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Environmental Engineering-I

Lec-3: Air Pollution (Global Issues)

Engr. Ghulam Hussain


(Assistant Professor, IEER UET Lahore)
GLOBAL WARMING
or CLIMATE CHANGE
Is the Climate Changing?
What is Climate Change?
• Records change over
decades to millions of years
What are the current climate trends?
Sea ice trends
Melting Glaciers – Mt. Kilimanjaro
Melting Glaciers – Mt. Kilimanjaro
Changes in Antarctica Ice Mass
1000
800
600
Ice Mass (km3)

400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
2003 2004 2005
Year
Changing Sea Levels
20

Global Temperature Change


Relative Sea Level (cm)

10

-10 Amsterdam, Netherlands


Brest, France
Swinoujscie, Poland
-20
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
Adapted from IPCC SYR Figure 2-5
Increase in Hurricanes?
GLOBAL WARMING
(Mechanism)
 The incoming solar radiations are in the form of

UV Rays (0.1-0.4 µ), 9 %

Visible Light (0.4-0.7 µ), 45 %

Infrared Rays(0.7-4.0 µ), 46 %


THE “GREENHOUSE EFFECT”
The Greenhouse Effect
Natural greenhouse effect Enhanced greenhouse effect

Diagrams adapted from: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/science/faq/page5.html


Major Greenhouse Gases
• Water vapors account for 97 % of greenhouse
process (Their concentration remains almost constant)

• Due to anthropogenic activities, concentration of


GHGs is increasing, thus resulting in Global
Warming.

• GHGs contribute 3 %,
CO2, N2O, CH4, CFCs
» 76 % 6% 13 % 5%
Greenhouse Gases
1). CO2 :

 Present Concentration = 397 ppm


 Increasing rate = 0.5 % per year
 Expected level in 2050 = > 450 ppm
2). CH4:

 Present Concentration = 1745 ppb

 Increasing rate = 0.5 % per year


Pre-1750 Recent
GAS tropospheric tropospheric
concentration concentration
Concentrations in parts per million (ppm)
Carbon dioxide
280 397
(CO2)
Concentrations in parts per billion (ppb)
Methane (CH4) 700 1871/1750

Nitrous oxide (N2O) 270 323/322


Concentrations in parts per trillion (ppt)
CFC-11
(trichlorofluoromet zero 241/239
hane) (CCl3F)

CFC-12 (CCl2F2) zero 534/532


3). N2O:

Present Concentration = 322 ppb


4). CFCs:

Present Concentration = 532 ppt


% of global total annual emissions (2009)

1.8 1.6
1.8
1.8 People's Rep. of
China
United States
2.6
India
3.8 23.6
Russian
Federation
5.3 Japan

Germany

5.5 Islamic Rep. of


Iran
Canada

17.9
Top-10 annual energy-related CO2 emitters for the year 2009

% of global total Tonnes of GHG


Country annual emissions per capita

People's Rep. of China 23.6 5.13

United States 17.9 16.9


India 5.5 1.37

Russian Federation 5.3 10.8

Japan 3.8 8.6


Germany 2.6 9.2

Islamic Rep. of Iran 1.8 7.3

Canada 1.8 15.4


Korea 1.8 10.6
United Kingdom 1.6 7.5
Global Warming Connections
Consequences of Global Warming
• Global temperature may rise (1.5 – 5.5 oC) by
2050

Climatic Change
 A warmer northern hemisphere

 Changes in precipitation patterns

 More droughts, more storms

 More incidents of Malaria

 Extinction of Animal and Plant species


Consequences of Global Warming
Impact on Crop Yield
 Faster plant growth

 Plants prone to pest attack

 More fertilizers, pesticides needed

 Global yield of key crops may decrease by 30-70 % by 2050

Rise in Sea level


 0.2-2.2 m rise by 2050 (Maldives, Bangkok may be flooded,
Threats to ports)
The Maldives
Consequences of Global Warming

Impacts on Socio-economics
 Displacement of people

 Changes of occupation

 Sufferings, Miseries
Control Strategies
 Reduce emissions of GHGs

 Reduce use of fossil fuels

 Encourage use of hydal power and solar energy

 Control gas leaks

 Employ less fertilizers

 Stop using CFCs

 Plant as many trees as possible