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«SCHOOLNAME»

«SUBJECT» «FORM»

MODUL «TESTTYPE» «TARIKH» «MASA»


Nama Pelajar: Kelas Markah :

SENARAI FORMULA PENTING PENGIRAAN KIMIA

𝐽𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑎 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑘𝑙 𝑏𝑎 ℎ𝑎𝑛


Jisim Molekul relatif = 1
𝑥 𝑗𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢 𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑏𝑜𝑛 −12
12

𝐽𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝐵𝑎ℎ𝑎𝑛 ( 𝑔 )
Bilangan Mol = 𝐽𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑎 ℎ𝑎𝑛 ( 𝐽𝑀𝑅 )

𝐼𝑠𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑑𝑢 𝑔𝑎𝑠
Bilangan mol gas = 𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑑𝑢 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑠

1 mol gas menepati 24 dm3 pada suhu bilik // 22.4 dm3 pada Suhu dan Tekanan Piawai , STP

𝐵𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑛 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑘𝑒𝑙 𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑢 𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑚


Bilangan mol = 𝑁𝐴

Pemalar Avogadro , NA = 6.02 x 10 23 zarah

𝑀𝑉 𝐽𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝑔
Bilangan mol = =
1000 𝐽𝑀𝑅

𝐽𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑚 𝑧𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑢𝑡 𝑔


Kepekatan ( g dm-3 ) = 𝐼𝑠𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑑𝑢 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑢𝑡𝑎𝑛

𝐵𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙


Kemolaran ( mol dm-3 ) = 𝐼𝑠𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑑𝑢 𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑢𝑡𝑎𝑛

M1V1 = M2V2

MaVa = MbVb

MaVa 𝑎
=𝑏
MbVb

Kadar tindakbalas pada masa tertentu = kira kecerunan tangent graf

𝐼𝑠𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑑𝑢 𝑚𝑎𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑚𝑎
Kadar tindak balas purata = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑎 𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑘 𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑎 𝑠

Haba dibebaskan , Q = mcϴ


Dirujuk kepada pengiraan untuk 1.0 mol
+
Haba ( nama tindakbalas ) , ΔH = ........... kJ mol -1

2017 ©® NORAZRI MAT PIAH ..... MODUL BESTARI KIMIA


1. Apakah maksud satu mol bagi suatu bahan?
What is the meaning of one mole of a substance?

A Bilangan zarah bagi suatu bahan.


The number of particle of any substance.
20
B Jisim satu mol suatu bahan mengandungi 6.02x10 zarah.
20
One mole of substance contains 6.02x10 particles.
C Jisim satu mol suatu bahan dipanggil jisim atom relatif.
The mass of one mole of any substance is call relative atomic mass.
D Jumlah suatu bahan yang mengandungi bilangan zarah sama dengan bilangan atom dalam
12g karbon-12.
The amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms in exactly
12 g of carbon-12.

2. Nukleus atom mempunyai…


The nucleus of an atom contains…
A elektron sahaja
electrons only
B neutron sahaja
neutrons only
C kedua-dua proton dan neutron
both protons and neutrons
D kedua-dua proton dan elektron
both protons and electrons

3. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan maklumat bagi dua jenis zarah.


Table below shows the information for two types of particles.

Zarah Nombor proton Susunan electron


Particle Proton number Electron arrangement
J 11 2.8
K 20 2.8.8

Berdasarkan maklumat dalam jadual, zarah J dan zarah K ialah


Based on the information in the table, particle J and particle K are

A noble gases
gas adi
B ion negative
negative ions
C ion-ion positif
positive ions
D isotop unsur yang sama
isotopes of the same element

4. Yang manakah bahan mengalami pemejalwapan apabila dipanaskan?


Which of the following substances undergoes sublimation when it is heated?

A Sulfur.
Sulphur.
B Natrium klorida.
Sodium chloride.
C Ammonium klorida.
Ammonium chloride.
D Fosforus
Phosphorous.

2
5. Rajah menunjukkan satu proses di mana bau makanan menyebar ke seluruh bilik.
The diagram shows a process where the smell of food spreads throughout the room.

Apakah proses itu?


What is the process?

A Pemejalwapan
Sublimation
B Penyejatan
Evaporation
C Penghidratan
Hydration
D Resapan
Diffusion

6. Persamaan berikut mewakili satu tindak balas.


The following equation represents a reaction.

3H2 (g) + N2 (g) → 2NH3 (g)

Apakah jisim molekul relative bagi hasil tersebut?


What is the relative molecular mass of the product?
[Jisim atom relatif : H=1 ; N=14 ]
[ Relative atomic mass : H=1 ; N=14 ]

A 2
B 17
C 28
D 34

7. Antara bahan yang berikut, yang manakah mangandungi bilangan atom yang sama dengan satu
mol gas klorin?
Which of the substance below contains the same number of atoms as in one mole of chlorine
gas?

A 1 mol neon
1 mol neon
B 1
2 mol natrium
1
2 mol sodium
C 2
3 mol karbon dioksida
2
3 mol carbon dioxide
D 1 mol nitrogen dioksida
1 mol nitrogen dioxide

3
8. Jisim formula relatif bagi XSO4 ialah 160.
Berapakah jisim atom relatif bagi unsur X?
The relative formula mass of XSO4 is 160.
What is the relative atomic mass of element X?
[Jisim atom relatif : O = 16 , S = 32]
[ Relative atomic mass : O = 16 , S = 32 ]

A 32
B 64
C 96
D 112

9. Suatu sample oksida M mengandungi 2.7 g unsur X dan 2.4 g oksigen.


Apakah formula empirik bagi sebatian ini?
A sample of M oxide contains 2.7 g of element X and 2.4 g of oxygen.
What is the empirical formula of this compound?
[Jisim atom relatif : X = 27, O = 16]
[ Relative atomic mass : X = 27, O = 16 ]

A XO
B XO2
C X2O
D X2O3

10.
Jisim atom relatif unsur M ialah 40
Relative atomic mass of element M is 40

1.2 g unsur M bertindakbalas lengkap dengan 0.48 g unsur Z membentuk sebatian MZ.
Hitungkan jisim atom relatif bagi unsur Z.
1.2 g of element M reacts completely with 0.48 g of element Z to form MZ compound. Calculate
the relative atomic mass of element Z.

A 12
B 16
C 24
D 32

11. 1.04 g logam M bertindak balas dengan 0.48 g oksigen untuk membentuk oksida M. Tentukan
formula empirik oksida M.
1.04 g of metal M react with 0.48 g of oxygen to form M oxide. Determine the empirical formula
of M oxide.
[Jisim atom relatif : O = 16 , M = 52]
[ relative atomic mass : O = 16 ; M = 52 ]

A MO
B MO2
C M2O3
D M3O2

12. Kafein dijumpai di dalam biji kopi. Formula molekulnya ialah C 4H5N2O. Jika sebutir biji kopi
mengandungi 0.02 mol kafein, tentukan jisim sebatian itu dalam 10 butir biji kopi.
Caffeine is found in coffee beans. Its molecular formula is C4H5N2O. If one coffee bean contains
0.02 mole of caffeine, determine the mass of the compound in 10 coffee beans.
(Jisim atomic relatif : H = 1, C = 12, N = 14, O = 16)
( Relative atomic mass : H=1 , C=12 , N=14, O=16 )

A 0.97 g
B 1.94 g
C 9.70 g
D 19.4 g

4
13. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan jisim unsur T dan O dalam oksida T dan jisim atom relatif masing-
masing.
Table below shows the mass of elements T and O in oxide of T and their relative atomic mass
respectively.

Element T O
Unsur
Mass 2.48 g 1.92 g
Jisim
Relative atomic mass 31 16
Jisim atom relatif

Apakah formula empirik bagi oksida T?


What is the empirical formula for oxide of T?

A T2O
B TO3
C T2O3
D T3O2

14. Berapakah jisim minimum yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas dengan asid nitrik cair yang
3
berlebihan untuk menghasilkan 240 cm hidrogen pada keadaan bilik?
What is the minimum mass of zinc required to react with excess dilute nitric acid to produced
3
240 cm of hydrogen at room condition?
3 -1
[ Isipadu molar gas = 24 dm mol ; Jisim atom relative : Zn =65 ]
3 -1
[ Molar volume of gas = 24 dm mol ; Relative atomic mass : Zn = 65 ]

A 0.33 g
B 0.65 g
C 1.30 g
D 6.50 g

15. Jisim tiga atom unsur Y adalah sama dengan jisim empat atom karbon. Y bukan simbol sebenar
unsur itu.
Apakah jisim formula relatifnya?
The mass of three atoms of element Y is equal to the mass of four carbon atoms. Y is not actual
symbol of the element.
What is the relative atomic mass of element Y?
[ Jisim atom relatif : C = 12 ]
[ Relative atomic mass : C = 12 ]

A 12
B 16
C 36
D 48

16. Berapakah bilangan molekul yang terdapat dalam 2 mol gas karbon monoksida, CO?
What is the number of molecules in 2 mol of carbon monoxide gas, CO?
23 -1
[ Pemalar Avogadro : 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23 -1
[ Avogadro constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23
A 1204 × 10 molecules
23
1204 × 10 molekul
23
B 6.02 × 10 molecules
23
6.02 × 10 molekul
24
C 1.204 × 10 molecules
24
1.204 × 10 molekul
24
D 3.01 × 10 molecules
24
3.01 × 10 molekul

5
17. Jisim bagi air bromin ialah 120 g.
Apakah bilangan mol bagi air bromin?
[Jisim atom relatif: Br = 80]
Mass of bromine water is 120 g.
What is the number of moles of bromine water?
[Relative atomic mass : Br = 80]

A 0.67
B 0.75
C 1.33
D 1.50

18. Berapakah atom yang terdapat dalam 2 mol gas hidrogen?


23 -1
[Pemalar Avogadro = 6.02 × 10 mol ]
How many atoms in 2 moles of hydrogen gas?
23 -1
[Avogadro’s constant = 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23
A 1.51 × 10
23
B 3.01 × 10
24
C 1.20 × 10
24
D 2.41 × 10

19. Apakah jisim formula relatif bagi magnesium sulfat terhidrat, MgSO4.7H2O?
[Jisim atom relatif : H = 1, O = 16, Mg = 24 , S = 32]
What is the relative formula mass of hydrated magnesium sulphate, MgSO 4.7H2O?
[Relative atomic mass : H = 1, O = 16, Mg = 24 , S = 32]

A 145
B 150
C 239
D 246
-
20. Logam X membentuk oksida yang berformula X2O3. Jika formula ion klorida adalah Cl , formula
bagi sebatian klorida X ialah
-
Metal X forms an oxide that has formula of X2O3. If the formula of chloride ion is Cl , then the
formula of the chloride compound of X is

A XCl
B XCl2
C XCl3
D X2Cl3

21. 1.3 g zink bertindakbalas dengan asid sulfurik berlebihan. Hitungkan isipadu gas hydrogen yang
terbentuk pada s.t.p.
1.3 g of zinc reacts with excess sulphuric acid. Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas formed at
s.t.p.
3
[ JAR : Zn=65 ; 1 mol gas menempati isipadu 22.4 dm at s.t.p ]
3
[ RAM : Zn=65 ; 1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 22.4 dm at s.t.p. ]
3 3
A 112 cm B 224 cm
3 3
C 336 cm D 448 cm

22. Berapakah bilangan molekul dalam 1 mol ammonia, NH3?


23 -1
Gunakan maklumat pemalar Avogadro = 6.0 × 10 mol .
What is the number of molecules in 1 mole of ammonia, NH3?
23 -1
Use the information that the Avogadro constant = 6.0 × 10 mol .
23
A 1.5 × 10 molekul
23
B 6.0 × 10 molekul
23
C 1.2 × 10 molekul
23
D 2.4 × 10 molekul

6
23. Satu sebatian berformula X2CO3 mempunyai jisim formula relatif 138.
Berapakah jisim atom relatif bagi X?
Gunakan maklumat jisim atom relatif C=12 dan O=16.
A compound with formula X2CO3 has a relative formula mass of 138.
What is the relative atomic mass of X?
Use the information that the relative atomic mass of C=12 and O=16.

A 39
B 69
C 78
D 110

24. Berapakah jisim formula relatif bagi ammonium nitrat, NH4NO3 ?


[Jisim atom relatif : N, 14; H, 1; O, 16]
What is the relative formula mass of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 ?
[Relative atomic mass: N, 14; H, 1; O, 16]

A 76
B 79
C 80
D 90
3
25. Apakah isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang terhasil apabila 1200cm etana dibakar dengan
lengkap dalam udara.
3
[1 mol gas menempati 24dm pada keadaan bilik.]
3
What is the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced when 1200 cm of ethane gas is burnt
completely in air.
3
[1 mol of gas occupied 24 dm at room condition.]
3
A 1.40cm
3
B 2.40 cm
3
C 1200 cm
3
D 2400 cm
3
26. 5.6 g kalium hidroksida dilarutkan ke dalam air suling menghasilkan 250cm larutan. Apakah
kepekatan larutan kalium hidroksida itu?
[Jisim atom relatif : H=1 ; O=16 ; K=39]
3
5.6g of potassium hydroxide is dissolved in distilled water to form 250cm solution. What is the
concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution?
[Jisim atom relatif: H=1 ; O=16 ; K=39]
[Relative atomic mass : H=1 ; O=16 ; K=39]
-3
A 0.10mol dm
-3
B 0.40 mol dm
-3
C 0.25 mol dm
-3
D 0.02 mol dm
3+ 2-
27. Berapakah bilangan mol Fe dan O dalam 0.2 mol Fe2O3?
3+ 2-
What are the numbers of moles of Fe and O in 0.2 moles of Fe2O3?
3+ 2-
Bilangan mol Fe Bilangan mol O
3+ 2-
Number of moles of Fe Number of moles of O
A 0.4 0.6
B 0.6 0.4
C 0.2 0.3
D 0.4 0.3

7
28. Formula molekul bagi magnesium etanoat ialah (CH 3COO)2Mg.
Hitungkan jisim molekul bagi magnesium etanoat.
The molecular formula of magnesium ethanoate is (CH 3COO)2Mg.
Calculate the relative molecular mass of magnesium ethanoate.

[ Jisim atom relatif : H=1 ; C=12 ; O=16 ; Mg=24 ]


[ Relative atomic mass : H=1 ; C=12 ; O=16 ; Mg=24 ]

A 83
B 107
C 118
D 142

29. Bahan manakah yang mengandungi bilangan atom yang sama dengan 0.5 mol helium?
Which substance contains the same number of atoms as in 0.5 mol of helium?
23 -1
[ pemalar Avogadro’s constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23 -1
[ Avogadro’s constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ]

A 0.1 mol oksigen


0.1 mol of oxygen
B 0.1 mol nitrogen
0.1 mol of nitrogen
C 0.1 mol metana
0.1 mol of methane
D 0.1 mol karbon dioksida
0.1 mol of carbon dioxide
3
30. Berapakah bilangan molekul dalam 100 cm gas klorin pada keadaan bilik?
3
How many molecules are there in 100 cm of chlorine gas at room conditions?
23 -1 3 -1
[ pemalar Avogadro’s constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ; Isipadu molar gas = 24 dm mol pada
keadaan bilik ]
23 -1 3 -1
[ Avogadro’s constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ; Molar volume of gas = 24 dm mol at room
conditions ]
21
A 2.51 × 10
24
B 2.51 × 10
21
C 6.02 × 10
25
D 6.02 × 10

31. Berapakah kalikah satu atom bromin lebih berat daripada satu atom kalsium?
How many times are one atom of bromine heavier than one atom of calcium?
[Jisim atom relatif: Ca=40; Br=80]
[Relative atomic mass: Ca=40; Br=80]

A 0.25
B 0.50
C 2.00
D 4.00

32. Apabila kuprum(II) karbonat dipanaskan, ia terurai untuk menghasilkan kuprum(II) oksida dan
gas karbon dioksida.
Berapakah jisim kuprum(II) karbonat yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan 4.0g kuprum(II)
oksida?
[Jisim atom relatif: C = 12; O = 16; Cu = 64]
What is the mass of copper(II) carbonate needed to produce 4.0g of copper(II) oxide?
[Relative atomic mass: C = 12; O = 16; Cu = 64]

A 3.72g
B 6.20g
C 9.92g
D 11.16g

8
2- -
33. Formula bagi ion sulfat adalah SO4 dan ion nitrat adalah NO3 . Jika formula garam sulfat bagi M
ialah MSO4, apakah formula garam nitrat bagi M?
2- -
The formula for sulphate ion is SO4 and for a nitrate is NO3 . If the formula of the sulphate salt of
M is MSO4, what is the formula of the nitrate salt of M?

A MNO3
B M2NO3
C M(NO3)2
D M(NO3)3

34. 8.1 g oksida logam dengan formula PO telah terturun dengan lengkap oleh serbuk karbon
berlebihan kepada 6.48 g logam P. Yang manakah di antara berikut merupakan jisim atom relatif
bagi P?
8.1 g of a metal oxide with a formula of PO is completely reduced by excess carbon powder to
6.48 g of metal P. Which of the following is the relative atomic mass of P?
[Jisim atom relatif: O, 16]
[Relative atomic mass : O, 16]
A 16
B 32
C 64
D 8

35. Jisim formula relatif bagi X karbonat terhidrat, X2CO3.10H2O adalah 286.
Berapakah jisim atom relatif bagi unsur X?
The relative formula mass hydrated X carbonate, X2CO3.10H2O is 286.
What is the relative atomic mass of element X?
[Jisim atom relatif : H=1, C=12, O=16]
Relative atomic mass: H=1, C=12, O=16]

A 23
B 46
C 120
D 240

36. Dalam satu eksperimen, didapati 24g unsur X bertindak balas dengan sulfur membentuk
sebatian.
In an experiment, 24g of element X react with 32g sulphur to form a compound.
Apakah formula empirik sebatian ini?
What is the empirical formula of that compound?
[Jisim atom relative ; X=6, S=32]
[Relative atomic mass ; X=6, S =32]

A XS
B X2S
C X2S3
D X4S

37. 1.2g unsur X bertindak balas dengan 0.8g unsur Y untuk membentuk satu sebatian yang
mempunyai formula XY. Berapakah jisim atom relative X?
[Jisim atom relatif Y ialah 16]
1.2g of element X react with 0.8g of element Y to form a compound with the formula XY. What is
the relative atomic mass of X?
[Relative atomic mass of Y is 16]

A 16
B 24
C 27
D 40

9
38. Gas etana membakar lengkap dengan kehadiran gas oksigen untuk menghasilkan gas karbon
dioksida dan air.
Ethane gas, C2H6 burns completely with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide gas and water.
Kira isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang dihasilkan untuk pembakaran lengkap bagi 30g gas
etana pada STP.
Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced for a complete combustion of 30g of
ethane gas at STP.
3
[Jisim atom relatif: H=1; C=12; 1 mol gas memenuhi isipadu 22.4dm pada STP]
3
[Relative atomic mass: H=1; C=12; 1 mole of any gas occupies a volume of 22.4dm at STP]
3
A 22.4dm
3
B 44.8dm
3
C 67.2dm
3
D 89.6dm

39. Berapakah bilangan molekul yang terdapat dalam 0.5 mol gas karbon dioksida, CO 2?
What is the number of molecules in 0.5 mol of carbon dioxide gas, CO 2?
23 -1
[ Pemalar Avogadro : 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23 -1
[ Avogadro constant : 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23
A 0.301 × 10 molekul
23
0.301 × 10 molecules
23
B 6.02 × 10 molekul
23
6.02 × 10 molecules
24
C 1.204 × 10 molekul
24
1.204 × 10 molecules
22
D 30.1 × 10 molekul
22
30.1 × 10 molecules

40. Satu sebatian dengan formula X2SO4 mempunyai jisim formula relatif 142. Antara berikut, yang
manakah merupakan jisim atom relatif untuk X?
[Jisim atom relatif O = 16, S =32]
A compound with formula X2SO4 has a relative formula mass of 142. Which of the following is
the relative atomic mass of X?
[Relative atomic mass of O = 16, S = 12 ]
A 23
B 39
C 52
D 78

41. Berapa banyak molekul nitrogen yang terkandung dalam belon yang terkandung dalam belon
yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di bawah?
How many molecules of nitrogen are contained in the balloon shown in the diagram below?

2.24g gas nitrogen


2.24g of nitrogen gas

23 -1
[Jisim atom relatif : N = 14, Pemalar Avogadro = 6.02 × 10 mol ]
23 -1
[Relative atomic mass : N = 14, Avogadro constant = 6.02 × 10 mol ]

10
22
A 4.81 x 10
23
B 4.81 x 10
22
C 9.63 x 10
23
D 9.63 x 10

42. Formula kimia bagi satu sebatian kompleks ialah Zn(NH3)4(OH)2. Apakah jisim formula
relatifnya?
[Jisim atom relatif H = 1, O = 16, N= 14, Zn = 65]
The chemical formula for a complex compound is Zn(NH3)4(OH)2. What is its relative formula
mass?
[Relative atomic mass of H = 1, O = 16, N= 14, Zn = 65]

A 99
B 108
C 125
D 167

43. Berikut menunjukkan jisim molekul relatif untuk beberapa sebatian. Sebatian dan jisim molekul
relatif manakah yang dipadankan dengan betul?
[Jisim atom relatif : H= 1, O = 16, C = 12, N = 14, S = 32, Cl = 35.5]
The following shows the relative molecular masses of several compounds. Which compound
and relative molecular mass are correctly matched?
[Relative atomic mass : H= 1, O = 16, C = 12, N = 14, S = 32, Cl = 35.5]

Compound Relative molecular mass


Sebatian Jisim molekul relatif
A CO2 56
B H2O2 35
C NH4Cl 53.5
D Na2SO4 119

44. Berapakah bilangan mol ferum (II) karbonat yang terdapat dalam 17.4 g ferum (II) karbonat?
[Jisim relatif atom of C = 12, O = 16, Fe = 56]
How many moles iron (II) carbonate are there in 1.74 g of iron (II) carbonate?
[Relative atomic mass of C = 12, O = 16, Fe = 56]

A 0.15 mol
0.15 mole
B 0.72 mol
0.72 mole
C 1.21 mol
1.21 mole
D 1.48 mol
1.48 mole

45. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan bilangan atom dalam satu molekul. Antara yang berikut, yang
manakah mungkin molekul itu?
Diagram below shows the number of atoms in a molecule. Which of the following could be the
molecule?

11
A Karbon dioksida
Carbon dioxide
B Ammonia
Ammonia
C Klorin
Chlorine
D Air
Water

46. Di antara berikut, yang manakah tidak dipadankan dengan betul?


Which of the following is not matched correctly?

Bahan Formula
Substance Formula
A Kuprum (II) oksida
CuO
Copper (II) oxide
B Kuprum (II) klorida
CuCl
Copper (II) chloride
C Kalium oksida
K2O
Potassium oxide
D Ammonium nitrat
(NH4)2SO4
Ammonium sulphate

47. Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar bagi atu mol bahan?
Which of the following statements is true for one mole of a substance?
23
A 1 mol kuprum mengandungi 6.02 × 10 molekul
23
1 mol of copper contains 6.02 × 10 molecules
23
B 1 mol gas oksigen mengandungi 6.02 × 10 molekul
23
1 mol of oxygen gas contains 6.02 × 10 molecules
C 1 mol air mengandungi bilangan atom yang sama dengan bilangan atom dalam 12 g
karbon-12
1 mol of water contains the same number of atoms as in 12 g of carbon-12
D 1 mol karbon dioksida mengandungi bilangan molekul yang sama dengan bilangan atom
dalam 12 g karbon-12
1 mol of carbon dioxide contains the same number of molecules as the number of atom in
12 g of carbon-12

48. Apakah formula empiric bagi gas butana, C4H8 ?


What is the empirical formula for butane, C4H8 gas?
A CH2 C C4H8
B C2H4 D C8H18
23
49. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah mengandungi 6.02× 10 atom?
23
Which of the following contains 6.02 × 10 atoms?

A 1 mol gas hidrogen


1 mole of hydrogen gas
B 1 mol gas oksigen
1 mole of oxygen gas
C 1 mol helium
1 mole of helium
D 1 mol air
1 mole of water

12
50. Persamaan bawah mewakili penguraian larutan hidrogen peroksida.
The equation below represents the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

2H2O2 (aq) → 2H2O (I) + O2 (g)

Jika 1 mol hidrogen peroksida digunakan, apakah isipadu gas oksigen yang dihasilkan?
If 1 mol of hydrogen peroxide is used, what is the volume of oxygen gas produced?
3
[1 mol gas memenuhi 24 dm pada suhu bilik]
3
[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm at room temperature]
3
A 8.4 dm
3
B 10.4 dm
3
C 12.0 dm
3
D 24.0 dm

51. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan tindak balas antara kuprum(II) karbonat dan asid hidroklorik.
The following equation shows the reaction between copper (II) carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

CuCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CuCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


-3
7.0g kuprum(II) karbonat ditambahkan 50cm³ asid hidroklorik 1.0moldm . Berapakah jisim
kuprum(II) karbonat yang tertinggal di akhir tindak balas?
-3
7.0g copper(II) carbonate is added to 50cm³ of 1.0 moldm hydrochloric acid. What is the mass
of copper(II) carbonate left at the end of the reaction?
[Jisim atom relatif; Cu=64, C=12, O=16]
[Relative atomic mass; Cu=64, C=12, O=16]

A 0.8g
B 3.1g
C 3.9g
D 6.2g

52. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan tindak balas antara argentum nitrat dan natrium klorida.
The following equation shows the reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride.

AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)


3 -3
Berapakah jisim garam tak larut yang terhasil apabila 50 cm 1.0 moldm argentum nitrat
3 -3
bertindak balas 50 cm 2.0mol dm natrium klorida?
3 -3
What is the mass of the insoluble salt produced when 50 cm 1.0moldm silver nitrate reacts with
3 -3
50 cm 2.0moldm sodium chloride?
[Jisim atom relatif: N =14, O = 16, Na= 23, Cl= 35.5, Ag= 108]
[Relative atomic mass: N =14, O = 16, Na= 23, Cl= 35.5, Ag= 108]

A 0.8g
B 4.25g
C 7.175g
D 14.35g

53. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan tindakbalas pemanasan kalsium karbonat.


The following equation shows the reaction of heating calcium carbonate.

CaCO3 → CaO +CO2

2.5g kalsium karbonat telah dipanaskan. Berapakah isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang
dibebaskan pada keadaan bilik?
2.5g calcium carbonate is heated. What is the volume of carbon dioxide gas released at room
condition?
3 -1
[Jisim atom relative: C=12, O=16, Ca=40; Isipadu molar gas=24dm mol pada suhu bilik]
3 -1
[Relative atomic mass; C =12, O=16, Ca=40; Molar volume of gas=24dm mol at room
condition]

13
3
A 0.6cm
3
B 6.0cm
3
C 60cm
3
D 600cm
3
54. 2.40g magnesium bertindak balas dengan 100cm asid hidroklorik menghasilkan magnesium
klorida dan gas hydrogen. Persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas ini adalah seperti berikut:
-3
2.40g magnesium reacts with 100cm³ of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 moldm to produce magnesium
chloride and hydrogen gas. The chemical equation for the reaction is as follows:

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

Apakah jisim maksimum magnesium klorida yang dihasilkan?


What is the maximum mass of magnesium mass of magnesium chloride formed?

[Jisim atom relatif : Zn=65; Cl=35.5]


[Relative atomic mass of Mg=24; Cl=35.5]

A 1.20g
B 2.40g
C 4.75g
D 9.50g

55. Magnesium bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik mengikut persamaan berikut.
Magnesium reacts with sulphuric acid according to the equation below.

2K (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → K2SO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

Berapakah isipadu gas hydrogen yang dihasilkan pada STP if 1.17 g magnesium ditambahkan
kepada asid sulfirik berlebihan?
What is the volume of hydrogen gas produced at STP if 1.17 g of magnesium is added to the
excess of sulphuric acid?
3 -1
[ Isipadu molar pada STP = 22.4 dm mol ;Jisim atom relative : K =39 ]
3 -1
[ Molar volume at STP = 22.4 dm mol ; Relative atomic mass : K = 39 ]
3
A 0.672 dm
3
B 0.457 dm
3
C 0.224 dm
3
D 0.336 dm

56. Berapakah jisim karbon yang mengandungi bilangan atom yang sama dengan 6.9 g natrium?
[Jisim atom relatif : C = 12 ; Na = 23]
What is the mass of carbon which contains the same number of atoms as 6.9 g of sodium?
[Relative atomic mass: C = 12 ; Na = 23]

A 3.6g
B 11.2g
C 16.8g
D 22.4g

57. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan penguraian bagi kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 apabila
dipanaskan
The following equation shows the decomposition of calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 when heated.

CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)


Berapakah jisim kalsium karbonat, CaCO3 yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan 11.2 g kalsium
oksida,CaO?
[Jisim atom relatif: Ca, 40; O, 16; C, 12]

14
What is the mass of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 required to produce 11.2 g of calcium oxide,
CaO?
[Relative atomic mass: Ca, 40; O, 16; C, 12]

A 12.0 g
B 20.0 g
C 20.5 g
D 25.0 g

58. Satu sebatian mempunyai jisim molekul relative 98. Sebatian ini ialah
[Jisim atom relatif H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Al = 27, S = 32]
A compound has a relative molecular has a relative molecular mass of 98. This compound is
[Relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Al = 27, S = 32]

A C6H12O6
B H2SO4
C C4H9OH
D Al2O3

59. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi proses pentitratan larutan kalium hidroksida
dengan asid sulfurik.
Diagram below shows the apparatus set-up for the titration of potassium hydroxide solution with
sulphuric acid.

Asid sulfurik 0.1 mol dm³‫־‬


sulphuric acid1.0 mol dm³‫־‬

20 cm³ of larutan kalium hidroksida


0.1 mol dm³‫ ־‬dan fenolftalein
20 cm³ of potassium hydroxide solution
0.1 mol dm ³‫־‬dan phenolphtalein

Berapakah jumlah isipadu campuran di dalan kelalang kon pada takat akhir penitratan dalam
rajah?
What is the total volume of the mixture in the conical flask at the end point of the titration in
diagram?
3
A 10 cm
3
B 20 cm
3
C 30 cm
3
D 40 cm

15
-3
60. Satu asid dwibes, H2Z mempunyai kepekatan 0.5 mol dm . Z bukan simbol sebenar unsur itu.
-3 3
Berapakah isi padu kalium hidroksida, KOH 1.0 mol dm yang dapat meneutralkan 25.0 cm
larutan asid H2Z itu?
-3
A diprotic acid, H2Z has the concentration of 0.5 mol dm . Z is not the actual symbol of the
element.
-3 3
What is the volume of potassium hydroxide, KOH 1.0 mol dm that can neutralize 25.0 cm of
the H2Z acid solution?
3
A 6.25 cm
3
B 12.50 cm
3
C 25.00 cm
3
D 50.00 cm
3
61. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi titratan 25 cm larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0
-3 -3
mol dm dengan asid sulfurik 0.5 mol dm .
3 -3
Diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for the titration of 25 cm 1.0 mol dm sodium
-3
hydroxide solution with 0.5 mol dm of sulphuric acid.

0.5 mol dm ³‫־‬


asid sulfurik
0.5 mol dm ³‫־‬
of sulphuric acid

25 cm³ larutan natrium


hidroksida 1.0 mol dm³‫־‬
+ fenolftaleon
25 cm ³ 1.0 mol dm ³‫־‬
sodium hydroxide solution
+ phenolphthalein

-3 3
Berapakah isipadu 0.5 mol dm asid sulfurik diperlukan untuk meneutralkan lengkap 25 cm
-3
larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0 mol dm ?
-3
What is the volume of 0.5 mol dm of sulphuric acid solution required to completely neutralize 25
3 -3
cm 1.0 mol dm sodium hydroxide solutions?
3
A 12.50 cm
3
B 25.00 cm
3
C 50.00 cm
3
D 75.50 cm

16
62. Rajah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi pentitratan antara larutan barium hidrosida dan asid
nitrik.
The diagram shows the apparatus set-up for the titration between barium hydroxide solution and
nitric acid.

-3
Asid nitrik 0.1 mol dm
0.5 mol dm-3 nitric acid

20cm3 0.5 mol dm-3


barium hidroksida
-3
25cm30.5 mol dm
barium hydroxide
Persamaan bagi tindak balas ditunjukkan di bawah.
The equation for the reaction is shown below.

Ba(OH)2 + 2HNO3 → Ba(NO3)2 + 2H2O

Berapakah isipadu asid nitrik diperlukan bagi mencapai takat akhir pentitratan?
What is the volume of nitric acid needed for the titration to reach end point?
3
A 14.5 cm
3
B 25.0 cm
3
C 50.0 cm
3
D 75.0 cm
+
63. Antara larutan berikut, yang manakah mempunyai bilangan ion hidrogen, H , sama seperti
3 -3
dalam 50 cm 0.1 mol dm asid sulfurik, H2SO4?
+ 3
Which of the following solutions have the same number of hydrogen ions, H , as in 50 cm of 0.1
-3
mol dm sulphuric acid, H2SO4?
3 -3
I 100 cm of 0.1 mol dm asid hidroklorik, HCl
3 -3
100 cm of 0.1 mol dm hydrochloric acid, HCl
3 -3
II 50 cm of 0.2 mol dm asid nitrik, HNO3
3 -3
50 cm of 0.2 mol dm nitric acid, HNO3
3 -3
III 100 cm of 0.1 mol dm asid etanoik, CH3COOH
3 -3
100 cm of 0.1 mol dm ethanoic acid, CH3COOH
3 -3
IV 50 cm of 0.1 mol dm asid fosforic, H3PO4
3 -3
50 cm of 0.1 mol dm phosphoric acid, H3PO4

A I dan II sahaja
I and II only
B I dan III sahaja
I and III only
C III dan IV sahaja
III and IV only
D I, II dan III sahaja
I, II and III only

17
64. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan dua kelalang isipadu yang mengandungi asid hidroklorik 2.0 mol
-3 - .
dm dan asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm .
-3
Diagram below shows two volumetric flasks containing 2.0 mol dm of hydrochloric acid and 0.2
-3
mol dm hydrochloric acid.
50 cm³ asid hidroklorik
2.0 mol dm³‫־‬
50 cm ³ hydrochloric acid
2.0 mol dm ³‫־‬

100 cm³ asid hidroklorik


0.2 mol dm³‫־‬
100 cm³ hydrochloric acid
0.2 mol dm ³‫־‬
-3 3
Apakah isipadu asid hidroklorik 2.0 mol dm yang diperlukan untuk menyediakan 100 cm asid
-3
hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm ?
-3 3 -3
What is the volume of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid needed to prepare 100 cm of 0.2 mol dm
hydrochloric acid?
3 3
A 20.0 cm B 10.0 cm
3 3
C 5.0 cm D 1.0 cm

65. Rajah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi pentitratan larutan natrium hidroksida dan asid sulfurik.
Diagram below shows a set up of apparatus for the titration of potassium hydroxide and
sulphuric acid.

Asid sulfurik 0.1 mol dm −3


Sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm −3

20cm 3 larutan natrium


hidroksida0.1 mol dm −3
20cm 3 potassium hydroxide
solution 0.1 mol dm −3

Berapakah isipadu asid sulfurik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan larutan kalium hidroksida?
What is the volume of sulphuric acid needed to neutralize potassium hydroxide solution?

18
3
A 10cm
3
B 20cm
3
C 30cm
3
D 40cm

66. Antara berikut, manakah larutan mempunyai kepekatan ion hidroksida yang paling tinggi?
Which of the following solutions has the highest concentration of hydrogen ions?
3 -3
A 50 cm of 2.0 mol dm larutan asid sulfurik
3 -3
50 cm of 2.0 mol dm sulphuric acid solution.
3 -3
B 50 cm of 2.0 mol dm larutan ammonia.
3 -3
50 cm of 2.0 mol dm ammonia solution.
3 -3
C 50 cm of 2.0 mol dm larutan kalium hidroksida.
3 -3
50 cm of 2.0 mol dm potassium hydroxide solution.
3 -3
D 50 cm of 2.0 mol dm larutan asid hidroklorik
3 -3
50 cm of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid solution.

67. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas di antara magnesium dan asid hidroklorik.
The equation below shows the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

-3
Jika 0.48 g magnesium digunakan, hitungkan isipadu asid hidroklorik 0.5 mol dm yang perlu
ditambah untuk tindak balas yang lengkap.
-3
If 0.48 g of magnesium is used, calculate the volume of 0.5 mol dm hydrochloric acid needs to
be added for complete reaction.
[Jisim atom relatif : H=1 ; Mg=24 ; Cl=35.5 ]
[ Relative atomic mass : H=1 ; Mg=24 ; Cl=35.5 ]
3
A 0.08 cm
3
B 0.8 cm
3
C 8 cm
3
D 80 cm

68. Persamaan berikut mewakili tindak balas antara larutan natrium hidroksida dengan asid sulfurik
cair.
The following equation represents the reaction between sodium hydroxide solution and dilute
sulphuric acid.

H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

-3 3
Apakah isipadu 0.5 mol dm asid sulfurik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 50 cm larutan
natrium hidroksida?
-3 3 -3
What is the volume of 0.5 mol dm sulphuric acid needed to neutralise 50 cm of 0.5 mol dm
sodium hydroxide solution?
3
A 75.0 cm
3
B 50.0 cm
3
C 25.0 cm
3
D 12.5 cm

69. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi proses pentitrata larutan natrium hidroksida
dengan asid diprotik, H2X.
Diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for the titration of sodium hydroxide solution with
a diprotic acid, H2X.

19
Asid H2X
H2X acid

Larutan natrium hidroksida


dan penunjuk fenolftalein
Sodium hydroxide solution
and phenolphthalein
3 3 -3
25.0 cm asid H2X meneutralkan 20.0 cm larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH 1.0 mol dm .
Berapakah kemolaran asid H2X?
3 3 -3
25.0 cm of H2X acid neutralises 20.0 cm of sodium hydroxide solution. NaOH 1.0 mol dm .
-3
A 0.2 mol dm
-3
B 0.4 mol dm
-3
C 0.6 mol dm
-3
D 0.8 mol dm
3 -
70. Antara larutan natrium hidroksida berikut, yang manakah akan meneutralkan 20 cm 0.5 mol dm
3
asid sulfurik?
3 -3
Which of the following sodium hydroxide solution can neutralize 20 cm of 0.5 mol dm sulphuric
acid?
3 -3
A 20 cm of 0.5 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida
3 -3
20 cm of 0.5 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution
3 -3
B 10 cm of 0.5 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida
3 -3
10 cm of 0.5 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution
3 -3
C 40 cm of 0.5 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida
3 -3
40 cm of 0.5 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution
3 -3
D 20 cm of 0.5 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida
3 -3
20 cm of 0.5 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution

20
71. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi proses pentitratan larutan kalium hidroksida
dengan asid sulfurik.
Diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for the titration of potassium hydroxide solution
with sulphuric acid.

Asid sulfurik 0.1 mol dm -3


Sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm -3

-3
20cm ³ of 0.1 mol dm
larutan kalium hidroksida
dan penunjuk fenolftalein
20cm ³ of 0.1 mol dm -3
potassium hydroxide solution
and phenolphtalein indicator

Berapakah jumlah isipadu campuran di dalam kelalang kon pada takat akhir pentitratan dalam
rajah?
What is the total volume of the mixture in the conical flask at the end point of the titration in
diagram?
3
A 10 cm
3
B 20 cm
3
C 30 cm
3
D 40 cm

72. Persamaan menunjukkan tindak balas antara asid sulfurik dan sodium hidroksida.
The equation shows the reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide.

H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

-3 3
Berapakah isi padu larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0 mol dm yang boleh meneutralkan 25.0 cm
-3
asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm ?
-3 3
What is the volume of 1.0 mol dm sodium hydroixde solution which can neutralize 25.0 cm of
-3
1.0 mol dm sulphuric acid?
3
A 12.5 cm
3
B 25.0 cm
3
C 50.0 cm
3
D 75.0 cm

21
73.
0.2 mol dm -3 Asid sulfurik
0.2 mol dm -3 Sulphuric acid

-3
100cm ³ of 0.1 mol dm larutan
kalium hidroksida +
penunjuk fenolftalein
100cm ³ of 0.1 mol dm -3 potassium
hydroxide solution +
phenolphtalein
Berapakah jumlah isipadu asid sulfurik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan larutan kalium
hidroksida dengan lengkap?
What is the total volume of sulphuric acid needed to completely neutralise the potassium
hydroxide solution?
3
A 10 cm
3
B 25 cm
3
C 50 cm
3
D 75 cm

74. Persamaan mewakili satu tindak balas peneutralan.


The equation represents a neutralization reaction.

2HNO3 + Ba(OH)2 → Ba(NO3)2 + 2H2O

3 -3 -3
10.0cm larutan barium hidroksida 0.1 moldm dititrat dengan asid nitrik 0.1moldm . Jika
3
bacaan awal buret ialah 10.00cm , berapakah bacaan akhir buret?
3 -3 -3
10.0cm of barium hydroxide solution 0.1 moldm is titrated with nitric acid 0.1moldm . If the
3
initial reading of the burette is 10.00cm , what is the final reading of the burette?
3
A 20.00 cm
3
B 30.00 cm
3
C 40.00 cm
3
D 50.00 cm

75. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan tindakbalas di antara asid sulfurik dan kalium hidroksida.
The equation shows the reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide.

H2SO4 + 2KOH → K2SO4 + 2H2O

-3
Berapakah isipadu larutan kalium hidroksida 0.2moldm yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan
3 -3
20.0cm 0.1moldm asid sulfurik?

22
-3 3
What is the volume of 0.2moldm potassium hydroxide solution which can neutralize 20.0cm of
-3
0.1moldm sulphuric acid?
3
A 10.0 cm
3
B 20.0 cm
3
C 40.0 cm
3
D 80.0 cm
-3
76. Berapakah isipadu larutan magnesium hidroksida, 0.5 mol dm yang dapat meneutralkan 25.0
3 -3
cm larutan asid hidroklorik 2.0 mol dm ?
-3 3
What is the colume of 0.5 mol dm magnesium hydroxide solution that can neutralise 25.0 cm
-3
of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid solution?
3
A 6.25 cm
3
B 12.50 cm
3
C 25.00 cm
3
D 50.00 cm
-3 3
77. Berapakah isipadu larutan kalium hidroksida, 1.0 mol dm yang dapat meneutralkan 25.0 cm
-3
larutan asid sulfurik 0.5 mol dm ?
-3 3
What is the colume of 1.0 mol dm potassium hydroxide solution that can neutralised 25.0 cm
-3
of 0.5 mol dm sulphuric acid solution?
3
A 6.25 cm
3
B 12.50 cm
3
C 25.00 cm
3
D 50.00 cm

78. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan penyediaan garam plumbum(II) klorida.


The Diagram below shows the preparation of lead (II) chloride salt.

50.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik


50.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid

50.0 cm3 plumbum(II) nitrat


1.0 mol dm-3
50.0 cm3 , 1.0 mol dm
-3
lead(II)
nitrate solution

Berapakah kepekatan asid hidroklorik yang diperlukan untuk bertindakbalas lengkap dengan
larutan plumbum(II) nitrat?
What is the concentration of hydrochloric acid needed to react completely with lead (II) nitrate
solution?
3
A 0.5 mol dm
3
B 1.0 mol dm
3
C 1.5 mol dm
3
D 2.0 mol dm

23
79. Jadual menunjukkan jumlah isipadu oksigen yang dikumpul dalam penguraian hidrogen
peroksida yang dimangkinkan oleh mangan (IV) oxida.
Table shows the total volume of oxygen, collected in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
catalyzed by manganese (IV) oxide.
3
Masa (min) Isipadu gas (cm )
3
Time(min) Volume of gas (cm )
0 0
1 11.20
2 23.60
3 29.70
4 31.40
5 31.40

Berapakah kadar tindak balas purata?


What is the average rate of reaction?
3 -1
A 6.28 cm min
3 -1
B 7.85 cm min
3 -1
C 9.90 cm min
3 -1
D 11.80 cm min

80. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan yang diperolehi daripada tindak balas antara asid
hidroklorik dan kalsium karbonat.
Table below shows the result obtained from the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium
carbonate.
2
Masa (min) Isipadu gas C02 (cm )
2
Time(min) Volume of C02 gas (cm )
0 0
0.5 170
1.0 260
1.5 305
2.0 340
2.5 350
3.0 350

Kira kadar tindak balas purata dalam minit kedua.


Calculate the average rate of reaction in the second minute.
3 -1
A 40.0 cm min
3 -1
B 80.0 cm min
3 -1
C 170.0 cm min
3 -1
D 340.0 cm min

81. Jadual menunjukkan jumlah isipadu gas yang terkumpul pada sela masa tertentu dalam suatu
tindak balas.
Table shows the total volume of gas collected at regular intervals in a reaction.
3
Masa (s) Isipadu gas (cm )
3
Time(s) Volume of gas (cm )
0 0
30 2.0
60 3.7
90 5.2
120 6.4
150 7.3
180 8.6
210 8.6

Berapakah kadar tindak balas purata dalam minit kedua?


What is the average rate of reaction in the second minute?

24
3 -1
A 0.040 cm s
3 -1
B 0.045 cm s
3 -1
C 0.053 cm s
3 -1
D 0.062 cm s

82. Jadual menunjukkan isipadu gas hidrogen yang dikumpul pada sela masa tertentu bagi tindak
balas antara serbuk zink dengan asid hidroklorik.
Table shows the volume of hydrogen gas collected at a regular time intervals for the reaction
between zinc powder with hydrochloric acid.

Time/min
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Masa
Isipadu gas 0.00 7.50 14.8 20.4 25.0 30.5
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
Volume of
hydrogen gas
3
cm

Apakah kadar tindak balas purata antara minit pertama dengan minit kedua?
What is the average rate of reaction between the first minute and the second minute?
3 -1 3 -1
A 7.50 cm min C 12.50 cm min
3 -1 3 -1
B 10.20 cm min D 14.80 cm min

83. Persamaan menunjukkan persamaan termokimia bagi suatu peneutralan.


The equation shows the thermochemical equation for a neutralization.

NaOH + HCI → NaCI + H2  H = –57 kJ mol-1


3 -3 3 -3
100 cm 2.0 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida ditambah ke dalam 100 cm 2.0 mol dm asid
hidroklorik.
Apakah haba yang dihasilkan dalam tindak balas ini?
3 -3 3 -3
100 cm of 2.0 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm of 2.0 mol dm
hydrochloric acid.
What is the heat released in the reaction?

A 22.80 kJ
B 11.40 kJ
C 7.01 kJ
D 3.50 kJ

84. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan haba tindak balas antara zink dengan larutan kuprum (II)
sulfat.
The equation below shows te heat of reaction between zinc and copper (II) sulphate solution.
-1
Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s) ∆H= -210 kJ mol

Suhu awal larutan kuprum (II) sulfat ialah 30.0 °C, berapakah suhu akhir larutan jika serbuk zink
3 -3
berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 50.0 cm of copper (II) larutan sulfat 0.5 mol dm ?
-1 -1
[ Haba muatan larutan = 4.2 J g °C ]
-1 -1
[Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g °C ]

A 12.5 °C
B 25.0 °C
C 55.0 °C
D 80.0 °C

25
85. Karbon terbakar dalam oksigen seperti ditunjukkan dalam persamaan di bawah
Carbon burns in oxygen in a reaction as shown in the equation below.
C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)
-1
ΔH=-394kJmol

Berapakah jisim karbon yang mesti terbakar untuk menghasilkan 78.8 kJ haba?
What is the mass of carbon that must be burnt completely to produce 78.8 kJ of heat?

A 0.2g
B 1.2g
C 2.4g
D 6.0g
-1
86. Haba pembakaran etanol adalah 1371 kJmol . Tindak balas kimia ditunjukkan seperti
persamaan di bawah.
-1
The heat of combustion of ethanol is 1371kJmol . The chemical reaction is given in the equation
below.
C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O
-1
ΔH= -1371kJmol

Jika 6.9g etanol terbakar dalam oksigen berlebihan, berapakah tenaga haba yang dibebaskan?
If 6.9g of ethanol is burnt is excess oxygen, how much is the heat released?
[Jisim atom relatif C =12, H=1, O=16]
[Relative atomic mass of C = 12, H =1, O =16]
-1
A 9459.9kJmol
-1
B 205.65kJmol
-1
C 198.69kJmol
-1
D 0.15kJmol
-1 3
87. Haba pemendakan kalsium karbonat ialah 12 kJ mol . Apabila 200 cm larutan kalsium nitrat
-3 3 -3
2.0 mol dm ditambah kepada 200 cm larutan kalium karbonat 2.0 mol dm , apakah
-1 -1
perubahan suhu campuran tersebut? [Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g ° C ; ketumpatan
-3
larutan = 1 g dm ]
-1 3 -3
The heat of precipitation of calcium carbonate is +12 kJ mol . When 200 cm of 2.0 mol dm
3 -3
calcium nitrate solution is added to 200 cm of 2.0 mol dm potassium carbonate solution, what
-1 -1
is the change in temperature of the mixture? [Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g °C ;
-3
density of solution = 1 g dm ]

A 1.33 °C
B 2.86°C
C 8.57 °C
D 12.3 °C

88. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan aras tenaga penyesaran kuprum daripada kuprum (II) sulfat.
Diagram below shows the energy level diagram of the displacement of copper from copper (II)
sulphate.

Tenaga
Energy

Zn(s) + CuSO2(aq)

∆H = -190 kJmol -1

ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

3
Apabila serbuk zink ditambahkan kepada 100 cm larutan kuprum (II) sulfat, suhu meningkat
kepada 23 ° C diperoleh. Apakah kepekatan kuprum (II) sulfat tersebut? [Muatan haba tentu
-1 -1 -3
larutan = 4.2 J kg ° C ; ketumpatan larutan = 1.0 g dm ]

26
3
When excess of zinc powder is added to 100 cm of aqueous copper (II) sulphate, a
temperature rise of 23°C is obtained. What is the concentration of copper (II) sulphate? [Specific
-1 -1 -3
heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J kg °C ; density of solution = 1.0 g dm ]
-3
A 0.05 mol dm
-3
B 0.10 mol dm
-3
C 0.50 mol dm
-3
D 1.20 mol dm

89. 2.3 g etanol dibakar di udara untuk menghasilkan karbon dioksida dan air seperti yang
ditunjukkan dalam persamaan berikut.
2.3 g of ethanol burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water as shown in the following
equation.

1
C2H5OH (l) + 3 2 O2 (g) → 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l)
-1
ΔH = -1380 kJ mol
3
Haba yang berkembang digunakan untuk memanaskan bikar yang mengandungi 1 000 cm air.
Apakah perubahan suhu air yang dijangkakan selepas semua etanol habis dibakar? [Muatan
-1 -1 -3
haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J kg ° C ; ketumpatan larutan = 1.0 g dm ]
3
The heat evolved is used to heat a beaker containing 1 000 cm of water. What is the expected
change in temperature of water after all the ethanol has been completely burnt? [Specific heat
-1 -1 -3
capacity of solution = 4.2 J kg °C ; density of solution = 1.0 g dm ]

A 9.66 °C
B 16.4 °C
C 26.7 °C
D 142 °C
3 -3 3
90. Apabila 50 cm asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm dicampurkan dengan 25 cm larutan kalium
-3
hidroksida 1.0 mol dm suhu meningkat sebanyak 18 ºC.
3 -3 3 -3
When 50 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid is mixed with 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm potassium
hydroxide solution the temperature increases by 18 ºC.

Berapakah perubahan haba bagi tindak balas ini?


What is the heat change for this reaction?
-1 -1
[ Muatam haba tentu air = 4.2 J g ºC ]
-1 -1
[ Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g ºC ]

A 1470 J
B 1890 J
C 3780 J
D 5670 J

91. 50cm³ asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm-3 dituangkan ke dalam 50cm³ larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0
mol dm-3. Suhu awal dan suhu akhir dengan pantas direkodkan ke dalam jadual di bawah.

50cm³ of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is poured into 50cm³ of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide
solution. The initial and final temperature are immediately recorded as shown below.

Suhu awal asid hidroklorik 29.0ºC


Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid
Suhu awal larutan natrium hidroksida 29.0ºC
Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution
Suhu tertinggi campuran 35.0ºC
Highest temperature of the mixture

-1 -1 -3
[Haba pendam tentu = 4.2Jg ºC , ketumpatan larutan =1.0gcm ]
-1 -1 -3
[Specific heat capacity = 4.2Jg ºC , density of solution =1.0 gcm ]

27
Berapakah nilai haba yang dibebaskan di dalam tindak balas tersebut?
What is the value of heat released in the reaction?

A 126J
B 126kJ
C 2520J
D 50400J
3
92. Satu eksperimen dijalankan dengan mencampurkan 25 cm larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0 mol
-3 3 -3
dm dengan 25 cm asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm . Gambarajah aras tenaga adalah seperti
ditunjukkan di bawah.
3 -3
An experiment is carried out by mixing 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution with 25
3 -3
cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid. The energy level diagram for the reaction is shown below.

Tenaga
Energy
HCI + NaOH
∆H = -57 kJmol-1

NaCI + H2O

Berapakah nilai perubahan suhu dalam eksperimen ini?


-1 -1 -3
[Nilai haba spesifik larutan: 4.2 J g °C ; ketumpatan larutan: 1 g dm ]
What is the value of temperature change in this experiment?
-1 -1 -3
[Specific heat capacity of solution: 4.2 J g °C ; density of solution: 1 g dm ]

A 2.8°C
B 6.8°C
C 13.6°C
D 22.6°C

93. Berikut ialah persamaan kimia bagi pembentukan hidrogen klorida.


The following is the chemical equation for the formation of hydrogen chloride.

H2(g) + CI2(g) → 2HCI(g)

Tenaga yang diperlukan untuk memecahkan ikatan di antara 1 mol molekul hidrogen, H2 ialah
436 kJ. Tenaga yang diperlukan untuk memecahkan ikatan antara 1 mol gas klorin, CI 2 ialah
242 kJ. Sebanyak 431 kJ tenaga dibebaskan untuk pembentukan 1 mol hidrogen klorida, HCI.
Berapakah nilai perubahan tenaga dan jenis tindak balas yang terlibat?
The energy needed to break the bond between 1 mole of hydrogen molecules, H 2 is 436 kJ. The
energy needed to break the bonds between 1 mole of chlorine gas, CI2 is 242 kJ. The energy
release is 431 kJ from the formation of 1 mole of hydrogen chloride, HCI. What is the value of
energy change and type of reaction involved?

Perubahan tenaga / kJ Tindak balas


Energy change / kJ Reaction
A -184 Eksotermik
B +184 Eksotermik
C -247 Eksotermik
D +247 Eksotermik

28
94. Diagram below shows an energy level diagram.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan gambar rajah aras tenaga.

T enaga
J(s) + T 2+(aq)
Energy

H = -220 kJmol-1
J 2+(aq) + T (s)

Berdasarkan rajah, berapakah kenaikan suhu larutan jiak serbuk larutan J berlebihan ditambah
3 -3
kepada 50 cm 0.2 mol dm larutan garam T?
Based on diagram, what is the increase in temperature of the solution if excess J powder is
3 -3
added to 50 cm of 0.2 mol dm T salt solution?

A 4.4 °C
B 5.5 °C
C 8.8 °C
D 11.0 °C

95. Rajah menunjukkan gambar rajah profil tenaga bagi suatu tindak balas.
Diagram shows the energy profile diagram for a reaction.

T enaga
Energy

K+L
100 kJ
40 kJ
M+N

Determine the heat of reaction and the activation energy for the reaction.
Tentukan haba tindak balas dan tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas ini.

Haba tindak balas Tenaga Pengaktifan


Heat of reaction/ Activation Energy/
kJ kJ
A -40 60
B -60 40
C +40 100
D +60 100
-1
96. Nilai bahan api metanol ialah 22.75 kJ g .
Pernyataan yang manakah adalah benar?
-1
[Jisim molar metanol = 32 g mol ]
-1
The fuel value of methanol is 22.75 kJ g .
Which statement is true?
-1
[Molar mass of methanol = 32 g mol ]
-1
A Haba pembakaran metanol ialah 728 kJ mol
-1
Heat combustion of methanol is 728 kJ mol
B Satu gram metanol membebaskan 728 kJ haba
One gram of methanol releases 728 kJ of heat
C Satu mol metanol membebaskan 22.75 kJ haba
One mole of methanol releases 22.75 kJ of heat
D Metanol menghasilkan 22.75 kJ haba apabila dibakar dalam satu gram oksigen
Methanol releases 22.75 kJ of heat when burnt in one gram oxygen

29
3 -3 3
97. Apabila 25 cm asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm dicampurkan dengan 25 cm larutan kalium
-3
hidroksida 1.0 mol dm suhu meningkat sebanyak 14 ºC.
3 -3 3 -3
When 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid is mixed with 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm potassium
hydroxide solution the temperature increases by 14 ºC.

Berapakah perubahan haba bagi tindak balas ini?


What is the heat change for this reaction?
-1 -1
[ Muatam haba tentu air = 4.2 J g ºC ]
-1 -1
[ Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g ºC ]

A 1470 J
B 2352 J
C 2940 J
D 3280 J

98. Maklumat berikut menunjukkan keputusan bagi satu eksperimen untuk menentukan perubahan
haba bagi pembakaran propanol, C3H7OH.
The following information shows the result of an experiment to determine the heat change for the
combustion of propanol, C3H7OH.

3
● Isipadu air dalam bekas kuprum = 300 cm
Volume of water in the copper container
● Suhu awal air dalam bekas kuprum = 28.5 ºC
Intial temperature of water in the copper container
● Suhu tertinggi air dalam bekas kuprum = 69.5 ºC
Highest temperature of water in the copper
container

Berapakah haba yang dibebaskan oleh pembakaran propanol, C3H7OH?


What is the heat released by the combustion of propanol, C3H7OH?
-1 -1 -3
[ Muatam haba tentu air = 4.2 J g ºC ; Ketumpatan air = 1 g cm ]
-1 -1 -3
[ Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g ºC ; Water density = 1 g cm ]
A 34.65 kJ
B 51.66 kJ
C 86.31 kJ
D 120.96 kJ
3 3
99. 25.0 cm asid hidroklorik dan 25.0 cm larutan natrium hidroksida telah dicampuran di dalam
satu cawan polistirena. Campuran ini dikacau. Suhu campuran bertambah dari 29ºC kepada
39ºC. Tentukan haba yang dibebaskan semasa eksperimen ini.
3 3
25.0 cm of hydrochloric acid and 25.0 cm of sodium hydroxide solution were mixed together in
a polystyrene cup. The mixture was stirred. The temperature of the mixture increased from 29ºC
to 39ºC. Determine the heat released during the experiment.
-1 -1 3
[ Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g ºC ; Anggap 1 cm larutan sama dengan 1 g larutan ]
-1 -1 3
[ Specific heat capacity of a solution = 4.2 J g ºC ; Assume that 1 cm of a solution is equal to
1 g of the solution ]

A 1050 J
B 2100 J
C 6090 J
D 8190 J

30
3
100. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bacaan suhu untuk tindak balas di antara 25 cm asid hidroklorik
-3 -3
0.1 mol dm larutan natrium hidroksida 0.1 mol dm .
3 -3
Table below shows the temperature readings for the reaction between 25 cm of 0.1 mol dm
3 -3
hydrochloric acid and 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution.

Suhu awal kedua-dua larutan sebelum dicampurkan


30ºC
Average initial temperature before both solutions are mixed
Suhu tertinggi larutan selepas dicampurkan
43ºC
Highest temperature after both solutions are mixed

Kirakan haba yang terhasil daripada tindak balas tersebut.


Calculate the heat produced from the reaction.
3 -1 -1
A 25 cm × 4.2 J g ºC × 13ºC
3 -1 -1
B 25 cm × 4.2 J g ºC × 43ºC
3 -1 -1
C 50 cm × 4.2 J g ºC × 13ºC
3 -1 -1
D 50 cm × 4.2 J g ºC × 43ºC

SKEMA JAWAPAN :
ANSWER 35.A 71.C
36.D 72.C
1.D 37.B 73.B
2.C 38.B 74.B
3.C 39.D 75.B
4.C 40.A 76.D
5.D 41.A 77.C
6.B 42.D 78.D
7.C 43.C 79.A
8.B 44.A 80.B
9.D 45.B 81.B
10.B 46.B 82.B
11.C 47.D 83.B
12.D 48.A 84.C
13.C 49.C 85.C
14.B 50.C 86.B
15.B 51.C 87.B
16.C 52.C 88.C
17.B 53.D 89.B
18.D 54.C 90.D
19.D 55.D 91.C
20.C 56.A 92.B
21.D 57.B 93.A
22.B 58.B 94.D
23.A 59.C 95.A
24.C 60.C 96.A
25.D 61.B 97.C
26.B 62.C 98.B
27.A 63.A 99.B
28.D 64.D 100.C
29.C 65.A
30.A 66.A
31.C 67.D
32.B 68.C
33.C 69.B
34.C 70.D
31