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Overview

• Three-Phase Sources
• Delta and Y Connections
• Three-Phase Loads
05-Three Phase Analysis • Three-Phase Power
Text: 2.4 – 2.7 • Three-Phase Analysis
• Per-Phase Analysis
ECEGR 451
Power Systems

Dr. Louie 2

Three-Phase Voltages Three Phase

Van Vbn Vcn 120 deg. • Power systems use 3-


vector diagram phase
150
Vcn Vcn 120 • We are concerned with Vcn 120
100 balanced 3-phase
50 • Balanced circuit
Voltage (V)

0 conditions: Van 0
-50
Van Van 0  impedances are equal
-100 for each phase
-150  voltage source phasors
Vbn Vbn 120 have equal magnitude
Vbn
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
time (s) 120
Note: instantaneous
and have a 120 deg.
values sum to 0 phase shift
 a, b, c phase rotation

Dr. Louie 3 Dr. Louie 4

Benefits of Three-Phase Systems Three Phase

• Efficient use of conductors over three, single Three phase generators connected as Y or
phases
• Rotating field is needed for some loads (eg three
phase motors)
a
• Effective for power transfer a

• Per-phase analysis can be used in many cases Va Vc Va


• Constant power delivery to three phase loads
Vc n Vb c b
Vb
c b

Y (Wye) Delta

Dr. Louie 5 Dr. Louie 6

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Three Phase Voltage Three Phase Voltage

• Phase voltage: the voltage across each source For Y-connected sources:
(Va, Vb and Vc) Phase Voltages Line Voltages
• Line voltage: the voltage across the lines of the Van Va Vab Van Vbn Van ( 3 30 )
sources (also called “Line-to-Line Voltage”) Vbn Vb by KVL Vbc Vbn Vcn Vbn ( 3 30 )
Vcn Vc Vca Vcn Van Vcn( 3 30 )
a a
a
+ +
Va Va Van Va
Vb Vc Va Vab
-
Vc n Vc n Vb Vc n Vb
c b
-
Vb c b c b

Y Delta

Dr. Louie 7 Dr. Louie 8

Three Phase Voltage Three Phase Voltage

For Delta-connected sources: Voltages (line or phase) sum to zero


Phase Voltages Line Voltages Va Vb Vc 0
Vbn
Vab Va Vab Va Van Vbn Vcn 0
Do not confuse phase adding vectors
voltage with Vab Vbc Vca 0 Van results in 0
Vbc Vb “per-phase voltage” as Vbc Vb
discussed later Vcn
Vca Vc Vca Vc
a a a
- - + + -
++ - +
Va Van Vc Va Va
Vc Delta-connections:
Vab Vc Va
- -
phase voltages =
+ - - Vca Vc n Vb + -
+ line voltages
c
- + b c
- + b
+ c
- b
Vb V +
Vb - bc + Vb

Dr. Louie 9 Dr. Louie 10

Three Phase Current Three Phase Current


• Phase current: current flowing through the voltage sources Phase currents in Y-connected sources:
in a three-phase circuit
• Line current: current flowing from a three-phase source to Vector Diagram
a load
Vcn
• Each set of phase currents and sets of line currents are
balanced:
Ina Inc 120o
 Sum to zero Van Ina
Vbn
 Equal in magnitude Load Van
 Displaced by 120 degrees
Vcn n
Inb
Inc Inb
Vbn

Van is used as reference

Dr. Louie 11 Dr. Louie 12

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Three Phase Current Three Phase Current


Phase currents in Y-connected sources: Phase currents in Delta-connected sources:

line current Vector Diagram

a Vca
Van Ina Vca Vab
Vbn Y-connections: Ica 120o
Load phase current = Iac Iba Load Iba
Vcn n line current
Vab
c b
Vbc
Inc Inb Icb
Ibc

Vbc

Vab is used as reference

Dr. Louie 13 Dr. Louie 14

Three Phase Current Summary


Line currents in Delta-connected sources: Line Current = Phase Line Current = Phase
o
Current Current x 3 30
I12 Iba Iac Iba( 3 30 )
Line Voltage = Phase Line Voltage = Phase
I34 Icb Iba Icb ( 3 30 ) KCL at nodes a, b, c o
Voltage x 3 30 Voltage
I56 Iac Icb Iac ( 3 30 )

line current
I12
a
Va Vc Va
Vca Vab Vb
Iac Iba Load Vc n
I34
Vb
c b
Vbc Ibc
I56 Y (Wye) Delta

Dr. Louie 15 Dr. Louie 16

Y- Source Conversion -Y Source Conversion


a
- +
a
+ Vc Va
Va + -
c - + b Each configuration has
Vc
--
- Vb
Vb identical line-line voltages, line
c + + b
current, and complex power
Each configuration has delivered to the load
identical line-line voltages, line a
a current, and complex power +
- + delivered to the load Va
30
Vc 3 “per-phase” voltage of a delta is
Vc 3 30 Va 3 30 30
3 -- Vb the line-line voltage divided by sqrt(3)
+ - - 30
3
c - + b c + + b

Vb 3 30

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Example Example

Convert the shown three-phase source to its Y Convert the shown three-phase source to its Y
equivalent given: Va 480 0 equivalent given: Va 480 0

a
a +
- +
277 30
Vc Va Note: usually we redefine the reference
277 90 -- Voltage to be Van so that Van 277 0
+ - - 277 150
c - + b
Vb c + + b

Dr. Louie 19 Dr. Louie 20

Three Phase Loads Three Phase Loads

• Three phase sources are connected to three phase loads in • Circuit analysis is easier if loads are connected as Y
two common configurations
• We can transform balanced Delta connected loads
 Y (wye)
into balanced Y connected loads mathematically by
 Delta
• Y sources can be connected to delta and/or Y loads Z
ZY
• Delta sources can be connected to delta and/or Y loads 3
 ZY: complex impedance of Y-connected load (Ohms)
 Z : complex impedance of a Delta-connected load
(Ohms)
Za
n’ Za Zc • Results only apply to terminal conditions
Zb Zc

Zb
Y Delta

Dr. Louie 21 Dr. Louie 22

Conventions & Assumptions Three Phase Power

• Voltage: line-to-line in rms Total power delivered is the sum of power delivered
by each phase
• Current: line in rms S3 = VanI*na + VbnI*nb + VcnI*nc
= 3VanI*na (due to symmetry)
• Current direction: source to load
= 3S
where
• Balanced three phase
 S3 : total three phase complex power (VA)
 S: single phase complex power (VA)

Dr. Louie 23 Dr. Louie 24

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Three Phase Power Three-Phase Analysis

Similarly • Recall that we can make a hypothetical


P3 = Re{VanI*na} + Re{VbnI*nb} + Re{VcnI*nc} connection between neutrals without affecting the
= 3Re{VanI*na} circuit
 Neutral Conductor
= 3P
• For balanced sources and loads, no current flows
and
on the neutral conductor
Q3 = Im {VanI*na} + Im {VbnI*nb} + Im {VcnI*nc}
= 3Im{VanI*na}
= 3Q In=0 Z
Van
Vbn n’
Vcn n Z
Z

Dr. Louie 25 Dr. Louie 26

Three-Phase Analysis Three-Phase Analysis

• Phases can be conceptually decoupled • Balanced Three-Phase Theorem


• No need to solve all three phases • Assume:
 Solve for a-phase (current or voltage)  balanced three-phase system
 Shift +120o for c-phase, and -120o for b-phase  all loads and sources are Y-connected (or convert them
to Y-equivalent by dividing delta loads by 3 using per-
• We can therefore do a per-phase analysis phase voltage of delta sources )
 no mutual inductances between phases
then
 all neutrals have the same voltage
 the phases are completely decoupled
 all corresponding network variables occur in balanced
sets of the same sequence as the sources

Dr. Louie 27 Dr. Louie 28

Example Example

Consider the following circuit where the line-line 1. Verify that the circuit is balanced
voltage is 12.47kV, and the load impedance is 1200
+ 300j . Determine the total complex power
consumed by the load.

a a

Vc Va Z Vc Va Z
Z Z Z Z
c b c b
Vb Vb

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Example Example

2. Convert sources and loads to Y-connections 2. Convert sources and loads to Y-connections
12.47k
Van 7200 30 V
3 Van 7200 0 V
12.47k shift by +30 degrees
Vbn 7200 150 V Vbn 7200 120 V
for convenience
3 Vcn 7200 120 V
12.47k
a Vcn 7200 90 V
3
Vc Va Z
Z Z
c
Vb
b
Van Z
Vbn Z n’ Load is already
Vcn n Z Y-connected

Dr. Louie 31 Dr. Louie 32

Example Example

3. Draw per-phase equivalent circuit • Virtual connection between n and n’

Van 7200 0 V Z 1200 j300

n n’

Dr. Louie 33 Dr. Louie 34

Example Example

4. Solve resulting circuit for single phase complex 4. Solve resulting circuit for single phase complex
power and total complex power power and total complex power
Van
I 5.82 14
Z
S VanI 40,654 j10,163 VA
S3 3S 121,960 j30, 490 VA

alternatively
2
Van V2
S j an 40,654 j10,163 VA
1200 300
S3 3S 121,960 j30, 490 VA

Van 7200 0 V Z 1200 j300

n n’

Dr. Louie 35 Dr. Louie 36