Anda di halaman 1dari 3

THE SIMPLE PAST PERFECT TENSE

*FORM: is formed with the past tense of HAVE and the PAST PARTICIPLE of the
main verb

I by ten o’clock
You finished by Tuesday
He left by the time he
She had (already) eaten arrived
It (‘d) been home for two hours
We since five o’clock
You since they returned
they from work

*USES
USES EXAMPLES
th
RESULTATIVE PERFECT – the result of Most 19 century American composers
an earlier past event is felt at a later point had trained in Europe, so they remain
in time or when another past event dominated by European traditions.
occurs. Why – because relationship
RECENT PERFECT – a past event is When you called, I had just listened to a
completed immediately before another jazz concert.
past event or point in time. This is shown
by adverbs of recent time: just, not yet,
recently, etc.
CONTINUATIVE PERFECT – an earlier When Gershwin composed the opera
past event/state extends up to a later past “Porgy and Bess” in 1935, jazz had been
event or point in time. This is shown by popular in the US for about two decades.
for+period of time or since+starting point
in time
THE PERFECT OF EXPERIENCE – an The rock music of the 1970s rejected
event had occurred once or more than socially approved ideas. Other kinds of
once within the speaker’s past music had rejected socially approved
experience. This is shown by: ever, never, ideas before.
always twice, it was the first/second/third
time, etc.
IN TEMPORAL CLAUSES – the past The recital began when/after/as soon as
event in the temporal clause is completed the audience had taken their seats.
before the past event in the main clause. The conductor did not start conducting
This is shown by: as soon as, not until, until the audience had stopped talking.
when, after, etc.
IN INDIRECT SPEECH - as a past The guide told visitors that Elvis Presley
equivalent of the simple present perfect had sold over 500 million records.
and past tense after a reporting verb (say,
tell, ask, etc) in a past tense.

*SIMPLE PAST TENSE AND PAST PERFECT


Time relationship Conjunction Time Clause Main Clause
Two past events when PAST TENSE PAST TENSE
closely following When Spanish European monarchs
each other the moment explorers returned tries to claim as
to Europe with much territory as
stories of American possible in the
gold, Americas
as soon as As soon as the they founded a
Pilgrims reached settlement at
the Atlantic Coast, Plymouth,
Massachusetts
Two sequential past after PAST TENSE PAST TENSE
events After Columbus he reached the
sailed west for Bahamas Islands in
months, the Caribbean.
before Before Columbus the Vikings
“discovered” explored the North
America, Atlantic Coast.
Time relationship Conjunction Main Clause Time Clause
until PAST TENSE PAST TENSE
(NEGATIVE)
The Americans did until they received
not win the War of assistance from the
Independence French.

*EMPHASIZING THE COMPLETION OF THE EARLIER EVENT IN THE TIME CLAUSE


Time relationship Conjunction Time Clause Main Clause
Two past events as soon as PAST PERFECT PAST TENSE
closely following As soon as the they founded a
each other Pilgrims had settlement at
reached the Plymouth,
Atlantic coast, Massachusetts
Two sequential past after PAST PERFECT PAST TENSE
events After Columbus he reached the
when had sailed west for Bahamas Islands in
months, the Caribbean.
Time relationship Conjunction Main Clause Time Clause
until PAST TENSE PAST PERFECT
(NEGATIVE)
The Americans did until they had
not win the War of received assistance
Independence from the French

*EMPHASIZING THE COMPLETION OF THE EARLIER EVENT IN THE MAIN CLAUSE


Time relationship Conjunction Time Clause Main Clause
Two sequential past by the time PAST TENSE PAST PERFECT
events By the time Britain Dutch, Swedish
founded its first and German settlers
permanent had already
settlement in North established
America in 1607 communities along
the Atlantic Coast.

before Before Columbus the Vikings had


“discovered” already explored
America in 1492, the North Atlantic
Coast
Time relationship Conjunction Main Clause Time Clause
Two past events just, hardly, PAST PERFECT PAST TENSE
closely following scarcely, barely + The Dutch had when the British
each other when hardly built the captured it and
town of New renamed it New
Amsterdam on York.
Manhattan Island,

no sooner + than The Dutch had no than the British


sooner built the captured it and
town of New renamed it New
Amsterdam on York.
Manhattan Island