightly more ac-
a simple draw with 15 .. .f4. Black's de- curate than Capablanca's 17.~g5+
fense cracks on move 21, missing 4Jgf4 ~xe6 18.~e5+ ~d7 19.§.fdl + 4Jd3
and a middlegame with at least even 20.4Jxe4 <it'c6 (20 ... ~e8 21.4Jd6+)
chances. 12..11,xh7+ <itlxh713.~g5+ 21.§.xd3 ~xd3 22.§.cl + <it'b6 23.~c7+
~ <it'a6 24.4Jc5+ +-. 15"~'g3 <itlh6 Black
can force a quick perpetual with 15 .. .f4!
8 16.exf4 4Jf5 17.~g4 4Jh6 18.~g3
7 4Jf5=. But that didn't stop one annota-
6 tor, Znosko-Borovsky, from suggesting
5 that White was still better after
4 16.~g4?-+ e5 17.4Je6+ ~f6 18.§.adl

3 (Black is clearly better after both

18.4Jxd8 ~xg4-+ and 18.~xg7+
<it'xe6 19.§.adl ~e8 20.'~h6+ §.f6
21.§.d6+ <it'xd6 22.~xf6+ ~e6 23.§.dl +
abc d e f g h <it'c6 24.b4 §.d8 25.§'xd8 ~xd8
26.bxc5 ~d7 27.~xe5 fxe3 28.fxe3


Ac4+) 18 .. .'~e8 (Black is even better 26 ... ~xe8 27.~h5 with even chances.
after 18 ... Axe6 19.'~h4+ g5 20.'l()'h6+ 19 ...exf5 20.l!adl ~d3 Golombek
4Jg6 2U!xd8 ~axd8-+) 19.~d6 "with notes that after 20 ... ~e8, 21.4Jd5+ starts
manifold threats," according to Znosko- a mate in five after 2l...~xg5 22.f4+ 4Jxf4
Borovsky, but Black wins trivially with 23.h4+. 21. ~h3 ~df4 Nunn correctly
19 ... 4Jxe6-+. Another try for Black is gives 2l...4Jgf4= since 22.4:ili7+ (22.~g3
unimpressive, and the 4Jd3 comes un- ~h8) 22 ...W 23.~g3 Ae6=. 22.~g3
der fire: 15 ... 'it'f616.b4 4Jd3 17.4Jh7+ ~c7 23.l!fel ~e2+ 24.l!xe2 ~xg3
'it'f7 18.~ad1 ~h8 19.4Jg5+ ~f6 25.~h7+ ~ 26.hxg3l!h827.~g5+
20.00 4Jg6 21.4Je1 +- .16.~h4+ ~g6 ~628.f41-O
17.~h7+ Capablanca is trying hard to
win, turning down a repetition with (43) Tyroler - Balla
17.'l()'g3=. 17... ~f6 Taking the knight Temesvar 1912
with 17 ... 'it'xg5 loses quickly because Queen's Gambit Declined [055]
White can trap the king with 18.~xg7+
'it'h5 (18 ... 4Jg6 19.f4+ 'it'g4 [19 ... ~h5 l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 ~f6 4 ..Q.g5
20.'l()'h7+ 'it'g4 21.'l()'h3#] 20.~xg6+ ~bd7 5.e3 .Q.e7 6.~f3 0-0 7.l!c1 a6
'it'h4 21.'l()'h6+ ~g4 22.'l()'h3#) and 8.cxd5 exd5 9 ..Q.d3 b610.0-0 .Q.b7
then bring the ~f1 into the game. 19.f4 11.~e5 c5 12.~c2 h6 13 . .Q.xf6
4Jg8 20.~f3 +-. 18.e4 White was ~xf614.dxc5 .Q.xc515.l!fdl ~e7
clearly in a fighting mood and would 16.~f3 .Q.d617. ~b3 d418.~xd4
not have steered the game towards a
forced perpetual with 18.'l()'h5 g6
19.'l()'h4 'it'g7 20.~h7+ ~f6 21.~h4=. 8
18..• ~g6 Black would reach a similar 7
position after 18 ... 4Jd3 while retaining 6
the 4Je7 to watch the f5-square one 5
move longer. On 19. ~d1, Black would
gain the additional option of19 ... 4Jec6.
19.exf51? A position that has attracted
considerable interest. Vukovic suggests
19.~adl4Jd3 20.f4 4Jgxf4! 21.e5+! ~e7 abc d e f g h
(suicidal is 21...'it'xe5 22.'l()'xg7+ ~d6
[22 ... 'l()'f6 23.~c7+ ~d4 24.~xf4+ ~e3 Black launches the sacrifice counting
25J!f3+ 'it'd4 26.~fxd3 #; 22 ... ~f6 only on the powerful Ab7 as an addi-
23.4Jf7+ +-]23.~xf4). After the game, tional asset. White may have been
Capablanca thought that the best try tempted to play ~g3 because the queen
was 19.f4! fxe4 20.~ad1 ~b6 cannot safely play to g5 owing to f4.
21.~d6+- but Nunn found 19 ... 'l()'d4+! Black strikes correctly with ~e5+ but
20.'it'h1 (20.~f2 4Jxe4-+) 20 ... 4Jxe4 strangely misses the win by turning
21.4Jcxe4+ fxe4 22.~ad1 ~xd1 (the down White's bishop offer on h7.
logical 22 ... 'l()'c410ses spectacularly to 18....Q.xh2+ 19.~xh2 ~g4+ 20.~g3
23.f5! +- ) 23.~xd1 ~h8 24.4Jxe4+ ~f7 Once again, there's no point in consid-
25.4Jd6+ 'it'f6 26.4Je8+ (26.4Je4+=) ering 20.~h1? ~h4+ 21.~gl ~xf2+

Sacking the Citadel

22.~h1 ~xg2#. White can safely de- (44) Sundstrom - Holm

fend with 'it'gl because, with the rook Stockholm 1912
off fl, White can take the opportunity Petroff Defense [C42]
to defend the f2-pawn along the rank
and use the fl escape square to begin 1.e4 e5 2•.£Jf3 .£Jf6 3 ..£J xe5 d64..£Jf3
the king's migration towards the .£J xe4 5 . .£Jc3 .£J xc3 6.dxc3 Jle7
queenside. 20.~gl! ~h4 2Uk2 ~h2+ 7.Jld3 0--0 S.h4 EleS 9.Jle3 .£Jc6
22.~fl Axg2+ 23.~e1 ~ae8 24.~d5
(24.~e2 Afl 25.~c2 ~gl 26.~f3 ~h1
27.~d2 ~g2=) 24 ... ~gl+ 25.'it'd2
~xf2+ 26.~c1 Axd5 27.~xd5 ~xe3+
28.~cd2 ~f2 29.~f5 ~xd3+ 30.~xd3
with three connected pawns for the
piece in an even endgame. 0.~h3 walks
into a fork that also undermines the
white e-pawn, 20 ... ~xf2+ 21.~g3
~xe3+ -+. 20 ••• ~e5+ The mistakes
here are instructive. After 20 ... ~d6+ abc d e f g h
White can safely capture the knight
because the queen and light-square White can count here on two additional
bishop are not able to work together assets, the dark-square bishop and the
harmoniously. 21.~xg4 +- and h4-pawn, but Black has already posted
20 ... ~g5 fails quickly to 2l.f4! . 21.f4 the king's rook actively and the light-
Now, by clear contrast to the variation square bishop has ready access to f5.
in the last note, the queen and Ab7 com- In the game, 'it'g6 walks into a pretty
bine for an efficient mate in four: mating net thanks to the white h-pawn.
21.'it'xg4 ~g5+ 22.~h3 ~xg2+ 10.Jlxh7+? Cifjlxh7 1l..£Jg5+ Cifjlg6?
23.'it'h4 g5+ 24.~h5 ~h3#. The ~g8 retreat (and the capture on g5
21 ••• ~xe3+ 22.Cifjlxg4 White now has which transposes) provide superior
no real choice but to capture the ~g4. defense because, with the rook already
On 22.~f3 ~f2+ 23.~h3 (23.~xg4 on e8, Black gains a tempo for the es-
~xg2+-+) 23 ... 1.txf3-+; or 22.~h4 cape with ~f8. 11...'it'g8! 12.~h51.txg5
~xf4 -+. 22 ... Jlxg2 23.Jlh7+ Black (12 ... Af6 13.~xf7+ 'it'h8 14.~h5+
does not even need to capture the ~h1 'it'g8=) 13.hxg5 ~f8 14.~h8+ 'it'e7
after 23.~h1 ~xd3 24.~c2 f5+ 25.~h4 15.~xg7 1.te6 (solidifying the position,
g5+ 26.fxg5 ~xd4+-+. 23 ••. CifjlhS? A and the king has a clear path to the
mystifying error after so much hard queenside) 16.0-0-0 (16.g6 ~g8+)
work. Black has a fully winning posi- 16 ... ~d7+; 11...Axg5 12.hxg5+ ~g8
tion after 23 ... ~xh7! -+. 24..£Jce2 f5+ 13.~h5 ~f8 transposing. 12.h5+! Cifjlf6
25.Jlxf5 Jlh3+ 26.Cifjlh4g5+ 27.Cifjlh5 The black king certainly does not want
~e8+ 2B.Jlg6 Jlg4+ 29.Cifjlxg4 ~xg6 to enable the dark-square bishop by
30.Elc6 h5+ 31.Cifjlh3 ~h7 32.~e6 walking into a discovered check on h6,
Elae8 33.~h6gxf4 34.~xh7+ Cifjlxh7 but the alternatives lose quickly.
35..£Je61--O 12 ... 'it'f5 falls to a nice mate in three:
13.~f3+ ~e514.~e4+ 'it'f615.~h7#.


13. ~f3+ And here, White misses a mate 17.iiJ'h7#) when there are two pretty
in four: 13.iiJ'd5! <tIe5 14.<tIh7+ ~f5 mates from which to choose: 17.iiJ'h7+
15.g4+ ~xg4 16.iiJ'e4 #. 13 ••. j},f5 The 'itlg4 1B.f3+ ~g3 19 . .§.h3+ ~xg2
horrible looking 13 ... ~e5 allows a mate 20 ..§.gl# and 17.g4+ 'itlxg4 1B ..§.dg1 +
in two with 14.iiJ'f4+~d515.c4#.14.g4 'itlh519.~h7#. The line with 15 ... Axg5
~c8 15.4)e4+ Cit>e5 16.~f4+ Cit>d5 16.hxg5+ activates the .§.h1 and gives
17.0--0--0+ Cit>c418.4)xd6# 1--0 Black a horrible choice between
16 ...'<t>gB 17.~h5+- f5 1B.g6+- and
(45) Rastrelli - Falchetto 16 ... 'itlg617.~h5+ ~f5 18.~h3+ 'itle4
Correspondence 1914 (18. .. ~g619.~h7#) 19.~f3#.16.~h5
French Defense [C I 0] Ete8 The exchange this late is hopeless.
16 ... Axg5 17.hxg5 f5 1B.g6+- and
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 dxe4 4.4) xe4 Black cannot capture the g-pawn.
4)f6 5.4)xf6+ ~xf6 6.4)f3 ~d8 17.~xf7+ Cit>h818.h511--O White fin-
7.j},e3 4)c6 8.c3 j},e7 9.j},d3 j},f6 ishes in style, sacrificing the Ag5 to
10.~e2 b6 1l.Ae4 Ab7 12.~ bring all of the other white pieces into
0--0 13.h4 4)a5 the attack. 1B ... Axg5 (lB ... .§.e719.~g6
Axg5 20.Axg5+-) 19.h6 gxh6
8 20.'§'xh6+ Axh6 21..§.h1 +-.
7 If-~,r-~
6 (46) Pearsall- Marshall
USA 1915
Scotch Game [C45]
l.e4 e5 2.4)f3 4)f6 3.d4 exd4
4.4) xd4 4)c6 5.4)xc6 bxc6 6.j},d3 d5
7.exd5 cxd5 8.0--0 j},e7 9.4)c3 0--0
abc d e f g h 10.j},g5 c6 1l.~f3 Etb8 12.b3 h6
13.j},xh6 gxh6 14.~g3+ Cit>h8
In what appears to be the first success- 15. ~xb8 j},d616. ~xa7
ful Greco Sacrifice to occur in a pre-
served correspondence chess game, 8
White relies upon the dark-square 7
bishop and the h4-pawn as additional
assets. Black responds with the 'itlgB
line, the only choice that does not lead
to immediate mate or significant mate-
rial loss. As is typical for correspon- 3
dence chess, Black's resignation re- 2

quires some explanation, notably the

unstoppable threat of iiJ'g6 and h6. abc d e f g h
14.j},xh7+ Cit>xh715.4)g5+ Cit>g8 In
the 'itlg6 line, the presence of the ~J6 Trailing badly at the time of the sacri-
hurts the defense by blocking ... f5. fice and with only the light-square
15 ... 'itlg6? 16.iiJ'c2+ 'itlh5 (16 ... 'itlh6 bishop as an additional asset, Marshall

Sacking the Citadel

may have launched it knowing how dif-

ficult a time defenders have often had. 8
But the white queen on a7, seemingly 7
out of play, solidly covers the critical 6
f2-square making the '.t'gl line a very
simple win. 16 .•• .1lxh2+ 17.'it>xh2
4)g4+ IS.'it>gl Up a rook and pawn,
White can afford to return some mate- 3
rial. The open g-file may have encour- 2

aged Marshall, but even after IS .. J::!gS,

the discovery nets nothing more than abc d e f g h
an exchange on f1. IS.~g3 .!::!gS
(IS ... ~gSI9.f4 V;f;Jg7 20.<tle2+-) 19.f3 Another nice sacrifice from a corre-
V;f;Jd6+ 20.f4 <tle3+ 21.'.t'h2 <tlxfl + spondence player. White relies on the
(21 ... .!::!xg2+ 22.'.t'hl V;f;Jf6 23.V;f;Jxe3 +- ) dark-square bishop and the .!::!f1 as ad-
22 ..!::!xfl +-. IS ... ~h4 If Black at- ditional assets. The '.t'g61ine represents
tempts to seize control over the b8-h2 the toughest defense, since Black may
diagonal, White can simply shut it down survive after IS.~d3+ <tlfS. As it turns
with f4, IS ... ~d6 19.V;f;Jd4+ '.t'gS out, the attacking side misses the quick-
20.f4 +-. 19.1afel White has a much est win with IS.h4 and 16.hS+.
more efficient defense by redeploying 13..1lxh7+! 'it>xh714.4)g5+ 'it>g6 The
the queen on the key b8-h2 diagonal. ~gS line holds no hope here for the
19.V;f;Jd4+ '.t'gS 20.V;f;Jf4+-. 19 ... ~h2+ defender because White can sacrifice
20.'it>f1 ~f4 On 20 ...V;f;Jhl + White not the Jlf4 in order for the .!::!f1 to take full
only migrates the king to the queens ide, advantage of the open f-file: 14 .. .'~gS
but also manages to activate his pieces
IS.Jlxc7! Jlxc716.~hS .!::!eSI7.~h7+
for an attack down the h-file. 21.'.t'e2
'.t'fS IS ..!::!xf7#. 15.h4 With the threat
V;f;Jxg2 22.V;f;Jd4+ f6 23.V;f;Jf4 .!::!eS+
of 16.hS+. IS.~d3+!? gains back the
24.'.t'd2 <tleS 2S.~xh6+ '.t'gS
piece after <tlfS (Not IS ... MS 16.V;f;Jg3 +-
26 ..!::!hl +-. 21.4)e2 ~f6 22.~d4+-
or IS .. .fS 16.~g3+-) but Black can
4)e5 23.4)gl laeS 24.4)f3 c5
safeguard the king after 16.g4 f6
25.laxe5 cxd4 26.laxeS+ 'it>g7
27.laxc8 ~f4 28.a4 h5 29.'it>e2 ~d6 17.<tlf3 '.t'h718.gxfS ~eSI9.<tlh4 ~hS
30.lae8 f6 31.4) xd4 ~h2 32.lael f5 20.V;f;Jg3±. 15 ...f5 Preventing hS with
33.'it>f3 f4 34.lale61--O IS ... .!::!hS leaves the f-pawn exposed.
16.<tlxf7 ~xf7 17.Jlxc7++-; IS ... f6
(47) Boucher-Robbins does nothing to prevent 16.hS+ ~h6
Correspondence 1916 with a killing discovery, 17 .<tle6+ +- .
Vienna Game [C33] And taking the queen out of the line of
fire still leaves the king horribly exposed,
l.e4 e5 2.4)c3 4)c6 3.f4 exf4 4.4){3 IS ... V;f;JeS 16.hS+ '.t'h6 (16 ... ~f6
.1lb4 5.4)d5 4)f6 6 ..1lc4 0--0 7.0--0 17.V;f;Je2+-; 16 ... ~fS 17.Jle3#) and
4) xe4 S.c3 .1la5 9.d4 4)f6 10..1lxf4 there's no need to rush the discovered
4)xd511..1lxd54)e712•.1le4d5 check, 17.a4 c61S.V;f;Je2 M5-19.g4 JlcS


20 ..§ael +- . 16.fU3 The rook swing is 18.~h5+ <;t>g8 19.~h7+ <;t>f8 20.b4
effective, but White can simply advance when 20 ... .£Jxe4 21..£Jexe4 .Q.xe4
the h-pawn:-16.h5+! <;t>f6 17.~el .£Je6 22.~h8+ .£Jb8 23 ..§e7 ends the discus-
18.~g3 (aiming at both e5 and g6,Dor sion. Instead, the rook retreat
simply 18.~h4+-) 18 ... .§h819.Ae5+ withI5 ... .§e8 loses more quickly,
rtle7 20 ..llxg7+-. 16... .£lg8 17.f!g3 16.~xf7+ rtlh817 ..§fdl with 18.b4 to
'it>f6 18. ~e2 ~e8 19.f!e3 ~c6 follow. The simplest defense is the <;t>h6
20.~h51-O line. There, given the absence of a dark-
square bishop, White can only try
(48) Capablanca - Borochow 14 ... <;t>h615.~g4 when 15 ... .£Jf5 threat-
New York 1918 ens ~xg5. 14 ... <;t>h6! 15.~g4 .£Jf5
Queen's Gambit Declined [D63] 16.f4. It would have been interesting to
see what Capablanca had in mind in that
1.d4 d5 2..£lf3 .£lf6 3.c4 e6 4.Ag5 line, since the logical 16.f4 gives Black
.£lbd75..£lc3Ae76.e30-07.f!c1 b6 the opportunity to counter with
8.cxd5 .£lxd5 9.j'txe7 .£lxe710.j'td3 16 ... ~d3 17 ..§fel g6 18.~h3+ <;t>g7
19.~h7+ rtlf6 20 ..§edl ~e4 21.g4 .£Jd3
22.gxf5 exf5 23 ..§e2 .§ad8=. To make
matters worse for White, Black could
also try 15 ... .£Jd5 a likely improvement
because 16.~h4+ rtlg6 17.~h7+ rtlf6
6 gives the king an escape to e7: 18 ..§fdl
5 ~b8 19 ..£Jee4+ .£Jxe4 20 ..£Jxe4+ rtle7
4 21.~xg7 .§g8 22.~d4 .§e8 23.~g7
3 .§xc1 24.~g5+ <;t>f8 25 ..§xc1 ~d8+.
2 15.~g4 15.~e2+? fails to both
15 ... <;t>xg5 when there's no support for
the mate or simply to 15 ... ~d3. 15...f5
abc d e f g h
16. ~g3 'it>f6 There's no relief to be
found in 16... ~b8 17.f4 .§h8 because
Relying upon only one additional as-
18.b4 .£Ja6 pries open White's access
set, the .£Je3, the sacrifice is unsound to g7. 19 ..§fdl <;t>f6 20 ..§d7+-. 17.b4
here, but the world champion exhibits .£ld7 After 17 ... .£Je4 White can recover
stronger will power. In the actual game, an exchange with 18 . .£Jh7+ rtlf7
Capablanca's opponent misses the best 19 ..£Jxe4 .llxe4 20 ..£Jxf8 rtlxf8 21.f3
defense in the <;t>g6 line with 18 ... .£Jd4 .Q.e6 22 ..§fdl ~e8 but the final posi-
or 18 ... .£Jd3. 13.Axh7+? 'it>xh7 tion offers relatively even chances for
14. .£lg5+ 'it>g6 In the <;t>g81ine, Black both sides. 18.f!cd1 More accurate is
defends the threats on h7 and f7 either 18 ..§fdl with the idea of .£Jb5-d6.
by retreating the .§f8 to create an es- 18 ... .£lg6? Black's best defense is
cape-square, or by playing ~d3 in an 18... .£Je8 to discourage incursions on d6.
effort to control the b I-h7 diagonal. 19.f!d6 f!e8 20.f!fd1 +- .£lgf821.e4
14 ... rtlg815.~h5 ~d3 The queen move The simplest win is 21..£Jh7+ <;t>f7
looks promising, but White can simply 22 ..£Jxf8+- removing the defender of the
block the diagonal, reinitializing the .£Je7. 21 ...g6 22. ~h4 'it>g7 23.f!xd7+
threats. 16.e4 .§fe8 17.~xf7+ rtlh8 .£lxd7 24.~h7+ 'it>f625.f41-0

Sacking the Citadel

(49) Leise - Wellington the queen sacrifice on g5 was a signifi-

Correspondence 1919 cant improvement over the actual
Ruy Lopex [C80] course of the game, the usual mate in
five. 18 ... 'l1i'xg5 19 ..llxg5 4Jxh2
1.e4 e5 2.4)0 4)c6 3.Ab5 a6 4.Aa4 20.Af4 ±. 19. ~xf7+ ~h8 20. ~h5+
4)f6 5.0-0 4) xe4 6.d4 b5 7.Ab3 d5 ~g8 21. ~h7+ ~f8 22. ~h8+ ~e7
8.a4 §.b8 b5 ax b5 10.dxe5 Ae6 23.~xg7# 1--0
1l.c3 Ac5 12.4)bd2 0-0 13:~e2
Af514.Ac2 4)xd215.Axf5 4)xfl (50) Pahl- Delbner
Berlin 1921
8 Vienna Game [C29]
6 1.e4 e5 2.4)c3 4)f6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5
4)xe4 5.4)f3 4)xc3 6.bxc3 c5 7.d4
4)c6 8.Ae2 Ae7 9.0-0 0-0 10. ~e1
Ae611. ~g3 ~h812.Ad3 c4
abc d e f g h
Although White relies upon a familiar
pair of additional assets, the dark-square
bishop and the e5-pawn, this is an un- 3
usual example because the sacrifice fol- 2

lows an exchange sac on fl. The black

knight on fl controls the g3-square, abcdefgh
preventing the usual 'l1i'g4-g3 maneu-
ver in the 'it'g61ine. 16.Axh7+ ~xh7 This is the second game in this book in
17.4)g5+ ~g8 Black can claim an ad- which the sacrifice occurs without giv-
vantage after 17 ... 'it'g6! 18.'l1i'd3+ (not ing check. The black bishop on e6 gives
18.~g4 4Jxe5) 18 .. .f5 because White Black far more mobility than a pawn on
is able to recover an exchange but Black that square, but the open f-file prevents
emerges with a small but persistent ma- Black from playing Af5. Black incor-
terial edge, 19.exf6+ (19.4Je6 4Jxe5 rectly decides to play Jlxg5 when the
20.4Jxf8+ 'l1i'xf8 21. ii:t'xfl 4Jg4 -+ ) 'it'g8 retreat appears to equalize.
19 ... 'it'xf6 20.4Jh7+ (20.ii:t'f3+ 'it'e7 13.Axh7 ~xh7 Black may have as-
21. 'l1i'e2+ 4Je3 22.A xe3 A xe3 sumed that by playing 'it'h8, ... g6 was a
23.~xe3+ 'it'f6 24.4Jh7+ 'it'f7 25.ii:t'f4+ useful response, but the reality is that
'it'g8 26.4Jxf8 'l1i'xf8 27. 'l1i'xc7 ii:t'f6 =+') ... g6 fatally weakens the dark squares
20 ... 'it'f7 21.4Jg5+ 'it'e7 22.~e2+ 4Je3 around the black king. 13 ... g6 14.4Jg5
23.Axe3 Axe3 24.ii:t'xe3+ 'it'f6 with the idea of 'l1i'h4 14 ... Axg5
25.4Jh7+ 'it'f7 26.ii:t'f3+ 'it'g8 27.4Jxf8 15.Axg5 ~c716.Af6+ 'it'xh717.'l1i'h4+
ii:t'd6! 28.4Jg6 ii:t'xg6 29.ii:t'xd5+ 'it'h7=+'. 'it'g8 18.~h8#. 14.4)g5+ Axg5 De-
18. ~h5 §.e8 Already up an exchange, spite White's obvious assets, the e5-


pawn, the dark-square bishop, and the Here, Black has already played §eS and
open f-file, Black has a saving, iftough- is able to defend with 4Jf6 or 4JfS. The
to-find sequence in the '<t>gSline. Black absence of a black pawn on e6 also
can count here on the bishops to pre- gives Black the opportunity to develop
vent the white rooks from reaching the the ~cS, especially with ~f5. It is very
h-file, and Black can manufacture sig- useful to compare this position to Game
nificant counterplay on the the a7-g1 62, Colle-O'Hanlon, where Black has
diagonal. 14 ... '<t>gS! 15.,,*h4 ~xg5 most though not all of these defensive
16.~xg5 (with the threat of ~f6) possibilities. In this game, White relies
16 ... ,,*a5 (not immediately 16 ... ,,*b6 upon a tame pair of additional assets,
17 ..E!abl) 17 ..E!f3 (correctly avoiding the 4Jc3 and the h4-pawn. Black de-
17.~f6 'l11xc3 IS.'l11g5 [IS.~xg7 fends well by selecting the ~gSline and
,,*xd4+-+] IS ... 'l11xd4+ 19.'<t>hl "i£rg4) winds his way successfully through the
and only now when the .E!al cannot complications. 13•.1lxh7+? ~xh7
move to bl 17 ... ,,*b6 18.~f6 4Jxe5!, a 14.{)g5+ ~g8 White does not have
remarkable resource. 19.~xe5 f6 20.Af4 dark-square bishop, but 14... '<t>h6walks
§aeS 21.§afl ~d7 22."i£rh5=. 15..1lxg5 straight into 15.4Jxf7+. With the rook
~d7 White emerges with the initiative off f8, Black can consider 14 ... ~xg5
and a material edge after 15 .. .f6 16.'l11h4+ 15.hxg5+ '<t>gS (not 15 ... '<t>g616.'l11h5+
~gS 17.exf6 gxf6 IS.Axf6 .E!xf6
~f5 17. "i£rxf7 + +-) because after
19.§xf6+-. 16..1lf6! gxf6 The mate is 16. 'l11h5 the king can escape toward the
trivial after 16 ... g6 17.'l11h4+ '<t>gS queenside. 16 ... '<t>fS 17. "i£rhS+ '<t>e7
IS."i£rxg7 .E!gSI9.,,*h6 '<t>eS 20.f4 4Jf8+.
19.Elxg4+ ~xg4 20.~xg4+ ~h6 On Correct play in the '<t>g6line leads here to
20 ... ~hS, 21.exf6 forces 21.. ..E!gS when
an uneasy equality. 14... ~g6 15."i£rc2+
22.'l11h5 is checkmate. 21.Elfl Elg8
(on "*g4, Black can capture on g5) 15 .. .f5
16.4Je6 (not 16.g4 4Jf8-+) 16 ..."i£rb6
17.4Jf4+ (better than 17.h5+ '<t>h6
(51) Brach - Jares
IS."i£rxfS 4Jf819."i£rf4+ '<t>h7 20.4Jc7 "i£rxb2
Bmo 1921
21.0--0 ~d7 22.4JxaS .E!xaS=i=) 17... '<t>t7
Queen's Gambit Declined [D63]
(17 ... '<t>f6? walks into a fork IS.4Jfxd5+
cxd519.4Jxd5++-) IS."i£rxf5+.
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.{)c3 {)f6 4 ..1lg5
{)bd7 5.e3 .1le7 6.{)f3 0--0 7.Elel c6
8.cxd5 exd5 9 •.1ld3 {)e4 10..1lxe4
.1lxg511 ..1lbl Ele812.h4 .1le7

3 abc d
Position after 18. itff5 (analysis)

abc d e f g h

Sacking the Citadel

Now Black can try: (a) 18 ....iU6 (52) Alekhine - Lovewell

19. ~h5+ 'it'f8 (avoiding the knight fork New York simul. 1923
after 19 ... 'it'e7 20 . .£Jfxd5+ exd5 Englund Gambit [A40]
21 ..£Jxd5+ and a white pull after 19 ... g6
20.~xg6+ 'it'f8 21.~h7 ~g7 22.h5 .£Jf6 l.d4 e5 2.dxe5 .£)c6 3 ..£)f3 .1lc5
23 ..£Jg6+ 'it'f7 24 ..£Je5+ 'it'f8 25.~g6 4.-'lf4 .£)ge7 5.e3 0--0 6 ..£)c3 .£)g6
~e7 26.h6 ilh8 27.f4 ~e6 28.g4 ~g8 7.-'ld3 .£)xf4 8.exf4 Ete8
29.~e2 ~h7 30.~h2 Ele6 31.~h4±)
20.~h8+ 'it'f7 (trying for more with
20 ... 'it'e7 walks into another knight fork
21..£Jfxd5+ exd5 22 ..£Jxd5+ 'it'd8
23 ..£Jxb6 Elxh8 24 ..£Jxa8±) 21.~h5+ is
a perpetual; (b) 18 ... 'it'g819.~e6+ 'it'h8
(avoiding 19 ... 'it'f8 20 ..£Jg6# and
19 ... 'it'h7 20.~g6+ 'it'g8 21.~xe8+ +- )
20.~f7+-; and (c) 18 ... .£Jf6 when
White barges through with 19.~g6+
'it'fS (19 ... 'it'g8 20 . .£Jh5 .£Jxh5 abc d e f g h
21.~xe8++-) 20.h5 ~d8 21.h6 gxh6
22.Elxh6+-. 15.~h5 .1lxg5! Black's Alekhine provides us with a Greco min-
other plausible defensive tries lead to iature. White can count on the .£Je3 and
equality: (a) 15 ... .£Jf6 (bringing the a secure e5-pawn, but Black has devel-
knight to f6 where it defends h7 but oped the king's rook on e8. 9.-'lxh7+
White enters on f7) 16.~xf7+ 'it'h8 ~xh710 ..£)g5+ ~g8 The game ends
17.h5 (no better is 17.~g6 Elf818 ..£Jf7+ abruptly after only 11 moves, but it
Elxf7 19.~xf7 ~f5 20.h5 ~e8 would have been very interesting to see
21.~xe8+ Elxe8 22.f3=) 17 ... Elf818.h6 what Alekhine would have played after
Elxf7 19 ..£Jxf7+ 'it'h7 20 ..£Jxd8 ~xd8 10 ... 'it'g6. White has many options
21.hxg7+ 'it'xg7=; (b) 15 ... .£Jf8 (forcing there, 11.h4, 11.Qg4, and 11.~d3, but
a quick perpetual) 16.~xf7+ 'it'h8 the former is the most forcing continu-
17.~h5+ 'it'g8 18.~f7+=; and (c) ation. (a) 1l.h4! (taking advantage of
15 ... M6 (also drawing with a perpetual) the uncastled king, aiming with h5+ to
16.~xf7+ 'it'h817.~h5+= (17.~g6.£Jf8 drive the king to h6 with .£Jxf7 to fol-
18.~h5+ 'it'g8 19.~f7+=). 16.hxg5 low) 11.. ..£Jxe5 (a standard defensive
~f817.~h8+ ~e718.~xg7 Etg8 try, returning material but undermining
19. ~h6 .£)f8 20.f4 .£)g6 21.0-0 ~f8 the white center) 12.fxe5 Elxe5+ 13.'it'fl
21 ... ilf5 -+ is more accurate. 22. ~h5 d6 (not 13 ... ~f6 when 14.~d3+ ~f5
Eth8 23.~e2 ~d8 24.e4 dxe4 15 ..£Jee4 and White can continue with
25.~xe4 f5 26.~e3 ~e7 27.~d2 .£Jee4, h5+, and after ... 'it'h6, ~d2; and
.1le6 28.Etfel ~f7 29.g3 .1ld5 there's no relief in giving back the ex-
30.Ete2 ~d7 31..£)xd5 ~xd5 32.Etg2 change with 13 ... Elxg5 14.hxg5 ~xg5
b6 33.h3 Eth3 34.Etc2 Etah8 35. ~c3 15 ..£Je4 ~f5 16.~d3+-) 14 ..£Jd5 aim-
'£)xf40--1 ing for .£Jf4 14 ... ~d7 15 ..£Jf4+ 'it'f6
(avoiding 15 ... 'it'f5 16.~f3+- or
15 ... 'it'h6 16.~h5#) 16.~d3 Ele8


17 .§h3 +- and the rook enters the game With a clearly superior position, Black
with effect; (b) 11. ~g4 here is complex ought to continue here with ... 4Jd5 or
and interesting. 11 .. .f5 the standard re- ... Af5. Instead, Black embarks on the
sponse. 12.~h4 aiming to play ~g3 sacrifice which, with the white rook on
only when the rook vacates its support e1, is speculative, despite two strong
oft7 (12.~g3 4Jxe5 13.0-0 4Jg414.h3 assets, the light-square bishop and the
d5 15.hxg4 fxg4 16.§ad1 c6 secure e4-pawn. Selecting the 'it'glline,
17.4Jce4;!;) 12 ... §hS13.~g3 4Jxe5 (the White has 17.4Jf1 simultaneously de-
knight, of course, is immune thanks to fending the key f2- and h2-squares.
the threat of ~xg5) 14.4Je6+ when Unlike many of the games decades ear-
Black has a remarkable response to the lier, White organizes and maintains a
discovered check, 14 ... 4Jg4! 15.4JxdS successful defense. 14 ••• ~xh2+
Jlxf2+ 16.~xf2 4Jxf2 17.'it'xf2 ±. Black 15.~xh2 .£Jg4+ 16.~gl 16.'it'g3
will recover the knight, but the immedi- ~d6+! (16 ... ~g5 is less convincing
ate capture encourages IS. 4Jb5; and because White can gain time against
(c) Less compelling is 11. ~d3+ f5 the queen with 17.4Jdxe4 ~g618.~d2
12.~h3 because Black has a nice cen-
[lS.4Jf6+ ~xf6 19.§h1 h6-+]
tral shot with §xe5+ 13.'it'd2 ~gS;!;.
lS ... 4Jf6+ 19.'it'h2 4Jxe4 20.4Jxe4
There's no point in dwelling on 1O...'it'h6
§xe4=t=) l7.f4(17.'it'h4~h6+ 18.'it'g3
l1.4Jxt7+ or 10 ... 'it'hS 11.~h5+ 'it'gS
~h2#) 17 ... exf3+ lS.'it'xf3 ~f6+
12.~h7+ 'it'fS13.~hS+ 'it'e714.4Jd5#.
19.'it'g3 (the alternative 19.'it'e2 walks
11.~h5 f6 1--0 and Black resigned
into mate 19 ... §xe3+ 20.'it'd1 4Jf2#)
rather than face an easy mate in three:
19 ... ~f2+ 20.'it'h3 4Jxe3+ -+ with mate
12.~h7+ 'it'fS 13.~hS+ 'it'e7 with two
mates in one 14.4Jd5# or 14.~xg7#. quickly to follow. 16•.. ~h4 With the
rook already off f1, White can easily
(53) Przepiorka - Makarczyk cover both f2 and h2. 17. .£Jf1 ~f5
Warsaw 1926 Black likely assumed that he needed to
Slav Defense [D45] defend the central pawn, but more pow-
erful is the idea of a rook swing.
V~~f3 .£Jf6 2.c4 c6 3.d4 d5 4 •.£Jc3 e6 17 ... §e6! lS.Ab2 (capturing the pawn
5.e3 .£Jbd7 6.a3 ~d6 7.cxd5 exd5 with lS.4Jxe4 walks into lS ... §xe4 fol-
8.~d3 0-0 9.0-0 §e810.~c2 ~e7 lowed by a queen capture on f2 and
11.M .£Je4 12.§el .£Jdf613.~xe4 ... Af5) IS ... §h619.4Jg3 4Jxe3 20.§xe3
dxe414..£Jd2 Ag4 21.f4 exf3 22.gxf3 ~xg3+ 23.~g2
~f4 24.§e4 ~xf3 25.~xf3 Axf3
26.§e7;!;. 18. .£Jg3 ~g6 19 . .£Jce2
More consistent is 19.'it'fl 4Jh2+
20.'it'e2 ~g4+ 21.'it'd2 +- and the king
will find safety on the queenside.
19 .••h5 20 ..£Jf4 ~h2+ 21.~f1 h4
22..£Jge2 h3 To push the h-pawn, Black
can sacrifice another piece: 22 ... Ah5
23.4Jxh5 h3 24.4Jef4 hxg2+ 25.4Jxg2
~xh5:j: when the idea of... ~h1 + forces
abc d e f g h 4Jf4, which will remain exposed to a g5-

Sacking the Citadel

push. 23.4)xh3 ~hl + 24.4)egl Ah5 Relying upon two additional assets, the
25.~e2 4)e5+ 26.~d2 4)d3 27.§fl active dark-square bishop and the h4-
a5 Black's best chance for advantage. pawn, Alekhine tries the sacrifice in a
27 ... ~xg2 28 ..llb2 .llg4 (forcing a weak- position that contains a black pawn on
ening of the pawn structure) 29.~f4 f6. White's bigger problem is that, with-
~xf4 30.exf4 (and now the e-pawn is out a pawn on e5, Black can play ~f6
mobile) 30 ... e3+ 31.~c3 e2 32.§fe1 (after fxg5), providing time to defend
~xf2 33.'it'b3 ~xf4+. Black has three fully with ~e8-g6. 15..11,xh7+ ~xh7
pawns for the piece, the advanced e- 16.4)g5+ fxg5 White can win back an
pawn, and superior development. exchange in the 'it'g8 line, but nothing
28 . .11,b2 ~xg2 29.~c3 axb4+ more. 16 ... 'it'g8 17.~e6 ~c8 18.h5
30.axb4 §xaI31.§xal.11.g4 32.4)f4 (18.~xf8 ~xf8 19.h5 ~f5+:j:)
4)xf4 33.exf4 e3 34.f3 e2 35.§el 18 ... §t7:j:; while the 'it'g6 line walks
Axf3 36.~d3 .11,g4 37.~d2 ~f2 into h5+ and a discovered knight fork,
38.4)xe2 Ah5 39.d5 Axe2 4O.§xe2 16 ... 'it'g6? 17.h5+ 'it'h6 (17 ... 'it'f5
~xf4+ 41.~c2 §xe2+ 42.~xe2 18.g4 #) 18.~e6+ +-. 17.hxg5+ ~g8
~f5+ The simplest path to the draw is Remarkably, Black can also hold in 'it'g6
42 ... ~xb4=. 43.~d3 ~xd5 44.~xd5 line with 17 ... 'it'g6 18.~h5+ 'it'f5
cxd5 45.~d3 f6 46.~d4 ~f7 19.~h7+ (Alternatives offer nothing
47.~xd5 ~e7 48.~c5 ~e649.b5 g5 more than even chances: 19.~h3+ 'it'g6
50.~b6 f5 51.~xb7 f4 52.~c61~ 20.~h5+ is a perpetual; Black is simply
winning after 19.96+ .llg5 -+; and
(54) Alekhine-- Perez Gomar 19.e4+ dxe4 20.g4+ 'it'xf4 21.~h2+
Buenos Aires simul. exhibition 1926 ~xg5 22.~h5+ is another remarkable
Queen's Indian Defense [E12] perpetual.) 19 ... 'it'e6 (19 ... 'it'g4 walks
into a mate with 20.~h3# as does
l.d4 4)f6 2.4)f3 e6 3.c4 b6 4.4)c3 19... g6 20.~h3+ ~e4 2l.f3#) 20.~xg7
.11,b7 5..11.g5 .11,e7 6.e3 ~ 7 ..11,d3 d6 (With the king ready to run towards the
8.~e24)bd79.~c510.~bld5 queenside, White ought to settle here
1l.cxd5 4) xd512.4) xd5 exd513.h4 for a perpetua120.~h3+ 'it't7 21.~h5+
f614.Af4c4 ~e6=) 20 ... §xf4 21.exf4 'it'd6:j:.
18.~h5 Axg5 19.Axg5 4)f6
8 20.~h4 ~e8 21.f3 ~g6+ 22.~al
7 ~f7 23. ~f4 §ae8 24.g4 Ac6 Black
6 is fully safe and winning after
24 ... 'it'g8-+. 25.Ah4 ~g8 26.~d6
Aa4 27.§d2 ~f7 28.g5 4)e4!
29.fxe4 ~fl+ 30.§dl Axdl
31.~xd5+ ~h832.e5.11,f3+ 33.§xfl
Axd5 34.§el Ag2 35 ..11,g3 §fl
36.§xfl Axfl 37.d5 Ag2 38.d6
abc d e f g h .11,d50--1


(55) Makarczyk - Kohn 21. 'lfixg7 # 16.'itJh5 And again, the rook
Lodz 1927 on e8 aids the defense 16 ... .£lf8!
Caro-Kann Defense [D05] 17.j},f4 .£lg6 Black's best continuation
is probably 17 ... Ab7! preparing the ad-
1.d4 e6 2.e4 d5 3.exd5 exd5 4.j},d3 vance of the d-pawn, countering
.£le6 5.e3 e6 6 ..£lf3 'itJe7 7.0--0 j},d6 White's flank attack with a counter in
8.Ele1.£lf6 9 ..£lbd2 0--0 10.'itJe2 b6 the center. IB ..§.e3 '§'adB 19 ..§.ael d4
1l..£le5 j},xe512.dxe5 .£ld713..£lf3 20 ..§.h3 4Jg6 21.4Je4 4Jcxe5 22.~h7+
Ele8 'it'fB 23.Ag5 f5 (23 .. .f6 24.4Jxf6 gxf6
25.Ah6+ +-) 24.4Jf6 ~f7 25.4JxeB
.§.xeB 26.cxd4 4Jd7=. 18.Ag3 .£lee7
19.h4 .£lf5 20.'itJh7+ ~f8 21.h5
.£lge7 22.h6 .£l xh6 23. 'itJh8+ .£leg8
Not 23 ... 4JhgB when White has a re-
markable smothered mate with
24.4Jh7 #. 24.Ah4 Tempting is
24.4Jh7+ rtie7 25.4Jf6 gxf6 26.exf6+
4Jxf6 27.'lfixh6 'lfid7 when White recov-
ers the piece. 2B ..ilh4 'it'd6 29 ..ilxf6 but
abc d e f g h the final position has no meaningful
winning chances for either side.
Although White can rely upon the e5- 24 ••. ~e7 25 •.£le4+ ~d7 26 •.£ld6
pawn and the dark-square bishop, the Aa6 27.'itJxg7 ~e6 28.e4 dxe4
sacrifice fails because Black, having al- 29. 'itJg3 'itJd 7 30. 'itJa3 +- Ae8
ready played .§.eB and 'lfic7, has 4JfB 31. 'itJf3+ ~e5 32. 'itJe3+ ~e6
defending both ofthe key entry squares 33. 'itJe4+ ~e7 34. 'itJxa8 .£lf5
with one move. White should instead 35.'itJxa7+ ~e6 36.'itJa4+ ~e7
have tried 14.Af4 with an undisputed 37..£lxe8+ 1-0
advantage. 14.j},xh7+ ~xh7
15. .£lg5+ ~g8! In the 15 ... 'it'g6 line, (56) Mansfield - Znosko Borovsky
White has two familiar options: (a) Cheltenham 1928
16.~g4 invites the capture of the e5- Ruy Lopex [C78]
pawn. 16 ... 4Jdxe5 17.~g3 and now the
black king can run towards e7 17 ... 'it'f6 In this game, defeat ofthe Greco Sacri-
IB.4Jh7+ rtie7 19.Af4 'it'd7 20 ..§.e3 fice means victory for Znosko-Borovsky
.§.gB 21..§.ael f6 22.4Jxf6+ gxf6 and a possible source of inspiration,
23.~xgB ~dB 24.'lfih7+ ~e7=; or (b) seven years prior to the publication of
16.~d3+! avoids the capture on e5 and his treatment on the Greco Sacrifice.
the queen can now force its way to f7.
16 .. .f5 (not 16 ... 'it'h5 17.'lfih3+ 'it'g6 1.e4 e5 2..£lf3 .£le6 3.Ab5 a6 4.Aa4
IB.~h7# or 16 ... rtih6 17.~h7#) .£lf6 5.0--0 j},e5 6.e3 Aa7 7.d4.£l xe4
17.exf6+ rtixf6 18. ~f3+ and the king is 8.d5 .£le7 9 ..£lxe5 0--0 10.Ae2 d6
in a mating net. 18 ... rtig6 (IB ... rtie7 1l . .£lxf7? (11.4Jf3 was necessary)
19..§.xe6+ rtidB 20.4Jf7#) 19.~f7+ 'it'h6 1l •.• .£lxf2!-+
20.4Jxe6+ rtih7 (20 ... g5 21.Axg5#).

Sacking the Citadel

and 1929), but is best remembered as a

chess endgame theorist and composer
of endgame studies. In 1959, the first
year of the award, he became FIDE In-
ternational Master of Chess Composi-
tion. His life's work is the monumental
four-volume Handbook of Endgames
including detailed proofs and hundreds
of endgame studies.

abc d e f g h 1.d4 Jilf6 2c4e6 3.Jilf3d54.Ag5 j'te7

5.Axf6 Axf6 6.cxd5 exd5 7.Jilc3 0--0
White embarks on the sacrifice, an act 8.e3c69.Ad3~e810h4c5
of desperation, relying upon a single
additional asset, the dark-square bishop. 8
The.§.fl has been neutralized, and take 7
note of the powerful Aa7. Any move-
ment of the <£\f2 will be check and White
cannot seriously consider 14 ..§.xf2
.§.xt7. With the sac, White is able to play 4
<£\g5 with check, but after itfh5, Black 3
has a violent counter attack with <£\h3+ 2
and other discoveries. 12.j'txh7+ If the
queens are captured, White's is taken abcdefgh
with check, 12.<£\xdB <£\xd 1+.
12•.. ~xh713.Jilg5+ ~g8 In the 'itlg6 Another example in which the defender
line, Black blocks the check on the di- has already freed up the f8-square prior
agonal with a check of his own. to the sacrifice. Moreover, the e-file is
13 ... 'itlg614.ifi'c2+ <£\d3+-+; no better open and the light-square bishop has
is simply moving the queen out of the
access to f5. White relies upon the h4-
reach of the discoveries: 14.ifi'e2 <£\h3+
pawn and the <£\c3 as additional assets
but White clearly misses a dark-squar~
15.'itlh1 .§.xfl + 16.ifi'xfl <£\f2+ 17.'itlg1
ifi'hB-+. 14.~e2 There's nothing to be
bishop or especially an e5-pawn.
gained from 14.'~h5 <£\h3+ 15.'itlh1
1l.Axh7+? ~xh712.Jilg5+ ~g8 The
.§.xfl #. 14••• j'tg4-+ 15.Jilf3 j'txf3
'itlg6line is more ofa struggle: 12 ...'ittg6
16.gxf3 Jild3+ 17.~h1 Jilxc1
13.ifi'f3 (what else? ... Af5 will block
18. ~e6+ ~f719.~xc1 Jilf5 20.~e1
checks along the bl-h7 diagonal, and
~h4 21.Jild2 Jilg3+ 22.~g2 Jilh5
23.~h1 Jilf40-1
the light-square bishop also controls
g4) 13 ... Ae6 14.<£\e2 Axg5 15.hxg5
(57) Cheron - Nilsson .§.hB 16.<£\f4+ 'itlxg5 17.ifi'g3+ 'ittf6
The Hague 1928 1B.<£\xd5+ Axd5 19.ifi'e5+ 'ittg6
Queen's Gambit Declined [D30] 20 ..§.xhB ifi'xhB 21.ifi'g3+ and White
must settle for a perpetual check. The
Andre Cheron (1895-1980) was three- attempt to improve with 16.0-0-0 <£\c6
time champion of France (1926, 1927, 17.<£\f4+ 'ittxg5 1B.'§'xhB ifi'xhB


19.~xe6+ fxe6 20.~fl 'l£fh7 21.'l£fxb7 activity, is easily defeated. After 16.g6,
~b4 22.~e7+ requires that Black de- White unarguably has a winning advan-
fend accurately with 22 ... 'it'g4 23.f3+ tage. 11 ••• Axh2+? It was more prudent
'it'g3 24.~d6+ 'it'f2 25J::(d2+ 'it'fl and thematic to play 11 ... ~e4.
26.§dl +=. 13.~h5 The .§.fB has al-!}xh2 .£!g4+!}gl Black can
ready moved, giving Black a crucial use the discovered check in the 'it'g3
move to defend the fl-pawn. Black has line to regain an exchange, but White
the option of defending f7 with either emerges with equal chances. 13.'iti>g3
13 ... ~d7, 13 ... ~c7, or 13 ... Ae6!. 'l£fxg5 14.~f3 'l£fg7 15.'l£fe2, placing the
13 ... Ae6 14.0-0-0 cxd4 15.exd4 queen on a square that the knight will
.£!c616.Elde1 ~d717 •.£!xd5 JU5 not be able to reach (or 15. 'l£fd2 4Jb4 ~)
Black should simply capture the knight, 15 ... 4Jxe3+ 16.'iti>f2 4Jxf117.'it'xf14Jxd4
17 ...'l£fxd5 when, with the bishop on f6, IB.4Jxd4 'l£fxd4=.13 ••• .£!xe313 ...'l£fxg5
there's no way for the queen to make gives White an opportunity to consoli-
progress on the kingside. IS.'£! xf6+ date with 14.4Jf3+-. 14.~h5 ~xf1
gxf619.'£!xf7 '£!xd4 20..£!h6+ Ii!}fS 15.'£!xf1.£!xd416.g6 ~d717.Ah6
21.ElxeS+ ElxeS 22 . .£!xf5 ~c6+ Ele81S.gxh7+ Ii!}hS Black cannot cap-!}b1 ~e4+0-1 ture the pawn, IB ... 'l£fxh7 19.i!i'xeB#.
19. ~g6 ~c6 20.j'tg51-O
(58) Havasi - Brinckmann
Budapest 1929 (59) Gundersen - Fau)
Slav Defense [010] Melbourne 1929
French Defense [C02]
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.cxd5 cxd5 4 . .£!c3
e6 5 . .£!f3 Ad6 6.e3 .£!c6 7 ..£!d2 f5 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.c3 cxd4
S.f4 .£!f6 9.Ad3 0-0 10.0-0 g5 5.cxd4 Ab4+ 6 •.£!c3 ~c6 7 . .£!f3
ll.fxg5 .£!ge7 S.Ad3 0-0

8 8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2

abc d e f g h abc d e f g h

A typical Stonewall in which Black With two additional assets, the secure
would normally prepare ... g5 with 'it'hB, e5-pawn and the dark-square bishop,
§gB, ~e4, and even Ad7-eB-h4. The this is a useful example in the 'iti>gB line
sacrifice, which here cannot count on of why the attacking side would cap-
any additional assets because the ture on h7 (h2) rather than fl (f2) when
Stonewall complex blocks their possible the defending side has a knight on e7

Sacking the Citadel

(e2). In the game, Black selects the ~g6 (60) Helling - Kashdan
line and falls quickly, although White Berlin 1930
misses the most accurate attacking line Queen's Pawn Game [D05]
with 12.h5+!, often a powerful theme
when the h-pawn is backed by a rook. Isaac Kashdan (1905-1985) won the U.S.
9.Axh7+1 ~xh710..£)g5+ ~g6 With Open Championship twice (1938, 1947)
the black knight on e7, White should and represented the United States five
capture on h7 in the ~gBline. 10 ... ~gB times in chess Olympiads. His Olympiad
11.~h5 §eB 12.'~'h7+! (not 12.~xf7+ record remains the all-time best among
~hB 13.~h5+ ~gB 14.~h7+ ~f8 American players. His peak chess years
15.'~hB+ <£1gB 16.~h5 ~c7 17.,ild2 ±) coincided with the Great Depression,
12 ... ~fB13.~hB+ <£1gB 14.<£Ih7+ ~e7. which prevented him financially from
With the king now on e7, the dark-square competing for the world title. His im-
bishop joins in the attack. 15.,ilg5+ pressive tournament achievements in-
Blocking the check with the pawn al- cluded second at Frankfurt, 1930 behind
lows ~xg7#, while ... <£If6 is hopeless Aron Nimzowitsch, first at Gyor, 1930,
after ~xg7. 1l.h4! (a) 11.~g4!? also second in New York, 1931 behind
appears to win quite convincingly: Capablanca, and a shared first with
11 .. .f5 12.~g3 maintaining the queen Alekhine in Mexico City, 1932.
on the g-file. 12 .. .f4 13.~g4 ~eB re-
moving the queen from the <£Ig5 's reach. 1.d4 .£)f6 2.e3 e6 3 ..£)d2 c5 4.Ad3
14.ilxf4 §xf4 15.~xf4 <£Ixd4 16.h4 .£)c6 5.c3 t'ic7 6 ..£)gf3 d5 7.0-0 Ad6
ilxc3+ 17.bxc3 <tlc2+ 1B.~d2 <tlxa1 8.e4 cxd4 9.cxd4 .£)b410.Ab1 dxe4
19.h5+ Once again forcing the king into 1l . .£)xe4 .£)xe4 12.Axe4 Ad7
a nasty discovery. 19 ... ~h6 20.<tlxe6+ 13.E!e10-0
~h7 21.h6 ,ilxe6 22.hxg7+ ~xg7
23.~f6+ ~gB 24.§hB; and (b) 8
11.~d3+! f5 (or 11...<tlf5 12.h4 ~b6 7
[12 ... §hB 13.g4+-] 13.h5+ ~h6 6
14.g4+-) 12.h4 ~eB 13.h5+ ~h6 5
14.~g3 with an overwhelming attack.
I I... .£) xd4 The effort to prevent h5 fails
instructively. 11...§hB12.h5+ when (a)
12 ... ~h613.~d3 (or simply 13.<£Ixf7)
<£If5 14.<£Ixe6++-; (b) 12 ... §xh5
13.~xh5+ ~f5 14.g4#; and (c) abc d e f g h
12 ... ~f5 13.g4# or 13.~f3#.
12.t'ig4+-. Even faster is 12.h5+ since In the face of excellent activity and
12 ... ~f5 (12 ... ~h613.<tlxf7+ +- ) meets Black's entry square on c2, White re-
13.~xd4 ilxc3+ 14.bxc3 and g4# And, lies on two additional assets, the §e1
of course, 12.~d3+ <tldf5 13.h5+ ~h6 and the dark-square bishop. Black suc-
14.<tlxf7 is also convincing. 12 ••• f5 cessfully finds the only defense with
13.h5+ ~h614..£) xe6+ g515.hxg6 # ~g6, which works because the <tlb4
1-0 controls c2 and d3, blocking the
queen's check on the diagonal, and be-


cause after f5, ~g4 cannot retreat safely Black has the ~b7 and the 4Jd7 as ad-
to g3. 14.~xh7+ Cit>xh7 15.i£\g5+ ditional assets, but the black king is
Cit>g61 In the <i!tgS line, the attack works exposed in the center, the 4Je6 hits key
because, after ... ~c2, White can block squares such as d8, c7, g7, and even
the bl-h7 diagonal with .§e4. 15 ... 'it'gS g5, and the white ~c1 can easily reach
16.~h5 ~c2 17 ..§e4+-. 16.h4 White f4. 13 ••. ~xh2+? 14.Cit>xh2 i£\g4+
cannot maintain the queen on the g-file. 15. Cit>g3 Borne of desperation, the sac-
16.~g4 ~xh2+ 17.'it'hl f5 and now rifice fails trivially in the <i!tglline with
Black controls both g3 and g4. 18.~e2 ltf4. 15.'it'gl ~h4 16.~f4+-; despite
.§hS-+ 19.4Jh3 4Jc2. 16 .•• ~h2+ Or the light-square bishop, even the <i!th3
simply 16 ... .§hS shutting down the pos- line wins. 15.<i!th3 ~f6 16.ltg5 ~f7
sibility ofh5. 17.Cit>hl ~f418:~g4 17.'it'xg4+-. 15 ... ~f6 White's 4Je6
Black is winning, but the lines remain and ~c1 prevent ~g5, and there's no
fun: lS ..§e5 ~xe5 19.dxe5 ~xe5 meaningful alternative: On 15 ... h5,
20. ~g4 4Jd3!. Preparing a fork to 16.4JxdS+-. 16.~g51-O
counter the discovered check. 21.4Jf3+
'it'h7 22.4Jxe5 4Jxf2+ -+, and here, the (62) Colle - O'HaDloD
idea of lS.h5+ is foiled by Black's ac- Nice 1930
tivity on the c I-h6 diagonal. 18 ... 'it'h6 Queen's Pawn Game [D05]
(lS ... 'it'xg5 19 ..§e5+ <i!th6 20.ltxf4+
'it'h7-+) 19.~g4 4Jd3-+. 18••• ~xg5 Edgard Colle (1897 -1932) achieved first
19.~xg5+ Cit>h7 20.~f4 ~d8 at Amsterdam 1926 ahead ofTartakower
21. ~h5+ Cit>g8 22.~d6 i£\c2123•.§e5 and Euwe, first at Meran 1926 ahead of
f6 24.~xf8 ~xf8 25•.§c1 fxe5 0-1 Canal, and first at Scarborough 1930
ahead of Maroczy and Rubinstein. But
(61) Hasek,- Tereba poor health shortened his playing ca-
Prague 1930 reer. He died at age 34 after a fourth
Queen's Gambit Accepted [D21] operation for a gastric ulcer. He popu-
larized the opening now known as the
l.d4 d5 2.i£\f3 i£\d7 3.c4 dxc4 4.e4 Colle System: l.d4 d5 2.4Jf3 4Jf6 3.e3,
b5 5.a4 ~b7 6.axb5 ~xe4 7.i£\c3 essentially a reversed Semi-Slav Defense.
~b7 8.~xc4 i£\gf6 9.~xf7+ Cit>xf7 The game played here was one of his
10.i£\g5+ Cit>e8 11. ~b3 e6 12.0-0 many tactical successes in this line.
~d613.i£\ xe6
l.d4 d5 2.i£\f3 i£\f6 3.e3 c5 4.c3 e6
5.~d3 ~d6 6.i£\bd2 i£\bd7 7.0-0 0-
o 8 . .§el .§e8 9.e4 dxe4 10.i£\xe4

On first examination, it is surprising that

the Greco Sacrifice comes even close to
winning in this position. There is no
pawn on e5 to prevent ... 4Jf6, the black
.§eS encourages the <i!tgS retreat, and
abc d e f g h
in the 'it'g6 line, the white queen will

Sacking the Citadel

121). In the critical 'iftg8 line, both offer

8 up only the line 14. ti'h5 .:£Jf6 15. ti'xf7
7 'ifth816.f1.e4+-. The tournament pam-
6 phlet, a special insert in the 1930 Brit-
5 ish Chess Magazine, gives no hint that
the brilliancy might be flawed: "the
original character of the ... play, accord-
ing to Dr. Alekhine, plainly justifies the
award of First Brilliancy Prize to master
Colle for this game." The pamphlet goes
abc d e f g h a bit deeper, however, repeating the line
just above but also providing a real look
not be able to remain on the g-file. To at the real complexity ofthe game while
be sure, there are useful assets in the suggesting only that "14 ... ~f6
white position, notably the f1.e1 and the 15.~h7+ ~f816 ..:£Je4 ~e5 17.f4 ~d5
dark-squared bishop on cl. I have in- 18.c4 ~a519.~d2 ~c7 20.~h8+ '!;e7
corporated the key and new ideas in the 21.~xg7 wins easily." ("EZE," The Nice
notes below. The verdict? Black can International Chess Congress, 1930
wind the game to a perpetual or dynamic Leeds: Whitehead and Miller, 1930 in-
equality with excruciatingly careful serted in the British Chess Magazine
play, although few players could hope annual for 1930, pp.28-29).
to achieve that result in over-the-board
play. (b) 14 ... .:£Je5. Colle died two years after
the game was played, and Fred Reinfeld
12.A.xh7+ ~xh713..£lg5+ ~g6? The immediately began to write Colle s
game as played in the ~g6 line is wor- Chess Masterpieces (1936). With "the
thy of attention, but the ultimate sound- depth and grandeur of his finest combi-
ness will be determined in the ~g81ine. nation," Reinfeld nonetheless provides
In what follows, I have underlined the the first hint that the sacrifice might not
main line to ease the readers' path be fully sound. "If Black had seen as
through this torturous analysis. deeply as Colle did into the position,
he would have chosen the prudent
13 ... ~g8! 14.~h5 ~f6! Black's best 14 ... .:£Je5 with a view to consolidating
move! The alternatives have a fascinat- his position by .:£Jg6. White would then
ing history. (a) 14 ... .:£Jf6. For this game, be forced to take a draw by 15.f1.xe5
Colle received the First Brilliancy Prize ~xe516.~xf7+."(pp. 80-82). Inhis51
offered by the Eclaireur de Nice and Brilliant Chess Masterpieces, Reinfeld
the contemporary literature extolled the reproduces the notes without a change.
game. Deutche Schachzeitung de- Reinfeld was the first to mention the
scribed 12.~xh7 as a beautiful and perpetual check line, but the conclusion
deeply calculated conception (v.85, no.4 was later joined by Vladimir Vukovic in
April, 1930 p. 110-111). Deutsche 1965 (see Chapter 5) and by Ken Smith
Schachbliitter called it a beautiful and and John Hall in 1990 (p.2 r3) and later
original combination (v.19, no.8 1930 p. still by Alexander Baburin. (D)


this impressive game appears to lie in

13 ... 'it'g8 14.'lt1h5+ ~f6, a line men-
tioned first by Reinfeld who concluded
optimistically after 15.~h7+ 'it'f8
16.4:le4 (16.cxd4 'lt1g6-+) 16 ... ~e5
(16 ... ~f5 17.'iifh8+ r:tJe7 18.'lt1xe8+
'it'xe8 19.4:lxd6+ +-) 17.f4 (recom-
mended by Nunn, who was unwilling
to accept a drawish position after
17.cxd4). Lane focused only on
17.cxd4!? which leads to a relatively
quick equality with 17 ... 'lt1xh2+
Position after 16... 'tlh8 (17 ... 'lt1xd4 18.'lt1h8+ r:tJe7 19.Ag5+ f6
Gary Lane was first to observe that [19 ... 4:lf6 20.~xg7 Ae5 21.Eiad1 ~xb2
White is winning trivially after 16.. .'~h8 22.Eid2 +- ] 20.'lt1xg7+ r:tJd8 21.4:lxf6+- )
18.'lt1xh2 Axh2+ 19.r:tJxh2 4:lf6=. After
17.'iifh5+ 'it'g8 18.b3 with the unstop-
17.f4, Reinfeld suggested that after
pable threat of 19.'iifh7+ 'it'f8 20.Aa3
17 ... ~d5 18.c4! 'lt1a5 19.Ad2 White
"when the arrival of the bishop on a3
has a winning attack. Reinfeld's con-
completes the mating net." Here are the
clusion is correct, and indeed, White
main lines after 18.b3: (a) 18 ... Ad6
retains excellent chances after 19 ...'lt1b6
(blocks the check from a3, but enables
(19 ... ~c7 20.'lt1h8+ r:tJe7 21.'lt1xg7win-
the usual mate by occupying the d6-
ning easily, says the original tournament
square) 19.'~h7+ 'it'f8 20.'lt1h8+ r:tJe7
21.~xg7#; (b) 18 ... d3 19.'lt1h7+ r:tJf8
20.Aa3+ when ... Eie7 meets mate in one But Reinfeld overlooked important im-
and ... Ad6 meets a mate in two; and (c) provements after 18 ...'lt1c6! (see diagram
18 ... Af619.~h7+ r:tJf8 20.Aa3+ when below) 19.~h8+ (analyzed in depth by
once again, there's no good way to re- Ottow and Bucker and then Bronznik)
spond. In point offact, White wins,just and 19.f5, introduced by Nunn in his
as convincingly, by playing 17.b3 a notes to the 1998 edition ofVukovic's
move earlier than recommended by classic (Kaissiber No.3, July-Septem-
Lane. Gary Lane summarized it best in ber, 1977, pp55-6; Valeri Bronznik, Das
2001 (p.68): "I like to think that Colle Colle-Koltanowski-System pp.46-51.).
had the last laugh since his sacrifice
does work magnificently against such
an obvious defense because everyone
had missed b3!" Finally, in 1998, Grand-
master John Nunn, in his notes to mod-
ern edition of VukoviC's book, cor-
rected the error (pp.139-l41).

(c) The third alternative also makes

good use of the b3 idea: 14 ... Axh2+
15.'it'h14:1e516.Eixe5 Axe517.'lt1xf7+
'it'h8 18.'lt1g6 r:tJg8 19.b3 +-. The ques-
tion of the soundness ofthe sacrifice in Position after 18... ~c6 (analyisis)

Sacking the Citadel

Nunn's point is that after 19.fS .£lf6 they overlook the importance of declin-
(19 ... eS 20.'~hS+ ~e7 21..IlgS+ f6 ing the exchange with 23 ... E!fS!
22.'~xg7+ 'it'dS 23 . .£lxf6 .£lxf6 24.'li¥xe6 ~b6! 24:iitxe6 'it'b6 25 ..Ilh6
24 ..Ilxf6+ .Ile7 2S . .Ilxe7+! E!xe7 E!dS 26 ..Ilg5 when Black has finally
26.'li¥gS+- or 19 ... f6 20 ..Ilh6 gxh6 reached a dynamic equality with either
21..£lxd6 'li¥xd6 22.'li¥xh6+=) 20 ..£lxf6 26 ... E!fS or 26 ... E!hS. We finally return
gxf6 21..IlgS, when "White has an ex- to the conclusion of the actual game
tremely dangerous attack." But it is pre- and the ~g6Iine!
cisely here, with perfect defense, that
Black can achieve a draw with 21 ... 'it'e7! 14.h4 14.'li¥g4? fails because White
22 ..Ilxf6+ ~xf6 23.'li¥h4 ~g7 cannot sustain the queen on the g-file.
(23 ... ~xfS? 24.E!f1 + ~g6 2S.'li¥g4+ ~h7 14 ... fS (14 ... .£lf6 1S.'li¥xd4 eS-+)
26.E!xf7++-) 24.E!e4 (24.f6+ 'it'g6 1S.'li¥h4 E!hS (or 1S ... .£lf6). 14•.. EthS?
2S.E!e4 (2S.E!f1 'li¥cS 26.'li¥e4+ ~gS Removing the rook from the e-file, where
27.'li¥h7 when Black must find the amaz- it is indeed needed. Far better is 14 .. .fS
ing defense 27 ... .Ilxh2+ 28.~xh2 'li¥fS=) 1S.hS+ (The rook capture 1S.E!xe6+ no
2S ... .Ilxh2+ 26.~xh2 eS 27.'li¥g3+ longer works, E!xe616 ..£lxe6'li¥xh4-+)
(27.E!f1 E!hS 2S.'li¥xhS 'li¥xe4 29.'li¥g7+ 1S ... ~f6 (1S ... 'it'h6 enables 16..£lxe6+)
~hS 30.'li¥xf7+ 'li¥g6 31.'li¥xg6+ ~xg6 16.'li¥xd4+ .IleS (All of the alternatives
32.f7 .IlfS 33.g4 ~xf7 34.E!xfS+ ~e6) are horrible: 16 ... ~e7 17.'li¥xg7#;
27 ... ~xf6 2S.E!f1 + ~e7 29.'li¥xeS+ 16 ... .£leS 17.f4+-; 16 ... eS 17.'li¥xd6+
.Ile6) 24 ... .IleS! 2S.E!xeS (2S.'li¥g4+ E!e6 1S.'li¥xe6#). After 16 ... .IleS,
~fS 26.E! xeS exfS +; 2S.E!g4+ ~fS Vukovi6 recommended 17.E!xeS but
26.f6 .Ilxf6 27. 'li¥xf6 eS 2S. 'li¥g7 + Nunn improved with 17.'li¥h4! 'li¥aS (or
'it'e7+) 2S ... exfS 26.'li¥g3+ ~fS 17 ... 'li¥c71S.f4) 1S.b4! 'li¥a4 19.E!xeS +-
27.'li¥a3+ 'it'gS 2S.'li¥g3+ 'it'h7 29.'li¥h3+ since 19 ... ~xeS meets 'li¥d4#.
~g7 (29 ... ~g6 is too ambitious
30.'li¥g3+ ~f6 31.E!dS E!e3 32.'li¥h4+ 8
~g6 33.E!dS f6 34.'li¥hS f4 3S.'li¥gS+ 7
~fS 36.E!dS++-) 30.'li¥g3+=. 6
To win, White must instead try 19.'li¥hS+
~e7 20.'li¥xg7. Black is probably fine
here with ... ~dS, but a new improve-
ment lurks for Black with 20 ... .Ilb4 2l.f5
~dS 22 ..Ilg5+ ~c7 23.'li¥xf7 E!fS!!
24.'li¥xe6 ~b6!, completing the king's abc d e f g h
migration to the relative safety of the
queenside. Ottow and Bucker investi- 15.Etxe6+ This nice additional rook
gate the consequences of 23 ... .Ilxe1 sacrifice locked in the brilliancy
extensively in Kaissiber No.3. Their prize.15 ... 4)f6 If Black accepts the sac-
main line is 23 ... .Ilxe1 24.E!xe1 E!fS rifice with 1S .. .fxe6 White has a forced
2S.'li¥xe6 'li¥xe6 26.fxe6 .£lb6 27.e7 E!hS mate with 16.'li¥d3+ when (a) 16 ... 'it'hS
2S ..Ilf4+ ~c6 29.b4 .£lxc4 30 ..£lf6 .Ild7 17.g4+ 'it'xg4 (17 ... 'it'xh4 1S.'li¥h3#)
(though better is 30 ... d3) 31.bS+ ±. But 1S.'li¥f3+ 'it'xh419.'li¥h3#; (b) 16 ... 'it'f6


17.iH3+ ~g6 18.i,1[7+ ~h6 20.<£Jxe4+- with ideas like Elfdl, Jlg5,
19AJxe6+ +-; and (c) 16 ... ~h6 and <£Jf6; (b )19 ... <£Jf6 (sacrificing the
17.<£Jxe6++-=. 16.h5+ <if}h617.E!xd6 knight in order to place the queen on
~a518.4)xf7+ <if}h719.4)g5+ <if}g8 d3) 20.exf6 ~d3 but the advanced pawn
20.~b3+ 1--0 is ferocious: 21.fxg7 ~xg7 22.<£Jxe6+
fxe6 23.Jlh6+ +- ; and (c) 19... Ele8 with
(63) Ahues - Winter the usual mate in five: 20.~xf7+ r,t>h8
Scarborough 1930 21.~h5+ r,t>g8 22.~h7+ ~f8 23.~h8+
Slav Defense [048] r,t>e7 24.~xg7#. 19.~d3+ 19.h4! is
often a good alternative when White
1.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3.e3 4)f6 4.4)e3 e6 has a rook on hI, but it can also work
5.Ad3 4)bd7 6.4)f3 dxe4 7.Axe4 b5 well even when the king is castled and
8.Ad3 a6 9.a4 Ab7 10.~e2 b4 the opponent's Elf8 can reach h8 with
1l.4)e4 e5 12.4) xe5 4) xe513.dxe5 an anchor. The advance helps to an-
Axe514.e4 0--015.0--0 a516.e5 4)d7 chor the <£Jg5, it threatens h5+, and can
enable ~g4 when .. .f5 or <£Jxe5 will meet
h5+. Black has two primary responses:
(a) 19 ... <£Jxe5! 20.~xe5 ~d4 (20 ... ~d5
21.~g3+-) 21.h5+ r,t>xh5 (21...r,t>h6
22.<£Jxe6+ +- ) 22.~h2+ r,t>g6 (22 ... ~g4
23. ~h3 #) 23.Jle3 ~g4 24.Jlxc5 ~xg5
25.Jlxf8 Elxf8 26.Elac1 ±; and (b)
19 ... Elh8 20.~c2+ f5 21.exf6 r,t>xf6
22.Elel e5 23.<£Je4+ Jlxe4 24.Jlg5+
~e6 25.~xe4 with a winning attack.
abcdefgh 19.~g4? fails because 19 ... <£Jxe5 wins a
tempo and covers g4, 20. ~g3 ~d3, and
White relies on the dark-square bishop also supports the queen on d3, 21. ~xe5
and the e5-pawn as additional assets, Jld622.~b5~d5-+.19.Eldl is a rare
and the rooks are also ready to occupy but attractive possibility here. 19 ... ~e7
the central files. This is an instructive 20.~d3+. The queen now arrives with
example in which ~g6 is far superior to check and a second attack upon d7.
~g8. Winter defending correctly with 20 .. .f5 21.exf6+ r,t>xf6 22.~xd7 Elad8
~g6 but misses a powerful shot on 23.~xe7+ ~xe7 24.Jle3 and chances
move 21. After ~g6, White could have are only even, but the maneuver cre-
improved with 19.h4 with a small ad- ates a favorable impression. 19 •••f5
vantage. The line with 19.Eldl is also Forced, since both king retreats are
interesting but provides a less compel- quickly mated: 19 ... r,t>h6 20.~h7#;
ling advantage. 17.Axh7+ <if}xh7 19 ... r,t>h5 20.~h7+ r,t>g4 21.h3#.
18.4)g5+ <if}g6 After ~g8, the rook re- 20. ~g3 The two main alternatives both
treat to e8 supplies White with the result in the win of an exchange, but it
usual mate in five, and Black is other- is rare that an exchange will improve the
wise unable to maneuver a bishop or attacker's chances. After 20.<£Jxe6 ~e7
queen to the key bl-h7 diagonal. 21.<£Jxf8+ Elxf8, chances are roughly
18 ... ~g8 19.~h5 when (a) 19 ... Jle4 equal. After 20.exf6+ ~xf6 21.Elel

Sacking the Citadel

.1ld5 White can win the exchange with

22.~h7+ ~f7 23.~xfB AxfB-+ or en- 8
ter a perpetual with 23.~g5+. 20•••"/te7 7
21.~dl White dare not accept the ex- 6
change after 21.~xe6+ ~f7 as 5
22.~g5+ gives Black a chance to run
with 22 ... ~e8. 2l ••• ~ad8? Winter
misses an opportunity to seize the ini-
tiative with a sacrifice on f2: 21...Axf2+!.
Regardless of how White recaptures,
Black will be able to capture the e5-pawn abc d e f g h
and to delay or prevent the discovered
check. (a) 22:i!i'xf2 ~xe5 23.'~g3 f4 Another Greco miniature, which suc-
24.11.xf4 §xf4 (remarkably, the threat of ceeds with only one additional asset,
§g4 prevents most discovered checks the secure e5-pawn, although the
and Black also has the threat of~xg5) kings ide pawns contribute to two mat-
25.~f3+ ~f5 26.~d4+ §xd4 27.§xd4 ing nets. Had the game continued,
~g5 28.§f1 + ~g6~ when Black's po- White had a very simple win by playing
sition is active and with a small material ~h5 before ~g5. I have included the
advantage; or (b) 22.'~xf2 ~c5+ (the line with 12.~g5 first because the mat-
exposure of the king makes possible the ing nets after ~g6 and especially ~h6
capture of the e5-pawn with check) are enlightening. 1l.j'txh7+ 1-0 The
23.~e1 (if White tries for more with most accurate course is to play 'i!:i'h5
23.~f1 Black's pieces come alive: first, limiting Black's options. After
23 ... ~a6+ 24.~e1 f4 25.~xf4 ~gl+ 11...~xh7 12.~h5+ ~g8 13.~g5+­
26.~d2 ~d4+-+) 23 ... ~xe5+ 24.~xe5 Black would have to play 13 ... ~xg5 to
~xe5 25.~xe6 §fc8 26.Ae3 ~g4 preventmate.12.~g5+~g813.~h5+­
27.~f4+ ~h7+ when the exposure of transposes. After 12 ... ~h6 13.~h4+
the white king ironically gives Black all ~g614.~h7+ (White gets a mating at-
the attacking chances. 22.~ xe6+ +- tack by sacrificing the ~g5) 14 ... ~xg5
~h7 23.~xd8 ~xd8 24.j'tg5 j'txf2+ 15.f4+ ~xf4 16.~h5 +- with §f1 + to
25.~xf2"/tc5+ 26."/te31--O follow. With the queen already on g4,
12 ... ~g6 steps into an immediate dis-
(64) Yates - Marin y L1ovet, covery, 13.~xe6+. It's mate in four:
Hamburg 1930 13 ... ~h6 14.~xg7+ ~h5 15.'~h7+
French Defense [CI4] ~g4 16.f3*.

l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4.j'tg5 (65) Alekhine - Asgeirsson

J1e7 5.e5 ~e4 6.J1xe7"/txe7 7.j'td3 Reyigavik simul. exhibition 1931
~ xc3 8.bxc3 c5 9."/tg4 0--0 10.~f3 French Defense [CI4]
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4.j'tg5
.1l,e7 5.j'txf6 j'txf6 6.~f3 0-0
7 •.1l,d3 ~e8 8.e5 j'te7 9.h4 c5


12.~h5 j}.xg5 On 12 ... Jlf6, 13.~xf7+

8 'it'h8 14.exf6 ~xf6 15.~xe8++-.
7 13.hxg5 <ifjlf8 14.g6 Says Alekhine:
6 "Black hoped now to come easily out
5 of trouble after ... " 14.~h8+ 'it'e7
15.~xg7 E!.g816.~f6+ ~e814 •.• <ifjle7
14 .. .fxg6 15.~xg6+- with resources
like E!.h8 and 0-0-0. 15.gxf71af816.0-
0-0 Threatening .£lb5 now that ... ~a5
is no longer check. Incorrectly believ-
abc d e f g h ing that Alekhine had blundered by cas-
tling, Vukovic offered 16.dxc5 as an al-
An exciting game against the champion ternative which does win and may in-
of Iceland that relies on three assets, deed win more accurately as the follow-
the .£lc3, the secure e5-pawn, and the ing variations show: (a) 16... .£ld717.0-
h4-pawn. Relying perhaps on the f8 0-0 E!.xf7 (17 ... ~a5 18 ..£lxd5+! an im-
escape square, Alekhine's opponent provement over Vukovic's 18.~g5+
instead selects ~g8 and must then ex- 18 ... exd5 [18 ... 'it'd8 19.~g5++-]
change on g5, opening the h-file. The 19.~g5+ 'it'e6 [19 ... 'it'xf7 20.e6+ ~xe6
world champion provides a demonstra- 21.E!.de1 + 'it'f7 22.E!.e7+ +-] 20.~g6+
tion of how to convert a large advan- ~e7 [20 ... ~xe5 21.E!.h5+ ~f4
tage in development into a murderous 22.E!.d4#] 21.~d6+ ~xf7[21...~d8
attack. The complex lines involve won- 22.e6+- ] 22.e6+ ~e8 23.exd7+ Jlxd7
derful sacrifices on the d5-square that 24.E!.de1+ ~d8 25.~xf8++-);
are well worth a long look. 10.j}.xh7+1 18..£le4+- (18 ..£lxd5+ e xd519.e6+-);
<ifjlxh711.4)g5+ <ifjlg8 Once again, the (b) 16 ... .£lc6 17.0-0-0 ~a5 18.E!.xd5
mating nets in the ~g6 line are pleas- exd5 19 . .£lxd5+ ~e6 (19 ... ~d8
ing. 11...~g6 12.~d3+ f5 13.exf6+ 20.~g5+ 'it'd 7 21.~g4+ ~d8
~xf6 14.~f3+ 'it'g6 15.~f7+ 'it'h6 22. ~xg7 +- ) 20 . .£lf4+ +- ~e7
16.g4+- when it's mate in one with (20 ... 'it'd7 21.e6+ ~c7 22 ..£ld5+ ~b8
~h5. The ~h6line makes no sense with 23.~h2++-) 21..£lg6++-; and (c)
the rook offf8. 11...'~h6 12.~d3 (giv- 16.. Jhf717 ..£lxd5+ (more accurate than
ing Black a chance to enter a mating net Vukovic's 17.~g5+) 17 ... ~xd5
with 12 ... Jlxg5 13.hxg5+ 'it'xg5 18.~g5+ ~d719.E!.d1 +- . 16•.• a6 Very
14.~g3+ ~f5 15.E!.h5+ g5 16.~d3+ forced play highlights these sub-lines,
~g4 17.~f3#) 12 ... g6 13 ..£lxf7+ +-. making them a dream for Vukovic and
The Jlxg5 line is interesting because other annotators. 16 ... .£lc6 17.dxc5
Black's rook is off f8, creating an es- E!.xf7 18.~g5+ ~d7 19.E!.xd5+ exd5
cape for the king. 11...Jlxg5 12.hxg5+ 20.e6+ ~xe6 21.E!.e1 + 'it'd7 22.~xd5+
~g8 (obviously not 12 ... 'it'g613.~h5+ ~c7 23 ..£lb5+ ~b8 24.~xf7 +-. Here,
~f5 14.E!.h3 cxd4 15.E!.f3+ 'it'xe5 a more positional approach -16 ... cxd4
16.~h2#) 13.~h5 'it'f8 14.g6 (the key 17.E!.xd4! .£lc6 18.E!.f4 ~d7 19.~g6
move) 14 .. .'~e715.dxc5 fxg616.~xg6 ~e7 (19 ... ~c7 20.~xg7 'it'b6 21.E!.h3
E!.g8 17.E!.h3 (the attack gets more ~e7 22.g4 Jld7 23.g5 E!.ac8 24.a3 .£la5
fuel.)17 ... .£lc618.E!.f3 ~d719 ..£lxd5+-. 25.~f6+-) 20.~xg7 b6 21.g4 ~c7

Sacking the Citadel

22.4Jb5+ ~d7 23.4Jd6+-. In the line

above with 16 ... cxd4, Vukovic recom- 8
mended only 19.fig4 vtJe7 (19 ... vtJb6 7
20.f4 vtJe3+ 21.~bl 4Jd4~) 20.fixg7 6
b6 when, according to Vukovic, Black 5
is fine here owing to counterplay with
4Jd4, fiacB, and vtJc5, but White is eas-
ily winning with 21.fidl 4JdB 22.vtJg4
~c6 23.vtJd4 fibB 24.vtJa4+ ~b7
25.4Jb5 ~aB 26.4Jd6 4Jxf7 27.fid3 a5
28.fif3 +-. 17.dxc5 Alekhine: "threat- abc d e f g h
ening 4Je4." 17•• .Jdd7
Down two pawns and with a collapsing
8 center, White lashes out desperately
7 with the Greco Sacrifice that can count
only on the unanchored 4Jd6 as an addi-
tional asset. ~gB is safest because the
white queen cannot reach h5. With a
trapped knight on d6, White has no
3 choice but to play 4JxcB, exchanging a
2 key piece for Black's customarily bad
bishop and leaving White with insuffi-
abc d e f g h cient forces for a meaningful attack.
15..Q.xh7+? ~xh716.~g5+ ~g8! In
18.Elxd5! +- ~a5 The rook is poison. firm control, Black is winning after
IB ... exd5 19.4Jxd5+ ~e6 20.4Jf4+ ~e7 16 ... ~g6 and even after 16 ... ~hB.
21.vtJf5! placing a queen rather than a 17.Elxf8+ ~xf8 18.~xc8 Elxc8
pawn on e6 (Alekhine recommended 19.Elf1 ~e7 -+ 20.h4 Elf8 21.Elxf8+
21.e6 4Jf6 22.vtJe5 +-) 21...fixf7 ~xf8 22. ~f4+ ~e8 0-1
22. vtJe6+ ~f8 23.fihB #. 19. ~g5+
~xf7 20.Elh7 Elg8 21.Eld4 Avoiding (67) Gonzalez Rojo - Brunner
a tragic mistake, xd7 + ~xd7 Mexico City 1932
22.4Je4 i;¥el #. 21 ••. ~xc5 22.Elxd7+ Queen's Pawn Game [DOS]
-'lxd7 23.~e4 ~b4 24.~d6+ ~f8
25.~f6+ gxf6 26.Elf7# 1--0 l.d4 ~f6 2.~f3 e6 3.~bd2 d5 4.e3
c5 5.c3 ~c6 6 ..Q.d3 ~b6 7. ~e2
(66) Asztalos - Spielmann .Q.d6 8.0--0 0--0 9.e4 .Q.f4 10.dxc5
Bled 1931 ~xc511.e5 .Q.xd212.-'lxd2 ~d7 (D)
French Defense [C 14]
White initiates the sacrifice relying
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4 •.Q.g5 upon two additional assets, the dark-
.Q.e7 5.e5 ~fd7 6 . .Q.xe7 ~xe7 square bishop and the e5-pawn. Black
7. ~d2 0--0 8.f4c5 9.~b5 a610.~d6 defends instead with r.t>g6, when
cxd411.~f3 ~c612 •.Q.d3 f613.0- vtJd3+is more accurate than i;¥g4.
Ofxe514.fxe5 ~dxe5 After15 ... i;¥g4, Black can capture the


~e7 17 ..§ael .§hS lS.lLlxe6+

<;!th719.lLlc7'§b8±.16... ~e717.4)f4+
Better is consolidation with 17.lLlxf8+
lLlxfS lS.f4±. 17... 'it'h7 Not 17 ... 'it't7
lS.e6+. lS.e6 White overlooks
lS.~h3+! <;!tgS 19.1Llg6 ~e6 20.~hS+
<;!tt7 21.lLlxfSlLlxfS 22.f4 ±. lS ... 4)de5
19.~h3+ 'it'gS 20.~xd5 ~xe6?!
Missing 20 ... ~d6! -+. 21.4)e7 ~d6
22.~ xaS ~xd2 23.f4 ~g4 24. ~f3
abcdefgh .§eS 25..§adl ~e3+ 26.~xe3 .§xe3
The tempting 26 ... lLlxe3 does not win
e5-pawn with tempo, and after 15.'~d3 an exchange because of the pin on the
f5 White need not play 16.'~g3 but has .§eS 27.'§del .§e4. 27 . .§fel 'it'f7
2S.~e7 .§xel+ 29 . .§xel Ad7
the option of 16.exf6+ and capturing
on e6 with the lLlg5. 13.Axh7+! 'it'xh7 30.~b5 b6 31.~d6+ ~S 32.h3 ~f6
14.~g5+ 'it'g6 The <;!tgS line does not
33.'it'f2 4)e7 34.e4 4)eS 35.~xeS
lead to mate because the black queen AxeS 36..§e3 ~e4+ 37.'it'e2 'it'e7
has vacated the dS-square. Nonethe- 3S..§a3 a6 39..§b3 b5 4O.exb5 axb5
less, it leads quickly to the loss of the 41.'it'e3 Ad7 42.'it'd4 'it'd6 43..§a3
.§eS. 14 ... <;!tgS15.'~'h5 .§eS16.~xt7+ ~e5 44 . .§a7 Ae6 45 . .§f7 j},xg2
<;!thS 17.1.te3 or .§ael-e3, or simply 46..§xf5 ~e6+ 47.'it'e3 'it'e6 4s.h4
~xeS. The <;!th6 line walks into a dis- Ah3 49 . .§f7 'it'e5 50.'it'e4 'it'd6
covered check, but it's often best to 51.f51-O
look for more. 14 ... <;!th615.~g4 aiming
at a quick mate after 14 ... lLlxe6+ 15 ... .§hS (68) Dus Chotimirsky - Sergeev
16.lLlxe6++- .15.'~d3+ Here, 15:~'d3+ Moscow 1932
is more accurate because after 15.~g4 Torre Attack [A47]
and 15.h4, Black gains the option of
playing lLlxe5. (a) 15.h4lLldxe5 when 1.d4 ~f6 2.~f3 e6 3.Ag5 e5 4.e3
the king can escape to e7; and (b) b6 5.j},d3 j},b7 6.~bd2 Ae7 7.e3
~e7 S. ~e2 d5 9.0--0 0--0 10.e4 dxe4
15.~g4 f5 (15 ... lLldxe5 16.~g3 ~e7
11.~xe4 ~xe4 12.j},xe4 j},d6
17.lLlxe6+ <;!tf61S.lLld4+- with the idea
of 1.tg5) 16.~g3 (16.exf6lLlxf617.~g3 13.dxe5 j},xe514..§fdl.§e815.Af4
~e7 lS.lLlxe6+ <;!tt7 19.1LlxfS ~xfS±) ~c8
when White may have to settle for the
win of the exchange. 15...f5After ... f5, 8
in the ~g4 line, White would have to 7
retreat the queen to g3. White now gains 6
the interesting option of playing 5
16.lLlxe6. On 15 ... 'it'h5 16.~h7+ <;!tg4 4
17.~h3# and 15 ... <;!th6 meets
much stronger is the en passant cap-
ture followed by a rook to the e-file:
16.exf6+ 'it'xf6 17 . .§ael lLlde5 abc d e f g h
lS.~g3+- Less impressive is 16.~g3

Sacking the Citadel

White has a much easier advantage 24.g3+ 'it'f3 (24 ... 'it'e4 25.4Jg5#)
with 16.4Je5 or even 16.4Jg5 but sacri- 25.4Jg5+ ~e2 26.~fl#) 22.§el+-;
fices instead, relying upon the dark- (b) 19 ... ~f5 20.g4+ 'it'f6 (20 ... ~xf4
square bishop on f4 and the §dl as 21.4Jh3#) 21.4Jh7+ 'it'e7 (21...~e6
additional assets. The best defense, 22.~xe5#) 22.~xe5+ ~e6 23.~c7+
~g6, leads to even position with best 4Jd7 24.§xd7+ ~xd7 25.§el + +-; and
play and offers insight into one differ- (c) 19 ... ~h6 20.~d3 g6 21.4Jxf7+
ence between ~d3+ and ~g4, when the ~xh5 (21...'it'g7 22.~xg6+ 'it'fS
king retreats to f6. In the game, Black 23.Ah6+ 'it'e7 24.Ag5+ 'it'fS 25.~h6+
fails to defend correctly with lS .. .f5 and ~gS [25 ... 'it'xf7 26.~h7+ 'it'fS
loses quickly. 16.-'lxh7+ ~xh7 27.Ah6#] 26.~hS+ 'it'xf7 27.~h7+
17.Jilg5+ ~g61 Remarkably, in the ~gS ~fS [27 ... 'it'e6 28. ~g6 #] 2S.Ah6 #)
line, Black, with an extra tempo thanks 22.4Jxe5 §xe5 23.Axe5 ±. If Black de-
to the §eS, has no useful way to de- fends instead with IS ... §hS 19.~d3+
fend the f7 -pawn. 17 ... ~gS 18. ~h5 4Jd7 f5 20.§el §eS 21.h5+ 'it'f6 (21...~xh5
19.~xf7+ ~hS 20.~h5+ 'it'gS. There's 22.4Jxe6+-) 22.~g3+-. ~g4 gives
no mate in five because the black queen Black an additional option with ...
is off d8, but there is a mate in eight, 18... -'lxf2+ Black returns the material
21.~h7+ 'it'fS 22.~hS+ ~e7 23.~xg7+. but gets in return only a single check.
Relying on the §dS to cover the d6 es- No better is the effort to safeguard the
cape square and to the pin the 4Jd7. king with 18. .. ~f619.4Jh7+ 'it'e7 which
23 ... ~dS 24.4Jf7+ 'it'e7 25.Ag5+ 4Jf6 leads straight into a mate in two:
26.4Je5 #. 17 ... ~h6 permitting a double 20.~g5+ f6 21.'i;1xg7#. To survive,
discovered check. lS.4Jxf7+ 'it'g6 Black needed patiently to develop with
19.4Je5+ ~h7 (19 ... ~f6 20.Ag5+ ~xg5 lS .. .f5! 19.~g3 4Jd7 when, after 20.b4
21.~g4+ ~f6 22.~f4+ 'it'e7 23.~f7# there are three interesting options: (a)
or 23.4Jg6#) 20.~h5+ ~gS 21.~f7+ 20 ... AfS! When White can only win
~h7. (the rook swing delivers the final back an exchange, 21.4Jxe6+ 'it'f7
blow) 22.§d3+-. 18.~g4 lS.~d3+ 22.4Jc7 4Jf6 23.4JxeS 'i;1xeS=; (b)
transposes to a possible game continu- 20 ... Axf2+ is better here rather than in
ation after lS ... f5 19.~g3 although the game position, but White can wind
Black can err with lS ... ~f6 19.4Jh7+ his way to an advantage with 21.'it'xf2
~e7 20.Ad6+ ~dS 21.AxbS+ +-. (not 21.~xf2 e5+=) 21...4Jf6 22.~e5
White's best play here is lS.h4! with 4Jg4+ 23.'it'gl 4Jxe5 24.~xe5 ~c6
the possibility of a quick h4-h5 and, if 25.4Jf3 §acS 26.'i;1g3+ 'it'h7 27.§ac1
possible, to respond to 19.~g4 f5 with e5 28.'i;1h3+ 'it'gS 29.~xf5 §fS~; and
20.h5. After 18.h4 e5, White can con- (c) 20 ... Ae7 by contrast encourages a
tinue with 19 .h5+, flushing the king into series of sacrifices that net the black
significant pressure: (a) 19 ... ~f6 queen, 21.4Jxe6+ 'it'f7 22.§xd7! ~xd7
20.4Jh7+ ~f5 (the alternatives are 23.~xg7+ ~xe6 24.§e1 + ~e4
bombed: 20 ... 'it'e7 21.~xe5+ ~e6 25.§xe4+! fxe4 26.'i;1g4+ +-. 19.~xf2
22.~c7++- and 20 ... ~e6 21.~xe5#) ~c5+ 20 ..§d4 ~f5 21. ~h4 Jilc6
21.~d3+ ~e6 (21...~xf4 22.~g3+ ~f5 22.g4 ~c2+ 23 ..§d2 .§li8 24.Jilh7
23.~h3+ ~f4 (23 ... ~e4 24.~f3#) (With mate soon on g5) 1-0


(69) Koshnitsky - Purdy (24.<t'lxf7+ ~h4 [24 ... g5 25.~h7#]

Sydney 1932 25.~h7#)24 ... ~xg5 25.~f5#. Black's
Queen's Pawn Game [D05] only chance to survive, if barely, was
22 ... .llxg2+! 23.~xg2 ~g3+ 24.~xg3
l.d4 Jilf6 2.Jilf3 d5 3.e3 c5 4.c3 Axg3 25.~xg3 ~xg5 26.~xf7±when
Jil bd7 5.Jil bd2 t:/c7 6.Ad3 e5 7.e4 White will soon win another pawn but
c4 8.Ac2 Ad6 9.exd5 0-0 10.dxe5 the black rooks are active.
Jilxe5 1l.h3 b5 12.Jilxe5 Axe5
13.Jilf3 Ab714.0-0 Etad815.t:/e2 (70) Wilke - Priwonitz
Etfe816.Ae3 Jilxd517.EtaelJilxe3 Hamburg 1933
18.fxe3j},g3 French Defense [COO]

8 l.c4 e6 2.e4 d5 3.cxd5 exd5 4.exd5

7 1f-~~lIiIIi
Jilf6 5.Ab5+ Ad7 6.Ac4 Ae7
6 7.Jilc3 0-0 8.Jilge2 Ad6 9.0-0

abc d e f g h

In an open board, White can count only

upon the ~f1 as an additional asset.
Black permits White to use the open abc d e f g h
board, notably the open f-file with ~g4
and later ~f5+. 19.Axh7+? ~xh7 Black initiates the sacrifice relying upon
20.Jilg5+ ~g6? Black succeeds in the the light-square bishop and possible
~g8 line because Ad5 overprotects the activity from ~f8-e8. Black succeeds in
f7-square and secures the king's escape the ~glline quickly, although with the
via f8 and e7. 20 ... ~g8! 21.~h5 <t'le2, Black needs help from a rook
.lld5-+ 22.~h7+ ~f8 23.~h8+ ~e7 swing. White misses the win available
24.~xg7 .llxel-+. In the ~g6 line, with ~g3. Note that, in that line, Black
Black would have to give up his queen cannot safely maintain the queen on g5
to stal\ the mate in the corner. After and g6. 9 .•• Axh2+? 10.~xh2 Jilg4+
20 ... ~h6, 21.<t'lxf7++- ~g6 22.~g4+ 1l.~gl White misses the win available
~h7 23. ~h5+ ~g8 24. ~h8 #. 21. t:/g4 after ~g3: 11.~g3! h5 12.~hl h4+
On 21.~c2+? Black wins easily with ei- (12 ... ~g5 but the queen cannot remain
ther 21...~xg5-+ or 21...~d3-+. on the g-file 13.f4 ~g6 14.f5 ~g5
21 •.. Ah2+ 22.~hl t:/g3 1-0 Black 15.<t'le4+-) 13.~xh4 <t'lxf2 14.~b3
moved but resigned probably preferring ~g5+ 15.~xf2 ~xh4+ 16.~f1 +-. And
not to have to face a mate in three not 11 ... ~g5? when Black cannot safely
moves: 22 ... ~g3 23.~f5+ ~h5 maintain the queen on g5 and g6. 12.f4
(23 ... ~h6 24.<t'lxf7#) 24.~h7+ ~g613.f5 ~g514.<t'le4+-. 1l ••• t:/h4

Sacking the Citadel

12.§.e1 ~xf2+! The king's ability to dark-square bishop, White aims to play
escape to d3 makes 12 ... ~h2+ much ~g4-h4. Here, White is a full tempo
less accurate, 13.'~f1 ~h1 + 14 ..:£lgl ahead in that line: 13 ... ~h6 14.~h4+
.:£lh2+ 15.~e2 ~xg2 16.~d3+. (or 14.f4 .:£lxe515.~h3+ ~g616.~h7+
13.Cit>h1 §.eS! With the idea of .§.e5- ~f617.fxe5+ transposing to the follow-
h5. 14.d4 §.e3! 15.-'l.d2 Capturing on ing line) 14 ... ~g615.f4 .:£lxe516.~h7+
e3 with 15.Axe3 simply brings the ~f6 17.fxe5+ when Black has (a)
knight to e3 where it hits the queen and 17 ... ~e7 18.~xg7 +- with the idea of
threatens mate on g2.15 ... .:£lxe3 16..:£lf4 .:£lh7; (b) 17 ... ~xe5 18.~xg7+ ~d6
(16 ..§.gl ~h4#) 16 ....:£lxd1-+. Defend- 19 ..:£lxt7 + +- with a significant material
ing with 15 ..:£lgl ~h4+ 16..:£lh3 simply advantage; and (c) 17 ... ~xg5 once
encourages an easy rook sacrifice with again, taking the knight is fraught with
16 ... .§.xh3+ 17.gxh3 ~xh3+-+. danger as White can bring a rook into
15••• §.h3+ 16.gxh3 ~h2# 0-1 the fight. 18.~xg7+ when all continua-
tions win quickly for White: (1) 18...~h4
19.~h6+ ~g4 20.h3+ ~g3 (20 ... ~f5
(71) Razinger - Harum
21..§.f1 + ~xe5 22.~f4#) 21.~f1 +-;
Ebensee 1933
(2) 18 ... ~f4 19.~g3+ ~f5 20 ..§.f1 +
French Defense [Cll]
Af2+ 21..§.xf2#; (3) 18. .. ~f519.'§'f1+
Af2+ 20 ..§.xf2#; and (4) 18... ~h519.h4
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£lc3 .£lf6 4.e5
f5 20.g4+ fxg4 21.~h7#. With the
.£lfd7 5.-'l.e3 c5 6. ~g4 cxd4 7.-'l.xd4
queen already on g4, 13 ... ~g6? invites
.£lc6 S . .£lf3 .£lxd4 9.~xd4 -'l.c5 14 ..:£lxe6+ +-. 14.~h5 §.eS Only
10.~g4 0-0 1l.-'l.d3 a6 Axf2+ and ~xg5 delay the end.
15.~xf7+ Cit>hS 16.~h5+ Cit>gS
8 17.~h7+ Cit>fS1S.~hS+ 1--0 It's mate
7 after 18 ... ~e719.~xg7#.
5 (72) Alekhine - Schuman
4 Washington DC simul. exhibition 1933
3 French Defense [C 10]
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£lc3 .£lf6 4.-'l.g5
-'l.e7 5.-'l.xf6 -'l.xf6 6 ..£lf3 .£lc6 7.e5
abcdefgh -'l.e7 S.-'l.d3 0-0 9.h4 f6
White can rely upon two additional as-
sets, the .:£lc3 and the e5-pawn, but the
real story here is that with the queen on
g4, White ought to have followed the
sacrifice with 13.~h5 eliminating even
the possibility of the ~h6 and ~g6
lines. 12.-'l.xh7+! Cit>xh7 13. .£lg5+
13.~h5+! eliminates responses other
than ... ~g8.13 ••. Cit>gS Normally, in the
~h6 line, when White does not have a abc d e f g h


For the second time in this chapter (see 13.g6 with the threat of l".lhB (playing
game 54), Alekhine sacrifices with a 13.'l;l'h5 first doesn't help: 13 ... l".lf5
black pawn -on f6. In an exhibition of 14.'l;l'hB+ ~f7 15.'l;l'h5+ g6 16.'l;l'h7+
this kind, without the time for intense ~eB 17.'l;l'xg6+ ~d7 IB.4Jxd5
calculation, the sacrifice was almost l".lxg5-+ ) and once again, Black can use
certainly based on intuition and confi- the open f-file to defend with 13 ... l".lf5
dence in his ability in such complex, 14.g4 l".lf4-+. 12.exf6 The obvious
tactical positions. To be sure, he 12.'l;l'h5? fails to fxg5 13.hxg5 l".lf5-+
outplays his opponent, but despite the when the g-pawn will fall and White's
presence of three additional assets, the attack peters out. 12... §.xf6 13.~h5
e5-pawn, the 4Jc3, and the h4-pawn, §.h614.~+ IiIlh815.0-0-0 .11,xg5+
the analysis shows that every main White will not be able to break through
variation contained a path for Black to or recover his material after 15 .. .M6! -+ .
gain the advantage. Black himself has a 16.hxg5 ~xg5+ 17.f4 ~e7 Black is
counter-attack on the e5-pawn and the better after the more aggressive is
open f-file on which to rely. Note, in 17 ... 'l;l'f5+.18.~g6 §.xhI19.§.xhl+
particular, that Black could simply have IiIlg8 20.~b5 §.b8 21.~xc7 .11,d7
taken the 4Jg5 and then used the open Avoiding 21...'l;l'xc7 22.'l;l'eB#. 22.f5
f-file after '<TtgB to play l".lf5-+. There's nothing more than a perpetual
10..11,xh7+ IiIlxh7 11.~g5+ IiIlg8 check for White after 22.'l;l'h7+ 'it'fB
White has three options in the 11... '<Ttg6 23.~hB+ 'it'f7 24.'l;l'h5+ 'it'fB 25.~hB+=.
line: (a) White can capture the f-pawn 22 ... §.c8? A careless mistake. Black is
and then maneuver the queen to g3 better and probably winning after
where it will threaten the discovery and 22 ... ~f6 23.'l;l'h7+ '<Ttf7 24.'l;l'h5+ 'it'f8
have access to c7, but after 12.exf6 gxf6 25.fxe6 .llxe6 26.4Jxe6+ 'l;l'xe6
13.~d3+ f5 14.~g3 (14.h5+ ~h6-+) 27.'l;l'hB+ 'it'f7 28.l".lfl + 'it'g6+. 23.fxe6
14 ... .llxg515.hxg5 ~xg516.~xc7l".lf7 .11,xe6 24.~ xe6 Slightly more efficient
17.~h2 f4+ Black survives the attack is 24.'l;l'h7+! ~f7 25.l".lfl + 'l;l'f6
quite readily; (b) After 12.~d3+ f5 26.l".lxf6+ +-. 24... ~f6 25. ~xf6 gxf6
Black is threatening to capture on g5, 26.c3 a5 27.liIld2 b5 28.~f4 §.d8
and 13.l".lh3 is insufficient because af- 29.§.h5 ~e7 30.g4 1iIlf7 31.§.h7+
ter 13 ....llxg514.hxg5 Black can safely liIle8 32.~e6 §.d7 33.§.h8+ 1iIlf7
play l".lhB+; and (c) And there's noth- 34.~c5 §.d6 35.§.b8 b4 36.cxb4
ing in 12.h5+ because, without a dark- axb4 37.§.xb4 ~c6 38.§.b6 ~a5
square bishop, there's no way for White 39.§'xd6 ~c4+ 40.IiIld3 ~ xd6 41.a4
to exploit 12 ... '<Tth6 (12 ... 'it'xg5 1iIle8 42.b4 IiIldS 43.b5 IiIlc7 44.IiIlc3
13.~d2++-) 13.exf6 gxf6-+. Black ~e4+ 45.~xe4 dxe446.liIld21~
also has the option of capturing on g5,
although White gains in compensation (73) Norcia - Fine
an open h-file for the rook and queen. Folkestone 1933
11...fxg512.hxg5+ 'it'gB (not 12 ... ~g6? French Defense [CI4]
13.~h5+ '<Ttf5 14.g4+ ~f4 15.~h2+
~xg5 16.f4+ ~xg4 [16 ... l".lxf4 Reuben Fine (1914-1993) was one of the
17.~h5#1 17.~h3+ ~xf4 IB.4Je2+ strongest grandmasters during the
~g5 [IB ... ~e4 19.~d3# 1 19.~h5#) 1930s and 1940s. He won the U.S. Open

Sacking the Citadel

Championship all seven times he already on the third rank, the 'i!th6 line
played, won five medals representing walks into a mate in two: 19 ... 'i!th6
the United States in the Olympiads, and 20.'li{h3+ ~g6 21.'li{h7#. 19 ... 'i!tg6
wrote several books on chess, notably 20.'li{g3 when Black gives up only an
the classic Basic Chess Endings. In exchange after 20 ... f6 21.4Jxe6+ 'i!th7
1938, Fine tied for first place with Paul (21...~f7? 22.'li{xg7+ 'i!txe6 23.f5+
Keres in one of the strongest touma- ~xe5 24.fiael++-) 22.4Jxf8+ fixf8~.
mentseverheld, theAVROtoumamentin 20.~d3+ (eliminating even the possi-
the Netherlands. Invited to compete for bility of .. .f6) 20 .. .f5 21.'li{g3 but even
the world chess championship after the here, Black's counter-attack on the e5-
death ofAlekhine, Fine declined his invi- pawn is effective. 21...4Jxe5 22.4Jxe6+
tation to pursue a career in psychology. 4Jg4 23.4Jxf8+ (White wins back an ex-
change, but nothing more) 23 ... fixf8
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£)c3 .£)f6 4.-'lg5 24.h3 (hoping to win the knight, but...)
-'l.e7 5.e5 .£)fd7 6.-'l.xe7 ~xe7 24 ... 'li{e3+ 25.~xe3 4Jxe3-+. 20.~h3
7.~d2 0-0 S.f4 c5 9.dxc5 .£)c6 Arriving on the h-file on h3 where the
10.,£)0 a611 ..£)a4 .£)xc512..£)xc5 queen does not exert pressure upon f7.
~xc513.-'ld3 -'ld714.~f2 ~b4+ 20 ..• ~c5+ A key check that vacates
15.~d2 ~xb216.0--0 ~a317.~e3 the e7 escape-square.!Ihl E!fcS
~e7 22. ~h5 White cannot break through
with 22.~h7+ 'i!tf8 23.'li{h8+ 'i!te7
8 24.~xg7 fif8 25.'li{f6 'i!te8+. 22 ••• .£)dS
7 White's loss of time permits Black to
6 cover the f7-square. 23.~h7+ Ii!IfS
5 24.~hS+ li!Ie725.~xg7 -'lb5 26.c4
-'l.xc4 27.E!ac1li!1d7 Black is also win-
ning after 27 ... .llxfl 28.fixc5 fixc5-+
or simply 27 ... 'li{e3 -+. 2S.f5 ~e7
29.f6 ~e8 30.E!fel-'ld3 31.h4-'lg6
32.g4 E!xc1 33.E!xcl E!cS 34.E!el
abc d e f g h E!c4 35.E!gl .£)c6 36.h5 -'l.e4+!Ih2 .£)xe5!Ih3 -'l.f3
White can rely upon two additional as- 39•.£)xO .£)xO 40.E!g3 .£)e5 41.g5
sets, the e5-pawn and the fif1, but Fine Ii!Ic7 42.g6 ~a4 43.gxf7 E!h4+
defends precisely, selecting the ~g8!Ig2 ~xa2+!Igl ~h2+
line because the white queen can at-!Ifl E!f4+ 0-1
tack h7 only from d3 or h3 where it ex-
erts no influence over f7. As a result, (74) Spielmann - Rubinstein,S
Black can essentially make two moves, Vienna 1933
a rook move to vacate f8 for his king Queen's Gambit Declined [D55]
and 4Jd8 to defend f7. And Black can
gain time with 'li{c5+ in order to vacate l.d4.£)f62c4e63..£)c3d54..£)f3-'l.e7
the e7 escape square. IS.-'lxh7+ 5.-'l.g5 0-0 6.e3 b6 7.-'l.d3 -'l.b78.-'l.xf6
Ii!Ixh719..£)g5+ Ii!IgSI With the queen -'l.xf69.cxd5exd510.h4c5


.llg716.§h7 when to prevail, White will

need to 0-0-0 and then play either §dh1-
8 h4 or e4 blowing up the center. Best
7 appears to be 14 ... 'it'g7 when 1S.4Je6
6 fxe6 16.'iil'xg6+ 'it'h8 17.'iil'h6+ 'it'g8
5 18.'iil'g7 .llg7 19.h6 'iil'f6 and 1S.hxg6
§h8 16.§h7+ §xh7 17.4Jxh7 fxg6
18.4Jxf6 'iil'xf6 -+ do not provide White
with an advantage. 15.hxg6+ Iit'g7
16.gh7+ Iit'f6 Avoiding 16 ... 'it'g8?
17.gxf7+ §xf718.'iil'g6+ 'it'f819.'iil'xf7#.
abcdefgh 17.0--0--0 Even after an awkward move
order with 17.f4 'it'e6 18.gxf7 .llf6 +
White initiates the sacrifice here rely- White has chances by pushing the
ing upon the 4Jc3 and the h-pawn as kingside pawns. 17...c4 With the aim
additional assets. The sacrifice is com- of sealing the queenside as a new home
plex because Black has 'it'h6, which for the king. 18. ~e2 White must
saves a key tempo over the 'it'g6 'iil'd3+ counter with e4 in the center. 18.•• lit'e7
line. Without a dark-square bishop, and 19.f4 Af6 20.e4 dxe4 21.4) xe4lit'd7
with the pawn on h4, White cannot play 22.d5 4)a6 Playing 22 ... bS opens c5
'iil'g4-h4 and must therefore settle for for the knight. 23.g7 gg8 24.gh6
'iil'd3 with the idea of'iil'h7. The defense Axg7 25.gd6+ Iit'c7 26. ~xc4+ Iit'bS
is extremely difficult, and Rubenstein 27.gxdS+ gxdS 28.lit'bl4)c7 29.d6
nearly rises to the task. 1l.j'txh7+!? With superior development and central
Iit'xh712J~)g5+ Iit'h6! The 'it'g8lines control, and with the §a8 out of play,
loses because the black .llb7 is White is winning. 29 ... 4)e6 30.f5
unanchored. 12 ... 'it'g8 13.'iil'hS §e8 j'txe4+ 31.~xe4 4)c5 32.~c6 gc8
(13 ... .llxgS14.hxgS fS1S.g6) 14.'iil'xf7+ 33.~d5 gdS 34.~xf7 gd7 35.~g8+
'it'h8 1S.'iil'xb7+-. 'it'g6loses because Iit'b7 36. ~d5+ Iit'b8 37. ~c6 a5
the .llf6 prevents Black from defending 38.~xb6+ 4)b7 39.~c6 gd8
with fS. 12 ... 'it'g6 13.'iil'd3+ 'it'hS 4O.~c7+ lit'a71--O
(13 ... 'it'h6 14.'iil'h7#) 14.g4+ 'it'xg4
(14 ... 'it'h6 1S.'iil'h7#) 1S.§g1+ 'it'hS (75) Ninic - Mihajlovic
(1S ... 'it'xh416.'iil'h7#) 16.'iil'h7# . .llxgS Belgrade 1933
also leads to quick mating nets. Slav Defense [D30]
12 ... .llxgS 13.hxgS+ 'it'g8 (13 ... 'it'g6
14.'iil'hS+ 'it'fS 1S.'iil'h3+ 'it'xgS 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 e6 4.4)f3 4)f6
[1S ... 'it'g6 16.'iil'h7+ 'it'xgS 17.§hS+ 5.a3 Ad6 6.4)c3 0-0 7.c5 Ac7
'it'f6 18.§eS+-] 16.'iil'hS+ 'it'f6 8.Ad3 4)bd7 9.0-0 e510.dxe5 4)xe5
17.'iil'eS+ 'it'g6 18.4Je2+-) 14.'iil'hS fS 1l.4)xe5 Axe512.Ad2 (D)
1S.g6+-. 13.~d3 g6 14.h5 j'txg5
The key position. Capturing with king, Black relies here upon the light-square
despite the computer's optimism, is al- bishop and the possibility of §e8 as
most certainly unsound but is an excel- additional assets. The defender cor-
lent practical move.14 ... 'it'xgS!? 1S.hxg6 rectly plays 'it'g3 which should have

Sacking the Citadel

(76) Skalicka - Koska

8 Prague 1935
7 Bird's Opening [A03]
5 1.f4 d5 2.e3 g6 3..£lf3 .1lg7 4 ..£lc3 c5
5.Ae2 .£lc6 6.0-0 .£lh6 7.-'\.b5 0-0
8.d3 d4 9 . .£le4 dxe3 10.c3 ~b6
3 W"""'~ ... ... "-c....J."..~"'-...~ 1l.Aa4 c412.d4 e5 13.fxe5 .£lxe5
14..£lxe5 Axe515.-'\.xe3

abc d e f g h

defended successfully in large part be-

cause after ~g5 f4, the queen cannot
safely sustain the attack from g6.
12.••Axh2+ 13.~xh2 .£lg4+ 14.~g3
The <;!tgl line fails to the usual mate in
five. 14.c;t>gl ~h4 15.§el ~xf2+
16.<;!thl ~h4+ 17.c;t>gl ~h2+ 18.<;!tfl
~h1 + 19.<;!te2 ~xg2 "" 14 ... h5 abcdefgh
14 ... ~g5 15.f4+- because the queen
cannot retreat to g6. 15.Ethl! +- d4 The sacrifice relies here upon one addi-
16.exd4 ~xd4 17.Ae3 ~e5+ tional asset, the light-square bishop,
18.Af4 ~xc519.~c2? Black's attack- although the black knight arrives on g4
ing chances end after either ready to capture the unanchored .lle3.
19A:Je4+-or 19.~d2+-. 19 ... g5 This is the first recorded game in which
20.Ae3 ~d6+ 21.~f3 Ete8 22.g3? the defending side sacrifices the queen
Much better is 22.4Je4±. 22 ... ~f6+ to capture the 4Jg4 (or 4Jg5). The idea
Missing a sweet finale with 22 ... §xe3+! works because, for the queen, White
23.fxe3 ~f6+ 24.<;!te2 ~f2+ 25.<;!td1 obtains three minor pieces and a threat
4Jxe3+ -+. 23. ~g2 Et xe3 24.Ae4 that permits him to consolidate his po-
~e5 25.Etxh5 Best is 25.M3 when, to sition fully. 15 ... Axh2+ 16.~xh2
maintain an edge, Black would have to .£lg4+ 17.~xg4 King moves lose
try 25 ... h4. 25 ... Etxg3+! 26.~f1 Not quickly to the 4Jxe3 fork. 17... Axg4
26.fxg3 4Je3+ -+. 26 ... .£lf6 Better is 18..£lf6+ ~g719..£lxg4 Following the
26 ... ~f4 with the threat of ... 4Je3+. queen sacrifice, White emerges with
27.Eth1 Ah3+ 28.~e2 Ag4+ The three minor pieces and excellent activ-
quickest end is 28 ... §xc3 29.bxc3 .llf5 ity for the queen. 19 ... Etfd8 A bit am-
30.f4 ~e6-+. 29.~d2 ~f4+ 30.~e1 bitious is 19 ... ~xb2 20 ..llh6+ c;t>h8
Etxc3! 31.Ah7+ ~g7 32. ~xc3 Ete8+ 21.Af4 (better here to hold on to the
33.~1 Ae2+ 34.~g1 ~g4+ 35.~g3 active bishop) 2l...h5 22 ..lle5+ c;t>h7
.£lxh7 36.~xg4 Axg4 37.~h2 Ete2 23.4Jf6+ c;t>h6 24.d5 §ad8 25.d6= .
38.~g3 Ae6 39.h4 .£lf6 4O.f3 ~g6 20.Ah6+ ~g8 21 . .£le5 f6 21...§d5
41.f4 .£lh5+ 42.~f3 .£lxf443.Ethg1 demonstrates that rooks are poor block-
-'\.d5+ 44. ~g4 Ete3 0-1 aders 22.§ae1 f6 23.4Jxc4 ~c7+


24 ..£JeS fxeS 2S ..llb3 with a winning 'it'g6line invites a mate in two: 10 ... ~g6
skewer 25 ... e4+ 26.~gl +-. 22. .£\xc4 11.hS+ ~fS (11... 'it'h6 12 ..£Jxe6+ +- )
'It:Jc7+ 23.Af4 'It:Jg7 Obviously not 12.g4#. 11.hxg5+ ~gS 'it'g6 again
23 ... ~xc4 24 ..llb3. 24.-'\.b3 ~hS walks into a mate in two: 11...~g6
25..£\d6 +- §d7 26.§ael g5 27.-'\.g3 12.~hS+ ~fS 13.g4#. 12.'lt:Jh5 It's
§fS 28. ~gl 'It:Jg6 29.-'\.e6 §e7 30.d5 mate in six with 12.§h8+! 'it'xh8
h5 31..£\f5 §ee8 32.Ad6 h433.Ac5 (12 ... 'it't7 13.~hS+ g6 14.~h7+ 'it'e8
g4 34.AxfS §xfS 35. .£\xh4 'It:Jg5 lS.~xg6#) 13:~hS+ ~g8 14.g6+-.
36..£\f5 'It:Jd2 37.§e4 §eS 3S.§xg4 12 ... §f5 13.f4 .£\fS 14.g4 g6
~h7 39.§f3 'It:Jel+ 40.~h2 'It:Je5+ 14 ... §xf4! lS.Axf4 g6 16.~h8+ 'it't7
41.§fg31-O 17.0-0-0 .lla6 when an easy win is no-
where to be found. 15. 'It:JhS+ ~f7
(77) Lasker, Em. - Troxler 16.gxf5 exf5 17.0-0-0 a5 IS.§h6
Luzem simul. exhibition 1935 ~e619.'lt:JgS+ ~d7 20.'lt:Jxd5+ 1-0
French Defense [C II]
(78) Koltanowski - Reilly
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£\c3 .£\f6 4.e5 Barcelona 1935
.£\fd7 5..£\f3 Ae7 6.-'\.e3 0-07.Ad3 Queen's Pawn Game [A47]
l.d4 .£\f6 2..£\f3 b6 3.e3 Ab7 4.Ad3
8 c5 5 ..£\bd2 .£\c6 6.c3 e6 7.a3 'It:Jc7
7 S.e4 cxd4 9.cxd4 -'\.e7 10.0-0 0-0
6 11.b4 §ac812.Ab2 d613.§c1 'It:Jb8
5 14.'lt:Je2 §feS 15..£\b3 AfS 16.e5
This time, it's Lasker's tum to try the
sacrifice with a black pawn on f6, and 3
here, the sac is fully sound thanks in 2

no small part to the fact that White can

rely on four additional assets, the .£Jc3, abc d e f g h
the secure eS-pawn, the dark-square
bishop, and the h-pawn. Black's ad- White can rely here upon three addi-
vance of the f-pawn leaves e6 weak, tional assets, the eS-pawn, the dark-
and so, Black has no choice but to cap- square bishop, and the §c1, although
ture the knight. The lines are beautiful, the .llb2 is offthe key diagonal and the
marred only by Lasker's unfortunate §c1 does not have a quick entry into
miss of a mate in six. 9.Axh7+! ~xh7 the position. Black correctly selects the
10..£\g5+ fxg5 The retreat to 10 ... 'it'g8 ~g6 line, where the correct attack be-
invites 11..£Jxe6 ~e8 12 ..£Jxc7 +- ; the ginning with ~e4 is complex and in-

Sacking the Citadel

structive. ~e4+ eliminates the possi- 33.~h2 #) 28.~h7+ 'it'g5 29.~d4 <it'f6
bility of .. .f6 and still provides direct 30.f4 ~xf4 31.~xf5+ and this is the rea-
access to ~h4. White selects ~g4, son. White eliminated the e6-pawn on
when f6 is playable because the dis- move 24. 31...<it'e7 32.~xf4+-. 19...f5
covered check nets insufficient com- Black should have tried 19 .. .f6! forcing
pensation. 17.Axh7+! <jfjlxh7 an immediate 20.~xe6+ (20.~e4+
18.4)g5+ <jfjlg6 The <it'g8 retreat loses 'it'f7+) 20 ... <it'f7+. 20.~h4 4)f6
quickly because, with the .ll.f8, Black 20 ... dxe5 21.dxe5 ~xe5 22.l'!xc8 as
has no effective way to vacate the f8- above in the 19.~e4+ line. 21.exf6
square. 18 ... <it'g8 19.~h5 ~f6 20.exf6 <jfjlxf6 22.Elxc6 The most direct path
.ll.e7 21.~h7+ <it'f8 22.~h8#. Although to the win is with 22.d5+ since 22 ... e5
White's dark-square bishop is off the 23.~e6+ 'it'g8 24.~g5 is mate in two.
c1-h6 diagonal, White has the ~g4-h4 22 ... Axc6 23.d5+ e5 24.dxc6 Elxc6
maneuver and available reinforcements 25.f4 g6 26.4)d4 exd4 27. ~h7 Ag7
in the <it'h61ine. 18 ... <it'h6 19. ~g4 dxe5 28..1l,xd4+ Ele5 29.4)£31-0
20.dxe5 l'!c7 (20 ... l'!e7 21.~h4+ <it'g6
22.~h7+ 'it'xg5 23.h4+ <it'f4 24.l'!c4+ (79) Capablanca - Ribera Arnal
~d4 25.~xd4 <it'xe5 26.~b5+ ~c3 Barcelona simul. exhibition 1935
27 ..ll.xc3+ <it'd5 28.~e4#) 21.~h4+ Caro-Kann Defense [B 17]
'it'g6 22.~h7+ <it'xg5 23.l'!c3 ~xc3
24.f4+ 'it'g4 25.~h3#. 19.~g4 l.e4 c6 2.4)c3 d5 3.4)f3 dxe4
19.~g4 is less accurate because Black 4.4) xe4 4)d7 5.d4 4)gf6 6.4)g3 e6
can play 19 .. .f6. The usual alternative 7 ..1l,d3 Ae7 8.0-0 0-0 9.~e2 c5
19.~d3+!? forces f5 when White may 10.Eldl ~c711.Ag5 b612.d5 4) xd5
be pleased to have eliminated 19 .. .f6 13..1l,xe74)xe7
from consideration, but White must
now play 20.~g3 Ae7 21.~xe6+ <it'f7 8
22.~xg7+ <it'xe6 23.~g6+ 'it'd7 7
24. ~xf5+ <it'd8 +. The best move for 6
White is 19.~e4+ because White elimi- 5
nates 19 .. .f6 and can move now directly
to h4, a key square because the black
rook would not have an anchor on h8.
19 .. .f5 20.~h4 dxe5 with the typical
counter in the center, 21.dxe5 ~xe5
22.l'!xc8 l'!xc8 23.l'!e1 when White abcdefgh
places pressure on the e-file aiming for
e6. 23 ... .ll.d6 24.~xe6! (not yet 24.~h7+ White has two additional assets in the
<it'xg5 when White can muster no more position, the l'!d1 and the ~g3. In the
than a perpetual with 25.~xg7+ <it'h5 <it'g8 line, Capablanca sacrifices an ad-
26.~h7+) 24 ... <it'f7 25.~g5+! <it'g6 and ditional exchange in order to prevent
only now 26.~h7+ <it'xg5 (26 ... <it'f6 Black from defending with ~f6. The
27.~d4+-) 27.~xg7+ <it'h5 (27 ... ~g6 world champion misses his way on
28.h4+ <it'h5 29.~h7+ 'it'g4 30.f3+ <it'g3 move 19, but two moves later capital-
31.~xg6+ <it'xh4 32.~h6+ 'it'g3 izes on a more significant Black mistake


to deliver a spectacular checkmate. The Greco Sacrifice: 1936-1959

14.j}"xh7+ Ciftxh715..£'jg5+ Ciftg8 The
4::lg3 simplifies the ~h6 and ~g6Iines, As we approach the modem era, the
which lead to quick mates even without Greco Sacrifices become qualitatively
a dark-square bishop: 15 ... ~h6 stronger. Once again, many of the
16.~h5; 15 ... ~g6 16.~h5+ ~f6 period's best players, notably Euwe,
17.4::l5e4# or 17.4::lh7#. 16.Elxd7The Furman, Geller, Kotov, Kottnauer,
exchange sacrifice is required to prevent Olafsson, Pachman, Panov, Pirc,
16.~h5 4::lf6-+. 16....~xd717 ..~h5 Rossetto, Spassky, and Uhlmann con-
Eld8 Correctly avoiding 17 ... E!e8 tribute to the collection. Overall, there
18.~xf7+ ~h8 19.4::lh5 4::ld5 20.~g6 appears to be a better understanding of
'it'g8 21.c4+-. 18"~xf7+ The f7-pawn when to sacrifice, how best to prepare
is the right one to take. On 18.~h7+ it, and how to conduct the attack and
~f8 19.~h8+ 4::lg8 20.4::lh7+ ~e7 the defense.
White does not have a dark-square
bishop for ~g5+and therefore would In my view, five of the games in this
need to lash out with 21.4::lf5+ exf5 section stand above the rest. Vukovic
22.E!el+ ~e6-+. 18 .•• Cifth8 19.h4 uses Kottnauer-Kotov (game 93) as an
Creating tuft powerfully, with the idea example ofa successful Greco Sacrifice.
of both h4-h5 and 4::lh5. Among the al- The game is tactically rich and an ex-
ternatives: (a) The tuft is required prior ample of chess in the modem era. Just a
to 19.4::lh5 ~dl +; (b) Barging in with year after the game, Kottnauer is again
19.~h5+ leads only to a perpetual: tested in the line, this time by Pachman
19 ... 'it'g8 20.~h7+ ~f8 21.~h8+ 4::lg8 (game 95) who has had an opportunity
22.4::lh7+ ~f7 23.4::lg5+=; and (c) The to study the first game and attempt an
best may be 19.E!el! ~e8 20.4::lh5 ~xf7 improvement. It is interesting that all of
21.4::lxf7+ ~g8 22.4::lxd8+- . 19.•. .£'jf5? the players, and Vukovic himself, draw
(better is 19 ... ~e8! 20.4::l3e4 with the the wrong conclusion about the line,
ideaof4::ld6 or4::lf6) 20 ... ~xf7 21.4::lxf7+ but the games remain extremely inter-
'it'g8 22.4::lxd8±. 20. .£'jh5 White wins esting. Black can indeed defend, as
unambiguously with 20.~g6! ~g8 Vukovic ought to have predicted given
21.4::lxf5 exf5 22.E!el 'it'f8 when the h- the white position's lack of adequate
pawn demolishes the remains of the resources.
kingside: 23.h5 .llb7 24.h6 gxh6
(24 ... .lle4 25.h7) 25.'i~1xh6+ ~g8 Furman-Geller (game 120) is an exciting
26.E!e6+-. 20 ....~e8? Underestimat- encounter in which White prepares the
ing the simplification with 20 ... ~xf7! Greco Sacrifice with an additional ex-
21.4::lxf7+ ~g8 22.4::lxd8 .lld7 -+ when change sacrifice and Black, also a
White must struggle to save the knight: strong tactician, defends accurately by
23.4::lb7 ~c6 24.g4 4::lxh4 25.4::ld6 4::lf3+ returning a piece to place the queen on
and 26 ... E!d8 with the advantage. the key bl-h7 diagonal. In a sign of
21 ..£'jf611--O Setting up a lovely smoth- modem times, the sacrifice leads to a
ered mate by the two knights. 21.4::lf6 slightly favorable endgame for White.
~xf7 22.4::lxf7#.

Sacking the Citadel

I highly recommend Schuste-Niephaus ing ~g4. Black's two main tries both
(game 121) which involves a remarkable appear to fail: (a) 15 ... ~d7 16.~g4 f5
pawn sacrifice to open the b1-h7 diago- when White can interpolate 17.h5+ 'it'f6
nal for the white bishop. Finally, there 18.4Jh7+ 'it'f7 19.~g6+ 'it'g8
is a young Boris Spassky (game 125) 20.4Jg5+-; and (b) 15 ... e5 16.~g4 f5
defending with such precision that ob- (once again, White benefits from hav-
servers might well have predicted his ing prepared rather than played ~g4)
glorious future. 17.h5+ <i1tf6 (17 ... 'it'h6 18.4Je6+ g5
19.hxg6+ f4 20.4Jxd8+-) 18.~h4 .§e8
(80) Verbruggen - Simon 19.~f4 exf4 (19 ... ~c7 20 ..§ad1 .§ad8
Correspondence 1936 21.d5 +-) 20.4Je6+ +-. Playing ~g4
Queen's Pawn Game [D05] walks into a challenge because Black's
dark-square bishop controls g3 and
l.d4 /ilf6 2./ilf3 e6 3.e3 c5 4.c3 /ilc6 Black can counter pressure on the h-
5.Ad3 d5 6./ilbd2 c4 7.Ac2 b5 S.O- file with an anchored §.h8. 15.~g4 f5
o Ab7 9.Etel Ad6 10.e4 dxe4 16.~h3 e5 17.g4 <i1tf6 with high hopes
1l./ilxe4/ilxe412.Axe40-0 to survive. Black could also try 17 ... §.h8
but White appears to have great play
8 with 18.gxf5+ 'it'f619.~g2 4Ja5 20.~g4
7 ~g8 21.dxe5+ ~xe5 22 ..§xe5 'it'xe5

6 23.~f4+ 'it'f6 (23 ... 'it'd5 24.~d1 + 'it'c5

5 25.~d6#) 24.4Je4+ 1.txe4 25.~g6+

<i1te7 26.~d6+ 'it'e8 (26 ... 'it'f7 27.~e6+
<i1tfS 28.~d6#) 27 ..§e1 +-. 15 ...f5 Or
15 ... <i1tf6, offering an exchange and with
the idea of <i1te7 or g6 and
'it'g7;.Unplayable is 15 ... 'it'h516.~h7+
abc d e f g h 'it'g417.f3#. 16./ilxe6 Black is fine af-
ter 16 ..§xe6+ .§f6. 16 ... ~h4 Or
Although White does not have a pawn 16 ... .§e8 17.d5 ~d7 to escape the fork.
on e5, the attack prevails owing to help 17./ilxfS+ EtxfSlS.h3 /ildS Better is
from the ~c1 and the .§el. In a corre- 18 ... .§f6 to take command over the sixth
spondence game where precise play is rank. 19.Ae3 Ae4 20.~dl f4-+
expected, White misses a more accu- 21.f3 Af5 Simplest is 21...fxe3 22.fxe4
rate continuation with 15.h4, anchor- ~g3 23 ..§f1 ~f2+ 24.'it'h1 ~xe4-+.
ing the 4Jg5 but also, in conjunction 22.Af2 ~h5 23.~f1 Ad3+ 24.~gl
with ~g4, threatening the powerful h5+ ~f6 25.a4 /ile6 26.axb5 EthS
when the 'it'f6 retreat meets ~h4. De- 27.Eta6 ~d5 2S.~d2 ~f5 29.Etxa7
fending with .. .f5 weakens the e6-pawn /ilg5 30.h4 /ilxf3+ 31.gxf3 ~xf3
with the 4Jg5 supporting .§e1-e6( +). 32.Etxg7 Ae4 33.Etxe4 ~xe4 34.~el
13.Axh7+?! ~xh7 14./ilg5+ ~g6 ~xel + 35.Axel f3 36.Af2 EtaS
14 ... <i1tg815.~h5+- when, once again, 37.Ae3 Etal + 38.~f2 ~e4 39.Etg4+
it's mate in five with 16.~xf7 after .§e8. ~f5 40.Etgl Etxgl 41.~xgl ~g4
15. ~c2+ The best move appears to be 42.M2 ~5 43.b61--O
15.h4! with the idea ofh5+ and prepar-


(81) Baikovicius - Ernst 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£)e3 .£)f6 4.Ag5

Munich Olympiad 1936 Ae7 5.e5 .£)fd7 6.Axe7 ~xe7
Queen's Pawn Game [A80] 7. ~g4 0--0 8 ..£)f3 e5 9.Ad3 exd4

1.d4 d5 2)~)f3 e6 3.e3 f5 4.Ad3 .£)f6

5.~e2 Ad6 6 ..£)bd2 .£)bd7 7.0--0
.£)e4 8.e4 e6 9 ..£)e1 0--0 10.Axe4
dxe411.f3 exf3 12..£)dxf3 e513.d5
exd5 14.exd5 .£)f6 15.~e4 e4

abc d e f g h

With the 4:lc3 en prise, Black gains a

plausible defense with iii'xg5. White
therefore avoids 11.iii'h5 in order to
preserve the black king on h7. White
has an edge through the middlegame,
abc d e f g h but misses repeated opportunities such
as 24.iii'cl-a3 and 35.a4 to play more
White selects the wrong defense, be- actively. 10.Axh7+ Cit'xh711 ..£)g5+
lieving perhaps that Black would not Normally, White would play 11. ~h5+!?
be able to pry open the c8-h3 diagonal. to limit Black's options. But with the
That task proves to be relatively simple. 4:lc3 en prise, White might rightly ask
16.•.Axh2+ 17.Cit'xh2 .£)g4+ 18.Cit'h3 whether his position would be better
The best defense, with 18.~gl, works with the black king on g8 or h7.
because both of White's knights are 11 ••• ~xg5 In the end, it's Black's
able to reach the key f3-square. 18.'it'gl! choice. The queen can capture immedi-
~h4 when White can reach approximate ately or wait until after the king has re-
equality by returning the piece with treated: 11...'it'g8 12.iii'h5 iii'xg5
19.4:lef3 or by fighting for the key di- 13.iii'xg5 dxc314.bxc3 4:lc615.f4 4:lc5.
agonal with 19.~c7 f4 20.4:lef3. In the 12.~xg5 dxe313.hxe3 .£)e614.f4
~g6 line, the absence of an f-pawn re- f!h8 Making good use of the 'it'h7 top
quires that White meet 18.~g3 ~d6+ activate the rook on the h-file. 15.0--0
with 19.1:'!f4 g5-+ .18•.. ~d619..£)df3 .£)e5 16.f!f3 Cit'g8 17.f!d1 .£)e4
exf3 20..£) xf3 f4 21. ~e2 ~h6+ ~1 18. ~g4 h5 19.f!dd3 .£)e7 20.f!h3
22.4:lh4 4:lf2+ 23.~h2 iii'xh4+ f!xh3 21.~xh3 .£)g6 22.~e3 Ad7
23.g3 .£)e7 24. ~e2 f!c8 25. ~e3 f!e7
(82) Michel- Rellstab 26.g4 .£)g6 27.h4 .£)xh4 28.~h3
Bad Elster 1937 .£)g6 29.~h2 f!xe3 30.f!xe3 .£)xe3
French Defense [CI4] 31.~f2 d4 32.Cit'h2 .£)d5 33.~xd4
.£)gxf434.~xa7 Ae835.~b8Miss-

Sacking the Citadel

ing the win: 35.a4 bxa4 36.c4 +- . 24.~xg4 h5+ 25.~g5 (Black has the
35 •.• \tIfS 36.~d6+ \tIgS 37.~bS resources for the mating net) 25 ... ~g3+
\tIfS 3S. ~d6+ \tIgS %-Yz 26.~xh5 g6+ 27.fxg6 Elf4 28.Elhl
~g7 -+. The ~g3 line does not work
(83) Konstantinopolsky - Panov because Black can play ~g5 and ~h5.
Kiev 1938 The mating net in that line, which in-
Nimzo-Larsen Opening [A4 7] volves a further sacrifice of the <£\g4, is
instructive. The ~g3 line ends quickly
Vasily Panov (1906-1973) was a because White cannot dislodge the
chessplayer, author, and journalist. He ~g5. 21.~g3 ~g5 22.~d2 f4+ 23.~f3
won the Moscow City Championship <£\h2+ 24.~f2 ~g3+ 25.~gl <£\g4 -+.
in 1929, and he played in five USSR 21 ... ~h4 22.g3 Forced to defend h2.
Championships. His best result was a 22 ... ~xg3+ 23.~g2 On 23.~f1 or
23.~hl fxe4+-+. 23 .•• ~h4 24..§e2
clear first at Kiev, 1938. Panov is best
Not 24.d5 f4 25.dxe5 Elf5 -+. 24 •.. f4
remembered for his theoretical contri-
25. ~f3 4)e3 26..§h2 ~g5+ 27. \tIh1
butions in the Caro-Kann Defense and
~g3 2S..11.e2 4) xd1 29.4) xd1 ~e1 +
the Ruy Lopez.
30.\tIg2 .§f6 31.4)f2 .§g6+ 32.4)g4
.§xg4+ 33.~xg4 .11.xe4+ 34. .11.B
1.4)£3 4)f6 2.b3 b6 3 ..11.b2 .11.b74.e3 ~e2+ 35.\tIh3 ~xf3+ 36.~xB
e6 5.d4 .11.e7 6 ..11.d3 0-0 7.4)bd2 d5 .11.xf3 37..§f2 .11.e4 3S•.§xf4 .11.b1
S.O-O 4)e4 9.c4 4)d7 10.~c2 a6 39.a3 .§fS 40..§xfS+ \tIxfS 41.b4
11 ..§ad1.11.d612.4)e5 ~e713.4)b1 \tIf7 42.\tIg3 g5 43.a4 .11.c2 44.a5
f5 14.4)xd7 ~xd7 15.f3 4)f6 bxa5 45.bxa5 .11.b3 46.c5 .11.d5
16.4)c3 ~e7 17. .§fe1 .§f7 1S.e4 47 ..11.c1 \tIg6 4S..11.e3 c6 49.\tIh3
dxe419.fxe4 \tIf5 50 . .11.f2 h5 51 . .11.g3 .11.c4
52 ..11.d6.11.fl + 53.\tIg3 h4+ 54.\tIf2
8 .11.c4 55.\tIe3 .11.d5 56..11.c7 \tIg4
7 57.\tIf2 \tIh5 0-1
(84) Koltanowski - Yanofsky
Winapeg exhibition 1938
Nirnzo-Indian Defense [D45]
2 1.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3 .11.b4 4.e3
d5 5.4)f3 c6 6 ..11.d3 0-0 7.0-0 dxc4
abcdefgh S•.11.xc4 b5 9 ..11.d3 a6 10.e4 Ab7
11. ~e2 c5 12.e5 4)fd713.a3 cxd4
A rare example in which, in the ~glline, 14.axb4 dxc3 15.bxc3 ~c7
~d6 is preferable to ~h4 because the 16..11.xh7+ (D)
~d6 gains the additional option of
~xd4+. 19•••.11.xh2+120.\tIxh2 4)g4+ For additional assets, White counts
21.\tIg1 In the ~h3 line, Black has upon the e5-pawn and the dark-square
~g5-h5-h2, forcing the king out into bishop. 16... \tIhS Rather than declin-
the open with 24.~xg5. 21.~h3 ing the sacrifice, Black's best hope was
~g5-+ 22.exf5 ~h5+ 23.~g3 ~h2+
to accept the sacrifice and to select the


1.e4 c6 2.c4 d5 3.exd5 cxd5 4.d4 4)f6

8 5.4)c3 e6 6.4)f3 ~a5 7.Ad2 .1l,b4
7 S.a3 .1lxc3 9 ..1l,xc3 ~dS 10.c5 0-0
6 1l..1l,d3 4)c6 12.0-0 ~c7 13.E!el
5 4)d714.b4 b615.h5 4)xd416..1l,xd4
hxc517.E!cl ~b6
abc d e f g h
~g8Iine, when the return of the mate-
rial with ite4 prevents the checkmate 3
on h7 and forces White to work hard to 2

earn the point. 16... '.t>xh717.<tJg5+ ~g8

18.~h5 ite4 (White has an easier time abc d e f g h
after 18 .. Jk819.~xf7+ '.t>h8 20.~h5+
~g8 21.~h7+ ~f8 22.~h8+ '.t>e7 Having already won a piece in a sloppy
23.~xg7+ '.t>d8 24.~g8+ <tJf8 25.~xf8+ opening, White's sacrifice is over-
~d7 26.~f7+ ~c6 27.~xe6+ +-) whelming. The presence of the §e1 and
19AJxe4 ~xe5 20.~f3 <tJb6 21.itf4 the dark-square bishop on the unob-
~f5 22.<tJg3 ~g6 23.~b7 ±. In the '.t>g6 structed long diagonal represent very
line, with Black's pressure upon the e5- strong additional assets. In the '.t>g6line
pawn, White must select 18.~d3+ as played in the game, the white queen
rather than 18.~g4 <tJxe5. 17 ... '.t>g6 quickly reaches g7. IS..1lxh7+ ~xh7
18.~d3+! (not 18.~g4 <tJxe5) 1B .. .f5 19.4)g5+ White misses a quick win
(1B ... ~h5 19.~h7+ ~g4 20.~h3#) because 19.~d3+ first eliminates the
19.~g3+- ~c4 (The e-pawn remains ~h6 line owing to the possibility of
immune: 19 ... <tJxe5 20.<tJxe6+; ~d3-e3: 19 .. .f5 (19 ... g6 20.<tJg5+ ~g8
19 ... ~xe5 20.itf4) 20.itf4 <tJc6 21.~h3+-) 20.<tJg5+ '.t>g8 21.~h3 §f6
21.§fd1 +- . 17..1l,e4 4)c61S.4)g5 g6 22.~h7+ '.t>f8 23.~h8+ '.t>e7
19. ~g4 4)dxe5 20. ~h4+ ~g7 24.~xg7++-. 19 .•• ~g6 In the ~g8
21.4)h3 f5 22.Ah6+ ~gS 23 ..1l,xfS line, the itd4 turns the usual mate in
fxe4 24..1l,c5 ~g7 25.~xe4 4)dS five into a mate in two. 19 ... '.t>g8 20.~h5
26. ~d4 4)dc6 27. ~d6 ~f7 2S.f4 §eB (20 ... <tJf6 21.itxf6+-) 21.~xf7+
4)c4 29. ~d3 AcS 30.E!f3 e5 ~h8 22.itxg7#. In the '.t>h6line, White
31.fxe5 Af5 32.E!xf5 gxf5 33.4)f2 overruns the position quickly with
§d8 34. ~g3+ ~h7 35.E!xa6 4)4xe5 ~g4-h4-h7. 19 ... ~h6 20.§xc5 <tJxc5
36.~h4+ \t>g637.Ad4 ~d5 38.~g3+ (20 ... '.t>xg5 21.~d2+ '.t>g6 22.~d3+ f5
~ 39.~f4 4)d7 4O.g41-O 23.~g3+ '.t>f7 24.~xg7+ '.t>e8
25.§c6+-) 21.~g4 e5 22.~h4+ '.t>g6
(85) Ekenberg - Salazar 23.~h7+ ~f6 (23 ... '.t>xg5
Buenos Aires Olympiad 1939 24.§xe5++-) 24.§xe5 <tJe6 25.§xe6+
Caro-Kann Defense [B 14] '.t>xg5 26.~xg7++-. 20.~d3+1 Much

Sacking the Citadel

less exciting but effective nonetheless Ab714.a40-0 15.a5 ~c716.Axf6

is the conventional 20. ~g4 4Jf6 .£!xf617.e5? .£!xd5 (D)
2Ulxf6 (21.~g3 4Jh5 when, to win,
White would need finally to play To initiate the sacrifice, White first had
22.~d3++-) 21...'ifixf6 22.4Jh7+ 'ifie7 to trade his dark-square bishop and with
23.~xg7 ~b7 24.Ek3+-. 20 ••• lit'xg5
Declining the capture with 20 .. .f5 gives
up the queen, 21.E!xe6+, but king re-
treats fare no better: 20 ... 'ifih5 when it's
mate in five: 21.~h7+ 'ifixg5 22.f4+ 'ifig4
(22 ... ~xf4 23.~h5 cxd4 24.g3#)
23.h3+ ~g3 (23 ... 'ifixf4 24.~h4+ 'ifif5
25.~g4#) 24.~xg7+ 'it'xf4 25.~g4#.
21:~g3+ Not surprisingly, there are
mates in the air. Here, it's mate in six
with: 21.f4+ 'ifih6 22.~h3+ 'ifig6 abcdefgh
23.~g4+ 'it'h7 (23 ... 'ifih6 24.~xg7+
'ifih5 25.~g5#) 24.~xg7# (a) 17.e5, lost the d-pawn. Black is win-
21...'ifih5 22.g4+ 'ifixg4 (22 ... 'ifih6 ning in all three main lines. In the game,
23.~h3+ 'ifig6 24.~h5 #) 23.~g3+ 'ifif5 Black selects the 'it'h6 line, illustrating
24.~g5#; and (b) 21...'ifixf4 22.~g3+ the difficulty that the attacking side can
'ifif5 23.E!fl + ~e4 24.E!f4 # .21 •.. lit'h5 have once the dark-square bishop is
22. ~h3+ Missing a mate in four with gone. 18.Axh7+? lit'xh7 19..£!g5+
22.~f6 gxf6 (22 ... 4Jxf6 23.E!e5+ ~h6 lit'h6 In the 'ifigS line, the black ~c7
24.~h4+ 'ifig6 25.E!g5 #) 23.E!c4 dxc4 guards f7 permitting the safe retreat of
24.E!e4+-. 22 ••• lit'g5 After 22 ...'ifig6 the E!fS. 19 ... 'it'gS 20.~h5 E!fdS
it's mate in five: 23.~g4+ 'ifih6 21.~h7+ 'it'fS 22.~hS+ 'ifie7 23.~xg7
(23 ... 'ifih7 24.~xg7#) 24.~xg7+ 'ifih5 E!f8-+. The defense in the 'it'g6line is
25.~f6 4Jxf6 26.E!e5+ 'it'h4 27.~g3#. more complex, but White cannot sus-
23.f4+ lit'xf4 23 ... ~g6 permits mate in tain the queen on the g-file after 20.~g4
three with 24.~g4+ ~h6 25.~xg7+ 4Je3 or 20 ... f5 21.~g3 f4 22.~g4
'it'h5 26. ~g5 #. 24. ~g3+ 1-0 Missing ~xf2+! 19 ... 'it'g6 20.~g4 4Je3 (20 .. .f5
a mate in two with 24.~h5 and 25.g3#, 21.~g3 f4 22.~g4 ~xf2+) 21.fxe3
but a mate in three is good enough to (21.~g3 4Jf5! [21...4Jxfl? 22.E!xfl +- ]
force resignation: 24 ... 'ifif5 25.E!fl + 22.~g4 'ifih6! 23.~f4 ~e7 24.h4 4Jxh4
'ifie4 26.~e3# or 26.E!f4#. 25.~xh4+ ~g6-+) 21...~xe3+-+.
20. ~d2 Black can respond to both
(86) Maderna - Piazzini 20.4Jce4 and 20. ~g4 with ~xe5 -+ .
Buenos Aires 1940 20 ... lit'g6 Black can also win by shut-
Slav Defense [D48] ting down the diagonal with
20 ... 4Je3-+. 21.~c2+ lit'xg5 Not all
I ..£!0 d5 2.c4 c6 3.d4 .£!f6 4.e3 e6 captures of the 4Jg510se. 22.~h7 The
5 ..£!c3 .£!bd7 6.Ad3 dxc4 7.Axc4 standard try and the best move, but the
b5 8.Ad3 a6 9.e4 c5 10.d5 c4 queen alone cannot mate the king.
1l.Ac2 Ac5 12.Ag5 ~b6 13.0-0 27... ~xe5 After 22 ... E!hS! 23.~xg7+


'it'h5-+ there's no way for White to pressure down the c-fiIe. 23 ..Q.xh7+
force a mate. 23..£Je4+ ~xe4 24.~xe4 'it>xh7 24..£Jg5+ 'it>g81 In the 'it'h6Iine,
'it>f6 25. ~h4+ g5 26. ~h6+ 'it>e7 it's useful to see the power of placing
27..§adl Somewhat better is 27.~xg5+ the queen on the b1-h7 diagonal be-
'it'd7 28.):'(fd1 ):'(g8 29.~h5 ):'(g6 30.):,(d2 cause once again the defender cannot
):'( ag8 31.g3 'it'c8 -+ but the black king safely capture the ~g5. 24 ... ~h6
is able to find a safe haven on the 25.~b1 ~xg5 and it's already mate in
queens ide. 27 .•. .§g8 28. .§fel .£Jf4 three with 26.~c1 + ~xg4 27.):,(h4+ ~f5
29..§e5 .£Jd3 30..§e2 .§ad8 31.'it>f1 28. ~f4 # . Alternatives to capturing the
.Q.xg2+ 32.'it>xg2 .£Jf4+ 33.'it>f3 .§xdl knight don't fare much better: (a)
34.~h7 .§d3+ 35..§e3 .Q.xe3 36.~xg8 25 ... ~f5 26.gxf5 ):,(xf5 27.~xe6 (over-
.Q.d4+ 37.'it>g4 f5+ 38.'it>xg5 .£Jd5 loading the Ad7) 27 ...Axe6 28.):'(xc6; (b)
39.h4 .Q.f6+ 4O.'it>h5 .§h3 41.~h7+ 25 ... ~xe5 26.'~h7+ (forcing the king to
'it>d6 42. 'it>g6 .§ xh4 0-1 capture on g5) 26 ... ~xg5 27.~xg7+ +-
~7g6 28.hxg6 ):,(h8 29.Ah4+ ):,(xh4
(87) Hahn - Normann 30.f4+ 'it'xg4 (30 ... ~xf4 allows a mate
Bad Elster 1940 in four, 31.~f6+ ~e4 32.):'(el+ ~d3
Caro-Kann Defense [B 12] [32 ... ~d4 33.~f2+ ~d3 34.):'(c3#]
33.):'(c3+ ~d2 [33 ... ~d4 34.'~f2#]
34.~f2#) 31.):,(xh4+ starts a mate in
l.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 Af5 4.g4 Ad7
5.Ad3 e6 6..£le2 c5 7.c3 .£lc6 8..£ld2 eight; and (c) 25 ... ):,(h8 26.~f7#.
cxd4 9.cxd4 f6 10..£lf3 fxe5 1l.dxe5 25. ~c21 .£Jf5 Both alternatives are in-
structively crushed by rook sacrifices:
~c7 12.Af4 Ab4+ 13.~f1 .£lge7
25 ... g6 26.hxg6 ~d4 27.):,(h8+! ~xh8
14.§c1 a615..£led4 ~b816..£lb3 Aa5
(or 27 ... ~g7 28.):,(h7+ ~g8 29.~f7 +-)
17.~g2 0-0 18.Ag3 Ab6 19.h4 a5
28.g7+ ~xg7 29.~h7# and 25 ... ):,(f5
20.h5 a4 21 ..£lc5 Axc5 22.§xc5 b6
26.gxf5 ~d4 27.~b1 bxc5 28.h6 gxh6
29.):,(xh6 ~dxf5 30.):,(h8+! ~xh8
(30 ... ~g7 31.):,(h7+ 'it'f8 32.~h1 +-)
7 31.~h1 + +-. 26..§xc6 .Q.xc6 27. ~xc6
6 .£Jd4 28.~c3 .£Je2 29.~c2 .£Jf4+
5 30 . .Q.xf4 .§xf4 31.~h7+ 'it>f8
4 32..£Jxe6+ 'it>e7 33..£Jxf4 ~xe51--O
3 Black obviously resigned before wait-
2 ing for White's obvious response,
33 ... ~xe5 34.~g6+.
abc d e f g h
(88) Cruz Filho - De Souza Mendes
Rio de Janeiro 1940
Here, an unusual example with ad- Queen's Gambit Declined [D46]
vanced kingside pawns and a rook on
c5 that remains en prise for a long time l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3..£Jc3 c6 4 ..£Jf3 .£Jd7
in most lines and yet eventually con- 5.e3 .£Jgf6 6 ..Q.d3 .Q.d6 7.0--0 0--0
tributes as a key asset. In the ~g8 line, 8.~e2 dxc4 9.Axc4 e5 10.dxe5
as played in the game, ~c2 threatens .£Jxe511 ..£Jxe5 .Q.xe512..§dl (12.f4)
mate and helps the ):'(c5 to increase the 12... ~e713.~c2 (D) Black's position

Sacking the Citadel

is preferable after 13 ... .lle6 or 13 ... .llg4. with 29 ... ~b6+ 30.'<t'c4 ~a6+ 31.'<t'b3
After the sacrifice, White can wind ~b5+32.\t>a3~b4#. 29.~xc4~xf2!
through to equality or a small advan- 30.~xe4 l3.c8 31.~a3 ~xc2
tage in both main 32.~xc2l3.xc2 33.b3 Af3 34.Ab2
h5 35.Ad4a6 36.~b4 f6 37.Ac3 h4
38.l3.g1 h3 0-1

(89) Graf - Eliskases

Mar del Plata 1941
Polish Defense [A46]

l.d4 .£)f6 2..£)f3 b5 3.e3 a6 4.c4 bxc4

5.Axc4 e6 6 ..£)c3 d5 7.Ab3 Ad6
8.Ad2 0-0 .£)bd7 10. .£)a4
abc d e f g h ~e711. ~c2 .£)e412.0--0 c513.dxc5
.£)dxc514..£) xc5 Axc515.Aa5 Ab7
lines. In the \t>glline, the king's rook is 16.l3.fdl l3.ac8 17. ~e2 f5 18. .£)d2
on d1 and the white queen already de- .£)f6 19.13.el ~h8 20.a3 Ad6
fends f2, giving White time to mount 21.l3.xc8l3.xc8 22.Ac3 e5 23.~d3
an effective defense. 13 •.• Axh2+ e424.~f1
14.~xh2 .£)g4+ 15.~gl After\t>g3,
the black queen cannot stay on the g- 8
file, but White's lack of queenside de- 7
velopment and inability to organize the
rooks for coordinated defense with El.h1
gives White no meaningful chances for
a win. 15.\t>g3 ~g5 (15 ... ~e5+ 16.f4
~h5 17.El.d4+-) 16.f4 ~h5 17 ..lld3 3 If~~~:, .. )
(17.El.d4 ~h2+ lS.\t>f3 ~h4=) 17 ... g5 2
lS.f5 (lS.Axh7+ \t>g7=) lS ... ~h4+
19.\t>f3 <£le5+ 20.\t>e2 ~h2=. abcdefgh
15 ... ~h416..£)e416.El.d4 provides a
safe path to equality with 16 ... ~h2+ White's retreat with 24. ~f1 loses
17.\t>f1 ~h1 + lS.\t>e2 ~xg2 19.<£le4=. quickly. The game involves the \t>g3Iine,
16 ... Af5 17.Ad3 ~h2+ 18.~fl when 26 ... ~d6+ leads to two consecu-
~hl + 19.~e2 ~xg2 20.~d2 White tive discovered checks and a pleasing
can put up a greater fuss with 20 ..lld2 mating net. 24 .•• Axh2+! 25.~xh2
1.txe4 21..llxe4 ~xf2+ 22.\t>d3 but .£)g4+ 26.~g3 In the \t>glline, Black
Black still breaks through with 22 ... f5 must first sacrifice another exchange to
23 ..llh1 El.adS+ 24.'<t'c3 El.feS-+. prevent the .llc3 from reaching e5. Af-
20 .•• l3.adS 21.~c3l3.xd3+ 22.~xd3 ter the exchange sac, the white queen
Axe4 23.~d4 Af3 24.l3.d2 .£)f6 cannot simultaneously defend the f2-
25.~b3 .£)e4 26.l3.c2 c5 27.~e5 pawn and create an effective escape for
Adl 28.~d5 c4+ Or 2S ... ~g6 be- the white king. 26.'<t'gl El.xc3 (26 ... ~h4
cause 29.~xd1 enables a mate in four 27.1.te5 <£lxe5 -+) 27.Jld1 (27.bxc3


~h4 -+) 27 ... §c2 -+. 26 ... ~d6+ net the black .llc5. 14.Axh7+ ~xh7
26 ... ~g5 27.f4 ~g6 28.~gl= and there 15.~g5+ ~g6 In the ~g8 line, White
is no way to make meaningful progress. again achieves the standard mate in
27.f4 The two king moves are quickly five. 15 ... ~g816.i£th5 §e8 (the effort
mated: 27.~h4 i£th6+ 28.~g3 i£th2#; to sacrifice the knight on f6 in order to
27.~h3 ~h2#. 27 ... exf3+ 28.~xf3 place the queen on d3 again fails to the
Obviously not 28.~h3 i£th2 # but the active fxg7: 16 ... <£Jf6 17.exf6 ~d3
win is tougher after 28.~h4 when it's 18.fxg7 ~xg7 19.<£Jxe6+ fxe6
mate in seven with 28 ... i£th2+ 29.~g5 20 ..llh6++-) 17.~xf7+ ~h818.~h5+
~h6+ (29 ... §d6, ... h6, and even ... <£Jxe3 ~g8 19.i£th7+ ~f8 20.~h8+ ~e7
also start mates in six) 30.~xf5 <£Jxe3+ 21.~xg7#. 16.~d3+ (a) 16.h4 §h8
31.§xe3 §fB+ 32.~g4 (32.~e5 i£tf6#) (entering a position similar to the game
32 ... §f4+ 33.~g3 ~h4#. 2S ... d4+ except that the 16.h4 §h8 move pair
29.~e2 dxc3 30.bxc3 ladS 31.lad1 has been inserted) 17.i£tc2+ f5 18.exf6+
~d3+ 32.~e1 ~xe3+ 33.~e2 ~g3+ ~xf6 19.<£Jce4+ .llxe4 (19 ... ~e7
0-1 White resigned rather than face 20.<£Jxc5+-) 20.i£txe4+- hitting both
34.~f1 .llxg2+ 35.~xg2 <£Je3+. the §a8 and the e6-pawn; (b) The most
direct win here is with 16.~c2+ f5
(90) Loose - Niephaus 17.exf6+ ~xf6 18.<£Jce4+ (not 18.b4
Bad Oeynhausen 1942 because the bishop has access here to
Slav Defense [D4S] d4, 18 ... .lld4) 18 ... ~e7 19.<£Jxc5+-;
and (c) More complex but also winning
1.~f3 d5 2.d4 e6 3.c4 c6 4.e3 ~f6 is 16.~g4 <£Jxe5 17.i£tg3 i£td3 18 ..lle3
5.~c3 j},e7 6.j},d3 dxc4 7.j},xc4 c5 ~f5 (or 18 ... .lld6 19.<£Jxe6+ ~f6
S.O-O 0-0 9.dxc5 j},xc510.~e2 a6 20.<£Jf4 +-) 19.<£Jxe6+ ~g4 20.i£txg4+
1l.e4 b5 12..1ld3 .1lb713.e5 ~fd7 <£Jxg4 21.<£Jxc5+-. 16 ...f5 17.exf6+
~xf6 1S.lae1 A familiar theme, devel-
8 oping the §fel to place pressure upon
7 a weakened e6-pawn. But better is
6 18.b4! drawing the bishop to b4 where
it will not be anchored, 18 ... .llxb4
19.<£Jce4+ .llxe4 (19 ... ~e7 20.i£td4 +- )
20.i£txe4 +- with attacks upon the
unanchored bishop and rook. 1S.••e5
19.~d5+ White is also winning gfter
19.<£Jce4+ .llxe4 20.<£Jxe4+ ~e6
abc d e f g h 21.~b3+ ~f5 22.~d5 (picking up a
loose piece) 22 ... §a7 23.<£Jxc5 +-.
With the white pawn on e5, the dark- 19••• j},xd5 20.~xd5 ~b6 21.~e4+
square bishop, and the black rook on ~g6 22.~xc5 ~xc5 23.~e4+ laf5
fB, the sacrifice has sufficient assets to 24.j},e3 ~c6 25. ~g4+ ~f6 26.laac1
succeed. In the ~g6 line, White wins ~e6 27.~e4 ~c5 2S.laxc5 laa7
fastest with 16.h4 or 16.i£tc2, placing 29.g4 laf4 30.j},xf4 ~xg4+ 31.Ag3
the queen on the c-file where, in con- ~xe4 32.laxe4 ~d7 33..1lxe5+ ~f5
junction with a later <£Je4+, White will 34.lae2 ~xc5 35•.1ld4 lac7 36.lae5+

Sacking the Citadel

~f4 37.Etxc5 Etd7 38.-'le3+ ~f3 ~g814.g61-O Black can only delay
39.Etf5+ ~e2 1-0 the mate on h7-hS with 14 ... <bf6 or a
rook move.
(91) Bueno - Subiza
Larache 1943 (92) Villegas - Rossetto
French Defense [CII] La Plata 1944
French Defense [CIS]
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£)c3 .£)f6 4.e5
.£)fd7 5 ..£)£3 a6 6.Jtd3 Jte7 7.-'le3 Hector Rossetto (1922-2009) was a five-
0-0 8.h4 f6 8 ... f5 9.4Jg5 +- <bb6 time Argentine Champion (1942, 1944,
1O.itfh5 h611.itfg6 Jlxg5 12.hxg5 itfe8 1947,1962, and 1972). He won Mar del
13.~xe8 .§.xe8 14.gxh6 gxh6 15.g4 Plata in 1949 and 1952 and became a
grandmaster in 1960.
7 l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£)c3 -'lb4 4.e5 c5
6 5.a3 cxd4 b4 dxc3 7.bxc3 ti\'c7
5 8.f4 ti\'xc3+ 9.-'ld2 ti\'c7 10. .£)f3
.£)e711.-'ld3 Jtd7 12. ti\'e2 0-0
abc d e f g h
This short game appeared in Euwe and
Kramer's two-volume set on the 3
middlegame. Black anticipated the Greco 2
Sacrifice by defending with f6, but the
sacrifice, which relies on three assets, abc d e f g h
the <bc3, the dark-square bishop, and
the h4-pawn, works neatly in all lines. White has a substantial advantage in
In the game, Black captured the <bg5 the diagram and could profitably con-
and faced an overwhelming attack with tinue with 13.b5, 13.0-0, or perhaps
the .§.hl joining in. 9.Jtxh7+ ~xh7 13 ..§.a3. In the game, Black defends cor-
10..£)g5+ fxg5 In the <i!tg8line, White rectly with 14 ... <i!tg8 and 15 ... itfxc2,
wins quickly with <be6 or by barging placing the queen on the key di.agonal.
forward with itfh5. 10 ... ~g8 11.<bxe6 13.Jtxh7+? ~xh7 14..£)g5+ ~g81
~e812.<bxc7 +-. Or 10 ... <i!tg811.~h5 After the sacrifice, White wins trivially
fxg5 12.hxg5 .§.f5 13.f4 with the obvi- in the <i!tg6 and ~h6 lines. 14 ... ~h6
ous idea of 14.g4. 1l.hxg5+ ~g8 15.itfd31aunches a mate in five: 15 ... g6
Movement forward with 11... ~g6 (15 ... .§.h816.<bxf7+ <i!th517.itfh3+ ~g6
meets a mate in two: 12.itfh5+ <i!tf5 18.<bxh8#; 15 ... <bf5 16.itfh3+ <i!tg6
13.g4# 12.Eth8+ ~xh8 12 ... <i!tf7 17.~h7#) 16.itfh3+ <i!tg7 17.~h7#.
when it's mate in three with 13.itfh5+ 14 ... ~g6 15.~d3+ <bf5 (15 ... f5
g614.itfh7+ ~e815.itfxg6#.13.ti\'h5+ 16.itfh3 +-) 16.itfh3+-. 15.ti\'h5 After


15.~d3, 15 ... <tJg6 16.h4 ~c4 shuts meaningful way here to prevent White's
down the attack. 15 •• :~xc2-+ 16.g4 queen from staying on the g-file after
On 16.l''!c1 ~g6-+. 16 .•• "ltg6 ~g4 or from continuing with h4-h5.
17."lth4l£1bc61S.§.a3 f6! 19.exf6 After 10 ... 'it>g6: (a) 11.~g4 f5 12.~g3
gxf6 20.l£If3 "ltbl + 2Vjfjlf2 "ltxhl f4 13. ~g4 maintaining the queen on the
22.b5l£1dS Or simply 22 ... <tJg6 23.~h6 g-file ~h6 to avoid the discovered
<tJce7. 23.Ab4 §.cS 24."lth6 §.c2+ check (13 ... e5 14.<tJe6+ ~f7 [14 ... ~h7
25. <itlg3 "ltg2+ 26. <itlh4 "ltf2+ 15.~xg7""] 15.<tJxd8+ stepping out of
27.<itlh3 It's mate in three after 27.~h5 the self-pin with a double check! +- )
Ae8+ 28. ~g6+ ~xg6+ 29. ~h6 <tJf7 "" . 14.~xf4 f!xf4 (necessary to avoid a dis-

27 •••e5 0-1 The quickest path begins covery off the diagonal) 15.~xf4 <tJd5
instead with 27 ... ~xb5 aiming for fl. 16.~h4+ 'it>g6 17.~h7+ (a common
theme, offering the <tJg5 to the exposed
(93) Taylor - Hall king) 17 ... ~f6 (17 ... ~xg5 18.~xg7+
Canada 1945 'it>f5 (18 ... ~h5 19.f4+-) 19.94+ ~f4
20.~e5+ 'it>xg4 (20 ... ~f3 21.~g3+
French Defense [CI5]
'it>e4 22.f3+ 'it>e3 23.f4+ ~e4 24. ~f3 "")
21.'it>h1 and the rook joins in on gl +-)
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.l£Ic3 Ab4 4.Ad3
18.f!ae1 ~f8 (18 ... ~xg5 19.~xg7+
l£Ie7 5.l£I£3 0-0 6.0-0 Axc3 7.bxc3
'it>h4 20.~h6+ ~g4 21.f3+ 'it>f5
dxe4 S.Axe4 c6
22.f!e5 "") 19.f4 (both rooks have be-
come active) 19... ~e7 20.f5+-; and (b)
8 Il~.f~~i"~ 11.h4 f5 (11...f!h812.~g4 f5 13.~g3
7 f4 14.~g4 ~f6 15.~xf4+ <tJf5
6 [15 ... 'it>g616.~f7+ ~h617.<tJxe6++- ]
5 16.g4+-) 12.h5+ ~f6 13.f!e1 (the
4 common theme after ... f5, placing pres-
3 sure upon the weakened e6-pawn)
2 13 ... <tJg8 14.~e2 ~d5 15.c4 ~d6
16.c5 itrd5 17.c4 (even the doubled
pawns become active) 17 ... ~d7
18.~e5+ ~e719.~xg7++-. U."lth5
§.eS 12 . .1la3 1-0 By pinning the
White relies upon two additional assets, knight, White's ~h7 leads quickly to
the dark-square bishop and f!fel. The mate. 12.~xf7+ and 12.~h7+ are also
sacrifice is readily sound primarily be- mates in six.
cause Black, with very poor develop-
ment, cannot assemble any meaningful (94) Romer - Karlsson
resistance. The ~g8 line is interesting Sweden 1946
because, with the <tJe7, the usual mate Queen's Gambit Declined [D47]
in five is not available. Nonetheless,
White wins quickly there with ~a3, pin- l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.l£Ic3l£1f6 4.l£If3 c6
ning the knight and mating in the cor- 5.e3l£1bd7 6 ..1ld3 dxc4 7 ..1lxc4 b5
ner. 9.Axh7+! <itlxh710.l£Ig5+ <itlgS S..1ld3 b4 9.l£Ie4 .1le7 10.l£Ixf6+
'it>g6 would have provided a somewhat l£I xf611.e4 Ab712..ilg5 0-0 13.§.c1
stiffer defense, but Black has no "ltb614.e5l£1d515.Axe7l£1xe7

Sacking the Citadel

the anchored rook to stop ~h3-h7, but

now the f7-pawn is unguarded:
20.4Jxt7+ <it'h7 21.4Jg5+ ~gB 22.4Jxe6
stripping Black's defenses+-; and (c)
18. . .f5 19.~h4+ ~g6 and it's mate in
nine: 20.~h7+ <it'xg5 21.~xg7+ 4Jg6
22.h4+ <it'f4 23.~h6+ ~e4 (23 ... ~g4
24.~g5 #) 24.~e3+ <it'd5 25.~f3+
<it'xd4 26.~e3+ <it'd5 27.l"ld1+ ~c4
28.~d3+ <it'c5 29.l"lcl#. 18:~?/g4 f5 On
abc d e f g h 1B .. .f6 White can transpose to the game
by capturing the f-pawn, or play
White relies here upon two additional 19.4Jxe6+! <it't7 20.4Jxg7 fxe5 21.dxe5
assets, the secure e5-pawn and the l"lc1. 4Jd5 22.0-0 +- with e6+ to follow.
Black selects the toughest defense, the 19.exf6 Avoiding 19.~g3 f4 20.~g4
<it'g6 line, but then misses the more stub- l"lf5 21.h4 ~a5= and White's attack has
born 19 ... l"lxf6, which still loses with stalled. 19... <iflxf6!? Or 19 ... l"lxf6 20.0-
correct play. 16.-'1.xh7+ <iflxh7 o 4Jf5 21.l"lc5 AcB 22.l"le1 4Jh6
17..£\g5+ <iflg6 In the <it'gBline, the Ab7 23.~e4+ 4Jf5 (23 ... l"lf5 24.l"lxc6+-)
and ~b6 do nothing to prevent ~xt7 24.h4 +- when Black succumbs to g4.
and 4Jxe6. 17 ... ~gB 1B.~h5 l"lfeB 20.~xe6+ <iflxg5 21.h4+ <iflh5
19.~xt7+ (correctly avoiding 19.~h7+ 21...<it'f4 is mate in two: 22.~e5+ ~g4
<it'fB 20.~hB+ 4JgB 21.4Jh7+ <it'e7 be- 23.~g5#. 22.g4* 1-0
cause White does not have a dark-
square bishop to play to g5 22.0-0 (95) Kottnauer - Kotov
[22.~xg7 oila6] 22 ... g6 23.~g7 l"ladB Moscow 1946
24.4Jg5 l"lfB 25.l"lfd1 c5=) 19 ... <it'hB Semi-Slav Defense [D49]
20.4Jxe6+- (or 20.~h5+ <it'gB 21.'l1i'h7+
~fB 22.4Jxe6+ ~f7 23.4Jg5+ <it'fB Cenek Kottnauer (1910-1996) was an
24.~h5 ~gB 25.~t7+ <it'hB 26.4Je6 active player in Czechoslovakia before
+-). In the <it'h6 line, White achieves and during World War II. After the war,
an attractive mating net, even without he competed in important tournaments,
help from a dark-square bishop, begin- notably Groningen 1946, Moscow 1947,
ning with ~g4-h4-h7 and the sacrifice and the Schlechter Memorial in 1947.
of the 4Jg5. 17 ... ~h6 1B.~g4: (a) He represented Czechoslovakia at three
1B ... 4JgB 19.~h4+ <it'g6 20.~h7+ chess Olympiads, Helsinki 1952, Tel
<it'xg5 when it's mate in seven: 21.f4+ Aviv 1964, and Lugano 1968. In 1953,
<it'g4 (21...<it'xf4 22.l"lfl + <it'g4 23.h3+ he emigrated to the United Kingdom.
<it'g3 24.~xg7+ <it'h2 25.l"lh1 + <it'xh1
26.<it'f2+ <it'h2 27.~g3#) 22.h3+ <it'g3 Alexander Kotov (1913-1981) was So-
(22 ... <it'xf4 23.~h4+ <it'e3 24.l"ld1 +-) viet chess champion, a two-time world
23.~xg7+ ~xf4 (23 ... <it'h4 24.~g4#) title candidate, and a prolific chess au-
24.~g4+ <it'e3 25.l"ld1 c5 26.l"lfl Aa6 thor, notably The Soviet School of
27.~f4#; (b) 1B ... 4Jf5 (locking the Chess (1958), his popular Think Like a
queen's access to h4) 19.f4l"lhB Using Grandmaster (1971) and Play Like a


Grandmaster (1978). As a player, he fin- black queen has vacated d8. Black se-
ished second in the 1939 USSR Cham- lects the challenging 'it>g6Iine. The key,
pionship becoming just the third grand- for White, is that the Ag7 puts a piece
master in the Soviet Union after rather than a pawn on a square that is
Botvinnik and Levenfish. He won the subject to capture after the usual 4Je6
Soviet title in 1948. His best result was discovered check. Given the extra time
an overwhelming first in the strong 1952 required to bring the §f1 to the attack,
Saltsjobaden Interzonal. the success of White's effort should
be doubtful. Vukovic found a torturous
l.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3 ..£)f3 .£)f6 4 ..£)c3 e6 win after 17 ... ~g6 18.~g4 f5 19.~g3
§f7 but all of the commentators have
5.e3 .£)bd7 6.Ad3 dxc4 7.Axc4 b5
heretofore failed to find the best move,
8.Ad3 a6 9.e4 c5 10.e5 cxd4
19 ... §g8! or even 20 ... §g8! which
l l..£) xb5 ax b512.exf6 ~b613.fxg7
achieve a dynamic equality by defend-
Axg714.~e2 0--0 15.0--0 .£)c5
ing the !J.g7 directly. 16.Axh7+ ~xh7
17. .£)g5+ ~g6 The ~g8line offers a
8 challenge because the !J.g7 controls h8
7 and the attack on f7 does not lead to
6 the usual mates. White prevails in that
5 line because 20.!J.f4 (not 20.f4) brings
4 the bishop powerfully into play on e5.
17 ... 'it>g8 18.~h5 §d8 (not 18 ... §e8
with no anchor, the rook will fall
19.~xf7+ 'it>h8 20.i£1xe8+) 19.~xf7+
'it>h8 20.Af4!.
This position had been reached twice 7
before, in Tolush-Verisov, Leningrad,
1938, and in Alonso-Keres, Madrid,
1943. In both of those games, White
chose to retreat the bishop to bl and
Black continued with .. .f5, shutting 3
down the bl-h7 diagonal. Keres, play- 2
ing Black, had been the first to notice
that the sacrifice was playable. Vukovic abc d e f g h
uses this game as an example of a suc- Position after 20.J1.[4! (analysis)
cessful Greco Sacrifice (see Chapter 4).
Like Colle-O'Hanlon (see game 62), the (connecting the rooks and fighting for
game is rich tactically and has chal- e5 and d6 [20.f4 i£1b7 (20 ... !J.b7
lenged commentators for many de- 21oi£1g6+-] 210m3? [21o!J.d2! ~xf7
cades. In the diagram above, White re- 22.4Jxf7+ 'it>g8 23.4Jxd8 Ad7 24.Ab4
lies upon two assets, the dark-square 4Jd3 25.Ae7+-] 21...i£1xf7 22.4Jxf7+
bishop and the as yet undeveloped ~g8 23.4Jxd8 !J.d7 24.b4 4Ja4 25.4Jb7

rooks. For Black, note that a bishop !J.c6,;:)

rather than a pawn rests on g7, and the

Sacking the Citadel

Black must counter the threat of Jlc7: 29.M4 Jlc6 30.~xf5 +-. 19 ... §.f7 20.b4
20 ... §.a7 21.~g6 'it'g8 22.Jle5 show- which appears to win in these spec-
ing the advantage of playing 20.Jlf4 tacular lines: (a) 20 ... 4Ja4 21.h4 e5
rather than 20.f4. 21...~f8 (22 ... ~b7 22.h5+ 'it'f6 (22 ... ~xh5 23.4Jxf7 +-)
23.§.ac1 +-) 23A)h7+ 'it'g8 (not 23.§.e1 §.e7 24.M4! exf4 25.4Jh7+ ~f7
23 ... ~e7 24.~xg7+ 'it'e8 25.4)f6#) 26.§.xe7+ ~xe7 27.~xg7+. The smoke
24.Jlxd4 §.e7 (The rook cannot leave has cleared and the black king is horri-
the eighth rank: 24 ...§'xd4 25.'£)f6+ 'it'f8 bly exposed in the center. 27 ... 'it'd6
26.~e8#) 25.4Jf6+ 'it'f8 26.§.fd1 +-. (27 ... ~d8 28.4Jf6 ~a7 29.~fS+ 'lilc7
After 20.M4!: (a) 20 .. :ii'l'b7 21.Jlc7 ~d5 30.4Je8+ 'it'b7 31.~e7+ ~a6
22.f4 §.a7 23.§.f3+-. The threats are 32.4Jc7++-) 28.h6 §.a7 29.4Jg5+-
§.h3 mate and ~h5 followed by Jlxd8; §.xg7 30.hxg7 ~d8 31.4Jf7+ winning
(b) 20 ... 4Jd7 blocks the bishop's de- the queen; (b) 20 ... 4Jd7 21.4Jxe6+ ~h7
fense ofe6. 21.4Jxe6+-; (c) 20 ... 4Jd3 (21...'it'f6 22.4Jf4+-) 22.§.e1 ~f6
doesn't prevent the threat 21.Jlc7 ~c5 (Vukovic gives 22 ... 4Jf6 23.4Jg5+ 'it'g8
22.~h5+ 'it'g8 23.~h7+ 'it'f8 24.4Jxf7 'lilxf7 25.§.e7+ 'lilxe7
24.Jlxd8+-; and (d) 20 ... e5 21.Jlxe5. 26. ~xg7 + 'it'e6 27.Jlg5 +- ) 23.Jlg5 d3
The Jlg7 is pinned to the mate on h 7. 24.Jlxf6 4Jxf6 25.4Jg5+ 'it'g8 26.4Jxf7+
21...'l1rh6 22.~e7 Jle6 23.Jlxg7+ ~xg7 ~xf7 27.~xd3+- when White's active
24.~xc5 +- . 18. ~g4 f519. ~g3 majors and material advantage assure
the win; and (c) There is no point in
8 losing the piece with 20 ... Af6 21.bxc5
7 ~c6 22.Jlf4 .ilb7 23.§.fel +-. By de-

6 fending the Jlg7, Black achieves equal-

ity immediately with 19 ... §.g8!
20.4Jxe6+ 'it'f7 21.4Jg5+=. 20.Af4
Without doubt, White's best move. On
20.~h4? ~c6 White gains an exchange:
21.4Jh7+ 'it'f7 22.~h5+ 'it'g8 23.4JxfS
Jlb7 24.~h7+ ~xf8 25.f3 d3=+= when
abc d e f g h Black has all the play. 20 ... <i!}e7
20 ... §.g8! 21.b4 4Jd7 22.4Jxe6 'lilxe6
19... <i!}f6 Among the alternatives, just (not 22 ... ~xe6 23.§.fel +-) 23.~b3+
19 ... Jlf6 and 19 ... §.f7 have obtained with a skewer of win the §.g8 but Black
attention from annotators but only a is fine after 23 ... 'it'f6 24.~xg8 .ilb7
third alternative, 19 ... §.g8, provides 25.~b3 §.e8=. 21.~ac1 ~a7 Better is
Black with equality. 19 ... M6 20.4Jxe6+ 21.. ..ilf6 or 21...§.g8. 22.~fe1 Ad7
'it'f7 21. 4JxfS (winning an exchange, but 23.h4 4)a6 24.4)xe6! Axe6
nothing more) 21...'it'xf8 22.~g6 4Je4 25. ~ xg7+ ~f7 26.Jlg5+ <i!}d7
23.§.e1! (Vukovic recommended 27.~h8 ~b8 28.~xd4+ 1--0
23.Jlh6+ when the black king can run
to e7 and d6) 23 ... §.a6 and only now (96) Euwe - Christoffel
24.Jlh6+ 'it'e7 25.~h7+ ~d8 26.~g8+ Groningen 1946
'it'd7 27.§.ac1 Jlb7 28.~h7+ 'it'd8 Slav Defense [013]


Max Euwe (1901-1981) won every Dutch quickly in the <i!tgBline because the l"!c1
chess championship in which he par- can quickly join in: 16 ... <i!tgB 17.~h5
ticipated from 1921 through 1952. He l"!fcBl8.~xf7+ 'it'hB19.l"!c3 +-. Black's
narrowly lost matches against most effective defense is in the 'it'h6
Capablanca and Spielmann, and fin- line because, without a white pawn on
ished second to Alekhine at Zurich 1934. e5 or adequate support after I£1g5+ for
In 1935, he defeated Alekhine to become the d4-pawn, Black can prevent 17.l"!c3
the fifth world chess champion, but with ... <i!txg5 and the ideaof17.~g4 and
Alekhine regained the title in the 1937 IB.~h4 with 17 ... ~xd4. 16 ... 'it'h6!
rematch. Euwe performed well at 17.~g4 (17.l"!c3 'it'xg5 -+)
Nottingham 1936 and the 1938 AVRO 17 ... ~xd4-+ 18.~h3+<i!txg519.~g3+
tournament. Later in his career, he was <i!tf6 -+. 17.4)e4 There's no advantage
a well-regarded chess writer and served to be found in either 17.~d3 <i!txg5 -+
as President of FIDE from 1970 to 1978. or 17.~g4 f5 IB.l£1e4+ fxg4 19.1£1xd6
I£1xd4 20.l£1xb7 l£1e2+-+. 17 ... ~f4!
l.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.4)0 4)f6 4.cxd5 18.4)c5 4)d8! 19.1ac3 Black is also
cxd5 5.4)c3 4)c6 6.Af4 e6 7.e3 a6 winning after 19.~d3+ f5 20.l"!fell"!hB.
8.Ad3 Ad6 9.Axd6 ~xd6 10.0-0 Access to the open h-file more thanjus-
0-0 II.lacl b5 12.e4 dxe413.4) xe4 tifies having the king on g6. 21.g3
4)xe414.Axe4 Ab7 (21.l£1xb7 I£1xb7 22.h3 <i!th 7 -+ )
21...l"!xh2 22.<i!txh2 ~h6 -+. 19... lah8
8 Activating the rook for defense and to
7 threaten ~xh2 #. 20. ~c2+ f5
6 20 ... <i!tf6! -+ when White cannot play
5 l"!f3 and cannot capture the Ab7 be-
cause of the mate threat. 21.lag3+ ~f7?
21...<i!th7 with a forcing sequence that
leads to a perpetual, 22.l£1xb7 I£1xb7
23.~c6 I£1d6 24.~d7 ~xd4 25.~xe6
~f6 26.l"!h3+ <i!tg6 27.l"!g3+ <i!th7=.
abc d e f g h Black is much more active after 21...<i!tf6!
22.l£1d7+ <i!tf7 (22 ... 'it'e7 23.l£1e5 +- )
Another example of an attacker over- 23.l£1e5+ <i!tgB 24.l£1g6 ~d6 gladly giv-
coming the absence of reserve assets. ing up the exchange to activate the re-
White cannot count on the heavily at- maining pieces, 25.l£1xhB l"!cB +.
tacked d-pawn, and has only the idea 22.4) xb7 lae8 Capturing the knight is
of l"!c1-c3-g3 or l"!c3-h3 to aid the at- fraught with danger because after
tack. In the game, Black defends with 22 ... l£1xb7 23.~c6 threatens both the
the 'it'g6Iine, where White cannot main- knight and entry on to the seventh rank.
tain the queen on the g-file. Black plays 23 ... l"!abB 24.~d7+ <i!tfB 25.~xg7+ +-.
well, losing his way only on move 21, 23.4)c5 +- 4)c6 24.4)d3! 4) xd4
missing an advantage after 21...<i!tf6! 25.~dl ~d6 26.f4 lah8 27.4)e5+
15.Axh7+?! Better is 15.l"!c5. ~g8 28.lad3 lad8 29.~hl ~b6
15 ... ~xh716.4)g5+ ~g6 Even with 30.4)f3 4)c6 31.lad7 laxd7 32.~xd7
the black queen off dB, White wins 4)d8 33.~e8+ ~h7 34.4)g5+ 1~

Sacking the Citadel

(97) Kottnauer - Pachman ~g7. 20.Af4 For 20.b4! see the notes
Moscow 1947 in game 95. 20 .•• e5 21.4)xf7+ 'ifjlxf7
Semi-Slav Defense [D49] 22.Axe5 ~g6 23.~xg6+ Given the
sacrificial attacks we have witnessed, it
Ludek Pachman (1924-2003) won 15 in- may be hard to believe that drawish
ternational tournaments and repre- endgames are possible, but after
sented Czechoslovakia in eight chess 23.~xg7 ~xg3 24.fxg3 \t>xg7 25 ..§ac1
Olympiads. An activist during the Cold <tle4 26.g4 d3 27.gxf5 d2 2B ..§c7+ ~hB
War, Pachman was imprisoned and tor- 29 ..§e7 ~xf5 30 ..§e5 .§dB 31..§exf5
tured. He emigrated to Germany in 1972 d1~ 32.'§xd1 '§xd1+ 33 ..§f1 .§d2
where he resumed his chess career. He White has three pawns for the knight in
wrote more than 80 books in five lan- an even endgame. 23 .•. 'ifjlxg6
guages, including notably his Check- 24.Axg7 'ifjlxg7 25.Etfel No better is
mate in Prague, an account of his po- 25 ..§fc1 <tld3 26 ..§c6 <tlxb2 27 ..§b1
litical difficulties in Czechoslovakia. <tla4 28.'§xb5 <tlc3=. 25 .•• 'ifjlf61? Black
can preserve the balance with either
l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3 c6 4.4)f3 4)f6 25 ... <tld3 26 ..§ed1 <tlf4 27.f3 ~b7
5.e3 4) bd7 6.Ad3 dxc4 7.Axc4 b5 2B.\t>f2 <tle6 or 25 ... 'it>f7 26 ..§e5 <tlb3
8.Ad3 a6 9.e4 c5 10.e5 cxd4 27 ..§d1 .§xa2 28.'§xb5 ~e6=. 26.Ete8
1l.4)xb5 axb512.exf6 ~b613.fxg7 Jlb7 27.Etxa8 Jlxa8 28.f3 Jld5
Axg714. ~e2 0--0 15.0--0 4)c5 29.b3 d3 30.'ifjlf2 'ifjle5 31.'ifjle3 f4+
32.'ifjld2 'ifjld4 33.Etel 4)e6 34.Etcl
8 Better to follow the timeless adage
7 "passed pawns are meant to be
6 pushed." 34.h4+-. 34 ..• 4)c5 35.h4
5 Jle6 36.h5 Jlf5 37.h6 4)e6 38.Etc6
'ifjle5 39.Etb6 'ifjlf6 40.Etxb5 Ah7
41.a4+- 4)d4 42.Etb7 'ifjlg6
43.'ifjlxd3 Or simply 43.'§b6+.
43 ..• 4)e6 44.Etb6 'ifjlxh6+ 45.'ifjlc4
Jlg8 46.a5 'ifjlg5 47.a6 4)c7+ 48.'ifjld4
abc d e f g h Ad5 49.b4 'ifjlh4 50.Etg6 4)a8
51.'ifjlc5 Capturing the bishop with
In a sign that we have arrived in the 51.\t>xd5 is just fine. 51 ...'ifjlh5 52.Etd6
modem age of chess, Pachman has pre- 1-0
pared an improvement to game 95, try-
ing 19 ... .§£7 rather than 19 ... .§gB!. (98) Herrmann - Harms
Kottnauer fails to find the best re- Lueneburg 1947
sponse with 20.b4 but still goes on to Queen's Pawn Game [D06]
win, thanks to a slight inaccuracy by
Pachman with 25 .. /.t>f6. 16.Axh7+ l.d4 4)f6 2.c4 d5 3.cxd5 ~xd5
'ifjlxh7 17.4)g5+ 'ifjlg6 18.~g4 f5 4.4)c3 ~d8 5.4)f3 e6 6.e4 Jlb4
19. ~g3 Etf7 N See the notes to game 7.Ad3 c5 8.0-0 0-0 9.dxc5 Jlxc3
95. 19 ... .§gB! prevails by defending the 10.bxc3 ~a511.e5 4)fd7


16.h3# or 16.f3#; 14 ... ~h61S.'l£rh7#.

8 II_>;-"~ 15.exf6+llS.4Jxe6+- and IS.'l£rg3+-
7 also win. 15 ... lifjIxf6 Not IS ... 'it'hS
6 16.'l£rh7+ ~g4 17.'l£rh3#. 16.~d4+
5 IifjIg6 Black could safely resign. The alter-
natives are easily demolished:16 ... ~e7
17.'l£rxg7+ ~e818.4Jxe6+-; and 16... eS
17.'i1:rd6+'iMS 18.'l£re6#.17.~e4+ f!f5
17 ... 'it'f6 18.'l£rxe6#; 17 ... ~hS
18.'l£rh7+ ~g4 19.'l£rh3 #; 17 ... ~h6
abcdefgh 18.'l£rh7#. 18.~xe6+ 4)f6 18 ... flf6
19.'l£re8+ ~h6 20.'l£rh8+ ~g6 21.'l£rh7#
With two additional assets, the pawn 19.~f7+ IifjIh6 20.4)e6+ g5 20 ... ~h7
on eS and the dark-square bishop, the 21.'l£rxg7# 21.j},xg5+ Faster is 21.4Jf8
sacrifice succeeds quickly. The de- with 'l£rg6 # to follow. 2t. .. f! xg5
fender plays the tougher 'it'g6 line, but 22.~xf6+ 1-0
White is fully up to the task, selecting
14.'i1:rd3+ rather than 14.'i1:rg4. Both lines (99) Pachman - Foltys
win, but the 'l£rd3 is easier here because Trencianske Teplice 1949
White is able to use the eS-pawn as an French Defense [C 10]
asset. Note the weakness here of the
e6-pawn after .. .fS, and the ease with 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 dxe4 4.4) xe4
which White is able to exploit the weak- j},e7 5.4)f3 4)f6 6.Jl.d3 4)bd7
nesses on e6 and g7 with 16.'l£rd4+. 7.4) xf6+ Jl.xf6 8. ~e2 0-0 9.h4 e5
12.j},xh7+llifjIxh713.4)g5+ IifjIg6 In
the 'it'g8 line, White can mate more 8
quickly than normal because 16.4Jxe6 7
brings on a quick mate on the next
move.13 .. .'~g814.'l£rhSwhenBlackhas
three moves to delay the mate: (a)
14 ... fle8 but the rook is unanchored,
IS.'i1:rxf7+ ~h816.'i1:rxe8+; (b) 14 ... fld8 3
IS.'i1:rxf7+ 'it'h8 16.4Jxe6 (possible be- 2

cause the black 4Jd7 block's the

bishop's defense of the e6-pawn) abc d e f g h
16 ... flg8 17.'i1:rhS#; and (c) 14 ... 4Jf6.
Obviously, 4Jf6 fails owing to the pres- Caught on the wrong side of the sacri-
ence of the e5-pawn. IS .exf6 and the fice in Game 96, Pachman tries it him-
pawn goes on to aid the attack. IS ... fld8 self, relying upon two additional assets,
16.'i1:rxf7+ 'it'h8 17.fxg7#. 14.~d3+1 the dark-square bishop and the h4-
Also winning easily is 14.'l£rg4 4JxeS pawn, passing up a clear advantage with
IS.'i1:rg3 f6 16.4Jxe6+ ~f7 17.'i1:rxg7+ 10.dxeS. Fohys selects the best de-
'it'xe618.'i1:rxf8+-. 14...f5 Again, both fense, retreating the king to g8 when
king moves after 'l£rd3 lose rapidly: White must accept a perpetual check.
14 ... 'it'hS IS.'l£rh7+ 'it'g4 16.'l£rh3# or Without control over d6, a white effort

Sacking the Citadel

to deliver the customary checkmate in

five permits the black king to escape.
10.Jlxh7+ White passes up a small
advantage with 10.dxe5 .£lxe5 11..£lxe5
Axe5 12.f6 ;!;;. 10... ~xh7 1l.4)g5+
~g8 The sacrifice works handily in the
'it'g6 line because the Af6 blocks the
usual defense with 'life4+ f5. 11...'it'g6
12.'life4+ ~h5 (12 ... 'it'h6 13.'lifh7#)
13.g4+ (13 ..£le6 fxe614.g4#; 13 ..£le6
fxe614.g4#) 13 ... ~h614.'lifh7#. The abc d e f g h
line with Axg5 leads to a lengthy but
not challenging mating net on the 15 ..£lxe6+ and 16.~xg7. 12.Jlxh7+
queenside. 11...Axg5 12.hxg5+ 'it'g6 ~xh713.4)g5+ ~g6 In the ~g8line,
(12 ... 'it'g8 13.'lifh5 f5 14.g6+-) there's no quick mate in five given the
13.'lii'h5+ ~f514.'lifh3+ 'it'e4 (14 ... 'it'g6 presence ofthe .£le7. But White simply
15.'lifh7# Camilleri -Wijesurija, Yerevan captures on h7 and proceeds through
1996) 15.'liff3+ 'it'xd4 16.Ae3+ ~c4 to h8, playing Ag5+ once the black king
17.f!h4+ ~b5 18.a4+ 'it'a6 (18 ... 'it'a5 reaches e7. 13 ... ~g8 14.~h5 f!fc8
19.'life2 c6 20.b4 #) 19.'life2+ b5 15.~h7+ (As is often the case, captur-
20.~xb5#.12.~h5.§.e8= 13.~xfi+ ing on f7 is also sound when additional
~h8 14..1l,e3 No fight was found in assets are readily available: 15.~xf7+
two other games that reached this posi- 'it'h8 16.'lifh5+ ~g8 17.~h7+ ~f8
tion: 14.~h5+ 'it'g8 15.'liff7+ (not 18.~h8+ .£lg8 19.'lifh5 Ae8 20 ..£lxe6+
15.'lifh7+? 'it'f8 16.~h8+ 'it'e7-+) 'it'e7 21.'liff5+-) 15 ... ~f8 16.'lifh8+
15 ... ~h8 16.'lifh5+ ~-~ Fischl-Barta, .£lg8 17 ..£lh7+ 'it'e7 18.Ag5+ f6
Prague 1955; 14.d5 .£lf8 ~-~ Paoli- 19.'lifxg7+ ~d8 (19 ... ~e8 20.~f8#)
Pachman, Venice 1950. 14 ••. 4)f8 20.exf6 ~c7 21.Af4+ +-. 14. ~g4
15.~h5+ ~g816.~fi+ ~-~ 14.h4 (an effort to improve upon the
~g4 line by threatening rather than
(100) Leitner-Antos playing the queen move) 14 ... f!h8
Chocen 1950 15.~g4 f5 (15 ... .£lf5 16.h5+ 'it'h6
French Defense [C02] [16 ... f!xh5 17 ..£lxe6+ ~h7
18.~xh5++-] 17.~f3 .£lce7 18.g4 f6
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.c3 4)c6 19 ..£lxe6+ 'it'h7 20.gxf5 Axe6 2l.fxe6
5.4)f3 ~b6 6 . .1l,d3 cxd4 7.cxd4 'lifxe6 22.f!e1 +- ) 16.exf6 ~xf617.f!e1
.1l,b4+ 8.4)c3 Jld7 9.a3 .1l,xc3+ .£lf5 18.h5 .£la5 19 ..£lh7+ (to gain ac-
10.bxc3 4)ge711.0--0 0--0 (D) cess to g6) 19 ... f!xh7 20.'lifg6+ ~e7
21.Ag5+ 'it'd6 22.f!ab1 and White is
White can expect victory here with two active on both sides of the board:
additional assets, the secure e5-pawn 22 ... 'lifa6 23.Af4+ ~e7 (23 ... ~c6
and the dark-square bishop. Black cor- 24.f!xe6+ Axe6 25.'lifxe6+ .£ld6
rectly defends with the ~g6 line, when 26.'lifxd6#) 24.~xf5 +-. Less convinc-
White, after 14.'lifg4, wins despite miss- ing is14.~d3+ .£lf5 (14 ... f5 15.~g3
ing a more convincing continuation with transposes to the note after 14 ... f6)


15.g4 f6 16.gxf5+ exf5 17.exf6 gxf6 would put up a tougher defense with
1B.4Jh3 and Black is surviving, 19 ... ElfB 20.~g5+ ~f7 21.~h5+ ~gB
18. .. 'iM7 19.Elb1 ~a6 20.~xa6 bxa6 (21...4Jg6 22.~h7+ ~f6 23.h4+-) and
21.Elb7 ElfdB 22.4Jf4 ElabB 23.Elc7 there is no breakthrough for White,
ElbcB 24.4Jxd5 4Je7 25.ElxcB ElxcB 22.~g4+ ~t7 23 ..llh6 ElgB 24.~h5+
26.4Jxe7~xe7 27.Ele1 + 'ifld6;!; . 14.••f6 Elg6 25.Elfe1 ±. 20.Ah6 ~f5
14 ... 4Jf5 15.4Jxe6+ ~h7 16.4Jg5+ 21.~g6+ <it>h8 22.Ag5 ~g8 23.Af6+
(16~xf5 steps into a self-pin after ~g7 24. ~h6+ ~h7 25.Axg7+ 1--0
16 ... 'iflgB) 16 ... 'iflgB17.~h3 ElfcBl8.a4
when (a) 1B ... 4Jb4 19.~h7+ 'iflfB (101) Grosser- Ruppe
20.cxb4 ~h6 21.~xh6 gxh6 22.4Jf3 +- Soemmerda 1950
; and (b) 1B ... 4Jce7, and White initiates French Defense [C05]
an exciting king-hunt: 19.~h7+ ~fB
20.~hB+ 4JgB 2 1. 4Jh7 + ~e7 22 ..lla3+ l.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3.~d2 ~f6 4.e5
'ifldB (22 ...'ifle6 23.4Jg5 #) 23.Elfb1 ~h6 ~fd7 5.f4c5 6.c3 ~b6 7.~gf3 ~c6
(23 ... ~e6 24.~xgB+ ~c7 25.4JfB+-) 8.~b3 Ae7 9.Ae2 0--0 10.0-0 f6
24.~xgB+ ~c7 25.~xf7+- . 14 ... f5 11.Ae3c412.~bd2 ~xb213.~xc4
15.~g3 f4 16.~g4 Elf5 Black actively dxc4 14.Axc4 ~b6 15.Ad3 ~d5
offers the exchange but after 17 ..llxf4 16.Ad2~b6
Elxg5 18..llxg5 ~t7 (White still has the
time and resources with a rook swing 8
and kings ide pawn advance to break 7
through) 19.Elae1 4Jf5 20.Ele3 ElhB 6
(20 ... 4Jxe3 2l.fxe3+ 'iflgB 22 ..llh6+-) 5
21.Elf3 ~b2 22.~f4 'iflg6 23.g4+-.
15.exf6 Sacrificing the knight on e6
after the discovery is a common theme.
It works here because the black king is
fatally exposed on the e-file after abc d e f g h
15.4Jxe6+! 'iflt7 16.~xg7+ ~xe6 (not
16 ... 'ifleB 17.~xfB#) 17.exf6 4Jf5 Down a piece prior to the sacrifice, .llxh7
1B.Ele1 + 'ifld619 ..llf4+ when Black must only compounds White's troubles.
begin to return material to save his king. White can point to three additional as-
19 ... 4Je5 20 ..llxe5+ ~c6 21.~g6 ElgB sets in the position, the dark-square
22.~h5 ElhB 23.~d1 +-. 15 ... gxf6? bishop, the secure e5-pawn, and the
There's no obvious way for White to Elfl, but Black has a pawn on f6 and a
make progress after 15 ... ~xf6! 16.~h5 rook on f8 that can quickly become ac-
4Jg6=. 16.~e4+ Not quite returning the tive. In the game, Black captures the 4Jg5
error, but once again passing up a spec- and organizes his defense around ~b1
tacular, winning sacrifice: 16.4Jxe6+ and control over the b1-h7 diagonal.
'iflf7 17.~g7+ 'iflxe6 (17 ... ~eB 17.Axh7+? <it>xh7 18.~g5+ fxg5!
18.~xfB#) 18.Ele1 + 4Je5 19.dxe5 4Jf5 With a very active position, Black is
20.~g6+-. 16... <it>h717:~h4+ <it>g8 winning in every line except the 'iflhB
18.~xf6+ f!xf619:~xf6 ~d8 Black retreat. 1B ... ~gB 19.~h5 fxg5-+;

Sacking the Citadel

IB ... ~g619.~c2+ f5-+; IB .. .'~h6 hopeless liquidation with 20.'l£rxd2

19.~g4 fxg5 20.fxg5+ ~g6-+. l.txc2 21.'l£rxc2 ~xc3-+. 20 ... <ifJxh7
19.'~h5+ <ifJgS 20.fxg5 .£Jxe5 Also 21 ..£Jg5+ <ifJgS Down two pieces and
winning is 20 ... 4Jxd4 21.g6 §xfl with only the §fl and kingside pawn
22.§xfl4Jf5+ 23.~hl4Jf3-+. 21.<ifJhl storm as additional assets, White had
Hoping to drive off the knight and then to hope that the defender would select
play g6. The immediate 21.g6 meets either the ~g6 or the ~h6 lines, which
4Jxg6. 21 ... -'t,d7 22.dxe5 Elxfl + lose quickly in the face of White's
23.Elxfl ElfS 24.ElxfS+ AxfS 25.h3 kingside advance: 21...~g6 22.~h4 (at
White still cannot play 25.g6 ~bl +. least here, White cannot play ~h 7 * )
25 ....£Je7 26.<ifJh2 There's no hope left: 22 ... §hB 23.f5+ exf5 24.gxf5*;
26.g6 ~bl + 27.~h2 'l£rxg6. 26 .. .'~bl 21...~h6 22.~h4+ ~g6 23.'l£rh7*.
27.-'t,e3 ~e4 0-1 22. ~h4 ElfeS Best is
22 ... ~c2 -+ taking command over the
(102) Waters - Stevens key bl-h7 diagonal. 23.~h7+ <ifJf8
Fort Worth 1951 24.~hS+ 24.f5 4Jxfl 25.fxe6 4Je3
French Defense [C02] 26.ext7l.tc2 27.fxe8'l£r+ §xeB 28.~hB+
~e7 29.~xg7+ ~dB-+and the attack

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 e5 4.e3 .£Je6 5.f4 is over. 24 ... <ifJe7 25.~xg7 <ifJd7 Or
~b6 6 . .£Jf3 exd4 7.exd4 Ab4+
just 25 ... 4Jxbl-+. 26 . .£Jxe6 Elxe6
S ..£Je3 .£Jge7 9.a3 -'t,xe3+ 10.bxe3 Black can even play 26 ... ~xe6 27.f5+
~d7 28.e6+ ~c6-+. 27.~xf7+ <ifJdS
Ad7 1l.-'t,e2 EleS 12.0-0 .£Ja5
13.-'t,d2 .£Jb314.Elbl Aa415.~el Avoiding 27 ... §e7 2B.'l£rxd5+ ~eB
29.~gB+=. 28.~xe6 .£Jxfl29.~xd5+
.£Je6 16.<ifJhl .£Jea5 17.g4 ~e7
<ifJe7 30.f5 30.~e4 ~c4-+ surviving
IS.Adl 0-0 19.-'t,e2? .£J xd2
the pawn storm with the threat of ~c6.
30... Ae60-1
7 (103) Markoff - Willey
6 Correspondence 1951
5 Slav Defense [D31]
4 ,."...".,.W//h... _
l.d4 d5 2.e4 e6 3 . .£Jf3 dxe4 4 ..£Je3
e6 5.e4 b5 6.a4 b4 7 ..£Ja2 e3 S.bxe3
bxe3 9 . .£Jxe3 -'t,b4 10.-'t,d2 .£Jf6
1l.Ad30-0 12.h4 e513.e5 .£Jd5
abc d e f g h

To survive, White had to try 19.1.txb3

4Jxb3 20.f5. With 19.Ac2 White is fully
lost prior to the sacrifice, which only
speeds up the end. In the ~gB line, the
defender prevails easily with 22 ... l.tc2,
stealing the key diagonal, or in the
game with 22 ... §feB, which provides a
safe escape for the king. 20.Axh7+ The
sacrifice is more promising than the abc d e f g h


With additional assets in the Ad2, the

secure e5-pawn, and the h4-pawn, 8
White has more than enough to prevail 7
handily in all lines. In the ~g6 line, as 6
played in the game, all three of the main 5
variations, 16.'~c2, 16."i!'Yg4, and 16.h5
win quickly. 14.j',ixh7+ Ci.t'xh7
15..£Jg5+ Ci.t'g6 The 'it'gBline leads the
usual mate in five: 15 ... 'it'gB 16."i!'Yh5
~eB 17."i!'Yxf7+ 'it'hB 1B."i!'Yh5+ ~gB
19."i!'Yh7+ ~fB 20.~hB+ 'it'e7 abc d e f g h
21."i!'Yxg7#. 16.h5+ 1-0 (a) 16.~g4+­
f5 (or 16 ... f6) with a mate in three: Black enjoys the light-square bishop on
17.h5+ 'it'h6 1B.4Jxe6+ 'it'h7 cB as well as the open f-file. White de-
19."i!'Yxg7#; (b) 16.~c2+ f5 17.h5++- fended with 'it'g3, but misses a remark-
forces the king to h6 for a queen-win- able defense starting with 20.~c1.
ning discovery; and (c) 16.h5+ ~f5 Karsten MUller has noted that White
(16 ... 'it'h617.4Jxf7++-) 17.g4#. also has 20.Axh7+, as after 20 ... 'it'xh7
21.~d4 "i!'Yxd4 22.4Jxd4 ~xfl 23.~xfl
White has excellent drawing chances
(104) Bialas- Uhlmann
because of his activity. Black appears
Leipzig 1951 to have excellent chances in that varia-
French Defense [C06] tion, but the win would have far more
elusive than in the game. 17... .1lxh2+
Wolfgang Uhlmann (b. 1935) received 18.Ci.t'xh2 .£Jg4+ 19.Ci.t'g3 In the 'it'gl
his grandmaster title in 1959. He won line, even though the black queen ar-
the East German Championship 11 times rives on the h-file at h6, the possibility
between 1954 and 1986. He represented of~xf2 eliminates the possibility of run-
East Germany in the chess Olympiads ning the king to fl. 19.~gl? ~h6
from 1956 through 1990. At the Palma 20.Ae5 (20.~e1 ~h2+ 21.~f1 ~xf2 #)
de Mallorca Interzonal of 1970, he 20 ... 4Jxe5-+. 19 ... 1axf2 19 ... 4Jxf2
earned a place in the Candidates cycle 20.~d2 ~d6+ 21.4Jf4 4Jxd3 22.~xd3
but lost his match against Bent Larsen. ~xf4 23.~xf4 g5 24.~af1 gxf4+ 25.~xf4
He is well-known for his mastery ofthe ~g6+ 26.~xg6+ hxg6= and White has
French Defense, his main weapon with excellent chances to draw the ending
Black throughout his tournament career. despite the slight material deficiency
owing to the superior activity of all three
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 •.£Jd2 .£Jf6 4.e5 pieces and the bishops of opposite
.£Jfd7 5.j',id3 c5 6.c3 .£Jc6 7 •.£Je2 color. 20.j',id2? Necessary was 20.~c1!
tPlb6 8 ..£Jf3 cxd4 9.cxd4 f6 10.exf6 fighting for control over f4: 20 ... ~c7+
j',ib4+ 1l.j',id2 .£Jxf6 12.0-0 0-0 21.4Jf4 ~xf1 22.Axfl g5 23.Ab2 ~d6
(23 ... ~xf4+ 24.~xf4 gxf4+ 25.'it'xf4=)
13.a3j',id6 14.h4 e5 15.dxe5 .£J xe5
24.Ae2 ~h6 (24 ... h5!?) 25.4Jh3 ~h4+
26.~f3 4Jh2+ 27.~e3 Axh3 28.~c7
~eB+ 29.~d2 ~xe2+ 30.~xe2 ~e4+
31.'it'd1 Ag4+ 32.~c1 ~e3+ 33.~b1

Sacking the Citadel

when the white king has safety on the Thanks to a disastrous 13th move by
queenside and White has the opportu- Black, White wins easily, but the varia-
nity to gain a perpetual against the ex- tion with 13 ... e6 is quite challenging.
posed black king, 33 ... d4 (33 ... Af5+ 1l . .1lxh7+ <if1xh7 12.~g5+ <if1g6
34.'itta2+-) 34:~bS+ 'ittg7 35.~c7+ Black should have selected the 'it'gSline,
'ittgS=. 20 .•. ~e3 21.laxf2 There's a a much easy win because there's no way
forced mate after 21.Axe3 ~xe3+ to prevent ... .£\f6. 12 ... 'it'gS! 13.~xh5
22.'~h4 (22.'itth2 ~h3+ 23.'ittg1 .£\f6 -+. 13.~df3 lahS? The best de-
~xg2#) 22 ... g5+ 23.'it'h5 ~eS+ fense is 13 ... e6 with the idea of ... 'it'f6-
24.'ittxg5 ~e5+ 25.'it'h4 ~h2+ 26.'ittg5 e7. 13 ... e6 14.'£\h4+ (14.dxc5 bxc5
'ittg7-+. 21 ... ~d6+ 22.<if1f3 The alter- 15.'£\h4+ 'ittf6 16..£\h7+ 'it'e7 17.~xd5
natives offer no hope: 22.'£\f4 .£\xd1 An impressive queen sacrifice that
23.§xd1 g5-+; 22.'itth4 ~h2+ 23.'it'g5 forces a perpetual check with the
~h6#; 22.§f4 .£\xd1 23.§xd1 g5-+. knights in the middle of the board
22 ... Jlg4+ 23.<if1xe3 ~e5+ 0--1 Re- 17 ... exd5 lS.'£\f5+ 'itteS [lS ... 'it'e6
signing to avoid being mated, 24.Ae4 19 ..£\xg7+ 'itte7 20.'£\f5+=] 19 ..£\d6+
~xe4#. 'itte7 20.'£\f5+) 14 ... 'it'f615.~xh5 'it'e7
16..£\g6+ (16.~h7 'it'eS 17.~xg7 ~f6
(105) Tanguay - Zalys forcing an exchange of queens, IS. ~xf6
Montreal 1952 .£\xf6+) 16 ... fxg6 17.~xg6 ~eS
London System [D02] 18.~xg7+ 'ittdS 19.Ad6 Aa6 20.AxfS
'£\xfS 21.dxc5 (21.0-0-0 ~e7 22.~xfS+
l.d4 ~f6 2.~f3 g6 3.M4 jlg74.e3 ~xfS 23 ..£\xe6+ 'itte7 24.'£\xfS §xfS=)
0--0 5.Jld3 d5 6.~bd2 ~bd7 7.h4 21...bxc5 22.0-0-0 ~e7 23.~xfS+
c5 S.c3 b6 9.h5 ~ xh510.laxh5 gxh5 ~xfS 24 ..£\xe6+ 'it'd7 25 ..£\xfS+ §xfS
26.§xd5+ 'ittc6 27.§d2± when White
8 has four undeveloped but connected
7 pawns for the piece. 14.~h4+ It's mate
6 in four beginning with the queen on the
5 bl-h7 diagonal: 14.~d3+ f5 (14 ... 'it'f6
15.Ae5+ .£\xe5 16.dxe5 #) 15.'£\h4+
'it'f6 (15 ... 'itth616.~xf5 +- ) 16.~xf5 #.
14... <if1f6 15. ~f3 1--0 Black cannot do
anything againt the upcoming 16.Ae5+
'it'xg5 17.~f3#.
abc d e f g h
(106) Fuderer - Stoltz
White sacrificed the exchange to open Belgrade 1952
the b1-h7 diagonal, but in the diagram, Queen's GambitAccepted [D28]
without a pawn on e5, White cannot
prevent Black from defending with l.d4 d5 2.c4dxc4 3.~f3 ~f64.e3 a6
... '£\f6. Instead, Black selected the 'ittg6 5..1lxc4 e6 6.0--0 c5 7. ~e2 b5 S.Jld3
line, which encourages White to use the cxd4 9.~ xd4 e510.~b3 e411.Jlc2
Af4 and the .£\d2-f3-h4 maneuver. .1ld612.ladl ~e713.~c3


23.<£\f2 and White is holding the posi-

tion. 15•.. ~h416. ~el f517•.£ld5 0-
o 18. .£ld4 a5 19.b4 Eta6 20•.£lf4
~h2+ 21.<it'fl a4 22.a3 g5 23 •.£lh3
~hl + 24.<it'e2 ~xg2 25.~hl ~xhl
26.Etxhl Etg6 27.Abl h6 28.Aa2+
<it'h7 29.f4 exf3+ 30. .£lxf3 Ete6
31 . .£lhxg5+ <it'g7 32.Ab2+ <it'g6
33 . .£le5+ <it'xg5 34. .£lxe6 .£lxe6
35.Etael -'lb7 36.Ethdl .£lee5
abcdefgh 37.Axe5 .£lxe5 38..1l,d5 Ac8 39.Ete5
Ete8 40.Etdel Ad7 41.E!.e7 f4
Black can rely here on the light-square 42.exf4+ <it'xf4 43.Etfl+ <it'g5
bishop and the e4-pawn as additional 44.<it'e3 h5 45.<it'd4 -'lh3 46.E!.hl
assets. With White's rook already on Ag4 47.Ete5 <it'f4 48.E!.fl + .£lf3+
d1 and the queen already defending f2, 49.Axf3 -'lxf3 50.Etxh5 Ete4+
White wins easily in the '<t>gl line. 51.<it'e5 E!.e3 52.Eth31-O Resigning in
13••..1l,xh2+ 14.<it'xh2 .£lg4+ 15.<it'gl respect for White's simplification to an
\tlg3 leads to a quick perpetual although easily winning king and pawn endgame:
Black can try for more with ... hS on move S2 ... l"lxa3 S3.'<t>xbS '<t>g4 S4.l"lhxf3l"lxf3
15 or later on move 18. After lS.'<t>g3!? SS.l"lxf3 \tlxf3 S6.'<t>xa4+-.
Black has the three obvious tries: (a)
Not lS ... ~gS when the e-pawn falls (107) Pirc - Porreca
with tempo: 16.<£\xe4 ~g617.<£\d6+; (b) Bled 1953
lS ... ~eS+ 16.f4 when king moves get Queen's Gambit Declined [040]
mated: 16... exf3+ 17.\tlxf3 (not 17.'<t>h3
Vasja Pirc (1907-1980) was the origina-
~h2#; 17.'<t>h4 ~h2+ 1B.'<t>gS h6#;
tor of the Pirc Defense. He was five time
17.\tlh3~h2#; 17.'<t>h4~h2+ 18.'<t>gS
champion of Yugoslavia in 1935, 1936,
~h6#) 17 ... ~f6+ 1B.'<t>g3 ~eS+= and
1937, 1951,and 1953. He became a grand-
Black can draw trivially with a perpetual
master in 1953 and an International Ar-
or play on with 1B ... hS!? 19.1"ldS ~e6
biter in 1973.
20.e4 h4+ 21.'<t>h3 <£\eS+ 22.\tlh2 <£\bc6
23.\tlg1 h3 24.l"lxeS <£\xeS 2S.<£\dS
1 ..£lf3 .£lf6 2.d4 d5 3.e4 e6 4 ..£le3 e5
ltxdS 26.exdS hxg2 27.~d2 0-0-0
5.e3 .£le6 6.a3 a6 7.exd5 .£lxd5 8.e4
28.l"lc1l"lh1 + 29.'<t>xg2l"lxc1 30.~xc1
.£lxe3 9.bxe3 exd4 10.exd4 Ae7
l"l xdS=; and (c) In the '<t>g3 line, Black's 1l.Ad3 0-0 12.Ae3 ~a5+ 13.-'ld2
interesting chances appear to lie with ~b6 14.-'le3 Af6 15.E!.bl ~a7
lS ... hS using the l"lhB for support. 16.f4 16.e5 Ae717.0-0 Axa3 (D)
h4+ 17.\tlh3 when Black will get a dis-
covery, although with the queen already Black's greed with 17 ... ~a3 enables the
on e2, there's nowhere important for the sacrifice, which can count on three ad-
knight to go: 17 ... <£\f6!? 18.'<t>h2 Ag4 ditional assets, the dark-square bishop,
19.~e1 h3 20.<£\d4 watching the f3- the secure eS-pawn, and the potential
square once the g-pawn is traded, rook swing with l"lb3. Black selects the
20 ... hxg2 21.'<t>g2 ~xd1 22.<£\xd1 ~d7 \tlg6 line, in which White wins

Sacking the Citadel

~xh4 27.g3+ fxg3 (27 ... ~h3 2S.ii¥h5 #)

2S.ii¥xg3+ ~h5 29.~g5#.

(108) Olafsson - Mellberg

Copenhagen 1953
Nimzo-Indian Defense [E41]

Fridrik Olafsson (b. 1935) won the Ice-

landic championship in 1952 and the
Scandinavian championship a year later.
abc d e f g h In 1955-56, he obtained a shared first
with Korchnoi. By tying for fifth at
quickly with ~g4 or ~d3+ despite the Portoroz in 1958, he obtained his grand-
lack of an anchor on the 4Jg5. master norm and qualified for the can-
18.j},xh7+! ~xh719 •.£lg5+ ~g6 In didates' tournament. He succeeded Max
the ~gS line, the rook retreat is to dS, Euwe as President FIDE.
requiring an additional move in the cus-
tomary mate. 19 ... ~gS 20.~h5 .§.dS 1.d4 .£lf6 2.c4 e6 3 ..£lc3 j},b4 4.e3
(20 ... .§.eS 21.ii¥xf7+ ~hS 22.~xeS+) c5 5.Ad3 0-0 6 ..£lf3 d6 7.0--0 j},xc3
21.ii¥xf7+ ~hS 22.ii¥h5+ ~gS 23.ii¥h7+ 8.bxc3 .£lc6 9.e4 .£le8 10.e5 dxe5
~fS 24.ii¥hS+ ~e7 25.ii¥xg7+ ~eS
26.ii¥f7 #. Even without the dark-square
bishop on the c1-h6 diagonal, the ~h6
line fails quickly to ii¥g4-h4 in no small
part because Black cannot quickly an-
chor a rook on hS. 19 ... ~h6 20.ii¥g4 6
(also winning is 20.~d3 ~xg5 [20 .. .f5 5
21.Ad2+-] 21.Ad2+ ~h5 [21...~g4 4
22.ii¥h3# or 21...~h4 22.ii¥h3#] 3
22.ii¥h7+ ~g4 23.~h3#) 20 ... .§.hS 2
21.~h4+ ~g6 22.ii¥xhS+-. 20.~g4
Much quicker is 20.~d3+ f5 (not
abc d e f g h
20 ... ~xg5 21.Ad2+ ~h5 [21...~g4
22.ii¥h3 #; 21...~h4 22.~h3 #]
22.ii¥h7+ ~g4 23.~h3# or 23.h3# or White has the e5-pawn and dark-square
23.f3#) 21.ii¥h3 ~xg5 22.ii¥h7+-. bishop as additional assets, but the
White has plenty of ideas like ~xg7, pawn structure provides the black
Ad2, and f4 to complete the mating net. queen with access to d3 and the bl-h7
Fritz 12 says that it's mate in seven. diagonal. In the game, Black tried the
20 ••. f5 21. ~h4 .£l xe5 22.dxe5 b5 ~g6 line when 14.~f3 against the
23. ~h7+ ~xg5 The familiar sacrifice unanchored 4Jc6 and 15.h4 provide the
of the 4Jg5. Here, White has a signifi- quickest path to a winning advantage.
cant assist from the dark-square bishop 12.Axh7+ There's a simpler advantage
and the kingside pawns. 24.Ad2+ 1-0 to be had by holding the e5-pawn with
24 ... f4 (not 24 ... ~g4 25.~h3#) and it's 12.ii¥e2!? or 12.Af4. Observing that the
mate in five with: 25.h4+ ~g4 26.ii¥g6+ sacrifice is unsound, Polugaevsky


played more positionally with 12.Ae4!? discovered check, 16.~el (16 ..£\xe6+
'tt1e7 13.Af4 h6 14 ..£\d2 Ab7 15.'tt1g4 c,t>f7 17.'£\xf8 c,t>xf8 18.~el 'tt1e6=)
'tt1e7 16.l.txe6 Axe6 17.Axh6 f5 16... ~h8 17 ..£\xe6+ c,t>h7 18.'£\f4 c,t>g8
18.'tt1g3 'tt1f7 19.Af4 ~d8 20.~adl Aa4 (White can recover an exchange but the
21..£\b3 ~d7 22.'tt1f3 ~xdl 23.~xdl attack has ended, 19 ..£\g6 ~e6 20.'£\xh8
'tt1e7 24.'tt1g3 'tt1f7 25.~h4 ~b7 26.f3 c,t>xh8=). 16.Axf4 Elxf4 17.4Jxe6+
.£\e7 27.~d6 'tt1e8 28 ..£\c1 Ad729 ..£\e2 !it'f518.4Jxd8 4Jxd819.~d3+ 1-0
~f7 30 ..llg5 .lle8 31.'£\f4 ~d7 32.Ae7
.£\a6 33.~g5 ~xd6 34.e xd6 'tt1d7 (109) Herrmann - Unzicker
35.Af6 c,t>h8 36..lle5.£\b8 37 ..£\xe6 .£\e6 Leipzig 1953
38.i.txg7+ c,t>g8 39.Ae5+ 1-0 Nirnzo-Indian Defense [E53]
Polugaevsky-Kuzmin, Tallinn 1965.
12...!it'xh713.4Jg5+ !it'g6 In the c,t>g8 Wolfgang Unzicker (1925-2006) chose
line, Black can defend because Olafsson law ahead of chess, but still retained
must play 14.~f3, gaining time against enormous strength, the "world cham-
the undefended .£\e6, rather than ~h5. pion of amateurs," according to Karpov.
13 ... ~g8! 14.~f3 (not 14.~h5? He won the German championship six
'tt1d3-+) 14 .. .f615.exf6 gxf616.~xe6 times from 1948 to 1963. From 1950 to
.lld7 17.~e4 fxg5 18.Axg5 'tt1xg5 1978, he played in twelve Olympiads and
19.'tt1xa8 .£\d6 20.'tt1xa7 .lle6+. Essen- represented the German national team
tially, Black has returned an exchange more than 400 times. His best results
but emerges with a small initiative. were a shared first at the Chigorin Me-
14:~g4 The most effective idea for morial in 1965 and shared first at
White is ~f3-h3, exploiting both the Amsterdam, 1980.
unanchored .£\e6 and the rook's inabil-
ity to defend safely on h8. 14.~f3! ~d7 l.d4 4Jf6 2.c4 e6 3.4Jc3 Ab4 4.e3
15.h4! (not 15.~h3?! .£\xe5 16.~h7+ c5 5.Ad3 0--0 6.4Jf3 d5 7.0--0 4J1xl7
~f6 and the king can escape, 17.'tt1h4 8.cxd5 exd5 9.4Je2 c410.Ac2 Ad6
~g6 18.~e4+ f5 19.'tt1xa8 .£\e6-+) 1l.b3 b512.bxc4 bxc413.4Jg3 Ele8
15 ... ~h8 16.~e4+ f5 (king moves get 14.Aa4 ~c7 15.4Jf5 Af8 16.4Jg3
mated, 16 ... ~h6 17 ..£\xe6+ +-; Eld8 17.Elbl 4Jb6 18.Ac2 Ad6
16 ... c,t>h5 17.g4+ c,t>xh4 18.~hl + c,t>xg4 19.e4 dxe4 20.4J xe4 4J xe4 21.-'lxe4
19.~f3+ ~h4 20.'tt1h3#) 17.exf6+ Ab7
~xf6 (17 ... c,t>h6 18 ..£\xe6+ +-) and
White has the usual pressure upon e6 8
once the f-pawn is gone, 18.~el c,t>e7 7
19 ..£\xe6 'tt1xe6 20.Ag5+ ~f8 (20 ... ~f7 6
21.'tt1f3++-) 21.'tt1f3+ ~f7 22.~xe8+ 5
~xe8 23.'tt1xe6+ +-. Also interesting is
14.'tt1e2+ f5 15.exf6+ c,t>xf6 16.'tt1e4;!;.
14.•. f5 Not 14 ... .£\xe5 because White
can exploit the unanchored ~a8
15.~e4+ f5 16.~xa8+-. 15.~g3 f4
Far better to defend with 15 ... ~e7 tak- abc d e f g h
ing the queen out of the reach of the

Sacking the Citadel

White can count only the Jlc1 as an position is under fire, but there is a suc-
additional asset in the position. As a cessful defense: (a) 26 ... Ad5! 27.§fel
result, the sacrifice fails in both main f6 2S.~hS+ JlgS 29.§e6 Axa3
lines. In the ~gS line, Black's rook is 30.4Jh7+ ~t7 31.§xf6+ ~e7 (31 ... gxf6
already off f8 and the black queen al- 32.~xf6#) 32.§el + ~d7 33.vtJxg7+
ready defends the t7-square. The ~g6 Jle7 34.4JfS+ ~cS 35.vtJxgS ~b7
line, by contrast, provides a much larger 36.§t7 §xfS 37.§exe7 §xgS 3S.§xc7+
and easier advantage. White cannot ~a6 +; (b) Not 26 ... Jlxa3 27.§fel +-
there maintain the queen on the g-file, cutting off the king's escape; and (c)
and without a white pawn on e5, Black 26 ... ~c6 27.d5! (not 27.f3 Axa3
can effectively counter a check from 28.§fel vtJh6-+) 27 ... 'li'!xd5 28.Jlxd6+
'li'!c2 with .. .f5. 22.Jtxh7+ White's best ~xd6 29.'li'!hS+ ~e7 30.~xg7 Jld5
chance was 22.Jlxb7 'li'!xb7 23.Jld2 31.4Jxt7 §gS 32.4Jxd6+ §xg7 33.4Jf5+
when Black has only a small advantage. ~f6 34.4Jxg7 ~xg7=. Black's active c-
22 ...Ci!lxh7 23.~g5+ Ci!lg6! In the more pawn compensates for slight material
challenging ~gS line, Black can snake deficiency. 24.h4 The alternatives of-
through to an advantage by maneuver- fer no hope: 24.'li'!g4 f5 when the queen
ing the light-square bishop to gS and is forced off the g-file and Black can
walking the king to the queenside. play §hS with an anchor; or 24.vtJc2+
23 ... ~gS 24.'li'!h5 §eS 25.'li'!h7+ ~fS f5 when 25.g4 meets 25 ... Jlxh2 check-
26.Jla3. mate. 24••• ElhS 25.Elel Ad5 26. ~c2+
f5 27.g4 ~d7 2S.Elb5 There's no hope
8 in 2S.h5+ 'M6 29.§e5 Jlxe5 30.dxe5+
7 ~e7 -+. 2S.•• Elxh4 29.f3 29.gxf5+ is
6 convincingly foiled by 29 ... vtJxf5.
5 29 .•• ElahS 30.gxf5+ ~xf5 31.~g2
Elhl+ 32.Ci!lf2 Ellh20-1
(11 0) Tokarev - Gorenstein
Ukraine 1954
Queen's Gambit Declined [D41]
abc d e f g h
Position after 26.J1a3 (analysis) 1.d4 ~f6 2.c4 e6 3.~f3 d5 4.~c3
c5 5.cxd5 ~xd5 6.e4 ~xc3 7.bxc3
If White instead plays 26.'~hS+ Black cxd4 S.cxd4 Jth4+ 9.Ad2 Jtxd2+
can wind the king safely to the 10.~xd2 0-0 1l.Ac4 ~d712.0-0
queens ide 26 ... ~e7 27.'li'!xg7 Jlxh2+ ~f6 13.Elfel b6 14.Eladl Ab7
2S.~hl Jld5 29.4Jxf7 §gS 30.Jlg5+ 15.~f4 Elc816.Ad3 Elc317.d5 ~e8
~d7 31.4Je5+ ~cS-+ or against lS.e5 Axd5 (D)
26.Jld2 Jld5 27.§fel f6 28.'li'!hS+ JlgS
29.4Je6+ limit the damage to an ex- White's active rooks and e5-pawn pro-
change sacrifice, 29 ... §xe6 30.§xe6 c3 vide important additional assets, but the
31.Jlh6 Jlxh2+ 32.~hl 4Jd5 33.§c6 black §c3 limits the ability of the white
'li'!e7 34.~xh2 gxh6 35.'li'!xh6+ vtJg7 rooks and the queen to operate freely on
36.'li'!h3 vtJh7 -+. After 26.Jla3, Black's the third rank. Black correctly defends


25 ... ~h6 26.~g3 threatens a killing pin.

8 25...gxf6 26. ~h5+ ~g7 27.g5 Elxe4?
7 And now Black can achieve equality
6 with 27 ... fxg5 2S.4Jxg5 ~c7 29.~h7+
5 ~f6 escaping to e7: 30.~h6+ (30.~xd5
exd5 31.~h6+ ~f5 32.~h7+=)
30 ... ~e7 31.~xd5 ~g4+ 32.~hl ~c6
33.~xe6+ fxe6 34.~h7+ ~eS 35.~g6+
~e7 36.~h7+=. 28.~h6+ ~g8
29.Elxe4 fxg5 30.Elg4 f5 31.Elxg5+
abcdefgh ~f7 32.Elg7+ 1--0

with ~g6, when White, with two equal- (111) Kazic - Reseli
izing lines at his disposal, plays inac- Correspondence 1954
curately and is lucky to win. 19.Axh7+ French Defense [C14]
~xh7 20.Jilg5+ ~g6 In the ~gSline,
white wins quickly because the 4Jf8 pre- 1.d4 e6 2.e4 d5 3.Jilc3 Jilf6 4.Ag5
vents Black from creating an escape Ae7 5.e5 Jilfd7 6.h4 c5 7.Axe7
square on fS, 20 ... ~gS 21.~h4+-. ~xe7 8.f4 a6 9.Jilf3 Jilc6 10.dxc5
21.Jile4? Once again, the defender is ~xc5 11.~d2 b5 12.Jild1 Jilb6
fine after giving back an exchange: 13.b30--0 14.Jilf2 Ab715.Ad3 Jild7
21.4Jxe6 fxe6 22.~xfS ~d7=, while
here, after 21.h4 Black gives back a 8
piece for a pawn to dull White's initia- 7
tive: 21 ... 4Jf6 22.exf6 ~xf6 23.h5+ ~h6
24.4Jxf7+. A double-discovered check
with no teeth. 24 ... ~h7 25.4Jg5+ 'it1gS
26.~xf6 ~xf6=. 21 ... Elc4 The best
defense is 21...~a3 maintaining control 3
over the third rank. 22.~g4+ 'it1h6 2

23.4Jg3 threatening ~h5+ 23 ... ~h7

24.~b4 ~xg3 gladly returning the ex- abc d e f g h
change, 25.hxg3 ~hS-+. Black's king
is safe, the rook will take control over White has three additional assets, the
the h-file, and all of Black's pieces will secure e5-pawn, the h-pawn, and the
find strong havens. 22. ~g4+ ~h6 4Jf2-g4, but White's queen has no easy
Correctly avoiding 22 ... 'it1h7 23.~h5+ access to the h-file. As a result, the ~gS
~gS 24.4Jg5 +- . 23. ~h3+ ~g6 24.g4 line is problematic, though Black once
Jilf6 25.exf6 Missing 25.f4 ~xe4 again crumbles under pressure. Were
26.~ xe4 ~cS. The pin on the bishop the white queen on dl, the game con-
and White's mating threats make the tinuation would have netted the black
rook immune: 27.~ed4 4Jxg4 28.~xg4+ queen after lS.~h5 ~xc2 19.4Jfe4
~h7 29.f5 ~c3 30.f6 ~e3+ 31.'it1f1 g6 ~xe4+ 20.4Jxe4 dxe4, a position that
32.~el +-. Trading queens with ... ~f3 remarkably still offers chances to both
gives White a winning endgame, while sides. 16.Axh7+ ~xh7 17.Jilg5+

Sacking the Citadel

~gS A bit of a curiosity, perhaps, but (112) Giusti - Cipriani

Black can hold here in the \t'hB line in Correspondence 1954
part because the white queen cannot French Defense [CI7]
directly reach the h-file with check,
17 ... \t'hB!? 18.~d3 f5 19.~f3 (the en 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.4)c3 .1l.b4 4.e5 c5
passant capture would bring the knight 5 ..1l.d2 4)e7 6.4)b5 .1l.xd2+ 7.~xd2
to f6) 19 ...\t'gB 20.~h5 ~c3+, when it's 0--0 S.c3 4)bc6 9.4)d6 ~b610.4)f3
Black's tum to attack. 21.\t'fl ~xa1 + .1l.d711 ..1l.d34)c8
22.\t'e2 4:ld4+ 23.\t'd3 4:lc5+ 24.\t'd2
(24. '<fte3 ~c3+ 25.4:ld3 4:lxc2+ -+ )
24 ... 4:ldxb3+ (using the knight sacs to
set up a perpetual check for the queen)
25.axb3 4:lxb3+ 26.cxb3 ~a2+=. It's
mate in two moves in the \t'g6 line.
17 ... \t'g6? 1B.h5+ \t'f5 (lB ... \t'h6
19.4:lg4#) 19.94#, and not much bet-
ter in the '<fth6Iine: 17 ... \t'h6 1B.h5 +-
with the idea of 4:lg4#: 1B ... 4:ldxe5
19.fxe5 ~d4 20.~c1 ~xe5+ 21.'<ftfl abcdefgh
(Black's delaying tactics have ended)
21...~f5 22.4:lxe6++-. lS.~d3 EtfeS White sports a secure pawn on e5 and
19.~h7+ ~fS 20.0--0 There's noth- the 4:ld6, an important asset in many
ing in 20.~hB+ \t'e7 21.~xg7 ~c3+ -+. lines. To his detriment, the queen stands
20 ••. ~e7 Under little meaningful pres- on d2, where it aids the '<fth6 line but
sure, Black's best appears to be requires ~d3 rather than the usual
20 ... 4:ld4 21.~h5 \t'e7 22.~xf7+ \t'dB 'li1h5. In the \t'g6 line, White can offer
23.flad1 4:le2+ 24.\t'h2 ~e7 OF. up the 4:lg5 directly after either 14.~d3
21.~xg7 EtfS 22.f5 4)cxe5 23.fxe6 '<ftxg5 or after 14.~d3 f515.~h3 4:lxd6
23.4:lxe6 ~c3 24.~g5+ f6-+ 16.~h7. In all cases, White mates with
23 .•• ~d4 24. ~h7 4)f6? Letting help from the 4:ld6, or in the cases in
White off the hook. Instead, Black which Black captures the 4:ld6, by ag-
should seize the initiative with 24 ... flhB gressively advancing the kingside
25.~f5 ~xh4 -+ . 25. ~f5 4)fg4 26.c3
pawns. 12..1l.xh7+! ~xh713.4)g5+
~b6 27.4)xf7 27.exf7+- eyes the e6-
~g613 ... \t'gB14.'li1d3. The queen can-
square and prepared an assault on the not reach the h-file directly. As a result,
e-file. 27 .•• ~xe6 Better is 27 ... 4:lxf7
Black has several options to forestall
2B.exf7 4:lf6 (hoping to survive after the
the mate: (a) 14 ... fleB 15.~h7+ '<ftfB
capture on f7) 29.\t'h1 flhB 30.flae1 +
16.'li1h5; also winning is 15 ... ~hB-g7
\t'xf7 31.~f4±with the advantage, but
16 ... '<fte7 (not 16 ... \t'gB17.~xf7+ '<fthB
Black survives after ... flaeB. 2S. ~g5+
1B.4:lxeB ~xeB 19.~xeB# or 16... fle7
~d7 Black is without hope after
17.~hB#) 17.~xf7+ \t'dB 1B.4:lxeB
2B ... \t'xf7 29.4:lxg4++-. 29.4)xg4
~xeB 19.4:lxe6#; (b) 14 .. .f5 Blocking
4)xf7 30.~g71--O
the check gives White the time to get
the queen to the h-file, 15.~h3 fleB
16.~h7+ \t'fB17.~g6 and White wins


easily in all lines: 17 .. .';tJgS (or 17 ... 'tJe7 (113) Balanel- Sliwa
18.4Jxe6 Axe619.'~xeS# or 17 ... 4Jxe5 Prague 1954
lS.dxe5 4Jxd619.exd6 <it'gS 20.~h7+ Nirnzo-Indian Defense [E51]
'tJfS 21.~hS#) lS.4JxeS AxeS
19.~xeS#; and (c) 14 ... l"ldS (with the 1.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3.1lb4 4 ..1ld2
ideaof.. ..lleS fails as well) 15.'~'h7+<M8 0-0 5.e3 d5 6.4)f3 §e8 7 . .1ld3
16.~h5 AeS (16 ... g6 17.~hS+ <it'e7 4)bd7 8.0--0 .1ld6 9.§cl c6 10.e4
18.~f6+ ~fS19.~xfl#) 17.4JxeS+-. dxe4 1l.4)xe4 4)xe4 12..1lxe4 e5
13 ... ~h6 steps into a discovery, but the 13.§e1exd4
black queen is already safe: 14.~f4 with
mate in 10 according to Fritz 12:
14 ... 4Jxd6 15.4Jh3+ <it'g6 (15 ... ~h7
16.~h4+ <it'gS17.4Jg5l"lfeSl8.~h7+
'tJfS 19.exd6+-) 16.~g5+ <it'h7
17.~h5+ 'tJgS lS.4Jg5 l"lfeS
19.exd6+- and White breaks through
on f7 once again. 14.t?/d3+! Also win-
ning is 14.h4 4Jxd6 15.h5+ 'tJh6 (not
15 ... 'tJf5 16.l"lh4 and ~f4#) 16.dxc5
with exd6+- to follow. 14••. lit'xg5 abc d e f g h
14 .. .f5 (giving White an opportunity to
err) 15.~h3!+- (15.exf6+? allows the For additional assets, White has active
king to escape, 15 ... <it'xf616.4Jh7+ <it'e7 rooks and a dark-square bishop, but
17.4JxfS 4Jxd6-+) 15 ... 4Jxd6 there is no e5-pawn, and Black also has
(15 ... 'tJxg5 16.f4+ <it'g6 [16 ... <it'xf4 a rook on the open e-file, freeing up fS,
17.~g3#] 17.g4 fxg4 [17 ... 4Jxd6 and the 4Jd7 has unfettered access to
18.~h5 #] 18.~xg4+ <it'h7 [lS ... <it'h6
the key f6-square. Black correctly en-
19.~h4+ 'tJg6 20.l"lgl #] 19.1"lgl l"lfl
ters the 'tJg6 line because White can-
20.~g6+ 'tJgS 21.~xf7+ ~h7
not make progress with either ~g4 or
~c2+. Mysteriously, black agrees to a
22.~xg7 #) 16.~h7+ (forcing the king
draw in a fully winning position.
to capture the knight) 16... ~xg5 17.f4+
14..1lxh7+? Iit'xh715.4)g5+ Iit'g6! In
and it's mate in three, 17 ... <it'xf4
the <it'gS line, White can achieve a dy-
(17 ...'tJg4 lS.~xg7+ <it'xf4 19.~g3+
namic equality by capturing the fl-
'tJe4 20.~f3#) lS.~h4+ ~e319.~g3+
pawn, and then retreating to the queen
'tJe4 20.~f3#. Black might as well cap-
to g6 in order to play 4Jfl+. 15 ... ~gS
ture the knight directly rather than suf-
16.~h5 4Jf6! 17.~xfl+ ~hSl8.c5 AbS
fer with 14 ... ~h5 15.f4 l"lhS 16.g4+
19.~g6l"lf8 20.4Jfl+ l"lxfl. Black glee-
'tJxg4 17.~f3+ <it'h4 18.~h3#. 15.f4+! fully returns an exchange to free his
Iit'h6 The other king retreats are game, 21.~xfl ~gS 22.~e7= 16.t?/c2+
quickly mated: 15 ... 'tJh516.~h7+ ~g4 16.~g4 4Jf6-+. The queen is unable
17.~h3+ 'tJxf418.~g3# and15 ... 'tJxf4
to remain on the g-file, and the anchored
16.~g3#.16.t?/h3+ Iit'g617.g41--O rook will prevent the queen from dwell-
ing on the h-file. 16 ••• f5 17.§xe8
t?/xe8 18.§el t?/f8 19.4)e6 YZ-YZ

Sacking the Citadel

Drawn by agreement, but Black is fully ... ~f6 21.g3 ~f6+ 22.'£\f4 (22 ..ilf4 ~h3
winning after 19 ..£\e6 ~h8 20.h3 .£\f6 23 ..£\g1 ~xf4+ 24.'lt>e2 ~g2+ 25.'lt>e1
21 ..£\xd4 .ild7 -+. ~xf1 +) 22 ... ~h3-+; (b) Also interest-
ing and thematic is 19 ... h5 threatening
(114) Harrow - Siegel ... h4. (1) 20.'lt>f3 ~f6+ 21.'£\f4 (2U1f4
New York 1955 '£\xf4 22.'£\xf4 g5-+) 21...~xd4-+; (2)
Nirnzo-Indian Defense [E46] 20.~e1 ~h4+ 21.~f3 ~f6+, a nice
maneuver that takes advantage of both
l.d4 !z)f6 2.c4 e6 3.!z)c3 Ab4 4.e3 the queen and the h-pawn. 22.~g3 h4+
0--0 S.!z)ge2 dS 6.a3 Ae7 7.cxdS forcing the king into a useful discovery,
exdS S.!z)f4 c6 9.Ad3 !z) bd710.0--0 23.~h3 ~d6 first, threatening mate,
Ele8 11.b4 !z)fS 12.f3 !z)g613.!z)fe2 24 ..ilf4 '£\xf4+ 25.~xf4 .£\e5+ 26.'lt>h2
as 14.Elbl axb41S.axb4 Ad616.e4 .£\xd3-+; and (3) 20..£lf4 h4+ 21.~3 (ex-
dxe417.fxe4 posing the king to checks along the di-
agonal) 21...~xd4 22.'lt>e2 .£\4e5
8 23 ..£\xg6 .ilg4+ 24.~f3 fxg6 -+. With the
7 knight on g6, 19.~h3 loses instantly to
6 ~h4#. 19 .•• ~h4 20.Elf3 ~h2+
5 21.'it>{1 ~hl + 22.!z)gl !z)h2+ 23.'it>{2
4 Carefully avoiding both 23.~e2? ~xg2+
24.~f2 .ilg4+ -+ and 23. 'It>e 1 '£\xf3+ -+ .
23 ... !z)g4+ 24.'it>f1 !z)h2+ 2S.'it>f2
!z)g4+ 26.'it>{1 !z)h2+ Yl-Yl

abc d e f g h (115) Helwing - Baumann

Correspondence 1956
An ambitious sacrifice that nets a half Ruy Lopez [C99]
point. White has full control over the
center, the ~f1 is actively posted on a l.e4 eS 2.!Z)f3 !z)c6 3.AbS a6 4.Aa4
semi-open file, and White threatens e4- !z)f6 S.O--O Ae7 6.Elel bS 7.Ab3 0--0
e5. Black has two additional assets, the S.c3 d6 9.h3 !z)aS 10.Ac2 cS II.d4
.£\g6 which supports the queen on h4 ~c7 12.!z)bd2 Ab7 13.!z)f1 cxd4
and prevents White from defending 14.cxd4 ElacS IS.Abl dS 16.exdS
with .ilf4, and the ~e8, whose scope is exd417.-'tgS !z)xdS IS.Axe7 !z)xe7
obviously limited by the white center.
In the 'It>g1 line, as played in the game,
Black does not appear to have better
than a quick perpetual. 17••• Axh2+
IS.'it>xh2 !z)g4+ 19.'it>gl In the ~g3
line, ... h5 carries the powerful threat of
... h4, driving the king to f3. After
19.~g3, Black has two main tries,
19 ... ~h4+ and 19 ... h5. (a) With the
knight on g6, Black's best move is likely
19 ... ~h4+ 20.~f3 ~e6 with the idea of abc d e f g h


White has two additional assets, the (116) Dolezal- Ancin,

§el and the 4Jf1 en route to g3 or h2. Chomutov 1956
In the game; Black tried ~h6, an effort French Defense [C06]
to exploit the absence of a dark-square
bishop. White reacts correctly with 4Jg3 l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~d2 ~f6 4.e5
and an overwhelming attack, but White ~fd7 5.J}.d3 c5 6.c3 ~c6 7.~e2
blunders horribly on move 24. ,1l.e7 8.~f3 0--0 9.~f4cxd410.cxd4
19.J}.xh7+ ~xh7 20.~g5+ ~h6 In ,1l.b4+ 11.~f1 EIe812.h4f6
the ~g8Iine, Black sacrifices the 4Je7
to defend effectively with 'ittc2. 8
20 ... ~g8! 21.~h5 (21.~d3? [trying to 7
prevent 21...~c2] 21...4Jg6!) 21...~c2 6
(placing the queen on the key diago- 5
nal) 22.§xe7 Ad5 23.§c1 ~g6 and
Black is fine, 24.'ittxg6 fxg6 25.§xc8
§xc8=. In the ~g6 line, White wins
quickly with 4Jg3. 20 ... ~g6 21.4Jg3
(with the idea of ~h5) 21...~xg5
(21...§h8 to prevent 'itth5, but 22.~g4 abc d e f g h
f5 23.§e6#) 22.~g4+ (the queen has
immediate help from the knight) 22 ...~6 White has a secure pawn on e5, a dark-
(22 ... ~h6 23.~h5 #) 23.4Jh5 #. square bishop, a well developed knight
21.~g3! g6 2l...~xg5 walks into a mate on f4, and the h4-pawn. Little wonder,
in two with 22.'ittg4+ ~f6 (22 ... ~h6 therefore, that the sacrifice readily suc-
23.~h5#) 23.4Jh5#. 22.~g4 EIcd8 ceeds even against a black pawn struc-
(a) 22 ... 4Jf5 with a mating net that in- ture that prominently features the pawn
volves a pretty rook sacrifice on move on f6. The capture on g5 loses quickly
31, 23.4Jxf5+ gxf5 24. ~h4+ ~g6 because White gains an active h-file and
25.~h7+ ~xg5 (25 ... ~f6 26.~h6#) a pawn on g6. The 4Jf4 eliminates even
26.~g7+ ~h5 (26 ... ~h4 27.~h6#) the possibility of~g6. Black selects the
27.g4+ fxg4 (27 ... ~h4 28.~h6#) ~g8 retreat, which lasts longest only

28.~h7+ ~g5 29.h4+ ~f4 (29 ... ~f6 because Black can actively return a
30.~h6+ ~f5 31.~g5#)30.~h6+~f3 piece on e5. 13.,1l.xh7+! Although the
(30 ... ~f5 31.~g5#) 31.§e3+ d xe3 sacrifice is sound, White can continue
32.~xe3#; or (b) 22 ... 4Jc4 23.~h4+ risklessly with 13.~c2 4Jf8 14.h5 fxe5
~g7 24.~h7+ ~f6 25.'itth6!. A nice 15.dxe5 h6 16.§h3±. 13 ... ~xh7
waiting move that sets up a mate in two: 14.~g5+ ~g8 14 .. .fxg5 15.hxg5+
25 ... §h8 26.4Jh5+ ~f5 27.g4#. ~g816.~h5 4Jdxe5 (Black must elimi-
23.~h4+ ~g7 24.EIxe7?? A horrible nate the e5 pawn in order for the king to
miscalculation that throws away the hope to reach d6) 17.dxe5 4Jxe5 18.g6
game. White is winning after 24.~h7+ 4Jxg6 (Black might as well capture the
~f6 25.~h6+- threatening 4Jh7# and g-pawn because the 4Je5 is loose,
4Jh5+. 24 •.• ~xe7 25.~f5+ gxf5 18 ... ~f8 19.~xe5+-) 19.~h7+ ~f7
26.~h7+ ~f6 27.~h6+ ~e5 (19 ... ~f8 20.4Jxg6+ ~f7 21.4Je5++-)
28.EIel + ,1l.e4 29.~f3+ ~d5 0-1 20.'ittxg6+ +- ~e7 (20 ...<MB 21.4Jd3 +- )

Sacking the Citadel

21.~xg7+ ~d6 22.~d3+-. Remark- Despite White's relative lack of

ably enough, material is even, but queenside development, Black initiates
White's pieces are well poised for vic- the sacrifice with only one additional
tory. Af4 and )"lc1 are likely to be next. asset, the light-square bishop. As a re-
15.t\'h5.£idxe515 .. .fxg516.hxg5+- sult, Black wins only in the ~h3 and
opens the h-file, while 15 ... ~e7 cuts ~h1Iines. In the game, White defends
off the escape, 16.~h7+ ~f817.~h8#. with ~g3, a more difficult chore but
16.dxe5 .£ixe5 17.t\'h7+ Or Hartmann rises to the challenge.
17.~d3+-. 17.•. <t>fS IS. .£ih5 Also 13•..Axh2+ 14.<t>xh2 .£ig4+ 15.<t>g3
winning is 18.~d3 ~xd319.~h8+ ~e7 In the ~gl line, Black would have to
20.~xg7+ ~d6 21.~f7+. IS ••• t\'c7 try the awkward ~d6 to avoid Af4.
19. t\'hS+ Much stronger is 19 .Af4 +- . 15.~gl ~d6 (15 ... ~h4 16.Af4+-)
19••• <t>e7 20.t\'xg7+ <t>d6 21.t\'xf6 16.g3+- Ab7 17.Af4 ~c6 18.d5+-.
t\'c4+ 22.<t>gl.£id3 23.Ae3 23.~g7 15•••h516. t\'hl! t\'d6+ 17.Af4 t\'g6
hits interesting squares, the )"le8 and IS.Ac2 Or simply 18.f3 +-. IS ... f5
f5. 23 ••• Ad7 24.a3 Ac5 25.Axc5+ 19.f3 h4+ 20. t\' xh4 EleS 21.El xeS+
t\'xc5 26.Elh3 t\'c2 27. .£if7+ <t>c7 Also winning are 21.~g5, 21.Ab3+,
2S ..£ig7 ElfS 29.Elf1 ElacS 30. t\'e7 and even 21.~xg4+-. 21. .. t\'xeS
<t>hS 31.Elf3 The surgical finish is 22. .£id21~
31.)"lxd3 ~xd3 32.~e5+-. 31 •.. Ah5
32..£id61~ (118) Wiktorczyk - Bozek
Correspondence 1957
(117) Hartmann - Geissert French Defense [CIS]
Zittau 1956
Ruy Lopez [CS9] 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3..£ic3 Ab4 4.e5 .£ie7
5.a3 Axc3+ 6.hxc3 c5 7. t\'g4 ~
l.e4 e5 2 •.£if3 .£ic6 3.Ah5 a6 4.Aa4 S..£if3 t\'a5 9.Ad3 t\'xc3+ 10.j}.d2
.£if6 5.~ h5 6.Ah3 Ae7 7.Elel 0- t\'xal + 1l.<t>e2 t\'xhl
o S.c3 d5 9.exd5 .£ixd5 10. .£ixe5
.£ixe5 1l.Elxe5 .£if6 12.d4 Ad6

3 abc d e f g h

White carries out the Greco Sacrifice

abc d e f g h immediately after a double-rook sac.
Theoretically, the result in tlie ~g8line
ought to be a draw because, with the
black knight on e7, White would nor-


mally have nothing more than a per-

petual. Faced with the draw, Black tries 8
for more and loses quickly. 12. .Q.xh7+ 7
Iit>xh7 13 . .£lg5+ When possible, 6
13.~h5+ should be played first in or-
der to eliminate Black's options.
13••• lit>gS In this instance, Black's op-
tions lead to quick mates owing of
course to the activity of the ~g4:
13 ... ~g6 14 ..£\xe6+ <it>h7 15.~xg7#;
13 ... ~h6 14.~h4+ <it>g6 15.~h7#. abc d e f g h
14..~h5 EtdS! Thanks to the gain of
the rooks, Black now has the luxury of White has three usable assets, the dark-
sacrificing back his queen to gain time square bishop, the .£\e2, and the pro-
to safeguard his king. 14 ... ~xh2 tected e5-pawn, but Black's counter-
15.~xh2 .!"!.e816.~h7+ <it>f817.~h8+ play requires that White play ~d3 rather
.£\g8 18.'£\h7+ ~e7 19.Ag5+ (the stan- than try for~h5 with 12 ... <it>g813 ..£\g3
dard maneuver when Black's knight ~xd4 with the ideaof ... ~d3. To equal-
starts on e7) 19 ... <it>d7 20.~xg7 <it>c6 ize, Black needed to take advantage of
and the white attack continues to crash the ~d3+ by playing .!"!.e8, providing
through. 21.~xf7 Ad7 22.'£\f8 cxd4 the king with a usable escape.
23.f4 a5 24.f5 exf5 25.e6+-. 1l..Q.xh7+ Iit>xh712. .£lg5+ Iit>gS! In
15"~·xf7+ 15.~h7+ <it>f816.~h8+ .£\g8 the 12 ... <it>g6Iine, White has two main
17 ..£\h7+ ~e718.~g5+ ~d719.~xg7 alternatives, 13.~d3 and 13.'£\f4 with
~xg2-+ 15 ..• lit>hS 16..~h5+ Iit>gS the idea of~h5+. (a) 13.~d3+ f5 (once
17..~h7+ Iit>fS1S..~h5 g6? Having again, the retreats lead to forced mates)
defended well, Black loses his nerve. 14.'£\f4+ ~xg5 (take it now or take it
There's no win to be found after later: 14 ... <it>h6 15.~h3+ <it>xg5
18 ... ~g8=.19.~hS+ .£lgS 20.~h7 16.~h5#) either way is a quick mate,
1-0 There are no rooks for a rook swing, 15.~g3+ ~h616.~g6# or 16.~h4#;
but the queen and knight work together and (b) 13.'£\f4+ <it>f5 (the .£\g5 capture
harmoniously, 20 ... .£\h6 (20 ... .!"!.e7 makes no sense against the queen-
21.£\xe6+) 21.~xh6+ ~e7 22.~g7+ knight combination, 13 ... <it>xg5
~e8 23.~f7#. 14.~h5#) 14.~d3+ <it>xg5 (14 ... ~g4
15.~h3+ <it>xg5 16.~h5#) 15 ..£\xe6+
(119) Sobel- Tseveloidoff ~h5 16.~h7+ (White wants the mate,
Reykjavik 1957 not the rook) 16 ... <it>g4 17.h3#. After
French Defense [C06] 12 ... <it>h6 13.~d3 once again, the dis-
coveries are less interesting than the
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£ld2 .£lf6 4.e5 mates, 13 ... g614.~h3+<it>g715.~h7#.
.£lfd7 5 . .Q.d3 c5 6.c3 .£lc6 7 ..£le2 13. ~d3 Against .£\e2-g3, the queen
cxd4 S.cxd4 ~b6 9 . .£lf3 .Q.b4+ can again force its way onto the key
10.1it>f1 0--0 bl-h7 diagonal: 13 ..£\g3 ~xd414.~h5
~d3+.13 •••f5? Missing a path to equal-
ity with the obvious 13 ... .!"!.e8!, taking

Sacking the Citadel

full advantage of the queen's inability ture the 4JgS: 18.~h4 ~g6 19.flh7+
to attack f7 and h7 at the same time. ~xgS 20.h4 ~g4 -+) 18 ... ~xf8
14.'~h7+ ~f81S.'~·h8+ ~e7 16.'~xg7 19.bxc3 1.tcS+ 20.~hl .ilf2-+.
~d8 17.1.te3 1.te7=. 14.~h3 ~eS 15.~h4 ~xg51 16.~xg5 cxb2
15.~h5 +- 4:}fS 16.~f7+ ~hS 17.~adl.1le6 The minors are ready to
17.~xeS ~c7 IS..1le3 b6 19.~c1 swann. IS.h4 .1lc319.h5 ~h7 20.g4
.1lb7 20.4:}xe6 ~xeS 21.4:}xc7 ~dS .1lxe5 21. ~h4 .1ld4+ 22.~hl.1le3
22.a3 .1le7 23.4:}f4 .1lg5 24.4:}fe6 23.g5 ~aeS 24.g6+ ~gS 25.~gl d4
4:}xe6 25.4:}xe6 .1lxe3 26.fxe3 ~eS 0-1 White's attack has evaporated. If
27.4:}g5 ~fS 28.g3 4:}a5 29.~c7 ~b8 anything, it is the white king that is ex-
30.~f2 4:}c4 31.~c14:}xb2 32.~xb7 posed after ...1.tdS.
4:}d3+ 33.~g2 1--0
(121) Prokhorovich - K1avins
(120) Milotai - Fichtl Pamu 1958
Bmo 1957 Nimzo-Indian Defense [E55]
Vienna Game [C29]
l.d4 4:}f6 2.c4 e6 3.4:}c3 .1lb4 4.e3
l.e4 e5 2.4:}c3 4:}f6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 0--0 5 •.1ld3 c5 6.4:}f3 d5 7.0--0 dxc4
4:} xe4 5.4:}f3 .1lc5 6.d4.1lb4 7 ..1ld2 S..1lxc4 4:}bd7 9.dxc5 4:} xc510..1ld2
c5 S..1lb5+ 4:}c6 9.0--0 0--0 10..1ld3 .1la5 1l.a3 .1lc7 12. ~c2 b6 13.b4
4:}xd211.~xd2cxd412.~f4dxc3 4:}cd714.4:}b5 AbSI5.~fdl.1lb7
16.~acl a617.4:}bd4e51S.4:}e2e4
8 19.4:}fd4
6 8
5 7

4 6
3 5
2 4
abc d e f g h 2

Counting on two additional assets, the abc d e f g h

e5-pawn and the §fl, White initiates
the sacrifice already down a piece. The Black's additional assets include the
material edge penn its Black to gain an light-square bishop off the main c8-h3
overwhelming advantage with ... ~xgS, diagonal, the e4-pawn, and the 4Jd7
obtaining three minor pieces and a pawn which does have access to eS and then
for the queen. 13 . .1lxh7+ ~xh7 f3. In tum, the white rook is already
14.4:}g5+ ~gS More difficult to calcu- posted offfl, and White has excellent
late but also winning is 14 ... ~g6 control over the c-file and is effectively
lS.4Jxf7 fle7 16.flg3+ ~h7 17.4JgS+ challenging the black e-pawn. The
~h6 18.§xf8 (the usual idea of flh4- Greco Sacrifice appears to provide a sig-
h7 fails because Black can safely cap- nificant advantage with correct play. In


the 'it'glline, Black avoids his best pos- ElcS 23.~a2 ~h4 24 . .ilc3 Elxc4
sibilities with ~h4 and the 4:Je5-f3 ma- 25.4:Jdf5 ~h2+ 26.r.t>fl Elxc3 27.Elxc3
neuver. 19.~.Jixh2+ Black was clearly h5 2S.Elc7 h4 29.Elxb7 hxg3 30.4:Jxg3
in an aggressive mood, but 19 ... 4:Je5 4:Jxe3+ 3l.fxe3 4:Jg4-+). 22.Jixb5 The
with the idea of 4:Jxc4 is a perfectly rea- bishop sacrifice is unnecessary. White
sonable continuation. 20.lit'xh2 .£)g4+ is winning after 22 ..ilb3 ~h4 23.4:Jg3
21.lit'gl In the 'it'g3line, Black can sus- ~h2+ 24.'it'fl 4:Jde5 25 ..ilc3+-.

tain the queen on the g-file. 21.'it'g3 22 .•. axb5 23.~e7 ~h4 24.~g3
~xg3 25..£)xg3 .£)de5 26.Ete7 j}.d5
~g5 (there's no point in trying
22 ... ~c7+ 23.4:Jf4 when Black does not 27..£)xb5 EtfdS 28.j}.e3 .£)d3 29.Etd2
Etde8 30.£3 exf3 31.gxf3 .£)gf2
have time for ... g4 because the 4:Jg4 is
32.Etxf2 .£)xf2 33.lit'xf2 Jib3
hanging) 22.f4 ~g6 23.f5 (23.~b2
34.Etxe8+ Etxe8 35 . .£)f5 Ete4
4:Jxe3+ 24.'it'f2 4:Jxdl+ 25.Elxdl
36.j}.xg7 Ete2+ 37.lit'g3 Jie6
ElacS-+) 23 ... ~g5 (the queen will re- 38..£)bd6 Eta2 39.j}.h6 f6 40..£)e7+
main on the g-file) 24.4:Je6 fxe6 Iit'h841 ..£)e81--O
25.Jlxe6+ 'it'hS 26 ..ilxd7 and now, ac-
cording for Fritz 12, it's mate in 1O! (122) Furman - Geller
26 ... 4:Jxe3+ 27.r.t>f2 EI xf5+ 2S.Jlxf5 Riga 1958
~xg2+ 29.'it'xe3 ~f3+ 30.r.t>d4 Nimzo-Indian Defense [E54]
EldS+ -+. After 22.f3 rather than 22.f4,
Black walks into a self-pin with Semyon Furman (1920-1978) is best
22 ... 4:Jxe3+ but is fine in all lines: (a) known as the trainer of Botvinnik,
23.'it'f2 4:Jxdl +:;:, breaking the pin by Bronstein, and Karpov. He played of-
capturing the rook with check; (b) ten in Soviet events, achieving fourth
23.'it'h3 ~xg2+ 24.r.t>h4 ~h2+ 25.r.t>g5 place in the 1965 Soviet Championship
h6"" or 25 ... ~h6""; and (c) 23.r.t>h2 and becoming a grandmaster in 1966.
~xg2"". 21 .•. b5 Black's best shot is
21...~h4! with fantastic complications: Efim Geller (1925-1998) became a grand-
22.4:Jg3 (Black is winning after 22.4:Jf4 master in 1952, won the Soviet Champi-
~xf2+ 23.'it'hl ~h4+ 24.'it'gl and now onship twice in 1955 and 1979, and quali-
24 ... 4:Jde5 25.4:Jh3 ~g3 with the idea fied for the candidates' cycle six times
of ... 4:Jf3+ 26.'it'fl 4:Jf3 27.4:Jf5 4:Jgh2+ (1953,1956,1962,1965, 1968,and 1971).
He won four Ukrainian championship
2S.'it'e2 ~xg2+ 29.4:Jf2 4:Jg4 30.Elfl
titles, shared first in the 1991 World
.§.fdS-+) 22 ... 4:Jde5 23.4:Jdf5 ~h2+
Seniors' Championship, and won that
24.'it'fl 4:Jf3. Obviously, White cannot
title outright in 1992. Geller is well-
capture the knight because Black would
known as coach to both Spas sky and
have 24 ... ~xf2 "" 25. r.t>e2 (25.4:Jxe4 Karpov during their world champion-
~gl + 26.r.t>e2 ~xg2 27.Elfl [27.4:Jed6
ship matches.
4:Jxf2 2S.4:Jxb7 4:Je4+ 29.r.t>d3 ElfdS+
30.4:JxdS ElxdS+ 31..1ld5 (31.4:Jd4 1.d4 .£)f6 2.e4 e6 3 . .£)e3 Jih4 4.e3
4:Je5 ""] 31...EI xd5+ 32. r.t>c4 4:Jexd2+ e5 5.Jid3 0--0 6 ..£)f3 d5 7.0--0 dxe4
33.'it'c3 Eld7 -+) 27 ... 4:Jge5 and Black 8.Jixe4 b6 9. ~e2 j}.b7 10.dxe5
is winning) 25 ... ~xg2 26.Jlel EladS j}.xe311.bxe3 bxe512.j}.d3 .£)bd7
27.Eld6 r.t>hS:;:. Less compelling for 13.e4e414.j}.e2 ~a515.Etbl.£)e5
Black is 21...4:Jde5 22.4:Jf4= (22.4:Jg3 16.Etxb7 .£)xb717.e5 .£)d5

Sacking the Citadel

22.<t!xf6+ gxf6 23.'l1i'h7+ ~g4 24.'l1i'h3#

or 24.h3#or 24.f3#] 22.Axg5+ <;!;>g7
[22 ... <;!;>h5 23.<t!xf6+ <;!;>xg5 24.h4+ ~h6
25.'l1i'h7#] 23.Axf6+ ~h6 [23 ... ~g8
24.'l1i'g4+ ~xh7 25.'l1i'g7#] 24.'l1i'h4+
<;!;>g6 25.'l1i'g5+ ~xh7 26.'l1i'g7#)
21. 'l1i'h4+ ~g6 22. 'l1i'h7 #. 20:~h5 ~f6
After 20 ... t'!fe8 There's no mate in five
because the black queen is off d8:
21.'l1i'xf7+ <;!;>h8 22.'l1i'h5+ ~g8 23.'l1i'h7+
abc d e f g h <;!;>f8 24.'l1i'h8+ <;!;>e7 25.'l1i'xg7+ ~d8 but
the Ab7 is unanchored, 26.'l1i'xb7+-.
In a battle between titans, White sacri- 21.exf6 ~f5 22.g4 ~g6 23.~xg6
ficed the exchange in order to play e5, fxg6 24.f7+ Etxf7 White is easily win-
driving off Black 's <t!f6. In the <;!;>g8Iine, ning after 24 ... ~h8 25 ..Ila3+-.
Black cannot successfully create the f8- 25.~xf7 'it'xf7± 26.Ae3 e5 27.f4
escape square because the white queen 'it'e6 2S.fxe5 ~dS 29.EtfS EtbS
nets the loose <t!b7 at the end of the 30.Axa7 Etb1 + 31.Etf1 Etb232.Etf2
line. Instead, Black sacrifices back with Etb1+ 33.Etf1 33.~g2± 33 ... Etb2
... <t!f6 in order to place the queen on the 34.Etf2 Etb1 + 35.'it'g2 ~c6 36..1l,e3
bl-h7 diagonal. The endgame that re- ~xe5 37.h3 Ete1 3S.Ad2 Eta1
sults strongly favors White. 1S..1l,xh7+ 39.j},g5 ~d3 4O.Ete2+ 'it'd5 41.'it'g3
'it'xh719.~g5+ 'it'gS In the <;!;>g6line, Etgl+ 42.'it'h2 Eta1 43.'it'g2 .£let
White exploits the queen's access to 44.Etd2+ .£ld3 45.Ete2 .£lc146.Etd2+
e4, which adds remarkably to the power .£ld3 47.'it'g3 Ete1 4S.'it'h2 'it'e4
of the line after .. .f5 because White gains 49.'it'g2 'it'd5 50.AdS Etc151.Ag5
a double attack on the unprotected e6- 'it'e5 52.'it'f3 ~-~ Lulled to sleep and
pawn. 19 ... <;!;>g6 20.'l1i'e4+! initiates a content with the draw, White misses
mate in four (20.'l1i'g4 again fails because both 52.t'! xd3! +- and 52.t'!e2+ +- .
there's no way to sustain the queen on
the g-file. 20 .. .f5 21.'l1i'g3 'l1i'xc3 22.Ae3 (123) Schuster - Niepbaus
f4 23.'l1i'g4 <t!xe3 24.fxe3 'l1i'xe3+ Nuremberg 1959
25.<;!;>hl 'l1i'd3-+ )20 .. .f5 (The king re- Nimzo-Indian Defense [E29]
treats are quickly mated: 20 ... <;!;>h5
21.'l1i'h7+ <;!;>g4 22.'l1i'h3# or 22.h3# or 1.d4 .£lf6 2.c4 e6 3 ..£lc3 Ab4 4.e3
22.f3 #) 21.exf6+ <;!;>h5 (21... ~xf6 0--0 5..£lf3 c5 6.a3 Axc3+ 7.bxc3 d6
22.'l1i'xe6# and 21...<;!;>h6 22.'l1i'h7#) S ..1l,d3 .£lc6 9.0-0 e5 10.d5 .£le7
22.'l1i'h7+ <;!;>g4 23.h3#. The ~h6 line 11.e4.£lg612..£le1 ~a513.~c2Ad7
takes on a dark-square bishop and a 14.f4 Aa4 15.~b2 exf4 16.Axf4
white queen easily able to swing to M. .£lxf4 17.Etxf4 .£ld7 1S..£l0 EtabS
19 ... <;!;>h6 20.'l1i'e4 f5 invites a quick 19.Etf1 f6 20. ~c1 a6 (D)
mate in two (handing back the piece
brings on some complications but only To initiate the sacrifice, White first
delays the mate 20 ... <t!f6 21.<t!h7+! g5 ditches the e-pawn to open the bl-h7
[21...<;!;>h5 and it's mate in three with diagonal. After the sacrifice, the


25.~h7+ '.ftf8 26.~h8+ (26.<£Je6+ '.fte7

8 27.~xg7+ 'tie8 28.~g6+ '.fte7
7 29.~g5+) 26 ... 'tie7 27.~xg7+ '.ftd8
(27 ... 'tie8 28.Elxf4 e4 29.~h8+ '.fte7
30.Elf7 #) 28.<£Je6+ '.fte8 (28 ... '.fte8
29.~g8+ Elf8 [29 ... <£Jf8 30.Elxf4 exf4
4 31.~xf8+ '.ftd7 32.~g7+ '.fte8
3 33.h4+-] 30.Elxf8+ <£Jxf8 31.~xf8+
2 '.ftd7 32.~xb8+-) 29.~g6+ '.fte7
30.~g5+ Elf6 31.~g7+ '.fte8 32.Elxf6
abcdefgh <£Jxf6 33. ~xf6. The mating threats keep
the black queen close, when White can
doubled rooks provide the needed ad- simply start pushing the h-pawn.
ditional assets to achieve victory in 33 ... ~b6 34.~g6+ '.ftd7 35.~f7+ '.fte8
36.h4 +- . Don't miss the '.fth6 line, in
every line. The \filg6 line in the game
which White's most efficient path to the
involves a nice rook sacrifice on g4 with
win involves consecutive sacrifices of
a quick mating net. 21.e5 fxe5 There
the knight and rook: 23 ...'.fth6 24.E!.h4+
were two alternative captures on e5: (a) '.ftg6 25.~bl + 'tixg5 26.E!.g4+ +- (tak-
21...dxe5 22.Elg4 f5 23.~h6 (a nice ing the rook meets a mate in three) The
rook sacrifice that forces the king to f7 queen cannot reach the h-file directly
where White will have a powerful dis- after 23 ... 'tih8 but 24.~bl +- is over-
covery with the knight) 23 ... fxg4 whelming. 24.~b1+ Cit'xg5 25.1ag4+
24.~xh7+ \filf7 25.<£Jxe5+ (25.<£Jg5+ 1-0 The rook sacrifice starts a mate in
'tie7 [2'5 ... 'tie8 26.~xg7 Elxfl + 27.'tixfl four: 25 ... '.ftxg4 (25 ...'.fth6 26.~g6#)
~b6 28 ..llg6+ \fild8 29.<£Je6+ \file8 26.~g6+ '.fth4 27.g3+ '.fth3 28.~h5#.
30. ~h8+ <£Jf8 31. ~xf8+ \fild7
32.<£Jxe5+ +-] 26. ~xg7+ '.ftd6 (124) Kozlova - Liapunova
27.~h6+ 'tie7 28.<£Je6+ 'tib6 Moscow 1959
29.<£Jxf8+ +- ) 25 ...'tie7 26.~xg7+ '.ftd8 Nirnzo-Indian Defense [E20]
(26 ... 'tid6 27.Elxf8 <£Jxf8 28.<£Jf7+ 'tie7
[28 ... 'tid7 29.<£Jg5++-] 29.~e5+ 'tib6 1.d4 ~f6 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 j}"b4 4.j}"d2
30.~xb8) 27.Elxf8+ <£Jxf8 28.d6 when d5 5.e3 0--0 6.cxd5 exd5 7.j}"d3 1ae8
it's mate in five; and (b) 21...<£Jxe5 8.~ge2 c6 9.a3 j}"d6 10. ~c2 a5
22.<£Jxe5 dxe5 (Black cannot capture 11.0-0
with 22 .. .fxe5 because of 23 ..I1xh7+
'tixh7 24.Elxf8+-) and now the three 8
majors romp on the kingside: 23.Elh4 7
h6 24.m3 \filf7 25.~el \file7 26.Elg3 6
g5 (26 ... Elf7 27 ..I1g6+-) 27.Elxh6+-. 5
22.J}.xh7+! Cit'xh7 23.1~g5+ Cit'g6 In 4
the 'tig8 line, the white queen enters
the diagonal on bl when the queen, the 3 1""""'~N/_. uF~~~~'7"'~N/
<£Jg5-e6, and the Elfl tie down Black's
forces so tightly that the passed h-pawn
abc d e f g h
queens easily. 23 ... \filg8 24.~bl Elxf4

Sacking the Citadel

Black's sacrifice relies upon two addi-

tional assets, the light-square bishop 8
and the El.eS, but White, with superior 7
development, defends easily in the ~g3 6
line. There, the black queen cannot re- 5
main on the g-file and after 13.g3 ~d6+, 4
Black does not have an adequate re-
sponse to 14.f4. 11. .. Jlxh2+
12.Cit'xh2 .£Jg4+ 13.Cit'gl White is eas-
ily winning after 13.~g3! ~d6+ (not
13 ... ~g5 14.f4+- and the queen is no abcdefgh
longer able to stay on the g-file or on
the h-file after El.h1) 14.f4 El.xe3+ White has secured the e5-pawn with
15.El.f3+- or 15.~h4 ~h6#; 15.ltxe3 f4, which temporarily blocks the Jlc1
4Jxe3 16.Axh 7 + 'it'fS 17. ~c1 +- . but carries the potential of a pawn storm
13 ... ~h4 14.!!fcl After 14.El.fe1 with g4 and f5. The 'it'g6 line is chal-
~xf2+ 15.'it'h1 Black can choose to sac lenging, requiring a carefully orches-
the rook now with 15 ... El.xe3! (or later trated pawn storm. 20.Jlxh7+ Cit'xh7
with 15 ... ~h4+ 16.~gl ~h2+ 17.'it'f1 21 ..£Jg5+ Cit'g6 In the 'it'gSline, White
El.xe3! lS.Axe3 4Jxe3+ 19.~f2 rolls in quickly because Black's only
4Jxc2 -+) 16.Axe3 ~h4+ 17. 'it'gl hope, ... Af5, loses quickly to ~xf7 and
~h2+ 18.'it'f14Jxe3+ 19.'it'f24Jxc2-+. ~xf5. 21...~gS 22.~h5+- ltf5 (des-

14.•• ~xf2+ 15.Cit'hl !!xe316..£Jgl perately seeking an escape square with

White dare not capture the rook because 22 ... Ad6 simply invites 23.~h7+ 'it'fS
16.Axe3 4Jxe3-+ hits the queen and 24.exd6+-) 23.~xf7+ ~hS 24.~xf5
supports the mate on g2. 16••• ~h4+ +-. 22.g4! f5 The kingside pawn ex-
0-1 White resigns rather than allow the pansion is overwhelming the ~g6Iine.
rook sac on h3: 17.4Jh3 El.xh3+-+ There's no relief in 22 ... ~cS 23.f5+ Jlxf5
lS.gxh3 ~xh3+ 19.'it'gl ~h2+ 20.'it'f1 24.gxf5+ ~xf5 25.El.f1 +- because
~f2#. 25 ... ~xe5 meets 26.'liJrg2. And 22 .. .f6
fails to 23.f5+ Axf5 24.gxf5+ ~xf5
(125) Fucak - Petek when White can tee off with 25.El.f1 +
Correspondence 1959 ~g6 26. ~c2+ 4Je4 27 .4Jcxe4 +-.
RuyLopez [C81] 23.gxf5+ There's no need to rush the
pawns forward. More compelling is
l.e4 e5 2..£Jf3 .£Jc6 3.Jlb5 a64.Aa4 23.Ae3! lte7 24.e6! El.fS (or 24 ... Jlxg5
.£Jf6 5.0-0 .£Jxe4 6.d4 b5 7.Ab3 d5 25.gxf5) 25.exd7 4Jbxd7 26.b4 Jlxg5
8.dxe5 Ae6 9.~e2 Ae710.!!dl 0-0 27.gxf5+ El.xf5 2S.fxg5 4Jb7 29.El.f14Jd6
1l.c4 bxc4 12.Axc4 .£Ja5 13.Jld3 30.~c2 +-. 23 .•. Axf5 The bishop
.£Jc5 14.Ac2 .£Jc4 15.b3 .£Jb6 move is forced. King moves get mated:
16..£Jd4 Ad7 17.f4 !!e8 18. .£Jc3 (a) 23 ... 'it'h6 24.~g4 Axf5 25.~h4+
Af8 19..£J£3 c6 ~g6 26.~h7#; and (b) 23 ... ~xf5
24.~c2+ 'it'g4 when 25.h3 starts a mate
in three. Instead, Black could try
24 ... 4Je4 25.4Jcxe4 dxe4 26.~xe4+


'it'g4 when, once again, it's mate in three 23.flbf1 gxf4+ 24.flxf4 t£tg6+
with 27.h3+ 'it'h4 (27 ... \t>hS 28.~h7# 2S.t£txg6+ hxg6= when Black, though
or 27 ... 'it'g3 28.~e1 #) 28.~h7+ 'it'g3 up a pawn, has no meaningful winning
29.fld3. 24.<it'h1 ~c8 Black is fine af- chances; (b) The most complicated
ter 24 ... ~d7 2S.§.gl A,e7? After de- variation is 18 ... flxf2 19.~c1 t£td6+
fending well, Black misses moves such 20.<£lf4 flxfl 21.~xfl and White sur-
as 2S ... d4 or 2S ... flb8. 26.e61-O vives the attack after 21...hS (White is
even better after 21...gS 22.Axh7!)
(126) Muller - Schmidt 22.~f3 h4+ 23.'it'xh4 t£th6+ (23 ... gS+
Minden 1959 24.\t>g3 [24.\t>xgS t£th6#] 24 ... gxf4+
French Defense [C06] 2S.t£txf4 t£txf4+ 26.\t>xf4 Ad7;!;)
24.<£lhS (24. 'it'g3 ~h2 #) 24 ... gS+
1.e4 e6 2.d4 dS 3.4)d2 4)f6 4.eS 2S.'it'g3 t£td6+ 26.<£lf4 gxf4+ 27.t£txf4
4)fd7 S.A,d3 cS 6.c3 4)c6 7.4)e2 ~xf4+ 28. \t>xf4 Ad7;!; ; and (c) The at-
~b6 8.4)0 cxd4 9.cxd4 f610.exf6 tempt to win an exchange with
4) xf611.0-0 Ad612.b3 eS13.dxeS 18 ... t£td6+ 19.f4 <£le3 fails to 20 ..ileS
4) xeS 14.4) xeS AxeS lS.§.b1 0-0 ~b6 (20 ... t£tb4 21.~c1 <£lxf1+
16.Ab2 22.t£txfl+-) 21.Ad4+-. 18 .•• ~h6
19.AeS Preventing the mate but throw-
ing away all hope. White cannot create
an escape square on fl because 19.fle1
t£th2+ 20.'it'fl when Black's active rook
enables flxf2# or 20 ... <£le3#.
19 ... 4)xeS-+ 20.~c1 4)xd3
21.~xh6 gxh6 22.§.bd1 AfS
23.4)d4 Ag6 0-1

(127) Teschner - Spassky

abcdefgh Riga 1959
Queen's Gambit [D55]
Black can count on the light-square
bishop and the open f-file as assets, but Boris Spassky (b. 1937) was the tenth
the black queen cannot safely reach the world chess Champion (1969-1972). He
g-file. In the 'it'glline, the rook's pres- won the Soviet Championship outright
sure on f2 eliminates flfl-e1 as a de- in 1961 and 1973, and gained entry into
fense, and White cannot safely bring the candidates' cycle seven times. In
the dark-square bishop to eS. 1955, he became, to that date, the young-
16 ••. A,xh2+ 17.<it'xh2 4)g4+ est ever grandmaster. He is best remem-
18.<it'gl? In the 'it'g3 line, without the bered for his loss to Bobby Fischer in
queen's access to the g-file, Black has their famous 1972 match in Iceland.
to settle for relatively equal play.
18.'it'g3! when Black has three tries: (a) 1.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)f3 dS 4.cxdS
18 ... <£lxf2! 19.~d2 (19.~c1 t£td6+ exdS S.4)c3 Ae7 6.AgS 0-0 7.e3 b6
20.<£lf4 <£lxd3 -+) 19 ... ~d6+ 20.<£lf4 8.Ad3 Ab7 9.Axf6 Axf610.h4 cS
<£lxd3 21.t£txd3 flxf4 22.flxf4 gS

Sacking the Citadel

14•.. !it'xgS! IS.f4+ Or 15.hxg6 ~g7

16.0-0--0 f5 -+. IS •••!it'h6! It was not
hard to avoid 15 ... ~g4? 16.hxg6 'l£re7
17.0-0-0 'l£rxe3+ 18.~b1 'l£re6
19.§d3+- . 16.hxg6+ !it'g717.13h7+
!it'g8 18.0-0--0 .1lg7 19.13dhl ~f6
20.gxf7+ 13xf7-+ 21.g4cxd4 22.gS
~fS 23.13xg7+ !it'xg7 24.~h2 13f8
2S.g6 ~xg6 26.13gl ~d7 27.13xg6+
!it'xg6 28.~bS 13ac8+ 29.!it'dl 13f6
abc d e f g h 30.~d6 13xd6 31.fS+ !it'xfS
32. ~xd6 ~f6 33.exd4 .1lc6 34.~a3
On the receiving end of the sacrifice, 13a8 3S.~h3+ !it'g6 36.~g3+ !it'fS
the future world champion demon- 37.~h3+ !it'g6 38.~g3+ !it'f7
strates his defensive skills. For addi- 39.~c7+ .1ld7 40.~b7 13h8
tional assets, White can count here only 41.~xa7 bS 42.!it'c2 13c8+ 43.!it'b3
on the h-pawn and the relatively slow 13c4 44.a3 !it'e7 4S.!it'a2 ~e8
.£Jc3-e2-f4 maneuver. Spas sky smartly 46.~b8 ~c7 47.~b7 !it'd648.~b6+
selects the ~h6 line and defends re- .1lc6 49.~b8 !it'd7 SO.~h8 .1la8
markablywith 14 ... '<ftxg5.11.Axh7+? SI.~h3+ !it'c6 S2.~h6+ !it'b7
!it'xh7 12.lilgS+ !it'h6! The '<ftg61ine S3. ~g7 !it'a7 S4. ~d7 .1lb7 SS. ~e7
runs into a pretty checkmate because Ac8 S6.~g7 !it'b7 S7.~eS Ad7
the ~f6 blocks f7-f5 as a defense S8.~d6 .1le8 S9.~f6 b4 60.axb4
against 'l£rd3+. 12 ... '<ftg8 13.ifl'h5 §e8 13xb4 61.b3 13b6 62.~h8 13e6
14.'l£rxf7+ '<fth8 15.'l£rxb7 +-. The ~g8 63.!it'a3 13e4 64.!it'b2!it'b6 6S.~f6+
line also loses quickly because the ~b7 ~e6 66.~e7 Ac6 67.~d6 13xd4
is unanchored. 12 ... '<ftg6 13.'l£rd3+ (it's 68.!it'c3 ~c7 69. ~d8 !it'b7 70. ~e7
mate in three) 13 ... '<fth5 (13 ... ~h6 13e4 71. ~g7 .1lbS 72. ~h7 d4+
14.'l£rh7#) 14.g4+ '<ftxg4 (14 ... '<fth6 73.!it'b4 13eS 74.~h2 13dS 7S.~d2
15.ifl'h7#) 15.§gl+ ~xh4 (15 ... ~h5 d3 76.!it'c3 13cS+ 77.!it'b4 13c2
16.ifl'h7#) 16.ifl'h7#. The line with 78. ~dl ~dS+ 0-1
~xg5 exposes the king and provides
White with the time for .£Je2-f4. The Greco Sacrifice: 1960-2010
12 ... ~xg5 13.hxg5+ '<ftg6 (the retreat
to g8 is quickly punished: 13 ... '<ftg8 The previous sections of this chapter
14.ifl'h5 f5 15.g6+-) 14.ifl'h5+ ~f5 presented a comprehensive collection
15.'l£rh3+ '<ftxg5 (15 ... '<ftg6 16.'l£rh7+ of all of the Greco Sacrifices I could lo-
'<ftxg5 17.§h5+ '<ftg4 18.ifl'f5#) cate for each time period through 1959.
16.ifl'h5+ ~f6 17.ifl'e5+ '<ftg6 Their number was relatively modest,
18 ..£Je2+-. 13.~c2 g6 14.hS A bit and I felt that it was important to present
more promising is 14 ..£Je6 fxe6 15.h5 all of the games upon which the theo-
ifl'e8 16.hxg6+ ~g7 17.§h7+ ~g8 rists of the day might have drawn.
18.§xb7 picking up the loose bishop
but 18 ... cxd4 19.exd4 il,xd4-+ when Such is not the case for the rest of the
Black is a piece up with the initiative. games in this chapter. For this period,


there are many thousands of modem W ~?? h7 x .ft check

Greco Sacrifices and frankly, most were B ~g8 h7 x .ll
not worthy- of inclusion here. I spent W tLJ?? g5 x 0 check
more than three months sifting through The search method permits searches for
available games, handpicking what now mirrored Greco-type bishop sacrifices
emerges as a simply remarkable collec- by Black upon h2. Searches of
tion of games, many appearing in print ChessBase's MegaBase and its corre-
with analysis for the first time. spondence chess database quickly gen-
erated more than 3,500 games. I supple-
In many ways, these selected games mented this assemblage with literature
deserve the attention they hopefully reviews, and I acknowledge a special
will now get. Feel free to enjoy them for debt of gratitude to Peter Tamburro, a
what they are, or use them simply as well known chess author and regular
quizzes, starting at the diagram when contributor to Chess Life, for his assis-
the sacrifice occurs. Identify the assets tance in locating published examples.
in the position and work out all of the
variations on your own. You will quickly To cull this final collection of games, I
observe that most of the sacrifices in played through all of them, first reduc-
these games succeed. Know, however, ing the huge collection to just under
that not all are sound. Even in this mod- 1,000 and then, using Fritz 12 as an as-
em era, embarking on the sacrifice still sistant, settling on the final group of
brings the burden to the defense. just under 200 games. Simply put, these
are the games I liked and enjoyed the
Once again, this section features amaz- most. They are interesting, attractive,
ing talent, including games by Donner, and appealing. They tend to be sound
Portisch, Polugaevsky, Tal, van der and complex with more than the occa-
Wiel, Spraggett, Short, Queinteros, sional king hunt. But there are also in-
Seirawan, Sax, Timman, Kortschnoi and structive errors and missed opportuni-
Kasparov. ties. In short, these tend to be well
played games that often involve com-
Finding the games plex and instructive attacking and de-
fensive themes.
To locate Greco Sacrifices and examples
of games that contain specific criteria, I As a group, the 36 correspondence
first used the maneuver search within games that made the final cut are an ex-
ChessBase. ceptionallot that deserve special atten-
tion. The games are particularly com-
The main example: A search for sacri- plex, remarkably well-played, and often
fices involving Ulxh7, ~xh7, 2.4:Jg5+ at the cutting edge of soundness.
involved the placement of the follow-
ing information within the maneuver tab For each game in the chapter, I provide
within the ChessBase search feature: an overview of what is to come. To as-
sist the test of VukoviC's proposition
that at least two additional assets (be-

Sacking the Citadel

yond the bishop that captures on h7, meets an even quicker fate than normal.
the knight that reaches g5, and the 18 .. .'it'h8 19.~xf8#. The 'iti'h6line re-
queen) are generally required for the sults in a quick mate in the corner:
sacrifice to succeed, I again list the ad- 18 ... 'iti'h6 19.4)f7+ 'ifth7 (19 ... 'iftg6
ditional assets and summarize the re- 20.'~g4+ 'ifth7 21.ili'h5 + +- ) 20.ili'h5+
sults of each of the main lines, usually 'iti'g8 2 1.ili'h8 # . The open f-file makes
the 'iti'g8 and 'iti'g6 lines, but also the even the 'iti'g6line a quick rout. 18 ... 'it'g6
other lines when there is something in- 19.~xf8 ili'xd4 20.ili'c2+ +-. 19.EtxfS+
teresting to report. <it'xfS 20. ~f3+ <it'eS Hoping to run
towards the queenside. White barges
Enjoy the games! straight in after 20 ...'iti'g8 21.ili'f7+ 'it'h8
22.ili'f8#. 21.~f7+ <it'dS 22 ..£Jxe6+
(128) Mason - Clapperton Axe6 23.Ag5+ <it'c8 24. ~xe6+ <it'c7
Correspondence 1960 25. ~f7+ <it'cS 26. ~eS+ .£JdS
French Defense [C 18] 27.Etc1 + 1""{) Not waiting for 27 ... fl.c7
28.ili'xd8# .
l.e4e6 2d4d5 3..£Jc3 Ab44.e5c5 5.33
.1la5 6.b4 cxd4 7 ..£Jb5 .1lc78.f4.£Jc6 (129) Durao - Heidenfeld
9 ..£Jf3 .1lbS 10•.£Jbxd4 .£Jge7 1l.c3 Netanya 1961
.£Jxd412cxd4 .£Jc613•.1ld3 f614.0-0 French Defense [CI4]
fxe515.fxe5 ~b616.<it'hl 0-0
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 . .£Jc3 .£Jf6 4.Ag5
8 .1le7 5.e5 .£Jfd7 6.Axe7 ~xe7 7.f4
7 0....{) S ..£JO c5 9 ..1ld3 cxd4

5 8

4 7

3 6
2 5
abc d e f g h
The open f-file and Black's poor
queens ide development make the sac- abcdefgh
rifice an easy rout. White has two addi-
tional assets in the dark square bishop White has a reinforced pawn of e5 and
and the strong e5-pawn, as well as the the ability by castling to bring the
queen's rook which can enter the posi- king's rook quickly into the game, but
tion powerfully on the c- or f-files. In White initiates the sacrifice with the
the 'iti'g8 line, the exchange of rooks on 4Jc3 en prise. As a result, the ili'xg5 line
the f-file permits the white queen to provides Black with relatively even
enter the black kings ide powerfully on chances because Black nels the addi-
I7 with Ag5+ to follow. 17..1lxh7+! tional piece. The play is sloppy but in-
<it'xh7 lS..£Jg5+ <it'gS The 'iti'h8 line structive. Black prevails owing to


White's missed opportunities and the 39.gf3 4)f4+ 4O.~gl gg4+ 41.~h2
weakness of the white kings ide after gg2+ 42.~hl gd2 0-1
19.94. 10..1lxh7+ ~xh7 1l.4)g5+
~xg51 In the ~g8line, Black is forced (130) Zaitsev - Platonov
to capture the knight, but White gains Minsk 1962
the option of capturing here with the Nirnzo-Indian Defense [E48]
queen, preserving the pawn structure.
11...~g8 12.~hS ~xgS 13.~xgS±. l.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3 Ab4 4.e3
11...~g612.~d3+ (with the 4Jc3 hang- c5 5.Ad3 0-0 6.4)ge2 d5 7.cxd5
ing, White needs to check) 12 ... fS (not cxd4 S.4)xd4 exd5 9.0-0 4)c6
12 ... ~h6 13.~h7# or 12 ... ~hS 10.~a4 .1ld6 11.4)xc6 bxc6
13.~h3+ ~g6 14.~h7#) 13.exf6+ 12.~xc6 gb813.4)b5 gb614.~c3
~xf6 (avoiding 13 ... ~hSI4.~h7+ ~g4
15.0-0+-) 14.~xd4+ ~g6 (not 8
14 ... 'itfS 15.0-0-0+-) IS.~d3+ ~f6 7
(IS ... dfS 16.g4+-) with a pleasing fi- 6
nale: 16.0-0-0 4Jc6 17.~h7 4Jb6 5
18.4Jce4+ dxe4 19.4Jxe4+ ~f7
20.4Jd6+ ~f6 21.g4+-. 12.fxg5 dxc3
13.0-0 4) xe5 Preferring to capture the
central e-pawn than 13 ... cxb214.~hS+
'<t68 IS ..§ael 4Jc6=. 14.~h5+ ~gS
, 5.gf4? White is aiming to swing the abc d e f g h
rook to the h-file. The far better way to
do so is IS ..§ael 4Jbc6 16 ..§e3 g6 Black's sacrifice can count as additional
17.~h4 +-. 15 ... 4)g6 16.gf3 e5 Or assets the light-square bishop and the
16... cxb2 holding the rook to the de- well-developed '§b6. In the ~g3 line,
fense of bi. 17.bxc3 4)c6 IS.gafl played in the game, Black quickly re-
.1le6 19.94 4)ce7 20.gh3 gfcS covers an exchange but retains the ini-
21.~h7+ ~fS 22.ghf3 Better is tiative thanks to the penetration of the
22 ..§g3= with h4-hS to follow. major pieces. 14.•• .1lxh2+ 15.~xh2
22 ..• gc4-+ 23.h3 gacS 24.ge3 4)g4+ 16.~g3 In the ~glline, White
gxc3 Black can also trap the white cannot defend with ~c7 because '§b6-
queen with 24 ... ~xg4 2S.hxg4 .§xg4+ h6 wins quickly. 16.~gl ~h417.~c7
26.~f2 .§h4-+. 25.gxc3 gxc3 26.h4 .§h6-+. 16.~h3 .§h6+ 17.~g3 4JeS
gg3+ 27.~h2 gxg4 2S.h5 gh4+ Or preparing ... ~h4 18.~xeS (or White
28 ... .§xgS 29.hxg6 .§xg6-+ again trap- can run into a neat mating net 18.~f4
ping the queen. 29.~gl 4)f4 30.h6 .§h4+ 19.94 .§xg4+ 20.~xeS f6#)
gxh6 Missing a pretty win with 18 ... ~h4+ 19.~f3 ~g4#. 16•.• gh6
30 ... .§g4+ 31.~f2 .§xgS 32.'~h8+ 4Jg8 Black selects the strongest move,
33.h7 .§g2+ 34.~el f6-+. 31.~hS+ swinging the rook to the h-file when
4)gS 32. ~xe5 hxg5 33. ~bS+ ~g7 White cannot safely play .§hl. Ambigu-
34.~xb7 4)f6 35.~xa7 d4 36.a4 ous is the traditional 16 ... ~gS?! 17.f4
4)h-H 37.~h2 4)d5 Fastest is ~hS 18.Ad2 (18.4Jd4 .§h6 19.4Jf3 4Jf6
37.. ;"~g4+ 38.~g3 4Je3-+. 3S.a5 4)e3 20.~d2 4Je4+ 21.~xe4 dxe4 22 ..§hl

Sacking the Citadel

~g4+ 23.'.£i'f2 exf3 24.gxf3 §xh1 (131) Minic-Ferry

25.§xh1 ~e6 26.~d3±) lS ... §h6 VamaOlympiad 1962
19.§h1 <£Jh2 inviting a draw, but White King's Indian Attack [A07]
is better: 20.'~)f2 <£Jg4+ 21.'it'e2 <£Jh2+
22.'it'e1 ~h4+ 23.'it'd1 Ag4+ 24.'it'c2 1.e4 e6 2.d3 d5 3.~d2 ~d7 4.g3
§cS 25.<£Jc7 ~e7 26.~d4 ~xc7+ ~gf6 5.jlg2 jle7 6.~gf3 0-0 7.0-0
27.Ac3 f6 2S.§ac1 ± .17.~f3 Forced. b6 8.e5 ~e8 9.Ele1 jlb7 10.d4 c5
Losing alternatives include 17.<£Jd4 1l.c3 ~b812.h4 ~c613.jlf1 cxd4
<£Je5 lS.<£Jf3 <£Jxd3 19.~xd3 14.~ xd4 ~ xd4 15.cxd4 ~c7
Aa6-+with an attractive skewer, and 16.jld3 jla617.jlb1 Elc818.~f3
17.~c7 ~f6 lS.~f4 ~h4+ 19.'it'f3 .Q.b419.Ele3 ~d7
§f6 -+ winning the queen. 17••• ~h2+
18.~e2 Other king moves lose quickly:
lS.'it'g3~g5# and lS.'it'f4§h4+ 19.94
(19.'it'g3 ~g5#) 19 ... §xg4+ 20.'it'e5
<£Jf3#.18•.. ~xf119.~xf1 ~g5Miss­
ing 19 ... §h1 +! 20.'it'e2 ~h4 21.~d4
Ag4+ 22.'it'd2 (22.f3 ~e1 #)
22 ... §cS-+ cutting off the king's es-
cape. 20.~c7 Elh1+ 21.~e2 ~g4+
22. ~d2 Not 22.f3 ~xg2 #. 22 ..• ~d1 +
Better is 22 ... §d1+ 23.'it'c3 §xd3+ abc d e f g h
24.'it'xd3 Af5+ 25.'it'd2 §cS-+.
23.~c3 jla6 24.~xa7 Elc8+ 25.~b4 White's additional assets include the
Avoiding 2S.<£Jc7 ~xd3+ -+ or eS-pawn and the dark-square bishop.
2S ... ~xd3 26.~xa6 ~c4+ 27.'it'aS -+. The §f3 blocks the queen's access to
27 ... Elxc1 28.Elxc1 ~xc129.b4 h5 hS and has no easy access to the h-file,
30.a4 Elb8 31.~d6 Ela8+ 32.~b6 but it still has a useful role to play. Here,
~c8 33.~c7 Elxa4 34.b5 ~b8+ the 'it'h6 line saves a useful tempo over
35.~c6 Elg4 It's quickly over after the 'it'g6line (h5 'it'h6) and forces White
3S ... §c4+-+. 36.~xd5 h4 37.~d7 to choose a square for the §f3. The
Elb4 38.~e5 Elb1 39.~d4 ~b7 decision between §b3 and §f3 is chal-
40.~d6 ~xg2 41.~xh4 ~g6+!? lenging. White selects §b3 in part, no
Throwing away the win. Black's last doubt, because it gains a tempo against
chance to secure the point was Black's unanchored bishop. 20..Q.xh7+
41...§dl+! 42.'it'e7 ~g6. 42.~d7 ~xh7 21.~g5+ ~h6 21...'it'g6 22.hS+
Eld1 + 43. ~c8 ~d6 44. ~c4 Eld2 'it'h6 (22 ... 'it'fS 23.~f3+ 'it'xgS
45.f4 ~b6 46.~e4 ~f6 47.~b7 24.§c3#; 22 ... 'it'xgS 23.§c3+ 'it'fS
Eld6 48.~b4 Eld8 49.~e4 g5 50. 24.~f3#) 23.~c2 g6 24.<£Jxf7+ The
~g2 Eld3 51.b6 ~f8 52.~c2 Elc3 threat is ~xg6 # 24 ... ~xf7 2S.§f3+ +-
53.~e4 gxf4 54.~e8++- ~g7 and the queen cannot move because
55.~d5 Elxe3 56.~xf6 Elxe8 Black is in check. 22.Elb3! Gaining time
57.~xe8+ 1-0 against the undefended-Jlb4. Also
strong is 22.§f3 ± . 22 •.. .Q.e7 23. ~c2


g6 24..£J xf7+! <ifjlh7 The double check the dark-square bishop as an additional
requires the king to move. On 24 ... 'it'g7 asset, but both rooks are able to take
25.~h6+ 'i!th7 (not 25 ... 'i!txt7 inviting part in the assault with E!ac1 and with
an invasion of the major pieces 26.E!f3+ f4. With time in a correspondence game,
'it'eS 27.~xg6+ 'i!tdS 2S.~xfS ~xfS Black correctly selects the 'i!tg6 line
29.E!xfS+ 4:\eS 30.E!f7 ~c6 because White, without a pawn on e5
31.~g5+ +-) 26 ..IlxfS .IlxfS 27.4:\g5+ or a rook on el, has no control over the
(White has won a piece and sustains f6-square. 16.Axh7+ <ifjlxh717..£Jg5+
the attack) 27 ... 'it'g7 2S.E!f3 4:\eS <ifjlg6 The 'i!tgS line is challenging, but
29.~dl E!c7 30.h5+-. 25.h5 EtgS White can prevail with careful play.
26. ~d2 AfS 27 . .£Jg5+ Better is 17 ... 'i!tgS lS.~h5 E!dS 19.~xf7+
27.m3! ~b5 28.~g5+-. 27 •.• <ifjlhS (19.~h7+? 'i!tfS-+) 19 ... 'i!thS 20.f4
2s.g4 gxh5 29.Eth3 Et xg5? Black can (with the idea of21.E!f3, and if20 ... .ilb7,
survive with 29 ... E!g6 30.E!xh5+ E!h6+. White has 21.f5) 20 ... ~b7 21.~g6'i!tgS
30.~xg5 ~g7 31.~xh5+ <ifjlgS 22 ..ild2 (activating the E!al and with
32.Ag5+- Ae2 33.Ete1 Ab5 the idea of .ilb4) 22 ... E!a6 23.E!ac1 E!d5
34.A{6 Ae8 35.~h4 ~g6 36.~hS+ (23 ... ~e7 24 ..ilb4 E!c6 25.f5 +-)
<ifjlf7 37.Eth7+ 1-0 It's mate in three: 24 ..Ilb4 +-. IS. ~g4 When the usual
with 37 ... Ag7 3S.E!xg7+ ~xg7 discovery with 4:\xe6 threatens a piece
39.~xg7#. rather than a pawn on g7. On lS.h4
Black survives with lS ... E!hS 19.~g4
(132) Arje - Weimo f5 20.~g3 Af6 (and even better is
Correspondence 1962 20 ... E!a7 21.b4 4:\a4 22.4:\xe6+ 'i!th7
Slav Defense [D49] 23.4:\g5+ 'it'gS 24.E!el ~c6 25.Ad2:j:)
21.4:\e4+ 'it't7 22.4:\xf6 'i!txf6 23 ..ilg5+
1.d4 d5 2 ..£Jf3 c6 3.c4 .£Jf6 4 . .£Jc3 'i!tt7 24.~e5 E!h7=. lS ... f5 19.~g3
e6 5.e3 .£Jbd7 6.Ad3 dxc4 7.Axc4 <ifjlf6 An important defensive resource
b5 S.Ad3 a6 9.e4 c5 10.e5 cxd4 made possible by the absence of a white
11..£Jxb5axb512.exf6~b613.fxg7 pawn on e5. 20.Af4 <ifjle7 21.Etact
Axg714. ~e2 0-0 15.0-0 .£Jc5 Ad7 Once again, with the bishop on
g7, Black's best defensive try is
8 21...E!gS! 22 ..ilc7 ~c6 23.b4 4:\e4
7 24.E!xc6 4:\xg3 25 ..Ilxg3 .ild7 26.E!b6~.
6 22.Ac7 ~c6 23.M .£Je4 24..£Jxe4
~xe4 25.~xg7+ Etf7 26.Ad6+ 1-0
(133) Krutikhin - Zhilin
Novosibirsk 1962
Falkbeer Counter Gambit [C31]

abc d e f g h 1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5 3.exd5 c6 4. ~e2 e4

5.~xe4+ Ae7 6.d6 ~xd6 7 •.£Jf3
Another Greco Sacrifice in which Black .£Jf6 S. ~e5 ~dS 9.Ac4 0-010.0-0
has a bishop rather than a pawn on g7. b5 11.Ab3 c5 12.d3 .£Jc6 13. ~e1
Here, White can count easily only upon Ab7 14 . .£Jc3 b4 15 . .£Je4 .£J xe4

Sacking the Citadel

16.dxe4 .£la5 17.J:ta4 c4 18.<ifjlh1 (34 ... 'it'e7 35.Ag5+ 'it'ffi 36.l:"l.f1 + +- )
'l:/c7 19.c3 bxc3 20.bxc3 §fd8 and it's mate in seven, 35.Af4+ 'it'xf4
21.Ac2 Aa6 22.e5 §e8 23. 'l:/g3 36.l:"l.d5 +- . 29... <ifjle7 30. 'l:/xg7+ <ifjldS
Ar8 30 ... 'it'd6 costs a piece: 31.4Je4+ 'it'c6
(31...'it'd5 32.~xc7+-) 32.~xc7+
'it'xc7 33.4Jxc5 +-. 31.§d1 + <ifjlc8
32. 'l:/d7+ <ifjlb7 33 . .£le4 §adS
34..£lxc5++- <ifjla835..£lxa6'1:/b6On
35 ... l:"l.xd7, 36.4Jxc7+ l:"l.xc7 37.f5 +-.
36.J:te3 'l:/xe3 37. .£lc7+ 37.l:"l.abl
l:"l. xd7 3S.exd7 wins easily because Black
cannot safeguard the rook and prevent
4Jc7#. 3S ... l:"l.dS 39.4Jc7#. 37... <ifjlb7
3S.§abl+ .£lb3 39..£lxe8+ 1-0
abc d e f g h
(134) Suberville - Marchetti
Already up a pawn, White can also Correspondence 1963
count upon enough additional assets, Ruy Lopez [C90]
the dark-square bishop, the active e5-
pawn, the l:"l.f1, and the active queen 1.e4 e5 2..£lf3 .£lc6 3.J:tb5 a6 4.Aa4
making the win quite easy. Black cor- .£lf6 5.d3 b5 6.J:tb3 Ae7 7.c3 d6
rectly picks 'it'gS because the white S.O-O .£la5 9.J:tc2 c5 10.§e1 .£lc6
queen enters the h-file on h4 and be- 11 ..£l bd2 0-0 12. .£lfl §eS 13. .£le3
cause the black queen covers f7, but AfS 14. .£ld5 .£lxd5 15.exd5 .£le7
White can win quickly by advancing 16.d4exd417.cxd4c4
the central pawns. 24.Axh7+ <ifjlxh7
25..£lg5+ <ifjlg8 The 'it'g6line walks into 8
a quick mate. 25 ... 'it'g6 26.f5+ 'it'h5 7
(26 ... 'it'h6 27.'liYh3#) 27.'liYh3#. The 6
mate in 'it'h6line isjust as fast 25 ... 'it'h6 5
26.'liYh3+ 'it'g6 27.'liYh7# or 27.f5#.
26.'l:/h4 J:tc5 27.e6 27.f5 also wins
easily by activating the l:"l.f1: 27 ... l:"l.xe5
2S.'liYh7+ 'it'ffi 29.4Je6+! fxe6 30.f6 'liYb7
31.'liYhS+ 'it'f7 32.~xg7+ 'it'eS
33.f7+ +-. 27 ... f6 On 27 ... l:"l.xe6 abcdefgh
2S.~h7+ 'it'fS 29.4Jxe6+ fxe6 when
once again 30.f5 +- opens the f-file for With two additional assets, the dark-
the l:"l.fl. The effort to escape meets square bishop and the l:"l.el, White tri-
27 ... 'it'ffi 2S.exf7 l:"l.e2 29.~hS+ 'it'e7 umphs in all lines. In the 'it'g6 line,
30. ~xaS +- . 28.'l:/h7+ <ifjlf8 29.'l:/h8+ played in the game, Black's control over
The mating net is entertaining after f5 prevents 'liYg4 and ~c2+. But White
29.l:"l.dl fxg5 30.'liYhS+ 'it'e7 31.~xg7+ has h4, with the threat of l15 exposing
(ditching the knight to hunt the king) the black king. 1S.Axh7+ <ifjlxh7
31...'it'xe6 32.f5+ 'it'xf5 33.'liYxg5+ 'it'e6 19..£lg5+ <ifjlg6 In the 'it'gSline, White
(33 ... 'it'e4 34.'liYd5#) 34.'liYg6+ 'it'e5 can counter Black's Af5 with l:"l.f3-h3.


19 ... 'it'g8 20.'~h5 Af5 21.~xf7+ ~h8 36.1:=\bl +-. 29 . .£\e6 ~f7 30.'l!\'f3
22.1:=\e3 when the Af5 cannot prevent 'l!\'xf3 31 •.£\g5+ ~f6 32•.£\xf3 ElhS
both 1:=\h3 -and ~h5 22 ... 4:)g8 33.Ele5 .£\f4 34..11.e7+ ~f7 35.Elf5+
23.~xf5+-. 20.h4! The threat is h5+, ~xe7 36.Elxf4 Elxh5 37.Elel + ~d6
and the Af8 prevents Black from de- 3S.Elfe4 ElahS 39.Ele6+ 1~
fending with 1:=\h8, avoiding 20.~c2+
Af5 -+ . 20 •.•f5 The alternatives are no (135) Teichmann - Sandin
better: (a) 20 ... ~a5 21.Ad2 only makes Correspondence 1965
matters worse for Black. 20 ... ~b6 takes Ruy Lopez [C99]
the queen out of the reach of the dis-
covery, but 21.h5+ 'it'h6 (not 21...'it'f6 1.e4 e5 2..£\f3 4)c6 3 ..11.h5 a6 4 ..11.a4
22.4:)h7+ 'it'f5 23.~f3# or 23.g4# ) .£\f6 5.~ .11.e7 6.Elel h5 7 ..11.h3 d6
22.~f3 f6 23.4:)e6+ 'it'h7 (23 ... g5 S.c3 ~ 9.h3 4)a510..11.c2 c511.d4
24.~xf6++-) 24.4:)xf8+ removing the 'l!\'c712 ..£\bd2 cxd413.cxd4 .11.h7
4:)d7's defender, 24 ... 1:=\xf8 25.1:=\xe7 +-; 14..£\fl ElacS 15..1lhl d5 16.exd5
and (b) 20 ... ~d7 21.~f3 ~f5 22.h5+ exd417..ilg5 .£\ xd51S..11.xe7 .£\ xe7
'it'h6 (not 22 ... 'it'f6 23.4:)h7#) 23.1:=\xe7
removing one of the queen's defenders
23 ... ~xf3 (23 ... 1:=\xe7 24.4:)e6+ 'it'h7
25.~xf5+ +- ) 24.4:)xf3+ +- and the dis-
covery removes the queen's other de-
fender. 21:l!lte2 The h-pawn is worth
considering at every stage here, 21.h5+
'it'f6 22.~f3 +- (setting up 4:)e4-d6)
22 ... Ad7 23.4:)e4+ 'it'f7 24.4:)xd6+.
However, the fastest path is 21.~f3!
Ad7 22.~g3 4:)xd5 23.1:=\e6! + +-. abc d e f g h
21 ••. f4 Not 21...~d7 22.h5+ ~h6
23.~f3+-. 22 ..1lxf4 .1lf5 23.g4 The Another carefully played correspon-
advance of the h-pawn again forces the dence game. This Greco Sacrifice in-
king to h6, 23.h5+ ~h6 (23 ... 'it'f6 volves an unusual asset combination,
24.~e5+! dxe5 25.d xe5#) the 1:=\el and the 4:)fl-g3 where it offers
24.4:)e6+ +-. 23 ••• 'l!\'d7 24.gxf5+ control over the key h5-square. In the
'l!\'xf5 25.h5+ ~h6 25 ... ~f6 26.4:)e4+ game, Black plays 'it'h6, the toughest
wins the queen, 26 ... 'it'f7 27.4:)xd6+ +-. defense, although the ~g4, g6 move
26 . .£\e6+ ~h7 27 . .1lxd6 .£\xd5 pair provides the overwhelming threat
2S..£\ xfS+ Correctly avoiding 28.AxfB of~h4+. 19..1lxh7+ ~xh7 20..£\g5+
4:)f4 (not 28 ... 1:=\xf8 29.4:)xf8+ 1:=\xf8 ~h6 In the ~g8Iine, Black can defend
30.~e4+-) 29.~f3 1:=\xe6 30.1:=\ xe6 h7 with ~c2 at the cost of1:=\xe7. Rook
4:)h3+ 31.'it'g2 ~xf3+ 32.'it'xf3 4:)g5+ retreats there result in a quick mate
33.'it'e3 4:)xe6 34.Ad6±. 2S .•. ~gS thanks to the 1:=\el 's control over the e-
Black's last chance for tough defense file. 20 ... <iftg8 21.~h5 ~c2 (21...1:=\fe8
lay with 28 ... 1:=\xf8 29.Axf8 ~g5+ 22.~h7+ 'it'f8 23.~h8+ 4:)g8 24.4:)h7#;
30.'it'fl 1:=\xfB 31.~e4+ 1:=\f5 32.h6 gxh6 21...1:=\fd8 22.~h7+ ~f8 23.~h8+ 4:)g8
33.a4 b4 34.1:=\ac1 c3 35.bxc3 bxc3 24.4:)h7#) 22.1:=\xe7+-. The <iftg6 line

Sacking the Citadel

shows off the significant influence of

the 4Jg3. 20 .. .'~g6 21.4Jg3 +- (with the 8
idea of 22.'lWhS ~f6 23.4Jh7#) 7
21...'~xgS 22.'lWg4+ ~f6 (22 ... ~h6 6
23.'lWhS#) 23.4JhS# or if instead 5
21...§hS, 22.'lWg4 ~f6 23.4J3e4+ .llxe4
24.4Jxe4+ ~eS 2S.'lWxg7++-. 21.4)g3
21.'lWg4 g6 22.4Jg3 transposing to the
game (there's no advantage to be found
in 22.'lWh4+ ~g7 23.'lWxd4+ ~gS
24.'lWh4 ~g7 25.'lWd4+=). 21. .. g6 abc d e f g h
22.~g4 ~dS!? 22 ... 4JfS 23.4JxfS+
gxf5 24:~h4+ with a mate in nine After ~g6, only one player found the
24 ... ~g6 2S.'lWh7+ ~xgS (2S ... ~f6 correct idea, 13.'lii'g4 when once again
26.'lWh6#) 26.'lWg7+ ~hS (26 ... ~f4 15.4Jxc7 overloads the queen.
27.'lWg3# [27.'lWh6#] ) 27.g4+ fxg4 1l.Axh7+ ~xh712.4)gS+ ~g6 In
(27 ... ~h4 2S.'lWh6#) 2S.'lWh7+ ~gS the ~gS line, 15. 4Jxc7 overloads the
29.h4+ ~f4 (29 ... ~f6 30.'lWh6+ ~fS black queen. 12 ... ~gS 13.'lWh5 §e8
31. 'lWgS # ) 30. 'lWh6+! threatening 4JhS # 14.'lWxf7+ (the correct capture. With the
30 ... ~f3 (30 ... ~fS 31.'lWgS#) 31.§e3+ knight on e7, taking on h7 would be
dxe3 32.'lWxe3# and not 22 ... 4Jc4 correct if the .llc1 had access to g5)
23.'lWh4+ ~g7 24.'lWh7+ ~f6 2S.'lii'h6 14 ... ~hS IS.4Jxc7+-. H.~g4!
4Je3 26.4Jh7+ ~e6 27.4Jxf8+ §xfS 13.'lWd3+ also wins, but much less eas-
ily: 13 ... 4JfS 14.g4 f61S.4Jxe6 (avoid-
28.'lWxfS+-. 23.~h4+ ~g7 24.~h7+
ing a tempting captureI5.gxf5+ exf5
~f6 2S.4)hS+ 2S.'lWh6+- is also mate
16.exf6 gxf6 and the knight no longer
in five. 2S ••. ~xgS On 2S ... gxhS
has access to e6 17.4Jf3 §eS+=)
26.'lWh6+ ~fS (26 ... 4Jg6 27.4Jh7+ ~fS
IS ....llxe616.gxfS+ ~h7 (the f-pawn is
28.'lWxhS+ ~f4 [2S ... 'lWgS 29.'lii'xgS#]
immune 16 ... .llxfS 17.§gl++-)
29.'lWg4#) 27.4Jh7 with 2S.'lWxhS+ +-. 17.fxe6+ ~gS IS.§gl fxe5 19.'lii'g6
26.f4+ 1-{)
'lWe7 20.fS (missing 20.4Jxc7 and
21.§gS) 20 ... §f6 21.'lWh5 e4 22.4Jxc7
(136) Myant - Nash 'lWxc7 23.§g3 e3 24 ..llb2 §h6?? (Black
Bognor Regis 1965 may be winning after 24 ... §afS) 25.'lWg5
French Defense [C 18] ~h7 26.0-0-0 4Jxb4 27.axb4 e2
2S.§dgl §xh2 29.'lWxg7+ 'lii'xg7
l.e4 e6 2.d4 dS 3.4)c311.b4 4.eS cS 30.§xg7+ ~h6 31.§lg6+ 1-0 Dani-
S.a311.aS 6.b4cxd4 7.4)bS Ac7 S.f4 Miko, Debrecen 2000. H •.• fS Not
4)e7 9.4)f3 4)bc610.11.d3 0-{) (D) 13 ... 4JfS 14.4Jxe6+ +-. 14. ~g3 ~d7
Taking the queen out of the knight's
This Greco Sacrifice right out of the reach. 15.4) xc7 13gS White cannot
opening succeeds easily owing to the capture the knight, IS ... 'lii'xc7
strong eS-pawn, the dark-square 16.4Jxe6++- .16.~h44)xeS 17.fxeS
bishop, and the developed 4JbS which 1-0 17... §hS (the only move to prevent
wins the black .llc7 in key variations. 'lWh7#) IS.'lWxhS f4 19.94 fxg3


(137) Kranzl- Matrisch 17.'lild3+ f5 lS.exf6+ <;t>xf6 19.i;t'f3+

Correspondence 1965 (eyeing the f7 entry square) 19 ... <;t>e7
Nimzo-Indian Defense [E54] 20 ..!'!e1 4:\7f6 21.4:\xe6 ~d7
22.4:\xg7++- . 17•.• .§h8Blackprevents
l.d4 e6 2.c4 ~f6 3.~c3 Ab4 4.e3 h5+ but loses his defense over e6. If
0--0 5.Ad3 d5 6.~f3 c5 7.0--0 b6 instead 17 ... i;t'e7, lS.'lile4+ (or 18.h5+
8.a3 dxc4 9.Axc4 Axc3 10.bxc3 ~h619.i;t'g4 f6 20.4:\f7+ <;t>h7 21.'lilg6+
Ab7 11.'~e2 ~bd7 12.Ad3 .§c8 <;t>gS 22.h6 i;t'xf7 23.h7 + +- winning the
13.e4 .§e814.e5 ~d5 queen) lS .. .f5 19.exf6+ <;t>xf6 20.h5
(threatening ~g6#) 20 ... cxd4 21.cxd4
~fS 22.4:\h7++-. 18.~e4+ f5
19.exf6+ lit'h5 Walking into a mate in
four, but that's "better" than 19 ... <;t>xf6
20.~xe6#. 20.g4+ lit'xh4 Sidestep-
ping 20 ... <;t>h6 21.4:\f7#. 21.~hl+
4 lit'xg4 22.~f3+ lit'h4 23.~h3# 1--0
2 (138) Champion - Pratten
Bognor Regis 1965
abcdefgh Queen's Gambit Declined [D32]

White has the reinforced e5-pawn and l.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.~c3 c5 4.cxd5
the dark-square bishop as additional as- exd5 5.~f3 ~c6 6.e3 ~f6 7.Ab5
sets. Black can point to the rook offfS a6 8.Axc6+ bxc6 9.dxc5 Axc5
and the two knights poised to retake 10.~d4 Ad711.a3 0--012.0--0 .§e8
the key f6-square. But Black also has 13.b4Ad614.~b3
the unanchored ~b7. In the 'it'g6 line,
White's play with h4 and i;t'e4+ in this 8
correspondence game is instructively 7
accurate. 15.Axh7+ lit'xh716.~g5+ 6
lit'g6 In the 'it'gS line, White can play 5
i;t'f7+ and capture the unanchored ~b7. 4
16 ... 'it'gS 17.'lilh5 4:\f8 (17 .. .4)7f6
18.'lilxf7+ <;t>hS19.exf6 'lilxf6 20.'lilxb7)
lS.'lilxf7+ 'it'hS 19.'lilxb7+-. 17.h4!
The threat, h5, would force the king to
h6 and a discovered check because <;t>f5 abc d e f g h
leads to g4 #. The alternatives, espe-
cially 'lilg4, are less compelling: (a) Un- Black's successful sacrifice can rely
impressive is 17.i;t'g4 f5 lS.i;t'g3 here upon the light-square bishop and
'lile7+; (b) 17.~e4+ f5 lS.exf6+ <;t>xf6 the active .!'!eS. In the <;t>g3 line, i;t'g5 is
(the other king moves are quickly mated) the winning continuation. White can-
19 ..!'!e1 (taking aim at e6) 19 ... 'lilc7 not force the queen off the g-file, and
20.~f3++-. Black can only delay the the effort to exploit the absence of the
end with 20 .. A)f4 21.'lilg4; and (c) e4-pawn with <;t>f3 meets a queen-win-
ning skewer. 14.•• Axh2+!15.lit'xh2

Sacking the Citadel

4)g4+ 16.<;t>g3 In the ~glline, the .§.eS Greco Sacrifice. Black can count on the
actively swings safely via .§.e5-h5. open f-file, the light-square bishop, and
16.~gl ~h4 17 ..§.e1 ~xf2+ lS.~h1 the e4-pawn as additional assets, but
.§.e5-+. 16•.• ~g5116 ... h517.f4 ~f6 White also has an active .§.e1 and a dark-
is less thematic but effective nonethe- square bishop that can reach f4. In the
less. lS.4Jd4 g5 Using the kingside ~g3 line, both sides miss an opportu-
pawns to blast through White's de- nity to improve but the attack as played
fenses. 19 ..§.b1 ~g7 20.~f3 4J xe3 with h5-h4 and ~d6+ is well worth a
21.l.txe3 l.tg4+ -+. Not 16 ... ~c7+? look. 14... -'l,xh2+ 15.<;t>xh2 4)g4+
when 17.f4;!; effectively shuts down the 16.<;t>g3 In the ~g11ine, White had the
diagonal and the queen has no other opportunity to drum up considerable
way to continue the attack. 17.f4 Try- counterplay with a knight sacrifice on
ing to run the king meets up with a f6. 16.~gl ~h4 17.l.tf4 (White has a
queen-winning skewer, 17.~f3 ~h5 promising counter with 17 .4Jf6+ ~xf6
lS.~g3 ~g6 19.~f3 4Jxe3 20.fxe3 [not 17 ... .§.xf6 18.~b3+ with ~g3 to
l.tg4+ -+. 17 .•• ~g6 18. <;t>f3 After follow] lS.l.tf4 when, to sustain a small
lS.f5, Black can avoid moving the edge, Black must find: IS ... 4Jxf2!
queen with lS ... l.txf5 19.~f3 4Jxe3 19.~xf2 g5 20.l.tc4+ ~g7 21..~xg5
20.l.txe3 l.tg4+ -+ . 18 ••• 4) xe3 ~xg5 22.~d4+~) 17 ... ~xf2+ 18.~hl
19.-'l,xe3 J}.g4+ 20.<;t>f2 J}.xd1 l.te6 (Black can conquer the l.tf4 with
21.f!axd1 ~c2+ 0--1 attacks upon the bishop and its de-
fender) 19.~d2 ~c5 20 ..Ile2 4Jf2+
(139) Kuhnrich - Wilson 21.~h2 (21.~gl 4Jd3+ 22.~e3
New York casual game 1966 ~xe3+ 23.l.txe3 4Jxe1-+) 21...~xd5
Sicilian Defense [B32] 22.~xd5 l.txd5 23.l.te3 .§.acS=+=.
16... h5 Black can also win with a more
1.e4 c5 2.4)£3 4)c6 3.d4 cxd4 tactical approach: 16 ... 4Jxf2 17.~d4
4.4) xd4 e5 5.4) xc6 bxc6 6.-'l,d3 f5 4Jh1 + lS.~h2 ~h4+ 19.~gl ~xe1
7.exf5 4)f6 8.0--0 d5 9.f!e1 -'l,d6 20.Af4 ~xa1 21.4Je7+ ~hS 22 ..Ilh6
10.c40--0 1l.4)c3 e4 12.-'l,fl J}.xf5 when it is Black, having accepted both
13.cxd5 cxd5 14.4) xd5 of White's rooks, who must now de-
fend: 22 ... .§.f6 23.4Jxf5 ~xf1 + 24.~xf1
8 4Jg3+ =+=. 17.-'l,c4? A tempting move that
7 walks into an unexpected checkmate.
6 More prudent was 17.~d4 h4+ 18.~h3
l.te6~. 17 ..• h4+ 18.<;t>f4 lS.~h3
4Jxf2+ -+ 18••. ~d6+ Missing a tough-
to-find mate in one, lS ... g5#.19.<;t>g5
~h6# 0--1

(140) Jackson - Formanek

abc d e f g h Seattle 1966
French Defense [CI4]
The famous New York City chess book-
store owner embarks on an ambitious


l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~c3 ~f6 4.Ag5 cannot ignore the threat of 'ii:rxg6)
Ae7 5.e5 ~fd7 6.Axe7 'ifJxe7 7.f4 21. 'i£txg6 'i£txg6 22.El xg6+ ~f8 (or
0--0 S.~f3 c5- 9.Ad3 f5 10.0--0 ~c6 22 ... ~h7 23.Elgl +- when Elh3 is hard
11.~b5 a6 12.~d6 cxd4 13.<ifj1hl to stop) 23.Elh3 with mate to follow.
~c5 14.g41? f xg4? 23 ... 4Jd8 24.4Jf6+-. 19.~xf5 Best is
19.Elh3! with ideas such as Elgl and
8 'ii:rh4, 19 ... ~d7 20.4Jxf5 exf5 21.'ii:rg3
7 (not 21.'ii:rh4 'ii:rg7) 21...Ele8 22.Elh7
6 'i£txh7 23.4Jxh7 ~xh7 24.Elgl 4Je7
5 25.h4 4Je4 26.'ii:rb3 b5 27.'i£ta3 (in
search of entry squares) 27 ... ~c8
28.'ii:ra5 +-. 19 .••exf5 20. 'ifJg2 ~e6
21..§g1 ~ xg5 22•.§g3 'ifJe6 Overlook-
ing 22 ... 'ii:rh7 23.Elxg5 4Je7=. 23..§xg5
~e7 24. 'ifJh3 Ad7 25 . .§h5 .§fS
abcdefgh 26•.§h71-O

Edward Formanek had become (141) Nuenchert - Benecke

Chicago's most successful tournament Halle 1967
player, but he lost here to a St. Louis Sicilian Defense [B21]
high school student with obvious po-
tential. Following the g4-pawn sacrifice l.e4 c5 2.d4 cxd4 3.c3 e6 4.~f3
to open the diagonal for the ~d3, White dxc3 5.~ xc3 Ab4 6.Ad2 ~f6
initiates the sacrifice, counting on the 7.Ad3 0--0 S. 'ifJe2 d5 9.e5 ~fd7
4Jd6, the e5-pawn, and the open g-file
as additional assets. Formanek correctly 8
defended with 'it'g8, but the idea ofElf3- 7
h3 more than compensates for the ma-
terial deficit. 15.Axh7+ <ifj1xh7
16.~g5+ <ifj1gS The ~g6 and ~h6lines
both meet 'i£txg4 with an overwhelming
attack. 16 ... 'it'h617.'i£txg4 +-; 16... 'it'g6 3
17.'i£txg4+- 4Jxe5 18.'i£th4. Here, the 2

'it'h8line requires a slight bit ofthought,

16 ... 'it'h8 17.'i£txg4 g6 18.Elf3 +-. abc d e f g h
17.'ifJxg4g61S..§f3 .§f5 (a) 18 ...'ii:rg7
19.Elh3 4Je4 20.4Jdxe4 dxe4 21.Elgl. For additional assets, White can count
(with no desire to be rolled, Black can here on the e5-pawn and the dark-
attempt to eliminate the white center) square bishop. By selecting the ~g6
21...4Jxe5 22.fxe5 Elf5 23.Elh7 'ii:rxe5 line, Black gives white more opportu-
24.4Jxe4 (an obvious rook sacrifice to nity to err. 12.h4 creates the possibility
mobilize the remaining majors) ofh5+, while 12.'ii:rg4 permits Black to
24 ... 'it'xh7 25.'i£txg6+ ~h8 26.'ii:rh6#; capture the undefended e5-pawn.
and (b) 18 ... d3 19.Elgl (ignoring the 10.Axh7+ <ifj1xh711.~g5+ <ifj1g6 The
pawn) 19 ... Elf5 20.4Jge4 'i£tg7 (Black 'it'g8 line leads to the customary mate

Sacking the Citadel

in five because the black king cannot (142) Neu - Hirsch

retreat to d6 or d8. 11...~gS 12.~h5 Correspondence 1967
E!.eS 13.~xf7+ ~hS 14.~h5+ ~gS French Defense [C 18]
15.~h7+ ~fS 16.~hS+ ~e7
17.~xg7#. 12.h4! 12.~g4? throws l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£lc3 J}.b4 4.e5 c5
away the advantage because Black can 5.a3 Aa5 6.b4 cxd4 7 ..£l b5 J}.c78.f4
capture on e5 with tempo and then ex- .£le7 9 ..£l£3 J}.d710..£lbxd4 .£lbc6
ploit the absence of the e5-pawn by 1l.c30-0 12.J}.d3 f613.0-0 fxe5
escaping via f6. 12 ... 4Jxe513.~g3 ~f6
14.~f4+ '!ie715.~xe5 Axc3 16.Axc3 8

f6+. More interesting is 12.~d3+!? f5 7

13.exf6+ ~xf6 (not 13 ... '!ih5 14.~h7+ 6
'!ig415.h3#) 14.~d4+ 4Je5! (throwing 5
back the piece to obtain relative equal- 4
ity) 15.4Jh7+ ~f7 16.~xe5 .§.hS 3
17.4Jg5+ ~gS 18.4Jxe6 ~e7 19.4Jxd5 2
Axd2+ 20.~xd2 ~xe6 21.~xe6+
Axe6 22.4Jc7 ~f7 23.4JxaS 4Ja6=.
abc d e f g h
12 ..• ~e7 Moving the queen out of the
knight's reach. Alternatives are no bet-
ter: (a) 12 ... 4Jxe5 (sacrificing back the Another complex game played by cor-
material doesn't lessen the attack) respondence. The position is unusual
13.~xe5 f6 (expecting to win back the in that the sacrifice occurs just follow-
piece, but...) 14.h5+ '!ih6 15.4Jxe6+ ing a black capture on e5. White can
(breaking the fork) 15 ... '!ih716.4JxfS+ therefore look to use the recapture to
AxfS17.~xd5+-; (b) 12 ... Axc313.h5+ gain a key tempo. In the '!igS line, the
'!ih6 (not playable is 13 ... ~f5 14.g4#) tempo gain occurs after 14.~h5 E!.f6
14.bxc3 preserving the bishop on the because Black cannot safely recapture
key diagonal (or 14.4Jxf7+with a game on e5. 14.J}.xh7+ ~xh7 15 ..£lg5+
winning double check+-) 14 .. .f5 (or ~g815 ... '!ih616.4Jdxe6+- when re-
14 ... ~b6 15.~g4 ~b2 16.4Jxe6+ treats by the black queen meet
~xd2+ 17.~xd2 E!.gS lS.~g5+ '!ih7 17. ~d3+. In the ~g6 line, the win is
19.~f5+ ~hS 20.4Jg5 g6 21.hxg6+ simple because the 4Jg5+ brings sup-
'!ig7 22.~xf7#) 15.4Jxe6+: and (c) port to 4Jxe6. 15 ... '!ig616.4Jdxe6 ~cS
12 ... f5? 13.h5+ ~h614.4Jxe6++-. (16 ... Axe617.4Jxe6 ~d618.~g4+ '!if7
13.~g4 Better is 13.h5+ ~h6 (not 19.fxe5++-) 17.4JxfS+ ~xfS lS.f5+
13 ... ~f5 14.g4#) when 14.~d3 is su- 4Jxf519.g4+-. 16.~h5 Black is happy
perior to any of the discoveries 14 ... f5 to give up an exchange to relieve the
(14 ... g6 15.4Jxf7+ '!ig7 16.~xg6#) pressure. Black is actually winning af-
15.exf6 +- . 13•.•f5 It's now too late to ter 16.4Jdxe6? Axe6 17.4Jxe6 ~d6
give back material with 13 ... 4Jxe5 lS.4JxfS E!.xfS -+. 16 ... .§f6 16 ... E!.f5
14.h5+ '!ih6 (14 ... ~f6 15.~f4#)
17.~h7+ '!ifS lS.4Jdxe6+ +- forks the
15.4Jxe6+ '!ih7 16.~xg7#. 14.h5+
queen. And after 16... E!.eS, White has a
~h615 ..£lf7+ ~h7 16. ~g6+ ~g8
nice variant of the usual mate involv-
ing a queen sac on move 20. 16 ... E!.eS


17.'liYh7+ ~f8 18.fxe5+ 4Jf5 19.'liYh8+ (143) Kozma - Sliwa

~e7 20.'ltfxg7+ 4Jxg7 21.§f7#. Zinnowitz 1967
17.fxe5 Finally recapturing the e5- Bogo-Indian Defense [A40]
pawn, and winning time because Black
cannot capture it. White has only a draw l.d4e6 2.c4 j'tb4+ 3.4)d2 d5 4.4)gf3
with 17.'ltfh7+ ~f8 18.'ltfh8+ 4Jg8 dxc4 5.a3 j'txd2+ 6.j'txd2 c6 7.e4 b5
19.4Jh7+ ~f7 20.4Jg5+=. 17... Elxf1+ 8.b3cxb39.~xb34)f610.j'td3j'tb7
Black can use §f6-h6 to interfere with 11.0-00-0 12.e5 4)d5
the attack 17 ... §h6 18.'ltff7+ ~h8
19.4Jgxe6 Axe6 20.4Jxe6 §xe6 gladly 8
giving upjust an exchange, 21.'ltfxe6±. 7
The capture by the knight or bishop 6
runs into a knight fork: 17 ... 4Jxe5? 5
18.'ltfh7+ 'ot'f819.§xf6+ gxf6 20.'ltfh8+
4Jg8 21.4Jgxe6+ Axe6 22.4Jxe6+ +-.
18.~xf14)xd419.~h7+ There's no
way to make progress with 19.'ltff7+
~h8 20.'ltfh5+ ~g8=. 19 ... ~f8
20. ~h8+ 4)g8 21.cxd41t's just a draw abc d e f g h
after 21.4Jh7+ ~f7 22.4Jg5+ ~f8= (not
22 ... ~e7 23.'ltfxg7+ 'ot'e8 24.'ltff7#). White can count on the dark-square
21 ••• j'txe5 22.dxe5 ~b6 23.a4 Elc8? bishop and the reinforced e5-pawn, but
Black must force White to accept a per- the 'ltfb3 does not have immediate ac-
petual with 23 ... Axa4 24.§xa4 'ltfb5+ cess to the h5-square. That delay gives
25.~f2 'ltfxa4 26.4Jh7+ ~f7 27.4Jg5+= Black an opportunity to vacate the f8-
(not playable is 27 ... ~g6? 28.~h7#). square and to defend f7 laterally. But
24.j'ta3 Also winning is 24.~h5 Ae8 Black cannot overcome his bad light-
25.4Jh7+ ~e7 26.'ltfg5+ 'ot'f7 27.~f4+ square bishop and poor queens ide de-
~e7 28.'ltff8+ 'ot'd7 (28 ... 'ot'd8 velopment. In the ~g8 line, White
29.Ag5++-) 29.Ae3+-. 24 ••. Elc3 misses the opportunity with 16.'ltfh 7 to
25.~h5 j'te8 And on 25 ... 4Jh6, cut off the king's retreat. In the game,
26.b5+ §xa3 27.§xa3 'ltfc5 28.§f3+ Black's king races to the queens ide but
~e7 29.'ltfh4 +-. 26.b5+ Elxa3 still faces incessant pressure.
27.4)h7+ ~e7 28.~g5+ ~f7 13.j'txh7+ ~xh7 14.4)g5+ ~g8
29.~f4+ 4)f6 30.Elxa3 j'txb5+ White wins trivially in the 14 ... 'ot'g6line
31.axb5 ~xb5+ 32.~gl ~bl+ with either ~g3!, 'ltfd3, or 'ltfh3: (a)
33.~f1 ~xfl+ 34.~xfl 4)xh7 15.~g3 The queen reaches the g-file
35.Elxa7 4)g5 36.Elxb7+ ~f8 37.h4 where it cannot be dislodged, 15 .. .f5
4)f7 38.Elb8+ ~e7 39.Elg8 4) xe5 (after 15 ... ~b6 16.4Jxe6+ Black must
40.Elxg7+ ~f6 41.Elg3 4)c4 42.h5 avoid 'ltfxg7# 16 ... ~f5 with a nice mat-
4)d2+ 43.~e2 4)e4 44.Elg41~ ing net: 17.~h3+ 'ot'e4 18.~f3#)
16.4Jxe6++- winning the queen; (b)
15.~h3 §h8 16.~d3+ (even with the
rook on the h-file, the king cannot safely
retreat there) 16 ... f5 17.exf6+ ~xf6

Sacking the Citadel

IS.'~f3+ 'ittg6 (IS ... 'itte7 19.'~f7+ 'ittd6 4)d7 48.~b4+ ~a6 49.~e2 c5
20. <tle4 # ) 19.'l11f7 + ~h6 20. <tlxe6+ +- ; 50.~c3 ~b5 51.~d2 c4 52.~d4
and (c) 15.'l11d3+ f5 16.exf6+ 'ittxf6 4)c5 53.g4 a5 54.g5 a4 55.d7 Jtxd7
17.!'l.ael +- (a typical maneuver once 56.~c3 Ae6 57.~d8 a3 58.~b8+
the f-pawn has moved) 17 ... .\1cS ~c6 59.~d6+ ~b5 60.~d4 4)a4
IS.'l11e4 (threatening 'l11xe6 with mate 61.~xe6 a2 62.~xc4+ ~a5
in two) IS ... 'l1i'eS 19.'l11e5+ 'itte7 63. ~d5+ ~a6 64. ~d6+ ~b5
(19 ...'ittg6 20.h4 +-) 20.<tlxe6 .\1xe6 65.~a31-O
21.'l1i'xe6+ 'ittdS 22 ..\1a5+ <tlb6
23. 'l1i'd6+ +- winning the queen. (144) Donner - Portisch
15.~h3 A bit faster is 15.'l11d3 f5 Wijk aan Zee 1968
16.'l11h3+-. 15••. lae8 16.~h5 Miss- Nimzo-Indian Defense [E50]
ing an opportunity to end to the dis-
cussion: 16.'l11h7+! ~f8 17AJe4 f6 1.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3 Jth4 4.e3
(17 ... 'l1i'c7 IS ..\1g5+-) IS.exf6 <tlxf6 c5 5.Ad3 0-0 6.4)£3 b6 7.d5 Ab7
19 ..\1b4+ !'l.e7 (19 ... ~f7 20.<tlg5#) 8.e4 b5 9.e5 bxc410.Ab14)xd5 (D)
20.<tlxf6 gxf6 21.'l11hS+ winning the
queen; 20 ... !'l.fS 21.<tle4+-. 21...'ittf7 A remarkable game. White can count
22.'l1i'xdS+-. 16••• ~d7 On 16 ... 'l1i'c7, on two additional assets, the dark-
17 ..\1a5 takes advantage of the fact that square bishop and the e5-pawn, but
the queen must defend f7' 17 ... 'l11d7 White's development is lacking. Nota-
(17 ... 'l11xa5? IS.'l11xf7+ 'itthS 19. 'l1i'xeS #) bly, White's king has not yet castled
IS.'l11h7+ ~fS 19.'l11hS+ 'itte7 20.'l1i'xg7 and Black has significant pressure on
with <tld6 to follow. 17.~h7+ ~f8
18.~h8+ IS.<tle4+- threatening both 8
<tlc5 and .\1g5. 18••. ~e7 19.~xg7 7
~d8 On 19 ... !'l.fS White wins the rook 6
outright with 20.<tlh7 'l11eS 21..\1g5+ 5
'ittd7 22.<tlxfS+ +-. 20.4) xf7+ ~c7
21.Aa5+ 4)b6 22.4)d6 ladS 23. ~g5
4)a6 24.lafc1 ~b8 25.lac3 With the
idea of!'l.f3-f7. The black king has mi-
grated all the way to b8, but White can
also break through with 25.a4 <tlc7 abcdefgh
26.!'l.abl +-. 25 ... laf8 On 25 ... <tlc7,
26.!'l.f3. 26. ~h6 lag8 27.lag3 Faster the <tlc3. As a result, in the ~gS line,
is 27.!'l.f3! 'l11g7 2S.'l11xg7 !'l.xg7 29.!'l.fS+. Black can sacrifice his queen on g5
27 ••• laxg3 28.fxg3 4)c4 29.~f8+ knowing that he will acquire additional
Ac8 30.laf1 4)xa5 31.laf7 ~c7 material on c3. 1l.Axh7+ ~xh7
32.laxc7 ~xc7 33.h4 4)c4 34.h5 12.4)g5+ ~g8 In the ~g6 line, the
lab8 35.h6 Ad7 36.~xb8+ 4)xb8 white pawn storm provides a winning
37.h7 4)xa3 38.h8~ b4 39.4)f7 plan. 12 ... ~g6! 13.'l1i'c2+ (not 13.'l11g4
4)c4 40. ~dS+ ~b7 41.4)d6+ 4)xd6 f5 14.'l11g3 'l1i'a5 when the counter-at-
42.exd6e5 43.~c7+ ~a844.~a5 b3 tack on c3 more than compensates for
45.dxe5 Ae6 46. ~c3 ~b7 47.~f2 the discovered check, 15.Ad2 <tlc6 -+ )


13 ... f5 14.h4 (14.exf6+? <;t>xf6-+)

14 ... .£lf6+. An inspired idea, prevent-
ing the h-pawn from advancing and
more than happy to part with the knight
in exchange for an escape for the king.
(14 ... .§hS 15.g4 ~eS [15 ... .£lf6
16 ..§gl +-; 15 ... Axe3+ 16.bxe3 ~eS
17.h5+ <;t>h6 lS.gxf5+-] 16.h5+ <;t>h6
17.gxf5 .£lxe3 lS.bxe3 Axh1 19.fxe6
.ilxe3+ 20.<;t>f1 ~xh5 21.~f5 +-).
13.t'1/h5 Knowing that the rook retreat abc d e f g h
with ... .§eS leads to the usual mate in
five, Black relies upon the pressure on A relatively easy win thanks to obvi-
the .£le3 to try ... 13... t'1/xg514..1l.xg5 ous additional assets, the reinforced e5-
Not 14.~xg5 .£lxe3-+ 15.a3 .£le4+. pawn, the well planted .£ld6, and the
14... 4)xc315.a3! But White is able to .§el. 18..1l.xh7+ <it>xh719.4)g5+ <it>h6
foil the idea by disrupting the coordi- In the ~gSline, White infiltrates easily
nation between Black's knight and with ~h7, ~hS, .£lgS, and ~g7 when
bishop. 15••. 4)e4+ 15 ... Aa5 16.Ad2 the .£ld6 exerts powerful control over
The point! White does not lose a piece. key squares. 19 ... <;t>gS 20.~h3 .§feS
16 ... .£la4 17 ..ilxa5 .£lxb2 lS.0-0 ±. (20 ... .§fdS 21.~h7+ ~fS 22.~hS+ .£lgS
16.axb4 4)c617..1l.e3 4)xb418.()...() 23 ..£lh7+ ~e7 24.~xg7 .§fS and it's
4)c2 19.Etac1 4)xe3 20.fxe3 The mate in four with 25.~g5+ f6 26.~g7+
smoke has cleared and Black has two .§f7 27.~xf7+ ~dS 2S.~eS"")
pieces and two pawns for the queen, 21.~h7+ ~fS 22.~hS+ .£lgS 23 ..£lh7+
not quite enough. 20 ... .1l.d5 21.Etf4 f5 ~e7 and now, after two exchanges on
22.exf6 Etxf6 On 22 ... .£lxf6, c8, the .£lgS falls: 24 ..£lxeS+ .§xeS
23.~e5 +-. 23.Etcfl Etaf8 24.Etxf6 25 ..§xeS AxeS 26.~xgS+-. In the line
4)xf6 25.t'1/e5 4)e4 26.Etxf8+ <it>xf8 with 19 ... ~g6, there are multiple paths
27. t'1/b8+ +- <it>f7 28. t'1/xa7 .1l.c6 to the win, but ~d3+ is most accurate
29.h4 <it>g6 30.g4 <it>h6 31.t'1/bS <it>h7 because Black's response ... .£lf5 does
32. t'1/f8 4)f6 33.g5 4)e4 34. t'1/f71-O not gain time against the queen. White
can quickly swing the queen to g3, Black
(145) Araiza Munoz - Galeb can only delay the attack with 21.. ..£lf5.
Lugano Olympiad 1968 20.~g3 .£lf5 21..£lxf5 <;t>xf5 (not
Sicilian Defense [B22] 21...exf5 22 ..£le6++-) 22.h4+-- when
the win requires considerable care:
l.e4 c5 2.c3 4)c6 3.d4 cxd4 4.cxd4 22 ... Axd4 23 ..£lxf7 .§xf7 24 ..§e1 +-.
e6 5.4)£3 4)f6 6.e5 4)d5 7 . .1l.c4 The queen can also swing to h3
.1l.b4+ 8.<it>f1 4)ce7 9.a3 .1l.a5 20.~h3 Axd4 (opposing the queen
10.4)bd2 t'1/c7U.t'1/b3 a612.4)e40- with 20 ... .§hS only invites 21.~g3
o 13..1l.g5 b514..1l.d3 .1l.b615.Etcl when, in addition to the discovery, Black
t'1/a716.4)d6 .1l.b717•.1l.xe7 4)xe7 has to worry about the fl-pawn.) 21.f4
.§hS 22.~g4 f5 23.exf6 ~xf6
24 ..£lge4+ Axe4 25.~g5 "". White's

Sacking the Citadel

best is likely 20.'l£1d3+ f5 21.'l£1g3 (not

21.exf6 4Jf5) and now (a) 20 ... 4Jf5 8
21.g4+-; (b) 20 ... 'it'xg5 2l.f4+ 'it'h6 7
22:l£1h3+ 'it'g6 23.g4 (the queen, 4Jd6 6
and the kingside pawns provide the net) 5
23 ... §.hS 24.f5+ 'it'g5 (24 ... exf5
25.gxf5+ 'it'g5 26.§.gl + +-) 25.'l£1e3+
'it'xg4 (25 ... 'it'h4 26.'l£1g3+ 'it'g5
27.4Jxf7#) 26.§.gl++-; and (c) As in
the line just above, although White
must force the capture of the knight. abc d e f g h
20 ... 'it'h6 21.'l£1h7+ 'it'xg5 22.f4+ ~xf4
(22 ... 'it'g4 23.'l£1h3+ 'it'xf4 24.'l£1g3 #) White has unusual additional assets
23.'l£1h4+ 'it'e3 24.§.c3+ ~d2 25.'l£1el #. here, a mobile e5-pawn and the two
20.t.\'h3+ <i!lxg5 As in the note to rooks. In the game, Black selects the
Black's 19th move, White has sufficient more challenging 'it'g6line, where White
forces for the mate if the king captures, misses the most powerful continuation
or if forced to capture, the 4Jg5. with a quick h4-h5. 19..11,xh7+ Cifj>xh7
20 ... 'it'g6 21.'l£1h7+ 'it'xg5 22.f4+ 'it'xf4 20.Jilg5+ Cifj>g6 In the 'it'gS line, White
(22 ... ~g4 23. 'l£1h3+ ~xf4 24. 'l£1g3 # ) does not have immediate access to h5
23.'l£1h4+ ~e3 24.§.c3+ ~d2 25.'l£1el #. but still infiltrates quickly thanks to the
21.Etc3 Jilf5 22.Jil xf5 It's mate in six mobility of the e5-pawn and the sup-
with 22.§.g3+ 4Jxg3+ (22 .. .'~f4 port of the §.el. 20 ... ~gS 21.'l£1h4 §.eS
23.'l£1g4#) 23.hxg3+-. 22 ••• <i!lf4 A 22.'l£1h7+ (or 22.e6 §.xe6 23.§.xe6 fxe6
better try, though still losing, is 24.'l£1h7+ ~f8 25.4Jxe6+ +- ) 22 ... ~f8
22 ... .1lxd4 23.4Jxd4 'l£1xd4 24.§.g3+ ~f4 23.e6 §.xe6 (23 .. .fxe6 24.§.xe6 §.xe6
25.§.g4+ +- . 23.g3+ 1~ And Black re- 25.4Jxe6+ 'it'e7 26.4JxdS ~xdS
signs facing a mate in three: 23 ... 'it'g5 27.'l£1hS+ ~d7 2S.'l£1xg7+ +-) 24.§.xe6
(23 ... ~e4 24.'l£1g4+ 'it'd5 25.4Je7#) fxe6 25.4Jxe6+ 'it'e7 26.'l£1h4+ +-. In the
24.f4+ 'it'g6 25.4Je7 #. ~h6Iine, White has a mate in four that
makes good use of'l£1f4-h4-f7 and of
(146) Flesch - Kovacs the §.dl. 20 ... ~h6 21.'l£1h4+ (the queen
Budapest 1969 is already poised to start the attack)
Queen's Gambit Declined [D41] 21...~g6 22.'l£1h7+ ~xg5 23.h4+ 'it'f4
24.§.d4 #. 21.h4 Securing the 4Jg5.
1.d4 Jilf6 2.c4 e6 3.Jilf3 d5 4.Jilc3 Less compelling is 21.§.d3 'l£1xg5
c5 5.cxd5 Jilxd5 6.e4 Jilxc3 7.bxc3 22.§.g3 'l£1xg3 23.'l£1xg3+. (Black has a
cxd4 8.cxd4 .11,b4+ 9 ..11,d2 .11,xd2+ rook and two minors for the queen)
10.t.\'xd2 ~ 1l.j},c4 Jilc6 12.~ 23 ... ~h7 24.e6 §.ccS 25.e7 §.feS+.
Jila5 13 . .11,d3 b6 14.EIad1 j},b7 21 ... t.\'c8 Black needs to play more
15.EIfe1 EIc816.d5exd517.e5Jilc4 actively than 21...'l£1e7 22.§.d3 +- with
18.t.\'f4 EIc7 §.g3 next. Black's best here is 21...§.hS
to prevent h4-h5, but 22.§.d3 §.h5 and
White is still winning after 23.e6 'l£1e7
(23 ... f6 24.4Jf7 §.xf7 25.'l£1g4++-)


24.l:':!g3 f5 25.4J£7+ ~h7 (25 ... ~f6 Now in the modern era, grandmasters
26.'~d4+ .£Ie5 27. ~xe5 #). The attack quickly become aware of others' games
makes progress with 26.l:':!g5 l:':!xg5 and theoretical battles can ensue. Re-
27.hxg5 ~g8 and White finally gains markably, this exact Greco Sacrifice oc-
control over the h-file. 28.~h2+-. curs in ten different games, which are
22 ..§d3 Consistent and best is 22.h5+ all here. The sacrifice can count on a
~h6 (22 ... ~xh5 23.l:':!d4+-) 23 ..£Ixf7+ mobile e5-pawn and the two active
~h7 24.e6+-. 22 ... f6 23.h5+ 'it'h6 rooks. Of note, the black .£Ib2 and the
Not 23 ... ~xh5 24.exf6+-. 24.4)e6+ ~b7 are not anchored, and Black can-
'it'h7 24 ... g5 brings on mate in six: not easily prevent e5-e6. In the key ~g6
25.hxg6+ ~xg6 26.l:':!g3+ ~f7
line, the l:':!c4's attack upon the white
27.~xf6++-. 25.4)xfS+ ~xfS
queen lessens the value of the discov-
26.exf6 .§f7 27. ~f5+ 'it'gS Avoiding
ered check when h4-h5 drives the king
27 ... ~h8 28.fxg7+ ~xg7 29.l:':!e8+ §f8
30.l:':!xf8++-. 28.~e6 Missing another to h6. The game enters a complex
win with 28.fxg7 l:':!xf5 29.gxf8~+ ~xf8 middlegame in which White, though
30.h6+-. 2S ...gxf6 29 ..§g3+ 'it'hS down a piece, can rely upon the rooks,
30.h6 4)e5 31.f4 .§e7? The losing an active knight, and the passed e-
move. Black can hold with 31...~c8 pawn. 19.Axh7+ 'it'xh7 20.4)g5+
32.~xd5 .£Ig4=. 32 . .§gS+ ~xgS 'it'g6 It is notable that none of the de-
33.~xf6+ 'it'h7 34.~xe7+ 4)f7 fenders selected the ~g8 line, which
35.~xb7 ~fS 36 . .§e7 'it'xh6 loses quickly to ~h4-h7 and e5-e6.
37..§xf71-O 20 ... ~g8 21.~h4 l:':!e8 (after the queen
sacrifice 21...~xg5 22.~xg5 .£Ixdl
(147) Polugaevsky - Tal 23.l:':!xdl +- White has f4-f5 and the
Moscow 1969 possibility of l:':!d4-h4) 22.~h7+. The
Queen's Gambit Declined [D41] queen must enter on h7 when after
22 ... ~f8 23.e6 fxe6 (not 23 ... l:':!xe6
l.c4 4)f6 2.4)c3 e6 3.4)f3 d5 4.d4 24.l:':!xe6 fxe6 [24 ... .£Ixdl 25.~h8#]
c5 5.cxd5 4) xd5 6.e4 4) xc3 7.bxc3 25.~h8+ ~e7 26.~xg7+ ~d6
cxd4 S.cxd4 Ab4+ 9.Ad2 Axd2+ 27 ..£1£7+ +-) there's no mate, because
10.~xd2 0--0 II.Ac4 4)c612.0--0 b6 the d6-square is free, but White has a
13..§adl Ab714..§fel4)a515.-'\,d3 knight fork when the king arrives at d6:
.§cS 16.d5 exd5 17.e5 4)c41S. ~f4 24.~h8+ ~e7 25.~xg7+ ~d6
26 ..£1£7+ +-. The queen sacrifice with
20 ... ~xg5 21.~xg5 relies upon winning
back the exchange, 21.. ..£Ixdl 22.l:':!xdl
l:':!c7 23.f4+-, but White emerges with
a slight material advantage and, more
importantly, the ability to play actively
here with f5 and either a rook swing or
e5-e6. 21.h4! .§c4! Among six alterna-
tives, Tal picks the strongest move, aim-
ing to prevent l:':!d4 and h5+.
abc d e f g h

Sacking the Citadel

(a) 21...f5 22.~d4! with the idea ofh5+ 25.<£'Ixt7+ 'It'h7 [25 ... ~xh5 26.'l;1g4#]
22 ... v.f1e7 23.h5+ (or a rook swing with 26.v.f1f5+ g6 27.~xg6+-) 23.h5+ 'It'h6
23.~e3 ~hS 24.~g3 ~h5 25.<£'Ie6+ (23 ... 'it'xh5 24.g4+ 'it'g6 [24 ... 'lt'h6
'It'h7 26.~xg7++-) 23 ... 'it'h6 24.<£'It7+ 25.~h3+ 'It'g6 26.v.f1f5 #] 25.v.f1f5+ 'it'h6
(White needs simply to secure the 26.~h3#) 24.<£'Ie4+ 'it'h7 (24 ... g5
knight and then pry open the kings ide 25.hxg6+ 'it'g7 26.~h3 fxg6 27.'l;1h6+
with h6) 24 ... 'it'h7 25.i!¥xf5+ 'it'gS 26.e6 'it'f7 [27 ... 'It'gS 2S. 'l;1xg6+ 'l;1g7
~c7 27.~f4 Ac6 2S.h6 1-0 Griien- 29.'l;1e6+ ~t7 30.<£'If6++-]) 25.'l;1f5+
Gohring, Germany 1983 ; (b) 21... i!¥d7 'it'h6 (25 ... 'lt'gS 26.<£'If6+ gxf6
does nothing to prevent White's main 27.exf6+-) 26.~g3 ~xe4 27.~g6+
threat: 22.h5+! 'it'xh5 (22 ... 'lt'h6 'It'h 7 (27 ... fxg6 2S. i!¥xg6 #)
23.<£'Ixt7+ 'it'h7 [23 ... 'it'xh5 24.v.f1g5#] 28.~e6+ +-; (2) 22.g4 Aiming for a
24.e6+-) 23.~d4 +-. Four players for- kingside pawn storm when Black's best
gotthat greed rarely pays; (c) 21...<£'Ixdl defense is 22 ... f5 22 ... ~h6 23.<£'Ie4+ g5
Giving Black a large material edge and 24.hxg5+ 'It'g6 25.v.f1f5+ 'It'g7 26.<£'Ig3
eliminates the possibility of ~d4. ~hS 27.'l;1bl v.f1a3 2S.'l;1f5 <£'Ixdl
22.h5+ 'it'h6 (22 ... 'it'xh5 when it's mate 29.'l;1f6+ 'it'gS 30.e6 ~h7 31.e7 <£'Ie3
in four starting with 23.g4+ 1-0 32.g6 fxg6 33.'l;1xg6+ ~g7 34.eSv.f1+
lasnikowski-Votava, Warsaw 1989. One ~xeS 35.v.f1xeS+ 'l;1fS 36.'l;1xe3 ~g6
game kept going with 23 ... ~h6 37.'l;1e5 ~g7 3S.g5 i!¥cS 39.f4 'l;1c5+
[23 ... 'it'h4 24.<£'If3+ 'it'h3 25.'l;1g3#; 40.~e3 v.f1c1 + 41.'lt'f2 v.f1c2+ 42.<£'Ie21-
23 ... 'it'g6 24.i!¥f5+ ~h6 25.<£'Ixt7+ ~xt7 oAiken-Bacon, correspondence 1997;
26.i!¥h5#] 24.v.f1h2+ 1-0 Becker-Homs, (3) Less impressive is 22.~d2 when
Ruhrgebiet 2004) 23.<£'Ie6+ when the Black can defend with 22 .. .f5 23.~xb2
discovery nets the queen 1-0 ~c4 22 ... ~c4 23.v.f1g3 ~h6 24.~xb2 f6
Olafsson-Lombard, Athens 1969. After 25.<£'If3 ~e4 26.~be2 ~h7 27.exf6 gxf6
23.<£'Ie6+, one player still kept trying: 2S.~xe4 dxe4 29.'l;1f4 ~gS 30.<£'Id4
(1) White had no trouble mopping up v.f1e5 31.v.f1e3 f5 32.<£'Ie2 ~cS 33.~dl
with 23 ... 'it'h7 24.<£'IxdS ~cxdS 25.~xdl Ac6 34.i!¥g5 ~gS 35.v.f1h5+ 'It'g7
~deS 26.v.f1f5+ ~gS 27.i!¥d7 AaS 2S.f4 36.<£'Ig3 'it'f6 37.i!¥h6+ ~g6 3S.<£'Ih5+ 1-
~dS 29.v.f1xa7 d4 30.i!¥xb6 d3 31.v.f1e3 oDreev-Yusupov, Mainz 2003; and (e)
1-0 Gurevich-Massana, New York 1985; Finally 21...f6 also fails to prevent the
(2) 23 ... g5 when it's more important to threat: 22.h5+ +- 'It'h6 (22 ... 'It'xh5
mate than to capture the black queen, 23.g4+ ~g6 [23 ... 'lt'h6 24.i!¥h2+ 'It'xg5
24.hxg6+ 'it'xg6 25.v.f1g4+ ~h6 25. i!¥h5+ 'it'f4 26. 'l;1f5 # ] 24. 'l;1f5+ 'It'h6
26.v.f1g7+ 'it'h5 27.v.f1h7+ ~g4 25.<£'It7+ ~xt7 26.'l;1h5#) 23.<£'Ie6+ +-
2S.v.f1h3#; (3) 23 ... ~xh5 and it's mate netting the queen.
in three with 24.g4+ 'it'g6 (24 ... ~h4
25.v.f1g3#) 25.i!¥f5+ 'it'h6 26.v.f1h5 #; (d) 22.h5+ With his queen under attack,
21... v.f1e7 A logical move that places the Polugaevsky correctly continues to at-
queen out of the reach of a discovery. tack. Less aggressive is 22 ..§.d4 '§'xd4
Two players with White won here but (22 ... i!¥e7 23.~e3 '§'xd4 24.i!¥xd4 ~cS
failed to find the optimal path. (1) 25.~g3 ~cl+ 26.'lt'h2 ~c4-27.'l;1xb2
22.~e3! ~c4 (22 ... <£'Ixd 1 23.~g3 ~gS '§'xh4+ 2S.'it'gl 'it'h6 29.'l;1c1 +- when
24.h5+ 'It'h6 [24 ... 'It'xh5 25.i!¥f5 +- ] White emerges with the threat of the


discovery still intact) 23.'I:'hd4 ~d7 §c7 35.§e6±, but not 33 ...§c7 34.§e6
(Black's best line appears to be 23 ... §h8 Aa6 35.§xf6 Ad3 36.g4+-. 34..§e7+
24.g3 ~c8 25.~xb2 Af5 26.~d2; not \!jIh8? 34 ...~g8 was the last chance to
23 ... ~c8 24.~xb2±) 24.e6 fxe6 keep the fight alive 35.4Jh4 ±. 35..£Jh4
25.4Jxe6 (25.~g4 +-) 25 ... §f5 f5 36..£Jg6+ \!jigS 37..§xa71-O
26.~g4+ ~f6 (26 ... ~h6 27.~xf5+-;
26 ... ~f7 27.~xg7+ ~e8 28.4Jf8++-) (148) Cappello - Squarcialupi
27.4Jf8 ~f7 28.§e6+ (28.4Jh7#) Correspondence 1970
28 ... ~xe6 29.~g6+ 1-0 Kunath- Sicilian Defense [B22]
Ruppe, correspondence 1983.
22 ... \!jIh6 22 ... ~xh5 leads to mate in 1.e4 c5 2.d4 cxd4 3.c3 .£Jf64.e5 .£Jd5
four: 23.g4+ ~g6 (23 ... ~h4 24.4Jf3+ 5 . .£Jf3 .£Jc6 6.Ac4 e6 7.0-0 d6
~h3 25.~g3#; 23 ... ~h6 24.~h2+ 1- 8.exd6 Axd6 9.cxd4 0-0 10•.£Jc3 a6
o Avrukh-Donk, Antwerp 1998) 11.~e2 b512 ..1l,d3 .1l,b713 ..£Jxd5
24.~f5+~h625.4Jxf7+ §xf7 26.~h5#. exd5
23•.£Jxf7+ \!jIh7 Avoiding the mate in
two after 23 ... ~xh5 24.g4+ ~h4 8
(24 ... ~g6 25.~f5#) 25.~g3#. 7
24. ~f5+ \!jIg8 Obviously not 24 ... g6 6
25.~xg6#. 25.e6 Securing the knight,
threatening e7, and aiming for h6.
25 ... ~f6 Forced, stopping both
threats. 25 ... ~e7 does not prevent
26.h6! +- and 25 ... 4Jxdl allows
26.e7 +-. 26. ~xf6 gxf6 27 . .§d2!
Polugaevsky finds the best move, stay- abc d e f g h
ing clear of the very tempting 27.4Jd6
4Jxdl 28.e7 §c1 29.h6 §b8 30.4Jxb7 Even in a correspondence game, mis-
§e8 31.4Jd6 §xe7 32.§xe7 4Je3+ takes are made. The sacrifice is prob-
33.~h2 4Jg4+ 34.~g3 4Jxh6 35.§xa7 lematic here in part because White can
§c5 36.§d7 §c6 37.~4 §c2 38.f3 §xg2 count on only one additional asset, the
39.4Je8 §xa2 40.4Jxf6+ ~f8 41.~g5 dark-square bishop and because Black's
00+ 42.~5 d4 43.f4 ~g7 44.4Je4 ~g8 development is fully adequate. The best
45.§xd4 §a7 46.~f6 b5 47.4Jc5 §a8 defense is the ~g6 line, but Black
48.4Je6 §b8 49.§d7 4Jh6 50.~g6 4Jg4 misses the chance to play 16... ~d7, hid-
51.~g5 4Jf2 52.f5 b4 53.~f4 §b6 ing the queen from the discoveries and
54.§e7 4Jd3+ 55.~g5 b3 56.f6 4Je5 staying in contact with the Ad6.
57.§e8+ ~f7 58.§e7+ ~g8 Yl-Yl 14.Axh7+ \!jIxh715 ..£Jg5+ \!jIg6 In
Naurnkin-Nevanlinna, Jyvaskyla 1993. the ~g8 line, Black's development ac-
27....§c6 27 ... 4Ja4 and only now 28.4Jd6 tually helps White because, in the nor-
~c6 (28 ... §c7 29.e7+-) 29.e7 §e8 mal mate in five line, the black bishop
30.4Jxe8 ~xe8 31.§xd5±. 28. .§xb2 occupies the d6 escape square.
.§e8 29..£Jh6+ \!jIh7 30..£Jf5 .§exe6 15 ... ~g816.~h5 §e8 17.~xf7+ ~h8
31 ..§xe6 .§xe6 32..§c2 .§c6 33..§e2 18.~h5+ ~g819.~h7+ ~f8 20:~h8+
Ac8 Perhaps best is 33 ... §c1 + 34.~h2 ~e7 21.~xg7#. 16.h4 16.~d3+ f5

Sacking the Citadel

shuts down the diagonal and 17.h4 can be. White has an unusual combina-
(17.i!Yh3 §hS shuts down the file). tion of additional assets, the §d1 and
17 ... i!Yd7-+ 16 .•• E!.h8 16 ... ~d7! the dark-square bishop. For his part,
17.h5+ ~h6+. White has a discovered Black cannot easily play <tJf6, despite
check with no threat, and Black can sim- the absence of a white e5-pawn, and
ply continue with ... §aeS and .. .f5.(not Black cannot reach the b1-h7 diagonal
17 ... ~f6 lSA:Jh7+ ~f5 19.94# or quickly enough. In the ~g6 line, the
17 ... ~f5 lS.iH3+ ~f4 19.~xf4#). win requires the kind of precision that a
17.g4 j'ih2+? Panic. Necessary was correspondence player is expected to
17 ... ~d71S.h5+ ~h6 when White can muster. White cannot stay on the g-file
use the discovery only to win an ex-
with an immediate i!Yg4, and h4 peters
change. 19A:Jxf7+ ~h7 20.<tJxhS ~xhS
out into a perpetual. Only after i!Yd3+
21.§d1 §eS+.I8.~g2There'snorea­
and two exchanges can White play i!Yg3
son not simply to capture the bishop,
18.~xh2 §xh4+ 19.~g3+- . 18... j'ic8
with winning effect. 14.j'ixh7+ ~xh7
15.~g5+ ~g6 In the ~gSline, the tra-
19.h5+ ~f6 20.~h7+ Overwhelming
is 20.~f3+ ~e7 21.§el+ ~d7 ditional mate is a bit more complex, but
22.~xf7+ <tJe7 23.~xh2 +-. White is able to overload the black
20... E!.xh7 21.g5+ ~f5 22.E!.el Ae5 queen. 15 ... ~gS 16.i!Yh5 §dS
23.~c2++- ~e6 24.~xh7 ~xd4 17.i!Yxf7+ ~hS1S.i!Yh5+ ~gS19.<tJxc6
25. ~xg7 f6 26.Af4 ~c6 27.Axe5 bxc6 20.§xdS+ ~xdS 21..~xb6+­
fxe5 28.E!.ac1 Ad7 29.~g6+ 1-0 i!Yxb6 (21...i!YfS 22.~h7#) 22.i!YeS#.
16.~d3+! There's no way to activate
(149) Leu - Muck the queen after 16.h4 §hS 17.<tJxc6
Correspondence 1973 bxc6 lS.i!Yg4 f5 when g3 is covered,
French Defense [C07] so: 19.Axb6 i!Yxb6 20.i!Yg3 (finally
reaching the key square, but after
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.~d2 c5 4.exd5 20 ... ~bS the line ends in a perpetual)
~xd5 5.~gf3 cxd4 6.Ac4 ~d8 7.~ 2l.f4 i!Yb6+ 22.~h2 ~f6 (taking full
o Ac5 8.~b3 Ab6 9.~bxd4 ~e7 advantage of the absence of an e5-
10.Ae3 0-0 11. ~e2 a6 12.E!.adl pawn) 23.i!Yc3+ ~g6 24.~g3=. There's
~c713.Ad3 ~1x:6 also no advantage to be found after
16.~g4 f5 17.~h4 <tJxd4 lS.Axd4 e5
8 19.Axb6 ~xb6 20.§fe1 e4 21.g4. Black
7 is also safe after 21. <tJh3 § eS (21 .. .fx g4
6 22.<tJxe4 <tJf5 23.~xg4+ ~h7 24.<tJg5+
5 ~gS 25.~c4+ ~hS 26.<tJf7+ ~h7
4 27.<tJg5+=) . 16... ~f5 16.i!Yd3 is best
3 in large part because Black cannot re-
2 spond with 16 .. .f5 when the knights
storm e6, 17 .<tJgxe6 ~xe6 lS.<tJxe6
i!Ye5 19.<tJxfS+ §xfS 20.Axb6+-.
abc d e f g h
17.~xf5 exf5 18.j'ixb6 ~xb6
19. ~g3! Better not to force the bishop
In this correspondence game, White
to e6 with 19.i!Yd6+ ~e6 20.~g3 f4
demonstrates how complex these lines
21.i!Yxf4 i!Yc5=. 19 ... f4 The reason for


avoiding 19:i£td3 becomes clear if Black queenside, and by the many additional
tries 19 ... '\ii'xb2 20.Eid6+. It's important assets, the e5-pawn, the g- and f-pawns,
here that Eid6 arrive with check:
20 ... ~e6 21.4Jxe6+ ~h7 22.'\ii'h3+ ~gS
23.4Jg5 EifdS 24.'\ii'h7+ 'it'fS 25.Eixc6
bxc6 26.Eiel +-. 20.Etd6+ f620 ... lte6
21.'\ii'g4+- (taking full advantage ofthe
pin on the bishop to find a post on the
g-file. And on 20 ...~h5 21.'\ii'd3 with the
usual offer of the 4Jg5) 21.. .g6
(21...'it'xg5 It's mate in 11 says Fritz 12
22.h4+ 'it'xh4 [22 ... ~g4 23.Eig6+ fxg6
24.'\ii'xg6+ 'it'xh4 25.~h2+-] 23.'\ii'h7+ abc d e f g h
'it'g5 24.'\ii'xg7+ ~f5 25.Eif6+ ~e4
26.'\ii'g5 +-) 22.4Jxf7 Eixf7 23.'\ii'xg6+
the 4Jd4, and the Eidl. In the ~gSline,
'it'h4 24.g3+ +-. 21. ~h4 Af5
White can reach the h-file only at h3,
21...'\ii'c5 22.'\ii'h7+ 'it'xg5 and again,
but the additional assets permit the nor-
White has the assets for a mating net:
mal infiltration on h7, hS, and g7 to suc-
23.h4+ 'it'g4 24.'\ii'xg7+ 'it'f5 (24 ... ~xh4
25.'\ii'xfS+-) 25.Eiel +-. 22.~h7+! ceed. 16.Axh7+ <i!lxh717..£)g5+ <i!lgS
<i!lxg5 23.h4+ Not 23.'lttxg7+? ltg6-+. In the 'it'g6 line, the kings ide pawns of-
23 ... <i!lg4 24.~xg7+ <i!lxh4 White fer the possibility of a quick pawn storm
mates after both 24 ... ltg6 25.'lttxg6+ with f5. White wins quickly there with
'it'xh4 26.'it'h2 +- and 24 ... ~h5 'ltth3 and 4Jh7, trapping the king in a
25.Eixf6+-. 25.~h6+ <i!lg4 26.<i!lh2 mating net. 17 ... ~g618.'ltth3! (l8.Eihgl
~xf2 There's no salvation in 26 .. .f3 4Ja2+ 19.~bl 4Jc3+ 20.'it'al f6
27.'lttg7+ ~f4 (27 ... 'it'h4 28.g3+ ~h5 21.'\ii'd3+ 4Je4 22.f5+ exf5 [22 ... 'it'xg5
29.g4+ ~xg4 30.~g3+-) 2S.'lttg3+ ~e4 once again, it's too dangerous to cap-
29.gxf3#. 27.~g7+ Missing a mate in ture the knight 23.'ltte3+ ~h4 24.4Jf3+
two: 27.Eixf2! f3 2S.gxf3#. 27..• <i!lh5 ~h3 25.'lttf2 4Jxf2 26.Eig3 #] 23.gxf5+
28.Etxf2 .£)e5 29.Etxf41-O opening the g-file for the rook 23 ... 4Jxf5
24.4Jxe4+ +- ) lS ... EihS 19.4Jh7 Eixh7
(150) Tremblay - Turcot (19 ... 4Jxdl 20.'ltth5 #) 20.f5+ winning
Correspondence 1974 in all lines:
French Defense [C 17]
l.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3 ..£)c3 -'lb4 4.e5 c5
5.-'ld2 .£)e7 6 ..£)b5 -'lxd2+ 7.~xd2
0--0 8.f4 .£)d7 9 ..£)f3 cxd410..£)bxd4 6
.£)c5 11.0--0--0 .£)e4 12.~e3 -'ld7 5
13.g4 ~a514.a3 Etfc815.Ad3 .£)c3 4
(D) 3
A highly unusual example distinguished
by Black's active counter attack on the
abc d e f g h
Position after 20.f5+ (analysis)

Sacking the Citadel

(a) 20 ... exf5 21.gxf5+. There are quick 11.0-0 ~xe4 12.~xe4 Etxe4
mates after both 21...4Jxf5 22.~hgl +- 13.-'l,d3 Ete8
and 21...Axf5 22.~hgl + +-. Toughest
is 21...'it'g5 22J':lhgl + 'it'f4 23.~g3+ 8
'it'e4 24.~gel + +-; (b) 20 ... 4Jxf5 7
21.gxf5+ 'it'g5 (21...exf5 22.§hgl #) 6
22.~hgl+ 'it'f4 23.~g3+ 'it'e4
24.§gel + +- when Black can only de-
lay the mate with ... 4Jg3; and (c) Black
doesn't even get a knight with
20 ... 'it>g5. It's mate in four after
21.~e3+ 'it'xg4 (21...'it'h4 22.~g3+
'it'g5 23.4Jf3+ 'it'h6 24.~h4#) abcdefgh
22.~hgl + 'it'h4 (22 ... 'it'h5 23.~g5 #)
23.~g5+ 'it'h3 24.~g3 #. The 'it'h6line White initiates the sacrifice a pawn
invites mate in two: 17 ... 'it'h618.~h3+ down, but the additional assets, the
'it'g619.~h7#.IS.'l:i1/h3 ~xdl Black dark-square bishop, and the active §f1
cannot successfully slow down the at- as well as the awkwardness of Black's
tack with 18 ... 4Jg619.~h7+ 'it'f8 20.f5. Af8 and Black's poor development as-
Black dare not move: 20 ... exf5 21.e6 sure success. In the 'it'g6 line, White's
Aa4 (21...4Jxdl 22.~xdl ~a4 win comes from f4-f5, opening up the
23.exf7 +- ) 22.exf7 - threatening both diagonal for the Ac 1 and fatally expos-
~g8 and 4Je6+ - 22 ... 4Je2+ 23.4Jxe2 ing the king after 16 ... Af5 l7.§ xf5 'it'xf5
~xc2+ (Black gains nothing with 18.g4+ . 14.-'l,xh7+ ~xh71S.~gS+
23 ... ~xb2 24.'it>xb2 ~b6+ 25.'it'al) ~g6 In the 'it'g8line, Af5 fails to ~f7+
24.'it'bl §xe2 25.~xg6+-. 19.'l:i1/h7+ and ~xf5. 15 ... 'it'g8 16.~h5 Af5
~fS 20. 'l:i1/hS+ ~gS 21.~h7+ ~e7 (There's no way to provide an escape
22.'l:i1/xg7 ~f2? 22 ... Aa4! 23.4Jg5 §fB for the king, 16 ... Ae7 17.~h7+ 'it'fB
(not 24.~xdl ~ac8 25.'it'bl Axc2+ 18.~h8#) 17.~xf7+ 'it'h818.~xf5+-;
26.4Jxc2 ~a4 27.4Je3 d4-+) and Black the 'it'h6 line loses instantly, 15 ... 'it'h6
survives after 24.4Jgxe6 4Je3 25.f5 16.4Jxf7++-. 16.fS+! Black is fine after
§fe8. 23.'l:i1/gS+ f6 There's no point 16.h4 Af5:;:. Even worse for White is
playing 23 ... 'it'e8 24. ~xg8+ -+ . 16.~d3+ Af5 -+. 16 ... ~f616 ... Axf5
24. 'l:i1/g7+ ~d8 2S. 'l:i1/fS+ 1--0 It's mate 17.~xf5 4Jd7 18.~c2 +-. If instead,
in four with 25 ... 'it'c7 (25 ... Ae8 Black captures the rook with 17 ... 'it'xf5,
26.4Jxe6+ 'it'd7 27.~d6#) 26.~d6+ White wins quickly in all lines after
'it'd8 27. 4Jxe6+ 'it'e8 28. ~f8 # . 18.g4+: (a) 18. .. 'it'e5 19.4Jxf7+ +- win-
ning the queen but also starting a mate
(151) Vieweg-Kadner in three; (b) 18 ... 'it'g6 19.~d3+ 'it'f6
Correspondence 1975 20.~f5+ 'it'e7 21.~xf7#; and (c)
Czech Benoni [A60] 18 ... 'it'f6 19.~f3+ 'it'e5 (19 ... 'it'g6
20.~f5+ 'it'h6 21.~h7#; 19 ... 'it'e7
l.e4 e6 2.d4 cS 3.dS d6 4.c4 ~f6 20.~xf7#) 20.~e4+ 'it'f6 21.4Jh7#.
S.~c3 -'l,e7 6.-'l,e2 0--0 7.f4 exdS 17.~e617.~h5! (aiming for both ~xf7
S.cxdS a6 9.a4 EteS 10.~f3 -'l,fS and 4Jh7) 17 ... ~d7 18.4Jxf7 ~xf7


19.~g5+ 'it'e5 20.EHe1 + and the mat- ~e7. Black can limit his losses, happy
ing net is in full swing. It's mate in three just to cede the exchange. 19.4Jxe6+
after 20 ... 'it'd4 (20 ... ~xd5 21.~f3+ ~c4 'it'f7 20.4JxfB 4Jxd4:;:. A bit more prom-
[21...'it'd4 22.E1ad1 + ~c4 23.~c3#] ising is 17.~d3+!? f5 1B.exf6+ 'it'xf6
22.b3+ 'it'b4 [22 ... 'it'd 4 23.E1adl#] 19.E1el. Taking aim at the e6-pawn.
23.~d2 #) 21.~d1 + ~c4 22.E1c1 + 'it'b4 19 ... 4JdB 20.i£1h3 ±. But White's best
23.Ad2#. 17••• ~b6 After 17 ... ~e7 move in the ~g6 line is 17.h4 with the
White can simply capture the queen or idea ofh5+ and gaining a tempo for the
play 1B.f6+ gxf619.4JxdB+-. 18..Q.g5+ ~d3+ line: (a) 17 ... 4Jxe5 18.dxe5 i£1xe5
~e519.Ete1 + ~xf5 20. ~d3+ 1--0 It's 19.h5+ 'it'f6 20.E1el i£1xallooks prom-
mate in two with 20 ... ~g4 21.~h3#. ising for Black, but any check by the
Ac1 will pick off the black queen
(152) Pulieri - Boch (20 ... 4Jc3 21.~d2 E1fdB 22.4Jh7+ ~e7
Correspondence 1977 [22 ... ~f5 23.i£1g5#] 23.E1xe5+- win-
Nimzo-Indian Defense [E59] ning a piece and maintaining the initia-
tive) 21.4Jh7+ 'it'e7 (21...~f5 22.g4#)
1.d4 4)f6 2.c4 e6 3.4)c3 Ab4 4.e3 22.Ag5++- f6 (22 ... 'it'd6 23.i£1xa1)
c5 5.j},d3 d5 6.4)0 dxc4 7.Axc4 ~ 23.i£1xal; (b) 17 ... f5 IB.h5+ 'it'h6
o8.~ 4)c6 9.a3 Axc310.bxc3 ~c7 19.4Jxe6++- demonstrates the threat;
11.j},d3 b612.e4cxd413.cxd4 Ab7 (c) The effort to safeguard the king
14.e54)d5 17 ... i£1e7 IB.i£1d3+ f5 (lB ... 'it'h5
19.i£1h7+ 'it'g4 20.f3+ ~g3 21.4Je4#)
19.exf6+ ~xf6 (19 ... 'it'h5 20.~h7+ ~g4
2l.f3+ ~g3 22.4Je4#) 20.i£1f3+ ~g6
21.h5+ 'it'h6 22.~d3 is much better
than the discovered check 22 ... E1f5
23.4Jxe6+ +- winning the rook out-
right; and (d) Taking away the h-file with
17 ... E1hB IB.i£1d3+ f5 19.exf6+ 'it'xf6
(19 ... ~h5 20.g4+ ~xg4 [20 ... ~xh4
21.i£1h3#] 21.i£1f3+ ~xh4 22.~h3#)
abcdefgh 20.i£1f3+ 'it'e7 (20 ... 'it'g6 21.~e4+ 'it'h5
[21...~f6 22.i£1xe6#] 22.g4+ 'it'xh4
White can rely here upon a common pair [22 ... ~h6 23.4Jf7410] 23.i£1g2+-) gives
of additional assets, the dark-square White an entry square on f7.21.i£1f7+
bishop and secure e5-pawn. With 'it'dB (21...'it'd6 22.i£1xe6#) which then
knights on c6 and d5, Black cannot force opens e6 for the knight 22.4Jxe6+ +- .
a knight back to f6, but the ~c7 does 17.~h5 Etfe818.a4 With two ideas, a
laterally defend on f7. After ~gB, White E1a3 rook swing and Aa3 to block the
plays a4 to activate the ~c1 or E1a1 on black king's escape route. 18 ..• a5
a3. 15.Axh7+ ~xh716.4)g5+ ~g8 19.Eta319.i£1h7+!? ~fB 20.Aa3+ 4Jcb4
After 16 ... 'it'g6, the lines are complex using the knight and a5 pawn to block
and instructive; White's most convinc- the diagonal. 19••. 4)d8 On 19 ... E1acB
ing line involves the immediate h4 20.E1h3 ~fB 21.E1f3 4JdB 22.4Jh7+ 'it'e7
threatening h5. 17.~g4!? f5 1B.~g3 23.Ag5+ 'it'd7 24.E1xf7+ 4Jxf7 25.i£1xf7+

Sacking the Citadel

§e7 26AJf8+ §xfB 27.~xfB §eB with §xe3. In those lines, the §c7 en-
2B.'liH7+ §e7 29.~xe7 .£\xe7 ters the fray powerfully with 27 ... cxd4
30."'~hg7 +- reaching a familiar double check. 20.'<1tgl 'ff1h4 21.§el
endgame in which the h-pawn will be (taking advantage of the .£\d3's defense
expensive to stop. 20.4)h7 The direct of f2 to run the king towards the
path to the win is 20:~h7+! '<1tfB 21..£\e4 queenside) 21...'ff1h2+ (21...§xe3
'<1te7 22.~g5+ 'it'd7 23.§c1 ~c6 22.fxe3 (or 22.§xe3 ~h2+ 23.'<1tfl
24:~xg7 §e7 25.~xe7 .£\xe7 26 ..£\d6 .£\xe3+ 24.fxe3 ~hl 25.'it'e2 ~g4+ with
~bB 27 ..~f6 .£\b7 2B.'£\xf7 +-. a skewer) 22 ... ~h2+ 23.'<1tfl ~hl+
20 •.. 4)c6 20 ... g6 (weakening the dark 24.'<1te2 'ff1xg2+ 25.'£\f2 ~xf2+ 26.'it'd3
squares and inviting ~h6 and §h3) ~f5+ 27.'<1tc3 driving the king all the
21.~h6 'ff1e7 22.§h3+-. 21.lah3 way to c3 so that 27 ... cxd4+ is a dis-
laed8 22.4)gS ~f8 23.laf3 ~e8 covered double check 2B. 'it'b4
24.laxf7 1-0 It's mate in three with [2B.'<1txd4 ~xb2+ 29.'it'xd5 ~e5#]
24 ... .£\ce7 25.§xe7+ '<1txe7 26.~f7#. 2B ... ~xb2 -+) 22. '<1tfl § xe3! Trans-
posing to the line just above. 20 ... hS
(153) Ivanov - Kogan Less convincing is 20 .. :ii1g5?! 2l.f4 ~h6
Tashkent 1977 (not 21 ...~g6 22 ..£\e5 +- ; or 21 ... §xe3+
Semi-Slav Defense [D 15] 22.§f3 ~h6 23.§xe3 .£\xe3 24.'ff1f3=)
22 ..£\e5 ~h2+ (Black has only a small
1.4)f3 dS 2.d4 c6 3.c4 e6 4.e3 4)f6 edge after 22 ... .£\xe3 23.~f3 '£\xfl +
S.4)c3 a6 6.a4 cS 7.Ad3 4)c6 8.0--0 24.~xfl cxd4 25.~xd4 f6 26.'£\f3
Ae7 9.b3 0--0 10.Ab2 b6 1l.cxdS bxa5 ~) 23. 'it'f3 .£\xe5+ 24.fxe5 'ff1h4
exdS 12.4)eS 4)b4 13.Abl Ad6 25.'it'e2 ~g4+ 26.§f3 ~xf3+ 27.'<1txf3
14.4)e2lae81S.4)f4laa716.4)fd3 ~h5+ 28.g4 ~h3 -+. The queen will
lac717.aS 4)xd318.4)xd3 again pick off the unanchored ~b2. Not
20 ... ~d6+? when 21..£\e5 +- actively
8 blocks the diagonal and readies ~d3.
7 21.4)eS Not 21.axb6 ~g5, threatening
6 both ... h4 and ... .£\xe3; and not 21.§hl
5 'ff1g5 22.f4 §xe3+-+. 21 ... ~g5 22.f4
h4+ 23.~f3 On 23.'<1th3 '£\f2+ over-
whelms, 24.'it'h2 'ff1g3+ 25.'it'gl
.£\xdl-+. 23 ... 4)xeS+ 24.dxeS ~g3+
2S. ~e2 -'lg4+ 0-1

abc d e f g h (154) Andreev - Estrin

Correspondence 1977
For additional assets, Black has the English Opening [A 18]
light-square bishop, the §eB, and the
§c7. In the '<1tg3 line, only 20 ... h5 l.c4 4)f6 2.4)c3 e6 3.e4 dS 4.eS d4
(threatening h4 and 'ff1g5) provides the S.exf6 dxc3 6.bxc3 ~xf6 7.d4 c5
advantage. 18 ... Axh2+ 19.~xh2 8.4)f3 cxd4 9.Ag5 ~fS -10.cxd4
4)g4+ 20. ~g3 In the '<1tglline, the.£\d3 Ab4+ 1l..1l,d2 ~aS 12.Ad3 4)c6
defends f2 but Black can barge through


13.§blO--O 14.§xb4 .£)xb415.0--0 'iftd6 [23 ... 'ifte8 24.~f7#] It's not mate,
~a3 just a mate in two with 24.Af4+ 'iftc6
2S. ~c7 #). Black can effectively shut
8 down the attack by placing the queen
7 on the bl-h7 diagonal, but only at the
6 cost of a piece and an exchange.
5 19.Axb4+-. 18.~g4 White is able to
bring the rook into the game at c3 and
win back a piece and then an exchange,
but all that does is restore the material
balance. 18.~bl+ 4:ld3 19.E'lc1 eS
20.E'lc3 ~b2 21.~xd3+ AfS 22.~g3 f6
abc d e f g h 23.4:lf3+ (23.4:le6+ 'iftf7 24. ~xg7 +
'ift x e6-+) 23 ... 'iftf7=.18 ... f519.~h4
Here, a correspondence game against j},d7 20. ~h7+ ~f6 21 ..11.f4 .£)c6
the seventh correspondence world White retains a distinct advantage with
champion and famous analyst Yakov much more active pieces after 21...4:ld3
Estrin. Already down the exchange, 22.AeS+ 'ifte7 23.Axg7'iftd8 24.Axf8
White has only the dark-square bishop ~xf8 2S.E'ldl ±. 22 . .11.e5+ ~e7
as an additional asset, although it be- 22 ... 4:lxeS 23.dxeS+ 'ifte7 (23 ... 'iftxgS
comes clear in the 'iftg8 line that the 24.f4+ 'iftg4 2S.~g6+ 'ifth4 26.~gS#;
advanced c- and d-pawns assist a mat- 23 ... 'iftxeS 24.~xg7+ 'iftd6
ing net. In the 'iftg6 line, the win is prob- 2S.E'ldl++-) 24.~xg7+ 'ifte8 2S.E'ldl
lematic. After 18.~bl + 4:ld3, White can ~e7 26.~g6+ 'iftd8 27.4:lxe6+ 'iftc8
gain his second asset with E'lc1-c3, but 28.4:lxf8 ~xf8 29.e6 Aa4 30.E'ldS ±
Black has time to maneuver his light- with three pawns for the piece and a
square bishop to fS. After 18.~g4 fS, much more active position. 23..11.xg7
the white queen cannot retreat to g3. ~d8 24.d5 §e8 Hopeless is 24 ... exdS
White emerges with three pawns for the 2S.cxdS 4:le7 (2S ... E'le8 26.dxc6 bxc6
piece and a winning edge thanks to the 27.4:lf7+ 'iftc7 28.AeS+ +-) 26.Axf8+-.
exposure of the black king and his bur- 25.dxc6 j},xc6 26.§dl+ ~c8 27.j},e5
ied E'la8. 16.j},xh7+ ~xh717..£)g5+ ~e7 After 27 ... E'le7 28.~h8+ E'le8
White can play 17.~bl + first with the 29.~g7 E'le7 30.~f8+ +- when the E'le7
idea of putting pressure on the pinned is pinned. 28•.£)f7 1-0
piece, 17 ... 4:ld3 18.4:leS 'iftg8=, but
Black is quite happy to give up the piece (155) Reid - Farrand
to end the attack. 17 ..• ~g6 The cus- Brighton 1977
tomary mate in five is unavailable be- Chigorin Defense [D07]
cause the black king can escape via d6,
but in that line, the dark-square bishop l.d4 d5 2.c4 .£)c6 3 ..£)c3 dxc4 4.d5
develops powerfully to f4 and mates .£)e5 5.e4 c6 6.A£4 .£)g6 7 ..11.e3 cxd5
quickly. 17 ... 'iftg8 18.~hS ~d3 8.exd5 e5 9.j},xc4 a6 10..£)f3 j},d6
(18. .. E'ld819.~xf7+ 'ifth8 20.~hS+ 'iftg8 11.0--0 f5 12.§el ~f8 13..11.d2 h6
21.~h7+ 'iftf8 22.~h8+ 'ifte7 23.~xg7+ 14.b4 .£)f615.b5 e416..£)d4

Sacking the Citadel

1.c4 4)f6 2.4)c3 c6 3.4)f3 d5 4.d4

8 e6 5.e3 4) bd7 6.Ad3 dxc4 7.-'\.xc4
7 b5 8.Ab3 b4 9.4)e2 Ad610.()"'o ()...O
6 11.a3 bxa3 12.bxa3 Ab713.4)d2 c5
5 14.Ab2
abc d e f g h

Black's impressive position includes 3

three additional assets, the light-square 2

bishop, the protected e4-pawn, and the

4Jg6. The ~gl line is most interesting abc d e f g h
in the line after 19.4Jxe4 and 20.Ab4
because White manufactures the time Black relies here on an unusual pair of
to play 21. 'ltic2, defending the f-pawn additional reinforcements, the light-
laterally. Note in that line that the §aB square bishop along the long diagonal
develops aggressively on the c-file and and the second knight. In the game,
the 4Jg6 enters the fight on e5. White defends with ~h3, attempting to
16...-'\.xh2+ 17.<i!lxh2 4)g4+ 18.<i!lgl exploit the light-square bishop's ab-
In the ~g3 and ~h3 lines, the 4Jg6 ends sence from the usual diagonal, but
the discussion instantly by supporting White fails to time d5 correctly.
'ltih4#; 1B.'ittg3 'ltih4#; 1B.'itth3 14...-'\.xh2+ 15.<i!lxh2 4)g4+ 16.<i!lh3
'ltih4 #. 18•.. ~h4 19.Ae3 In both of In the ~gl line, 'ltih4 wins quickly be-
the following lines, the black queen is cause the bishop is poised to remove
able to infiltrate via hi to g2, and the the 4Jf3 defender. 16.~gl 'ltih4 17.4Jf3
4Jg3 is able to show off its versatile (17.§e1 'ltixf2+ 1B.~h1 ~xg2 #)
scope in reaching e5, f4, and h4. (a) 17 ... Jl.xf3 1B.§e1 'ltixf2+ 19.~h1
19.4Jce2 'ltixf2+ 20.~h1 'ltih4+ 21.'ittg1 'ltixg2 #; White defends better in the
'ltih2+ 22.'ittf1 'ltih1 + 23.4Jg1 4Jh2+ 'ittg3 line because he can shut down the
24.'ittf2 4Jh4 25.Ab4+ 'ittgB 26.'itte3 long diagonal with 19.e4. 16.~g3 'ltig5
'ltixg2 -+; and (b) 19.4Jxe4 fxe4 17.f4 'ltig6 1B.'ltib1 f5 19.e4 4Je3+
20.Jlb4+ ~gB 21.'ltic2 'ltih2+ 22.~f1 20. ~f2 4Jxfl 21. ~xfl fxe4:;:.
axb5 23.4Jxb5 Jlf5 24.Jld6 'ltih1 + 16... ~g5 17.4)f4? It takes very active
25.'itte2 'ltixg2 26.§fl §cB 27.Jlc7 play with 17.d5! to shut down the di-
4J6e5 -+. 19 .•. 4)f4 20.Axf4 ~xf2+ agonal; 17 ... exd5 and then to shut
21.<i!lh1 ~xf4 22.g3 ~xg3 23.13e2 down the attack 18.4Jf3 'ltih5+
~xc3()"'1 19.'ittg3± d4? . After the ... 4Jgf6, it is
clear that the attack has been repulsed,
(156) Michaelides - Crouch 20.4Jf4 +-. The effort to shut the diago-
London 1978 nal with 17.e4!? fails to 17 ... 4Jdf618.d5
Semi-Slav Defense [D47] 'ltih5+ 19.~g3 'ltih2+ 20.~f3 exd5


2Utxd5 <£\xd5 -+. 17.•• Jildf618.d5 e5 part meaningfully in the attack, the .§.hl
19.Jile4 ~h6+ 20.'itlg3 exf4+ requires that the .§.dl sacrifice itself on
21.exf4 Or- 21.'lt'f3 <£\h2+ 22.'lt'e2 d7. In the ~gB line, the white queen
ila6+ -+ 23. 'It'd2 <£\xe4. 21 ... Jil xe4+ must enter the attack more slowly on
22.'itlxg4 22.'lt'f3 .§.aeB-+. The king is d3, giving Black the freedom of not hav-
trapped and <£\h2 is likely next. ing to defend on f7. Black misses the
22 ... .§.ae8 23. ~c2 c4 24..Q.a4 ~g6+ chance to run his king towards the
25.'itlh4 Not 25.'lt'h3 ~h5# Of the queens ide with 25 ... 'lt'd7. 20.Axh7+
three king moves, only 25.'lt'f3 is not 'itlxh7 21.Jilg5+ 'itlg8 Players might be
immediately mated but still meets tempted to try 21... ~h6 because White
25 ... ilxd5-+. 25 ... Ac8 26.~dl does not have a dark-square bishop, but
~h6+ ~1 Resigning in the face of it's mate in four with 22.~d3, threaten-
mate with 26 ... ~h6+ 27.~h5 ~xf4+ ing ~h7, when (a) 22 ... .§.hB cutting off
2B.g4~h2#. h7 but relinquishing f7 23.<£\xf7+ ~h5
24.~h3+ ~g6 25.<£\xhB!!#; (b) 22 ... g6
(157) Van derWiel-Spassov 23.~h3+ ~g7 24.~h7#; and (c) 22 .. .f5
Amsterdam 1979 23.~h3+ 'It'g6 24.'~h7#. In the ~g6
Sicilian Defense [B69] line, ~d3+ is effective because the black
rook, without an anchor from a .§.aB,
l.e4 c5 2.Jilf3 Jilc6 3.d4 cxd4 cannot safely defend on h7. 21