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Rald-Romeo A.

Magallanes 09-28-2018

School and Health Education MED-III

Assignment:

I. Research/Define/Describe the Health Education Theories and Models

1. Health belief model

2. Theory of reasoned action

3. Social Cognitive theory

4. Theory of self-efficacy

5. Trans-theoretical theory

II. Similarities, differences, goals, strategies advantages, and disadvantages.


III. Pick a theory and discuss how you can use it to your own life to your own health problems.
I.

Health Education Definition Goals Strategies Advantages Disadvantages


Theories/Model

1. Health Belief model The Health Belief Model is a The goal of this model is to pre- The model has been used to de-  It emphasized the  Does not account
psychological model pro- dict and explain health behaviors velop effective interventions to role of the individ- for persons atti-
posed by Hochbaum, and utilizing them for three ar- change health-related behaviors ual’s beliefs tudes that dictate a
Rosenstock and Kegels, that eas, namely, 1) Preventive health by targeting various aspects of  It recognized that person’s ac-
attempts to explain and pre- behaviors, 2) Sick role behaviors, the model’s key constructs. In- behavior has ad- ceptance of health
dict health behaviors. This is and 3) Clinic use. terventions based on the health vantages and disad- behaviors
done by focusing on the atti- belief model may aim to increase vantages  Does not take into
tudes and beliefs of individu- perceived susceptibility to and  Predicts health re- account individuals
als. The model was devel- perceived seriousness of a health lated behaviors by habitual actions
oped in response to the fail- condition by providing education accounting for indi-  It assumes that
ure of a free tuberculosis about prevalence and incidence vidual differences in everyone has equal
health screening program. of disease, individualize esti- attitudes access to infor-
mates of risk, and information mation about the
about the consequences of dis- disease or illness
ease. Interventions may also aim  It assumes that
to alter the cost-benefit analysis Health actions are
of engaging in a health-promot- the main goal in
ing behavior. The interventions the decision-mak-
can be aimed at the individual ing-process
level or the societal level. Inter-
ventions can also be aimed to
boost self-efficacy by providing
training in specific health-pro-
moting behaviors, particularly
for complex lifestyle changes.
2. Theory of Rea- The theory is one of the The goal of the theory is to ex- The strategy in this theory fo-  Recognized social  It predicts inten-
soned action three classic models of per- plain the relationship between cuses on the determination of in- influences on health tion, but intention
suasion. The theory is also attitudes and behaviors within tention as this is perceived as the behavior is often a poor pre-
used in communication dis- human action. TRA is used to best predictor of behavior. The  Perceived control is dictor of behav-
course as a theory of under- predict how individuals will be- determination of intention can recognized to be ioral change
standing. The theory of rea- have based on their pre-existing be defined by three things: 1) important and most  Still irrational and
soned action was developed attitudes and behavioral inten- Measurement of attitude toward models of health focused on individ-
by Martin Fishbein and Icek tions. The decision to engage in a behavior, 2) measurement of behavior include re- ual’s belief, no role
Ajzen and was derived from particular behavior is based on people’s subjective norms, and lated constructs for emtions
previous research that be- the individual’s expectation of 3) perceived behavioral control.
gan as the theory of atti- result or outcome.
tude.

3. Social Cognitive It is one of the theories pro- The goal of Social cognitive the- The strategy in this theory is that  Influence moral  Significant influ-
Theory posed by Albert Bandura ory is its application to a theoret- learning can be applied through competencies ence by media por-
which suggest that learning ical framework of studies per- three basic models of observa-  Morality forming trayals which lead
can also occur simply by ob- tained to media representation tional learning: 1) A live model,  Increases individ- to imitation of un-
serving the actions of oth- regarding race, gender and be- 2) A verbal instructional model; ual’s cognitive abil- safe sexual prac-
ers. A theory used in psy- yond. Observational learning and and 3) A symbolic model. ity to construct be- tices and risky sex-
chology, education and com- modeling process require the fol- This theory can be applied to havior ual behaviors
munication, holds that por- lowing steps: Attention, Reten- health issues such as AIDS, preg-  Transcend various
tions of an individual’s tion, Reproduction, and Motiva- nancy, sanitation, infectious dis- cultures
knowledge acquisition can tion. ease awareness. The theory can  Applicable to real
be directly related to ob- be important in targeting spe- life scenarios
serving others within the cific population groups in ensur-
context of social interac- ing a more successful outcome.
tions, experiences, and out- It was found in certain studies
side media influences. that participants could identify a
recognizable peer, have a
greater sense of self-efficacy,
and then imitate the actions to
learn the proper prevention’s
and actions.
4. Theory of Self-effi- Self-efficacy is an individ- The goal of Self-efficacy is in in- Healthcare providers can inte-  Enhances one’s  Do not always
cacy ual’s belief in his or her in- fluencing the adoption, initiation, grate self-efficacy interventions feeling of accom- guarantee positive
nate ability to achieve goals. and maintenance of healthy be- into patient education, one strat- plishment and feel- outcome expecta-
It is defined by Albert Ban- haviors, as well as curbing un- egy is other people acting on a ings of personal tions
dura as a personal judgment healthy practice. health promotion behavior and well-being  Beliefs about self-
of “how well once can exe- then work with the patient to  Helps one to remain efficacy vary
cute courses of action re- encourage their belief in their calm when ap- greatly between in-
quired to deal with prospec- own ability to change. As an ex- proaching challeng- dividuals, which
tive situations”. ample, when nurses followed-up ing tasks makes them very
individuals with chronic obstruc-  Increases willing- difficult for re-
tive pulmonary disease, they ness to experiment searchers to assess
were found to have increased on new ideas.  Skills may lack re-
self-efficacy in managing breath-  Encourages one to sources and equip-
ing difficulties. set higher expecta- ment necessary for
tion for future per- performance
formance  Basing the result of
 Increases ones per- one task from a
sistence and focus previous task may
on a given task be- be misleading
yond previous lev-  Personal factors
els and distorted
memories of previ-
ous performance
can distort one’s
self efficacy
 One might have
low self-efficacy if
one encounters a
failure
5. Trans-theoretical Transtheoretical model of The goal of this model is to mod- TTM treats the progress of be-  Treats change as  It ignores the social
Model behavioral change is an inte- ify a patient’s problem behav- havioral change as a dynamic, ra- dynamic instead of context with which
grative theory of therapy ior/s. The theory proposes that a ther than an “all or nothing” “all-or-nothing change can occur
that assesses an individual’s person may progress through phenomenon. Strategies  Applies to many  No clear sense for
readiness to act on a new “Stages of Change”. These stages health behaviors how much time is
healthier behavior, and pro- include Precontemplation, Con-  Acknowledgement needed for each
vides strategies or, pro- templation, Preparation, Action, of people’s individ- stage, or how long
cesses of change to guide Maintenance and Termination. ual differences in a person can re-
the individual. The theory The model is also composed of terms of readiness main in a stage
posits that change occurs constructs such as: stages of for change  It assumes that in-
over time. change, processes of change, lev- dividuals are capa-
els of change, self-efficacy, and ble of coherent
decisional balance. The stages- and logical plans in
of-change dimension can be ap- their decision mak-
plied to reduce resistance, in- ing (when it may
crease participation, reduce not always be true)
dropout and increase change  The questionnaire
progress. that have been de-
veloped are not al-
ways standardized
or validated.