94 tayangan

Diunggah oleh jaspreet46

- UWI MATH2404_ Syllabus
- Dont Remove 301
- Chapter 10 Numerical Integration
- A Course in Mathematical Statistics
- Central Limit Theorem - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Probability in a Nutshell
- 5-5.ppt
- t2003randomvariables_15
- Transmission lines QA
- 4_ECE_MA2261
- MIT6_436JF08_lec18
- Discrete Probability Distribution
- BCA Semester I II 3-7BCA-13
- Syllabus WQU603 Statistics
- JNTU old question papers 2007
- syllabus
- ECE2
- Review of Probability
- hw1
- Chapter 04

Anda di halaman 1dari 6

MB0024 SET 1

1. Explain the limitations of statistics in your own words.

Ans. Statistics with all its wide application in every sphere of human activity has

its own limitations. Some of them are given below below:-

statistics is basically a science and deals with a set of numerical data, it is

applicable to the study of only these subjects of enquiry, which can be

expressed in terms of quantitative measurements. As a matter of fact,

qualitative phenomenon like honesty, poverty, beauty, intelligence etc,

cannot be expressed numerically and any statistical analysis cannot be

directly applied on these qualitative phenomenons. Nevertheless, statistical

techniques may be applied indirectly by first reducing the qualitative

expressions to accurate quantitative terms. For example, the intelligence of

a group of students can be studied on the basis of their marks in a particular

examination.

2) Statistics does not study individuals: Statistics does not give any specific

importance to the individual items, in fact it deals with an aggregate of

objects. Individual items, when they are taken individually do not constitute

any statistical data and do not serve any purpose for any statistical enquiry.

3) Statistical laws are not exact: It is well known that mathematical and

physical sciences are exact. But statistical laws are not exact and statistical

laws are only approximations. Statistical conclusions are not universally

true. They are true only on an average. They are probabilistic statements.

otherwise, statistical methods are the most dangerous tools on the hands of

the inexpert. The use of statistical tools by the inexperienced and untraced

persons might lead to wrong conclusions. Statistics can be easily misused by

quoting wrong figures of data.

Statistics properly; only Statisticians can handle statistics properly.

Ans. Proportion of times that an event occurs in the long run when the conditions

are stable, or the observed relative frequency of an event in a very large

number of trials.

probabilities. We determine how often something has happened in the past

and use that fi8gure to predict the probability that it will happen again in

the future.

For example, suppose that an accounts receivable manager knows from past

data that about 70 of 1000 accounts usually become uncollectible after 120

MB0024 SET 1

days. The manager would estimate the probability of bad debts as 70/1000

= .07 or 7%.

frequency of occurrence method can be shown by tossing one of our fair

coins 300 times. Here we can see that although the proportion of heads was

far from 0.5 in the first 100 tosses, it seemed to stabilize and approach 0.5

as the number of tosses increased.

stable as the number of tosses becomes large (if we are tossing the coin

under uniform conditions). Thus when we use the relative frequency

approach to establish probabilities, our probability figure will gain accuracy

as we increase the number of observations. Of course, this improved

accuracy is not free; although more tosses of our coin will produce a more

accurate probability of heads occurring, we must bear the time and the cost

of additional observations.

One difficulty with the relative frequency approach is that people often use

it without evaluating a sufficient number of outcomes. If you heard someone

say, “My aunt and uncle got the flu this year, and they are both over 65, so

everyone in that age bracket will probably get the flu,” you would know

that your friend did not base his assumptions on enough evidence. His

observations were insufficient data for establishing a relative frequency of

occurrence probability.

Bernoulli process.

Ans. Individuals and corporate generate several data that resembles certain

theoretical distributions. Since mathematically we have many derived

characteristics of the theoretical distributions, we can make use of them for

a quick analysis of the observed distributions. These theoretical

distributions are divided into two groups:

b) Continuous probability distributions

i) Bernouli Process

ii) Application of Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distribution

MB0024 SET 1

Bernoulli Distributions:

called Bernoulli variable. It has only one parameter p. for different values

of p(0≤p≤1), we get different Bernoulli distribution,

0 represents the occurrence of failure

experiment is of dichotomous nature i.e. success/failure, present/absent,

defective/non defective, yes/no etc.

Example, when a fair coin is tossed the outcome is either head or tail. The

variable “X” assumes 1 or 0.

outcome is called a Bernoulli experiment. Let a Bernoulli experiment be

repeated “n” times under identical conditions, let Xi, for i=1 to n, assume

the values 1 or 0. Then Xi is a Bernoulli variate with probability p. let X=X 1 +

X2 + ……… + Xn denote the number of success in the “n” repetition. Then X

forms Bernoulli Distribution. Its mean is p and variance is pq.

variable along with their respective probabilities. It is a probability

distribution for a continuous random variable.

any of its values. Apparently, this seems to be a surprising statement. Let us

try to understand this by considering a random variable say, weight.

Obviously weight is a continuous random variable since it can vary

continuously. Suppose, we do not know the weight of a person exactly but

have a rough idea that her weight falls between 60 kg and 61 kg. Now, there

are an infinite number of possible weights between these two limits. As a

result, by its definition, the probability of the person's assuming a particular

weight say, 60.3 kg will be negligibly small, almost equal to zero. But we

can definitely attach some probability to the person's weight being between

60 kg and 61 kg. Thus, for a continuous random variable X, one assigns a

probability to an interval and not to a particular value. Here, we look for a

function p(x), called the probability density function, such that with the

help of this function we can compute the probability

P(a < x < b), a and b are the limits of an interval (a, b) where, a < b

MB0024 SET 1

A probability density function is defined in such a manner that the area

under its curve bounded by x-axis is equal to one when computed 'over the

domain of X for which p(x) is defined. The probability density h t i o n for a

continuous random variable X defined over the entire set of real numbers R

should satisfy the following

conditions.

2) ∫p(x)dx = 1

b

3) P(a<X<b) = ∫p(x)dx

a

be presented in the form of a table like that of a discrete random variable,

it can nevertheless be expressed by a specific form of the probability

density function p(x). We shall study some of these forms in the next unit on

the theoretical distributions for continuous random variables.

census and sampling. Mainly there are two methods of sampling namely,

ii) Non-probability Sampling

probability sampling. Under this technique sample units are drawn in such a

way that each and every unit in the population has an equal and

independent chance of being included in the sample. If sample unit is

replaced before drawing next unit, then it is known as Sample Random

Sampling with replacement. If the sample unit is not replaced before

drawing next unit, then it is called Sample Random Sampling without

replacement. In first case probability of drawing a unit is //N, where N is

the population size. In the second case probability of drawing a unit is 1/Nn.

methods:

a) Lottery Method

b) The use of table of random numbers

with distinct numbers by allotting an identical card. The cards are put in

a drum and thoroughly shuffled before each unit is drawn.

MB0024 SET 1

b) The use of table of random numbers: There are several Random

Numbers Tables. They are Tipper’s Random Number Table, Fisher’s and

Yate’s Table, Kendall and Babington Smiths Random Tables, Rand

Corporation random numbers etc.

Ans. In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) states conditions

under which the mean of a sufficiently large number of independent random

variables, each with finite mean and variance, will be approximately

normally distributed (Rice 1995). The central limit theorem also requires

the random variables to be identically distributed, unless certain conditions

are met. Since real-world quantities are often the balanced sum of many

unobserved random events, this theorem provides a partial explanation for

the prevalence of the normal probability distribution. The CLT also justifies

the approximation of large-sample statistics to the normal distribution in

controlled experiments.

weak-convergence theories. They all express the fact that a sum of many

independent random variables will tend to be distributed according to one

of a small set of "attractor" (i.e. stable) distributions. For other

generalizations for finite variance which do not require identical

distribution.

The central limit theorem is also known as the second fundamental theorem

of probability. If X1, X2 ………….Xn is a random sample of size “n” from any

population, then the sample mean (X) is normally distributed with mean μ

and variance σ2/ n provided “n” is sufficiently large.

population mean.

ii) The sampling distribution of the mean approaches normal distribution

as the sample size increases.

iii) It permits us to use sample statistics to make inference about

population parameters irrespective of the shape of frequency

distribution of the population.

The Central Limit Theorem tells us, quite generally, what happens when we

have the sum of a large number of independent random variables each of

which contributes a small amount to the total.

***END***

MB0024 SET 1

- UWI MATH2404_ SyllabusDiunggah olehkesna
- Dont Remove 301Diunggah olehdeevan30
- Chapter 10 Numerical IntegrationDiunggah olehsayme
- A Course in Mathematical StatisticsDiunggah olehManuel Carmo
- Central Limit Theorem - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaDiunggah olehdonodoni0008
- Probability in a NutshellDiunggah olehLdvdMiix
- 5-5.pptDiunggah olehSeilanAnbu
- t2003randomvariables_15Diunggah olehz_k_j_v
- Transmission lines QADiunggah olehAdam Gilly
- 4_ECE_MA2261Diunggah olehBIBIN CHIDAMBARANATHAN
- MIT6_436JF08_lec18Diunggah olehSarvraj Singh Rt
- Discrete Probability DistributionDiunggah olehMutia Zahara
- BCA Semester I II 3-7BCA-13Diunggah olehvarshmurhe
- Syllabus WQU603 StatisticsDiunggah olehganeshah1711
- JNTU old question papers 2007Diunggah olehSrinivasa Rao G
- syllabusDiunggah olehDandally Roopa
- ECE2Diunggah olehsravani281098
- Review of ProbabilityDiunggah olehchameera82
- hw1Diunggah olehYongjiu Du
- Chapter 04Diunggah olehChrisel Joy Dela Cruz
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs6352.581 06u taught by Galigekere Dattatreya (datta)Diunggah olehUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ce6352.001.07f taught by Galigekere Dattatreya (datta)Diunggah olehUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Chapter 17 Probability Distributions.pdfDiunggah olehJoshua Brodit
- Reading RandomvariablesDiunggah olehRajeuv Govindan
- Tutorial 4Diunggah olehNancy Mallika Nayak
- RAN PENG MT 6ADiunggah olehTan Chin Huat
- Probability DistributionDiunggah olehAmol
- Lecture 1Diunggah olehPranav Singh
- FDiunggah olehUsha Ushasree
- Formulas Ch3Diunggah olehAlex Bardales

- Radio Broadcast RubricDiunggah olehMilmore Bracho
- Drug Discovery Strategies and Methods 2004 - Makriyannis & BiegelDiunggah olehjoshigauta
- Jamadermatology Katz 2017 Ed 170013Diunggah olehKen Katz
- Gratisexam.com ISQI.braindumps.ctfl UK.v2015!03!27.by.matthew.60qDiunggah olehhamda_saad
- Society for Research in Cchild DevelopmentDiunggah olehshana_rubin
- HeuristicDiunggah olehAnonymous l2Fve4PpD
- post mortemDiunggah olehPrashant Meena
- REMOVAL OF DYES (METHYLENE BLUE, MALACHITE GREEN, METHYL VIOLET) ON ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM COPPER POD FLOWER.Diunggah olehIJAR Journal
- Article Format Thesis Guidelines 1Diunggah olehAdewole Adeyemi Charles
- The Effect of Rotor Disc Clearance on the Lift Performance of Contra-rotating Rotor BladesDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Bonus AssignmentDiunggah olehArif Alamgir
- Module 4 AssingmentDiunggah olehTaisekwa Zhou
- Ict Abstract and ParaphraseDiunggah olehKenneth Babiera
- Does Music Training Enhance Working Memory PerformanceDiunggah olehRafael Sanchez Ticó
- Queering Organizational CommunicationDiunggah olehBea Astudillo
- Ethics of Body Scanner Policy ReportDiunggah olehhuak86ex7847
- Filzmoser and Hron, 2008.pdfDiunggah olehlucian_lov
- The Frankenfood Myth Book ReportDiunggah olehGrace Lat
- Meta-Analysis of Responsible Environmental Behavior-2007Diunggah olehNanang Kunaivi
- low energy traditional architecture of lucknowDiunggah olehRus Nani
- DRA Intro and Scope PPTDiunggah olehJbelsen David
- ed d portfolio pptDiunggah olehapi-295217564
- edtpa health-life science lesson planDiunggah olehapi-347231874
- Project Formulation and ManagementDiunggah olehGhayasud-din Dar
- Asfahani - Statistical factor analysis of aerial spectrometric dataDiunggah olehnorbi34
- BrochureDiunggah olehPamela Claire
- Fieldwork Under Violent CircumDiunggah olehKarla C. Riverat
- Normal+ExponentialDiunggah olehSarfraz 'Drogba' Shaikh
- valores extremosDiunggah olehGise Quintero
- Related LiteratureDiunggah olehsbullan