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1Post graduate student, Applied mechanics department, L.D. College of engineering, Ahmedabad, India

2Associate Professor, Applied mechanics department, L.D. College of engineering, Ahmedabad, India

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Abstract - Pile foundations is the foundation type that is that for a given lateral load, the lateral deflection increases

used to transmit the heavy structural loads of with the combination of vertical loads. [1] endeavored to

superstructure to deeper strata either as a single/mono pile clarify this phenomenon by three-dimensional (3D) finite

or as group piles. On the reaction of piles for joined vertical element analysis and detailed that (1) the response of the

and lateral loads in the research facility and field test piles in both clayey and announced that (2) the nearness

information are restricted. The present practice is to of vertical loads expands the lateral load capacity of piles

consider vertical and lateral load freely for design of piles. in sandy soils by as much as 40% relying upon the level of

This paper exhibits the conduct of group of piles for lateral vertical load. Therefore explore model testing would be

load under the impact of vertical load through research the most appropriate way to deal with think about and

center trials on aluminum pipe piles with external diameter anaylse the response of pile under lateral load within the

and inside diameter of 25 mm and 19 mm separately. In sight of vertical load. Since the piles are not often enough

inadequately evaluated sand with 60% relative density the designed to resist lateral loads, the response of piles under

pile group was driven. Impact was seen of steady size of lateral load within the sight of vertical loads is more

vertical load in the scope of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and critical and intriguing for the outline engineers. In

ultimate vertical load on the lateral reaction for slenderness addition, the impact of the pile slenderness ratio (L/D) is

ratio of 10, 15 and 20 was concentrated of group of piles. also an essential parameter to be considered in pile plan.

Dial gauges were masterminded on the heap group to In perspective of this, the present paper centers around

quantify the displacement. The test outcomes have the investigation of piles subjected to pure lateral loads

demonstrated a critical increment in the load carrying and combined vertical and lateral loads through model

capacity under vertical loads on the lateral reaction of testing. The details of the numerical model, the validation

group of piles because of expanding length of piles from 250 of the created model against some field cases, and results

mm to 375 mm and 375 mm to 500 mm. The test results and from parameteric examines are talked about in the paper.

results found from the literature are compared and are

found to be in favourable agreement. This research of 2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

hollow pile foundation will be the most efficient pile

foundation technique in terms of economy, stability, A. Test Programme

construction methods and post settlement problems to

transfer very heavy dynamic loads safely to greater depths. Test Program Total 18 numbers of lateral load tests were

conducted on sand with no vertical load and with constant

Keyword: Pile load test, Lateral load test, Combined extent of vertical load (in scope of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%

load, Lateral load and 100% of Ultimate vertical load).

Pile foundation are broadly used to help different Model pile load test was conducted on sand in the

structures based on free/soft soils, where shallow Geotechnical Laboratory, Applied Mechanics department,

foundations would experience over the top settlements or L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad.

shear failure. These piles are utilized to help vertical loads,

lateral loads, or a blend of vertical and lateral loads. In any The experimental tests are performed on model group of

case, in perspective of the intricacy associated with piles in a RCC round tank of Internal diameter = 0.9 m,

breaking down the piles under combined loading, the external diameter = 1.0 m and Height of tank = 0.9 m as

present practice is to examine the piles autonomously for appeared in Fig. 1. The limits of the tank influences the

vertical loads to decide their bearing capacity and pressure and displacement fields in the soil subsequently

settlement and for the lateral load to decide their flexural general clearance of least five times the pile-diameter was

behavior. kept up between the bottom of tank and bottom surface of

aluminum hollow pile, also dimensions of the tank gives a

Concentrate the interaction effects on piles under base lateral clearance of five times the pile-diameter. The

combined loads would no uncertainty call for a precise soil model was set up by compacting the sand in layers,

and modern analysis. The writing accessible in this field is every one of 100 mm thick up to 750 mm tallness. The

inadequate. The limited information on this topic reveals sand was compacted at a relative density of 60%. Test

setup for pullout test.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2602

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3 IS soil classification SP

4 Specific gravity,G 2.7

5 Angle of internal friction, 36°

6 Cohesion,C 0

7 Minimum density,d min 16.78KN/m3

8 Maximum density,d max 18.18KN/m3

10 Relative density,Id 60%

wall thicknesses of 3 mm were utilized as model piles. L/D

ratio was 10, 15 and 20 so the length of pile was 250 mm,

375 mm and 500 mm separately. Piles were instrumented

for estimating displacement at the top of the pile. The dial

gauge was kept on pile top edge. The dial gauge tip was

refreshed on the pile top.

C. Properties of Sand

The dry sand utilized was spotless and poorly graded, with

the gradation appeared in Fig. 2. The index and

engineering properties of silty sand utilized for the

investigation are appeared in Table 1. Fig. 3. Experimental setup for the test

For all tests, the sand was put with a relative density of E. Pile Installation

60%. To achieve uniform density, the surface vibration

technique, with the surface vibrator device was used. The group of piles was put with the tip laying on the sand

surface in the test tank. A 6-mm-thick steel plate was set

over the pile top. The group of piles were gradually driven

into the sand by delicate blows with a small weight on the

steel plate. The verticality of the pile group was checked

with a plumb after each 50 mm penetration. The pile of

250 mm and 375 mm length was driven to a depth of 220

mm and 345 mm separately from the sand surface. The

pile top head was kept 30 mm over the sand surface to

influence provision for application of lateral to load.

F. Test Procedure

with the distinctive size of constant vertical load. Lateral

load tests were completed on group of piles for no vertical

load and for 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the

Experimental Ultimate Vertical Load. The lateral load was

Fig. 2. Particle size distribution curve connected by around 10 equal additions. The horizontal

displacement of the pile head was estimated utilizing

TABLE I: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SAND mechanical dial gauges. Each load augmentation was kept

up for at least 30 min till the displacement balanced out

Sr. No. Properties of sand Value with no development.

1 Coefficient of uniformity,Cu 2.2

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2603

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

primary stage, vertical loads were connected and then in

the second stage, lateral loads were connected while the

vertical load was kept constant. This sort of loading is like

that in field situations, for example, pile jetties,

transmission line towers, and overhead water tanks, etc.

Here, the piles are first subjected to vertical loading from

the heaviness of the deck or superstructure. The lateral

loading might be caused by wind, wave loading, deliver

affect, etc. while the piles are subjected to vertical loads.

Fig. 5. Lateral load vs Displacement graph for 20% vertical

The combined loads are connected in two phases. In the load

main stage, vertical loads were connected and then in the

second stage, lateral loads were connected while the

vertical load was kept constant. This kind of loading is like

that in field situations, for example, pile jetties,

transmission line towers, and overhead water tanks, etc.

Here, the piles are first subjected to vertical loading from

the heaviness of the deck or superstructure. The lateral

loading might be caused by wind, wave loading, send

affect, etc. while the piles are subjected to vertical loads.

A ultimate lateral resistance group of piles subjected to

pure lateral load is 1000 N.

expanded when it is subjected to vertical load. The Fig. 6. Lateral load vs Displacement graph for 40% vertical

expansion in extreme lateral resistance of pile when load

subjected to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of extreme

vertical load regarding pure lateral load test is 3 times,

4.65 times, 5.5 times, 6.3 times and 7 times individually.

lateral response of the group of piles for different level of

constant greatness of vertical load is appeared in the Fig.

10, Fig. 11 and Fig. 12. The application of vertical load

unmistakably demonstrates the expansion in a definitive

lateral resistance of pile.

load

load

load

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2604

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 04 | Apr-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

4. CONCLUSION

L/D ratio of 10, 15 and 20. The test outcomes are analyzed

and displayed in here. In light of the prior examination, the

accompanying conclusions are drawn:

piles inserted in sand as pile instigates complex

interaction effects because of concurrent

mobilization of detached earth weight because of

Fig. 9. Lateral load vs Displacement graph for 100% a horizontal load and pile skin friction because of

vertical load vertical load.

increments with the expansion in the extent of

vertical load up to seven times as for pure lateral

load test.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

G.P.Vadodariya, Principal, L.D.College of Engineering-

Ahmedabad for giving all the vital research offices.

6. REFERENCES

Fig. 10. Comparison of Lateral load vs Displacement result

for different vertical load of L/D = 10

[1] Lianyang Zhang, Francisco Silva, and Ralph

Grismala,” Ultimate Lateral Resistance to Piles in

Cohesionless Soils”, Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering-ASCE; January

2005; 131(1): 78-83.

driven piles under lateral load”, Journal Of

Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering-

ASCE August 1997; 123; 702-709.

Construction of Pile Foundations (Part 4-Load

Test on Piles)

Fig. 11. Comparison of Lateral load vs Displacement result

[4] S. Karthigeyan, V. V. G. S. T. Ramakrishna, and K.

for different vertical load of L/D = 15

Rajagopal “Numerical investigation of the effect of

vertical load on the lateral response of piles”,

Journal Of Geotechnical And Geoenvironmental

Engineering-ASCE; May 2007; 133(5), 512-521.

for different vertical load of L/D = 20

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2605

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