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Anatomy and Physiology

The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and
expelling carbon dioxide. It is divided in to two respiratory tract, the upper and lower.

Nostrils- passage way of air

Nasal cavity- lined by cells which releases mucous which filters air

Pharynx- is a muscular funnel that extends from the posterior end of the nasal cavity to the superior end
of the larynx.

3 layers of Pharynx:

 Nasopharynx- region connecting nasal cavity and pharynx.

 Oropharynx- region connecting the oral cavity and pharynx.
 Laryngopharynx- connects pharynx and Larynx.
Larynx- flexible segment of the respiratory tract connecting the pharynx to the trachea in the neck. It
plays a vital role in the respiratory tract by allowing air to pass through it.

Trachea- passageway of air to bronchus, start of respiratory tree.

Layer of trachea was built with smooth muscles that contains nerve of the autonomic nervous
system, which includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

 SYMPATHETIC NERVES releases B2 adrenergic receptor that will increase the diameter during
fight or flight
 PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES releases muscarinic receptor that will decreases the diameter
during rest.
o Carina- the point where bronchus splits
It is also made up of GODBLET CELLS that secretes mucus, and CILIATED COLUMNAR CELLS that moves
mucus upward.


Bronchus- passageway of air towards the lungs

Bronchioles- small bronchi that allows air to reach the alveoli.

The two last part of bronchioles

 Terminal bronchioles
 Respiratory bronchioles –contains out pouches called alveoli
-last part of bronchioles

Lungs-are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs (ALVEOLI) located on either side of the chest (thorax),
expands and compresses during respiration

- Contains bronchi

o Alveoli- responsible for gas exchange , end of respiratory tree, contains alveolar macrophages.
o Alveoli sacs- a group of alveoli that forms like a grape. Last destination of inhaled air.
The wall of alveoli is composed of pneumocytes

- Type 1
- Type 2- secretes surfactant that keeps the alveoli open
Alveolar sacs- attached to capillaries that is made up of endothelial cells.

Carbon dioxide from deoxygenated blood moves to the alveolar sacs and will be expelled trough

Oxygen from the alveolar sacs moves to the blood trough diffusion and circulates to the body.
Outside the lungs, there is pleural membranes that allows the lung to expand smoothly.

Parietal pleura- attached to the thoracic wall

Visceral pleura- attached to the lungs
Pleural cavity- space filled with fluid(plasma filtrates) that keeps the parietal and visceral pleura
together, and allows the pleural membranes to slide to each other during breathing.

Lymphatic stoma- allows pleural fluid to enter and exit the pleural cavity.