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# WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?

##  the science of numbers and their operations,

interrelations, combinations, generalizations, and
abstractions and of space, configurations and their
structure, measurement, transformations, and
generalizations. -Merriam Webster.
 from Greek work "Mathema" means "knowledge, study
and learning". The study of such topics as quantity,
structure, space, and change.-Wikipedia
 is the science that deals with the logic of shape,
quantity and arrangement.. It is the building block for
everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices,
architecture (ancient and modern), art, money,
engineering, and even sports.-Live Science
WHAT IS ALGEBRA?
part of mathematics in which letters and other general
symbols are used to represent numbers and quantities in
formulae and equations.
a generalization of arithmetic in which letters representing
numbers are combined according to the rules of arithmetic.
from Arabic word of "Al-Jabr" means "reunion of broken
parts". Is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for
manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost
all of mathematics.
 part of mathematics that allows manipulation and values to
determine quantities that are always fixed.
NUMBER(S)
is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and also
label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3,
4, and so forth. A notational symbol that represents
a number is called a numeral.
are strings of digits used to indicate magnitude. They
measure size - how big or small a quantity is.
…but Sometimes numbers are used as identifiers. Instead of
measuring how big something is or counting things, they are
used to label objects in the real world. For example, a
student ID number is not used to measure anything. It is
simply a string of digits that identifies one particular student.
Two Main Classes of Number
1. Counting-used to count the number of objects. They are
positive whole numbers and have no fractional parts. For
example 12 cars, 45 students, 3 houses.

## 2. Scalar-numbers used to measure some quantity to any

desired degree of accuracy. For example a building height is
12.388 meters, or speed of an aircraft is 810.31 kilometers per
hour. They can have decimal places or fractional parts.
Complex Number-is a number that can be expressed in the
form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a solution of the
equation x2 = −1.
Real Numbers- those that can be positive, negative or zero, and can
have decimal places or fractional parts. Those that are not imaginary
numbers.
Imaginary Number-are those needed to find the square root of
negative numbers, which would not normally be possible. So for
example the square root of -16 would be written 4i, where i is the
symbol for the square root of negative one.
-are numbers that contain imaginary “i”.
Rational Numbers- are those that can be written as the ratio of two
integers.
-Terminating decimals
-Repeating decimals
Irrational Numbers-those that are not rational, that is those that
cannot be written as the ratio of two integers.
-Non-terminating
-non-repeating
Integer- is a number that has no fractional part, and no digits
after the decimal point. An integer can be positive, negative
or zero.
Natural Number- positive integers (whole numbers) 1,2,3…
Prime Number-an integer that has no factors, other than one
and itself.
-integer greater than 1 that is divisible only by 1 and itself. Ex
2,3,5,7,17
Composite Number-any positive integer that is not 1 and
not a prime number.
Even Number-number can be divisible by 2 and there will be
no remainder or the outcome will not be a decimal or fraction.
Odd Number-number that when divided by two, leaves a
remainder.
Variable-is a symbol that represents an unspecified member
of the set, the value can be change at any time.
Constant-is a symbol that represents just one object, the
value cannot change. Example is Pi (π)
Coefficient-a numerical or constant quantity a numerical or
constant quantity placed before and multiplying the variable
in an algebraic expression
Algebraic Expression-is an expression built up from integer
constants, variables, and the algebraic operations.
Equation-mathematical statement/expression of equality.
-the process of equating one thing with another
NUMBER NOTATION
1. Number Line-is a graphical way to visualize numbers by
placing them on a straight line, usually with zero in the middle,
positive numbers to the right and negative numbers to the left.
2. Decimal Notation-string of digits and a decimal point (dot).
Digits to the left of the point are increasing powers of ten,
those to right are increasing negative powers of ten.
3. Fractions-two quantities written one above the other, that
shows how much of a whole thing we have.
4. Normal Form (Scientific Notation)- For very large and
very small numbers, decimal notation is not the most
convenient. a number in normal form consists of two parts: a
coefficient and an exponent (power of ten). For example, the
distance to the sun is 93000000 miles. This can be more
conveniently written as 93×106 miles. 93 is the coefficient and
6 is the exponent.

EQUALITY OF REAL NUMBERS
 (for all real numbers)

## 5. Multiplication Property: If a=b, then ac=bc and ca=cb

ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION of
Real Numbers
1. Associative Property:
 Mult: (AB)C=A(BC)
2. Communicative Property:
 Mult: AB=BA
3. Distributive Property:
 Left: A(B+C)=AB+AC
 Right: (B+C)A=BA+CA
4. Closure Property
 Sum: A+B is Real
 Product: AB is Real
5. Identity Property
 Add: A+0=A and 0+A=A Mult: Ax1=A and 1xA=A
6. Inverse Property:
Mult: A =1= 𝐴 

SUMS AND DIFFERENCE OF
REAL NUMBERS
1. If a and b are negative numbers, then a + b is negative and
a + b=-(│a│+│b│)
2. If a is a positive number, b is a negative number, and │a│ is
greater than │b│, then a + b is a positive number and a +
b=│a│-│b│
3. If a is a positive number, b is a negative number, and │a│ is
less than │b│, then a + b=-(│a│-│b│)
4. If a is a positive number, and b is a negative number, and
│a│=│b│, then a and b are opposites, and by property of
opposites, a + b=0
PRODUCTS PROPERTY
1. Multiplicative Property of 0 for every real numbers a,
a x 0=0 and 0 x a=0
2. Multiplicative Property of -1 for every real numbers a,
 a(-1)=-a and (-1)a=-a

QUOTIENTS PROPERTY
1. The quotient a divided by b is writing
For every real number a and nonzero real number b,

## 2. To divide by any nonzero number, multiply by its reciprocal.

Since 0 has no reciprocal, division by 0 is not defined.
PROPERTIES OF NEGATIVES
1. –(-x) =x
2. (-x)+(-y)=-( x+y)
3. x-y=x+(-y)
4. (-1)x=-x ; (-x)y=x(-y)=-x y (-x)(-y)=x y
5.

## THE IDENTITY ELEMENTS

1. a + 0 = a
2. 0 + a =a
3. a x 1 = a
4. 1 x a =a
5. 0-additive identity element
6. 1-multiplication identity element

THE INVERSE ELEMENTS
1. For real number a, there exists a real number -a such that
a + (-a) = -a + 0
2. There also exists a real number
3. The number -a is called the additive inverse or the negative
of a. The number 1/a is called the multiplicative inverse or the
reciprocal of a.

TRICOTOMY PROPERTY
 For any two real numbers a and b, exactly one of the
following relationships must hold:
1. a and b are equal (a=b)
2. a is less than b (a<b)
3. a is greater than b (a>b)
PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITY
Let a, b and c be any real numbers.
1. Comparison Property
Exactly one of the following statements is true: a < b, a = b, a > b
2. Transitive Property
If a < b and b < c then a < c
If a < b, then a + c < b + c
4. Multiplication Property
 If a < b and c is positive, then ac < bc
 If a < b and c is negative, then ac > bc
ROMAN NUMERALS
 The numeric system represented by Roman
numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual
way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late
Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by
combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet.
 I – 1 ; V – 5 ; X – 10 ; L – 50 ; C – 100 ; D – 500 ; M –
1000
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
 The significant digits in a number include the leftmost, nonzero, digits
to the leftmost digit written. Final answers from computations should
be rounded off to the number of decimal places justified by the data.

Concise rules:

## 1. All non-zero digits are significant: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

2. Zeros between non-zero digits are significant: 102, 2005, 50009.
3. Leading zeros are never significant: 0.02, 001.887, 0.000515.
4. In a number with a decimal point, trailing zeros (those to the right of
the last non-zero digit) are significant: 2.02000, 5.400, 57.5400.
5. In a number without a decimal point, trailing zeros may or may not be
significant.
Trailing Zeros-merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number.
Example 123000, 000 are trailing zeros
DIGITS AND PLACE VALUE

## The corresponding value is 8 is millions, 7 is hundred 

thousands, 3 is ten thousands, 9 is thousands, 4 is hundreds,
6 is tens and 5 is unit digit.
ROUNDING OF NUMBERS
 means replacing it with a different number that
is approximately equal to the original, but has a shorter, simpler, or
more explicit representation; for example, replacing \$23.4476 with
\$23.45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression √2 with
1.414.

LAW OF EXPONENTS AND
 In the expression 𝑏 or 𝑎 , a and b are know as the base(s) and n is the
exponent
 𝑥 =1
 𝑥 .𝑥 = 𝑥
 (𝑥 ) = 𝑥
 =𝑥
 (𝑥. 𝑦) = 𝑥 . 𝑦
 (𝑥/𝑦) = 𝑥 /𝑦
 1/𝑥 = 𝑥
 =𝑥
 𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑎 = 𝑏
 1/1=1
 1/0=infinity
 1/∞=0
 0/0=indeterminate
 ∞/∞=indeterminate
EQUATIONS
EQUATIONS- mathematical statement/expression of equality.
the process of equating one thing with another
In equation , the value of variable y is dependent
variable and x is the independent variable. The dependency
of y on x is clearer when equation is written in functional form
: y=f(x).
1. Linear Equation -first degree equation (e.i 3x-8=x+12)
can be solved by transposition, substitution, elimination and
determinants
second degree equation: ax2 +bx + c = 0
can be solved by factoring, completing the square and
 Quadratic formula from the equation

±
 ; where :

 Note:
 b2=4ac -the roots are equal. Therefore, is only one real
solution. Also known as double root.
 b2>4ac -the roots are real and unequal
 b2<4ac -the roots are imaginary and conjugate imaginary
CONVERSION

##  Conversion Units-is the conversion between different units of

measurement for the same quantity, typically through
multiplicative conversion factors.
 Conversion Factor-is used to change the units of a measured
quantity without changing its value. The unity bracket
method of unit conversion consists of a fraction in which the
denominator is equal to the numerator, but they are in
different units (units of length, area, volume, plane and solid
angles, mass, density, time, frequency, speed/velocity, force,
pressure and etc.).
OTHER TERMINOLOGIES
1. Axiom-a statement accepted as true.
An established principle in some artistic practice or science
that is universally received.
Example: 0 is a natural number.
2. Hypothesis- an assumption taken to be true for the
purpose of argument or investigation.
Example: If I give a plant an unlimited amount of sunlight,
then the plant will grow to its largest possible size.
3. Postulate –a statement assumed to be true, as a basis for
argument.
 Something assumed without proof as self-evident or
generally accepted, especially when used as a basis for an
argument.
Example: If a point, B, is drawn on a line segment AC, then
AC is the sum of AB and BC.
 4. Theorem – a preposition that can be proven from
accepted premises.
Example: The Isosceles Triangle Theorem: If two sides are
equal then two angles are equal.
5. Corollary – a preposition that follows from one already
proved.
In the theorem of geometry, the angles of two opposite two
and two congruent sides of a triangle are also congruent. The
corollary to that statement is that equilateral triangle is also
equiangular.
ARGAND DIAGRAM

A. NUMBER SYSTEMS

COMPLEX NUMBER

Integer

## Mathematics- the science of numbers and their operations, interrelations, combinations,

generalizations, and abstractions and of space, configurations and their structure,
measurement, transformations, and generalizations. -Merriam Webster.
-from Greek work "Mathema" means "knowledge, study and learning". The study of such
topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.-Wikipedia
-is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Math is all around
us, in everything we do. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile
devices, architecture (ancient and modern), art, money, engineering, and even sports.-Live
Science

Science- a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically
arranged and showing the operation of general laws: the mathematical sciences. systematic
knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.
- is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world
following a systematic methodology based on evidence.Scientific methodology includes the
following: ... Evidence. Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses.

Algebra- part of mathematics in which letters and other general symbols are used to represent
numbers and quantities in formulae and equations.

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
- a generalization of arithmetic in which letters representing numbers are combined
according to the rules of arithmetic.
-from Arabic word of "Al-Jabr" means "reunion of broken parts". Is the study of mathematical
symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost all of
mathematics

Number- is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and also label. The original examples are
the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. A notational symbol that represents a number is called a
numeral.

-are strings of digits used to indicate magnitude. They measure size - how big or small a quantity is.

…but Sometimes numbers are used as identifiers. Instead of measuring how big something is or counting
things, they are used to label objects in the real world. For example, a student ID number is not used to
measure anything. It is simply a string of digits that identifies one particular student.

## Two Main Classes of Number

1. Counting-used to count the number of objects. They are positive whole numbers and have no
fractional parts. For example 12 cars, 45 students, 3 houses.
2. Scalar-numbers used to measure some quantity to any desired degree of accuracy. For
example a building height is 12.388 meters, or speed of an aircraft is 810.31 kilometers per hour.
They can have decimal places or fractional parts.

Complex Number-is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real
2
numbers, and i is a solution of the equation x = −1.

Real Numbers- those that can be positive, negative or zero, and can have decimal places or fractional
parts. Those that are not imaginary numbers.

Imaginary Numbers-are those needed to find the square root of negative numbers, which would not
normally be possible. So for example the square root of -16 would be written 4i, where i is the symbol for
the square root of negative one.

-Imaginary numbers do exist. Despite their name, they are not really imaginary at all.

## -are numbers that contain imaginary “i”

Rational Numbers- are those that can be written as the ratio of two integers.
-Terminating decimals

-Repeating decimals

Irrational Numbers- those that are not rational, that is those that cannot be written as the ratio of two
integers.

-Non-terminating

-non-repeating

Example is Pi and e

Integer- is a number that has no fractional part, and no digits after the decimal point. An integer can be
positive, negative or zero.

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
Natural Number- positive integers (whole numbers) 1,2,3…
Prime Number-an integer that has no factors, other than one and itself.
-integer greater than 1 that is divisible only by 1 and itself. Ex 2,3,5,7,17

Composite Number-any positive integer that is not 1 and not a prime number.
Even Number-number can be divisible by 2 and there will be no remainder or the outcome will not be
a decimal or fraction.

## Odd Number-number that when divided by two, leaves a remainder

Variable-is a symbol that represents an unspecified member of the set, the value can be change at any
time.

Constant-is a symbol that represents just one object, the value cannot change. Example is Pi (π)
Coefficient-a numerical or constant quantity a numerical or constant quantity placed before and
multiplying the variable in an algebraic expression

## Algebraic Expression-is an expression built up from integer constants, variables, and

the algebraic operations.

## Equation-mathematical statement/expression of equality.

-the process of equating one thing with another

NUMBER NOTATION
1. Number Line-is a graphical way to visualize numbers by placing them on a straight line,
usually with zero in the middle, positive numbers to the right and negative numbers to the left.
2. Decimal Notation-string of digits and a decimal point (dot). Digits to the left of the point are
increasing powers of ten, those to right are increasing negative powers of ten.
3. Fractions-two quantities written one above the other, that shows how much of a whole thing
we have.
4. Normal Form (Scientific Notation)- For very large and very small numbers, decimal
notation is not the most convenient. a number in normal form consists of two parts: a coefficient
and an exponent (power of ten). For example, the distance to the sun is 93000000 miles. This
6
can be more conveniently written as 93×10 miles. 93 is the coefficient and 6 is the exponent.

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
B. EQUALITY OF REAL NUMBERS
(for all real numbers)

## 1. Reflexive Property: a=a (e.g. 10=10)

2. Symmetric Property: If a=b, then b=a (e.g. 2.5=2 then, 2 =2.5)
3. Transitive Property: If a=b and b=c, then a=c (e.g. 2x=10 and 10=4y, then 2x=4y)
4. Addition Property: If a=b, then a+c=b+c and c+a=c+b (e.g. 2x=10, then 2x+4y=10+4y and
4y+2x=4y+10
5. Multiplication Property: If a=b, then ac=bc and ca=cb (e.g. x=4, then x(y)=4(y) and
y(x)=y(4)

## ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION of Real Numbers

1. Associative Property:
Add: (A+B)+C=A+(B+C) (e.g. (10+7)+3=10+(7+3))
Mult: (AB)C=A(BC) (e.g. (10x7)3=10(7x3) )
2. Communicative Property:
Add: A+B=B+A (e.g. 10+7=7+10)
Mult: AB=BA (e.g. 10x7=7x10)
3. Distributive Property:
Left: A(B+C)=AB+AC (e.g. 10(7+3)=10(7)+10(3)
Right: (B+C)A=BA+CA (same procedure)
4. Closure Property
Sum: A+B is Real (e.g. 10+7=17, since 10 and 7 are real numbers, therefore the sum
(17 is also real number)
Product: AB is Real
5. Identity Property
Add: A+0=A and 0+A=A (e.g. 10+0=10 and 0+10=10)
Mult: Ax1=A and 1xA=A (e.g. 10x1=10 and 0x10=10)
6. Inverse Property:
Add: A+(-A)=0=(-A)+A (e.g. 10+(-10)=0=(-10)+10)
Mult: A =1= 𝐴 (e.g. 10( )=1=( )10

## SUMS AND DIFFERENCE OF REAL NUMBERS

Absolute Value (│a│)- the magnitude of a real number without regard to its sign.
(│a│)-the absolute value of a
1. If a and b are negative numbers, then a + b is negative and a + b=-(│a│+│b│)
e.g. -8 + (-6) = - ( │-8 │+ │-6 │) -( 8+6)=-14
2. If a is a positive number, b is a negative number, and │a│ is greater than │b│, then a + b is a
positive number and a + b=│a│-│b│
e.g. 6 + (-8) = -(│-8│-│6│) =-(8 – 6) =-2
3. If a is a positive number, b is a negative number, and │a│ is less than │b│, then a + b=-(│a│-
│b│)
e.g. 6 + (-8) = -(│-6│ -│-8│ =-(6-6) =-2

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
4. If a is a positive number, and b is a negative number, and │a│=│b│, then a and b are
opposites, and by property of opposites, a + b=0
e.g. 1.2 + (-1.2) = 0

PRODUCTS PROPERTY
1. Multiplicative Property of 0 for every real numbers a,
a x 0=0 and 0 x a=0 (e.g. 10x0=0 and 0x10=0)
2. Multiplicative Property of -1 for every real numbers a,
a(-1)=-a and (-1)a=-a (e.g. 10(-1)=-10 and (-1)(10)=-10

QUOTIENTS PROPERTY
1. The quotient a divided by b is writing 𝑜𝑟 𝑎/𝑏
For every real number a and nonzero real number b, =𝑎𝑥 𝑜𝑟 𝑎 ⁄𝑏 = 𝑎 𝑥
e.g. = 3𝑥 𝑜𝑟 = 3𝑥 )
2. To divide by any nonzero number, multiply by its reciprocal. Since 0 has no reciprocal, division by
0 is not defined.

PROPERTIES OF NEGATIVES
1. –(-x) =x (e.g. –(-10)=10)
2. (-x) + (-y) =-(x+y) ( e.g.-10)+(-8) = -(10+8) )
3. x-y=x+(-y) (e.g. 10-8=10+(-8))
4. (-1)x=-x ; (-x)y=x(-y)=-xy (e.g. -x)(-y)=xy (e.g. (-1)10=-10) ; (-10)8=10(-8)=-(10)(8) )
5. = =− 𝑜𝑟 = (e.g. = − 𝑜𝑟 =

## THE IDENTITY ELEMENTS

1. a+0=a (e.g. 10+0=10)
2. 0 + a =a (same example above)
3. ax1=a (e.g. 10x1=10)
4. 1 x a =a (same above)

## 1-multiplication identity element

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
THE INVERSE ELEMENTS
-For real number a, there exists a real number -a such that a + (-a) = -a + 0

## -There also exists a real number 𝑥 𝑎 = 𝑎 𝑥 =1

-The number -a is called the additive inverse or the negative of a. The number 1/a is called the
multiplicative inverse or the reciprocal of a.

IDENTITIES
TRICOTOMY PROPERTY
For any two real numbers a and b, exactly one of the following relationships must hold:

1. a and b are equal (a=b) (e.g. supposed a=2 and b=2 , then a=b or 2=2)
2. a is less than b (a<b) (e.g. supposed a=2 and b=3 , then a<b or 2<3)
3. a is greater than b (a>b) (e.g. supposed a=3 and b=2 , then a>b or 3>2)
4.

PROPERTIES OF INEQUALITY
Let a, b and c be any real numbers.

1. Comparison Property
Exactly one of the following statements is true: a < b, a = b, a > b
2. Transitive Property
If a < b and b < c then a < c
If a < b, then a + c < b + c
4. Multiplication Property
If a < b and c is positive, then ac < bc
If a < b and c is negative, then ac > bc

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
C. ROMAN NUMERALS
-The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and
remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet.
I – 1 ; V – 5 ; X – 10 ; L – 50 ; C – 100 ; D – 500 ; M – 1000

## (with bar) =1,000

Example:

1. IV = 4

2. LXX =70

3. CM = 900

Vinculum
-system in which conventional Roman numerals are multiplied by 1,000 by adding a "bar" or
"overline"

## I = 10,000 (with overline and vertical at two sides)

D. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
The significant digits in a number include the leftmost, nonzero, digits to the leftmost digit written. Final
answers from computations should be rounded off to the number of decimal places justified by the data

Concise rules:

##  All non-zero digits are significant: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

 Zeros between non-zero digits are significant: 102, 2005, 50009.
 Leading zeros are never significant: 0.02, 001.887, 0.000515.
 In a number with a decimal point, trailing zeros (those to the right of the last non-zero digit) are
significant: 2.02000, 5.400, 57.5400.
 In a number without a decimal point, trailing zeros may or may not be significant. More information
through additional graphical symbols or explicit information on errors is needed to clarify the
significance of trailing zeros.

Trailing Zeros-merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number. Example 123000, 000 are
trailing zeros

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
Example:

1. 23 (2 SF)
2. 45.6 (3 SF)
3. 53.00 (4 SF)
4. 0.002300 (4SF)
5. 13.023 (5 SF)
6. 3.4 x 10 (2 SF)
7. 5000 (1 SF)

## E. DIGITS AND PLACE VALUE

For the given digit number 8739465

## The corresponding value is 8 is millions, 7 is hundred thousands, 3 is ten thousands, 9 is thousands, 4 is

hundreds, 6 is tens and 5 is unit digit.

## 6 is unit, 1 is tenths, 8 is hundredths, 7 is thousandths, 5 is ten thousandths, 2 is hundred thousandths, 3

is millionths.

F. ROUNDING OF NUMBERS

## 1. Nearest hundreds (9700)

2. Nearest tenth (9746.9)
3. Nearest integer (9747)

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
G. LAW OF EXPONENTS AND RADICALS
In the expression 𝑏 or 𝑎 , a and b are know as the base(s) and n is the exponent

1. 𝑥 =1 (e.g. 12 = 1)
2. 𝑥 / = √𝑥 e.g. 12 / = √12
3. 𝑥 .𝑥 = 𝑥 e.g. 12 𝑥 12 = 12
4. (𝑥 ) = 𝑥 e.g. (12 ) = 12 ( )
5. =𝑥 e.g. = 12
6. (𝑥. 𝑦) = 𝑥 . 𝑦 e.g. (2x3)2 = 22 x 32
7. (𝑥/𝑦) = 𝑥 /𝑦 e.g. (2/3)2 = 22 / 32
8. 1/𝑥 = 𝑥 e.g. 1/2-2 = 22
9. =𝑥 e.g. =2
10. 𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑎 = 𝑏 e.g. 2x = 2y then x = y
11. 1/1=1
12. 1/0=infinity -is a concept describing something without any bound
13. 1/∞=0
14. 0/0=indeterminate -not definitively or precisely determined: Undefined' does NOT have
a value or its just not defined. 'Indeterminate' has a value which cannot be precisely
known. value of a real number divided by zero is undefined

15. ∞/∞=indeterminate

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
H. EQUATIONS- mathematical statement/expression of equality.
-the process of equating one thing with another

-In equation 𝑦 = 𝑥 + 3, the value of variable y is dependent variable and x is the independent variable.
The dependency of y on x is clearer when equation is written in functional form : y=f(x).

## Linear Equation -first degree equation (e.i 3x-8=x+12)

-can be solved by transposition, substitution, elimination and determinants

3x-8=x+12

3x-x=12+8

X=10

x + y =8

x–y=4

2x + 0 = 12

x = 6 ; y= 2

## Quadratic Equation-second degree equation

-can be solved by factoring, completing the square and quadratic formula

## Quadratic formula from the equation 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0

±√
𝑥= ; where : 𝑏 − 4𝑎𝑐 𝑖𝑠 𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝑎𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑡

Note:
2
b =4ac -the roots are equal. Therefore, is only one real solution. Also known as double root.
2
b >4ac -the roots are real and unequal
2
b <4ac -the roots are imaginary and conjugate imaginary

## Example of factoring: solve for x: 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0

𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0

(x-4) (x-3)=0

x=4&3

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
Example of By Completing Square: 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0

-Divide the coefficient of x term by 2 and then square. Adding both sides of the equation

## So, 𝑥 − 7𝑥 = −12 then 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + = −12 +

(x – 7/2 ) =1/4

x- 7/2 =±1/2 (when apply square root at both sides; the square root of 1/4 is ±1/2)

## using quadratic equation:

( )± ( ) ( )( ) ±
x= = = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 3 or = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 =3
( )

I. CONVERSION
Conversion Units-is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity,
typically through multiplicative conversion factors.

Conversion Factor-is used to change the units of a measured quantity without changing its value.
The unity bracket method of unit conversion consists of a fraction in which the denominator is equal to the
numerator, but they are in different units (units of length, area, volume, plane and solid angles, mass,
density, time, frequency, speed/velocity, force, pressure and etc.).

Example:

## 1. How many meters in 1 kilometer?

Solution: 1 km = = 1000 𝑚
2. The organization owns a plot with the rectangular dimension of 6 m x 8 m. What is the area in
square feet? Hint: 1 meter = 3.28 ft
Solution: Area= 6 x 8 = 48 sq.m
.
48 sq.m =( ) = 516.40 𝑠𝑞. 𝑓𝑡

J. OTHER TERMINOLOGIES

## Axiom-a statement accepted as true.

-An established principle in some artistic practice or science that is universally received.
- Example: 0 is a natural number.
Hypothesis- an assumption taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation.
-Example: If I give a plant an unlimited amount of sunlight, then the plant will grow to its l
largest possible size.
Postulate –a statement assumed to be true, as a basis for argument.
- Something assumed without proof as self-evident or generally accepted, especially
when used as a basis for an argument.
- Example: If a point, B, is drawn on a line segment AC, then AC is the sum of AB and BC.

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
Theorem – a preposition that can be proven from accepted premises.
- Example: The Isosceles Triangle Theorem: If two sides are equal then two angles are
equal.
Corollary – a preposition that follows from one already proved.
- In the theorem of geometry, the angles of two opposite and two congruent sides of a
triangle are also congruent. The corollary to that statement is that equilateral triangle is
also equiangular.

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
TOPIC NO. 1 PROBLEMS with SOLUTIONS:
1. Roman Numerals- find the value of the following:
a. IV =4
b. LXX=70
c. CM=900
d. MCMLXXXIV=1984

number:
a. 23 =2 sf
b. 45.6= 3 sf
c. 53.00=4sf
d. 5000=1sf
e. 13.023=5sf
f. 0.002300=5sf

## 3. Place Value- answer the below questions:

a. For number 23,865.291, what does 3 mean? Ans. 3 millions
b. For number 7,864,427, what does the 4 with the higher value mean? Ans.4 thousand

## 4. Rounding Off-Given 9,746.896047, what are:

a. Nearest hundreds (9700)
b. Nearest tenth (9746.9)
c. Nearest Integer (9,747)
d. Round off 1.2735 to 3 decimal places. (1.274)
e. Round off 1.239 to 3 significant digits. Ans 1.24
f. What is the value when 134.9 is rounded to 1 significant digit? Ans. 100
g. What is the value when 3.1416 is rounded to 2 significant digits? Ans. 3.1

5. Law of Exponents-
a. What is the 4rth root of 3 - ans. (33 ) / = 3 = 27
b. What is the value of n when (9) = (27) ? 𝑎𝑛𝑠. (3 ) = (3 )
4n-2=3n+6
n=8
c. Which of the following is equivalent to (2𝑦 ) ?
𝑎. 8𝑦 𝑏. 8𝑦 𝑐. 2𝑦 𝑑. 2𝑦
Ans. (2 )(𝑦 = 𝟖𝒚
) 𝟐

## 6. Linear Equation-Solve for x: 4 x + 9 = 9 x -3

Ans. 4x + 9 =9x – 3
9 + 3 = 9x -4x (use transposition)
12 = 5x
12/5 =x
7. Linear Equation-Find the value of x and y for two equations: x: x + y =8 and x – y =4:
Ans. x + y = 8

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp
+ x–y=4
2x= 12
X=6 and (x=6)+y = 8 then y= 2

## 8. Quadratic Equation- solve for x:

a. Find the value of x: 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0 using factoring method. Ans. X=4 and 3
Ans: x2—7x + 12 =0
(x-3) (x-4) =0
x – 3 = 0 ; x =3 and x – 4 =0; x = 4
b. Find the value of x: 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0 using completing square method.

## Ans. So, 𝑥 − 7𝑥 = −12 then 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + = −12 +

(x – 7/2 ) =1/4

x- 7/2 =±1/2 (when apply square root at both sides; the square root of 1/4 is ±1/2)

## c. Find the value of x: 𝑥 − 7𝑥 + 12 = 0 using quadratic formula.

( )± ( ) ( )( ) ±
Ans: x= = = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 3 or = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 =3
( )

## 9. Conversion-solve the following:

a. If the cylindrical tank has volume of 100 gallons what is the volume of tank in cu.m and in liter? Refer
from metric standard.
Ans. 1 gallon= 3.85412 liters, therefore 100 gallons= 378.5412 liters
1 cu.m = 1000 liters, therefore 378.5412/1000= 0.3785412 cu.m
b. What is the speed of the car in fps when in 30 mph (mile per hour)

Ans. 30 = = = = 44 𝑓𝑝𝑠
c. If the room has a temperature rating of 89ºF, what will be the rating in kelvin?
Ans. Step 1: (C+9/5)+32=F
C=31.67º
C=K-273.15
K=304.82º

Step 2: K=(F+459.67)(5/9)
K=304.82º

d. What is the density of steel in lb/cu.ft and g/cm3 if the density is 8,050 kg/cu.m?
Ans. 8,050 = 𝑥( ) = 8.05𝑔/𝑐𝑢. 𝑐𝑚
.
.
Ans. 8,050 = 𝑥( ) = 502.79
. . .

SPLE 2019-MASTER PLUMBERS/08FEB2019 Prepared by: Marvin T. Luna, CE, RMP, Enp