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# QBM117 Business Statistics (Statistical formulae)

x x
Raw Data : Population mean ,  Sample mean, x
N n

 x
2

 2   x 
2
 xx N
Population variance,  
2
N N

 x
2

 2   x 
2
 xx n
Sample variance, s 
2
n 1 n 1
 fx  fx
Grouped Data: Population mean,  Sample mean, x
f f

 fx 
2

 2   fx 
2
 f xx N
Population variance,  
2
N N

 fx 
2

   fx 
2
2
 f xx n
Sample variance, s  
2
n 1 n 1
Probability:

n
P( E ) 
N
P( A  B)  P( A)  P( B)  P( A  B)

## OR P( A  B)  P( A)  P( B) if A and B are mutually exclusive

P( A  B)
P( A / B)  and P( A  B)  P( A / B).P( B)
P( B)

## P( A  B)  P( A).P( B) if A and B are independent

Discrete Probability distribution :

   x. p( x) and  2   ( x   ) 2 . p ( x)   x 2 . p ( x)   2

## Binomial Distribution : p( x)nCx p xq n  x

  np and  2 = npq

e   .x
Poisson distribution : p( x)  and  2  
x!

## Confidence interval estimates:

C.I for population mean,   x  z if  is known
2 n
s
  x  t if  is unknown with d.f. = n-1
, n 1
2 n
^ ^
^ pq
C.I. fo population proportion, p  p  z
2 n
Sample size estimation of population mean and proportion:

 z .
2 2
 ^ ^  z 
n 2  and n  p q 2 
 E   E 
   
Summary for Test Statistics for population mean,  and population proportion, p

x x
z if  is known t if  is unknown
 s
n n
^
p p
z
 pq 
 
 n 