Anda di halaman 1dari 2


WMR 0010.1177/0734242X19830044Waste Management & ResearchEditorial


Waste Management & Research

A new issue in waste 2019, Vol. 37(3) 197–198

© The Author(s) 2019
Article reuse guidelines:
management: Nanowaste
DOI: 10.1177/0734242X19830044

This special issue includes selected articles presented in 4th 3. Liquid suspensions containing nanomaterials.
EurAsia Waste Management Symposium that took place in 4. Solids containing nanomaterials.
Istanbul, Turkey, between 2 and 4 May 2018. The symposium
hosted numerous articles from more than 30 countries, Recent research studies show that nanomaterials are not inno-
including the management, treatment and disposal alternatives cent to both humans and environmental systems as previously
of almost all types of waste including municipal, industrial, estimated (Musee, 2011; Piotrowska et al., 2009). The useful
hazardous and special wastes. lifespan of the nanoparticles or nanoparticle containing prod-
Nanotechnology is accepted to be one of the fourth industrial ucts will last in landfills, wastewater treatment plants or waste
revolution agenda and it is believed that this revolution (which incineration plants (Gottschalk et al., 2010; Keller and
includes human-computer interaction, small-scale prototyping, Lazareva, 2014). Although the amount of nanoparticles in solid
digitalisation and nanotechnology) will cause new by-products waste streams is growing very rapidly, there is a lack of
and problems to be overcome like the previous three industrial knowledge about the effect and behaviour of these pollutants in
revolutions. The annual production of nanomaterials is waste pro-cessing and disposal techniques, such as biological
estimated to increase to 58,000 t in 2020 (Bolyard et al., 2013). treatment, landfilling and incineration (Ratwani, 2018).
It is expected that this critical technology will complete its
development by 2025 and will be adopted in all areas of life. Difficulties and concerns about
Nanomaterials are being used in a wide variety of applications
nanowaste management
and consumer products, such as personal care products, electron-
ics, textiles, pharmaceuticals, energy and environmental applica- Although the priority in nanotechnology has been given to the
tions because of their unique properties in the last two decades development of new products, there is a lack of information about
(Khan et al., 2013). As a result of the increased production of the amount of nanowaste generated during the production of new
consumer products containing nanoparticles, the concentrations of materials. However, nanowastes are accepted to be the main source
these materials are expected to increase in the waste streams in the of nanomaterials in the environment (Musee, 2011).
near future. Although engineered nanoparticles paved the way for When nanowaste generation came into the agenda in the last
major innovations in the fields of modern science and engineering, decade, it was thought that the existing technologies would be
there is a great concern about the potential unex-pected health and sufficient for the effective removal of these tiny materials from
environmental impacts. In addition, these newly developed waste and water streams. However, recent research studies indi-
materials may lead to new problems by reveal-ing the inadequacy cated that the existing wastewater treatment systems are not ade-
of existing waste management systems. quate for the removal of nanomaterials (Leppard et al., 2003).
Nanotechnology has launched a new era of miniaturisation of To date, no data are available on nanotechnology-related
industrial scale production. However, this has triggered the emer- industrial processes or on the amount of nanowaste generated by
gence of a new waste group (wastes containing nanomaterials) that end users, except the results obtained from some modelling and
could create difficulties in existing waste management prac-tices. estimation studies. However, the wide spreading of
This new waste group is called ‘nanowaste’. Nano wastes include nanotechnol-ogy applications makes it very difficult for true
waste groups containing nanomaterials; nanoscale syn-thetic by- estimations about the amount of nanowaste.
products produced during production, storage or distri-bution; end- Research on the treatment of nanomaterials in water and
of-life nanotechnological materials or products; and materials sludge or their behaviour in wastewater treatment plants have
contaminated with nanomaterials, such as pipes, and protective been studied recently. However, the available data and informa-
clothing. Depending on this definition, nanowaste can occur in four tion is not sufficient to determine the general designs required
forms. for the treatment of nanowaste. This can be attributed to the lack
of an international classification that can be used to determine
1. Pure nanomaterials produced at production point. the level of risks of nanowaste. In addition, the introduction of
2. Surfaces or substances contaminated by nanomaterials (con- nano-technology as a green technology in some cases is another
tainers, personal protective clothing, etc.). factor that slows down the efforts.
198 Waste Management & Research 37(3)

Health hazards of nanomaterials research organisations, governments and environmental

agencies will study the development of comprehensive and
The advanced physicochemical properties of nanomaterials pro- effective path-ways for safe disposal with the policy
vide their commercialisation. However, there is big concern developments for nano-waste in the near future.
about human and environmental health effects of these WMR has published several articles on this important topics
materials. These nanoparticles may be more toxic and more of microplastics (Agamuthu, 2018; Fauziah et al., 2018; Jiajia
resistant than their micro and macro scale structures; they may Wang et al., 2018) to highlight one aspect of the dire situation
have negative effects on human and environmental health and we are facing.
they may cause serious hazards owing to lack of these materials
in the regulations (Piotrowska et al., 2009). References
Certain nanomaterials have already caused problems to
Agamuthu P (2018) Marine debris, plastics, microplastics and nano-plastics:
human health and the environment. For example, titanium diox- What next? Waste Management and Research 36: 869–871.
ide nanoparticles were considered as non-toxic owing to their Bolyard SC, Reinhart DR and Santra S (2013) Behavior of engineered nano-
chemical stability. However, in recent studies, it has been deter- particles in landfill leachate. Environmental Science and Technology 47:
mined that the surface interactions cause genetic damage in the
Faunce T and Kolodziejczyk B (2017) Nanowaste: Need for disposal and
organisms, and these small particles circulate freely within the recycling standards. G20 Insights, Policy Era: Agenda 2030. Available
body, causing oxidative stress and cell death. Thus, TiO 2 has at:
Fauziah SH, Bhatti MS, Anuar N, et al. (2018) Worldwide distribution and
been included in the ‘Group 2B: Carcinogen’ class by the abundance of microplastics: How dire is the situation? Waste
International Center for Cancer Research, an organisation of the Management and Research 36: 873–897.
World Health Organization (Park et al., 2007). Gottschalk F, Sonderer T, Scholz RW, et al. (2010) Possibilities and limita-
tions of modeling environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials
Another great example is silver, owing to the antibacterial
by probabilistic material flow analysis. Environmental Toxicology and
effects in nanoscale. Research in the field clearly show that Chemistry 29: 1036–1048.
silver nanoparticles, even at very low concentrations, have been Hussain SM, Hess KL, Gearhart JM, et al. (2005) In vitro toxicity of nanopar-
ticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells Toxicology in Vitro 19: 975–983.
found to be toxic to microorganisms, and damage the cell
Keller AA and Lazareva A (2014) Predicted releases of engineered nano-
membrane and DNA (Hussain et al., 2005; Lok et al., 2006). materials: From global to regional to local. Environmental Science and
Many concerns are still remaining unclear or unknown related Technology Letters 1: 65–70.
to this rapidly growing field of technology. The possibility of nano- Khan IA, Berge ND, Sabo-Attwood T, et al. (2013) Single-walled carbon
nanotube transport in representative municipal solid waste landfill
particles transport through biologic barriers is still unclear. Also, condi-tions. Environmental Science and Technology 47: 8425–8433.
the behaviour of nanoparticles in the food chain is still unknown. Leppard GG, Droppoa IG, West MM, et al. (2003) Compartmentalization of
metals within the diverse colloidal matrices comprising activated sludge
microbial flocs. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of
Action required America, Soil Science Society. ASA, CSSA, SSSA 32: 2100–2110
Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, et al. (2006) Proteomic analysis of the mode of
In order to determine the effects of nanotechnology on human and antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. Journal of Proteome
environmental health, it is necessary to determine the current and Research 5: 916–924.
future sources and amounts of nanomaterials that will be dis-posed Musee N (2011) Nanowastes and the environment: Potential new waste man-
agement paradigm. Environment International 37: 112–128.
to the environment. Also, the variations of the properties of Park S, Lee YK and Jung M (2007) Cellular toxicity of various inhal-able
nanomaterials from the production stage to the waste disposal stage metal nanoparticles on human alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation
should be determined. Accordingly, studies focusing on the Toxicology 19: 59–65.
Piotrowska GB, Golimowski J and Urban PL (2009) Nanoparticles: Their
transport mechanisms, biochemical transformations and environ-
potential toxicity, waste and environmental management. Waste
mental behaviours of nanomaterials should be done (Faunce and Management 29: 2587–2595.
Kolodziejczyk 2017). Ratwani CR (2018) Nanowaste: Tiny waste that matters a lot. International
The lack of standards and frameworks related to the use and Journal of Current Research 10: 70262–70268.
Wang J, Zheng L and Li J (2018) A critical review on the source and instru-
safe disposal, treatment and recycle of nanomaterials is clear. It is ments of marine microplastics and prospects on the relevant
expected and a need that international and national organisations, management in China. Waste Management and Research 36: 898–911.

Mehmet Sinan Bilgili

Environmental Engineering Department, P Agamuthu
Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey University of Malaya, Malaysia
Email: Email: