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Rald-Romeo A.

Magallanes 09-28-2018

School and Health Education MED-III


I. Research/Define/Describe the Health Education Theories and Models

1. Health belief model

2. Theory of reasoned action

3. Social Cognitive theory

4. Theory of self-efficacy

5. Trans-theoretical theory

II. Similarities, differences, goals, strategies advantages, and disadvantages.

III. Pick a theory and discuss how you can use it to your own life to your own health problems.

Health Education Definition Goals Strategies Advantages Disadvantages


1. Health Belief model The Health Belief Model is a The goal of this model is to pre- The model has been used to de-  It emphasized the  Does not account
psychological model pro- dict and explain health behaviors velop effective interventions to role of the individ- for persons atti-
posed by Hochbaum, and utilizing them for three ar- change health-related behaviors ual’s beliefs tudes that dictate a
Rosenstock and Kegels, that eas, namely, 1) Preventive health by targeting various aspects of  It recognized that person’s ac-
attempts to explain and pre- behaviors, 2) Sick role behaviors, the model’s key constructs. In- behavior has ad- ceptance of health
dict health behaviors. This is and 3) Clinic use. terventions based on the health vantages and disad- behaviors
done by focusing on the atti- belief model may aim to increase vantages  Does not take into
tudes and beliefs of individu- perceived susceptibility to and  Predicts health re- account individuals
als. The model was devel- perceived seriousness of a health lated behaviors by habitual actions
oped in response to the fail- condition by providing education accounting for indi-  It assumes that
ure of a free tuberculosis about prevalence and incidence vidual differences in everyone has equal
health screening program. of disease, individualize esti- attitudes access to infor-
mates of risk, and information mation about the
about the consequences of dis- disease or illness
ease. Interventions may also aim  It assumes that
to alter the cost-benefit analysis Health actions are
of engaging in a health-promot- the main goal in
ing behavior. The interventions the decision-mak-
can be aimed at the individual ing-process
level or the societal level. Inter-
ventions can also be aimed to
boost self-efficacy by providing
training in specific health-pro-
moting behaviors, particularly
for complex lifestyle changes.
2. Theory of Rea- The theory is one of the The goal of the theory is to ex- The strategy in this theory fo-  Recognized social  It predicts inten-
soned action three classic models of per- plain the relationship between cuses on the determination of in- influences on health tion, but intention
suasion. The theory is also attitudes and behaviors within tention as this is perceived as the behavior is often a poor pre-
used in communication dis- human action. TRA is used to best predictor of behavior. The  Perceived control is dictor of behav-
course as a theory of under- predict how individuals will be- determination of intention can recognized to be ioral change
standing. The theory of rea- have based on their pre-existing be defined by three things: 1) important and most  Still irrational and
soned action was developed attitudes and behavioral inten- Measurement of attitude toward models of health focused on individ-
by Martin Fishbein and Icek tions. The decision to engage in a behavior, 2) measurement of behavior include re- ual’s belief, no role
Ajzen and was derived from particular behavior is based on people’s subjective norms, and lated constructs for emtions
previous research that be- the individual’s expectation of 3) perceived behavioral control.
gan as the theory of atti- result or outcome.

3. Social Cognitive It is one of the theories pro- The goal of Social cognitive the- The strategy in this theory is that  Influence moral  Significant influ-
Theory posed by Albert Bandura ory is its application to a theoret- learning can be applied through competencies ence by media por-
which suggest that learning ical framework of studies per- three basic models of observa-  Morality forming trayals which lead
can also occur simply by ob- tained to media representation tional learning: 1) A live model,  Increases individ- to imitation of un-
serving the actions of oth- regarding race, gender and be- 2) A verbal instructional model; ual’s cognitive abil- safe sexual prac-
ers. A theory used in psy- yond. Observational learning and and 3) A symbolic model. ity to construct be- tices and risky sex-
chology, education and com- modeling process require the fol- This theory can be applied to havior ual behaviors
munication, holds that por- lowing steps: Attention, Reten- health issues such as AIDS, preg-  Transcend various
tions of an individual’s tion, Reproduction, and Motiva- nancy, sanitation, infectious dis- cultures
knowledge acquisition can tion. ease awareness. The theory can  Applicable to real
be directly related to ob- be important in targeting spe- life scenarios
serving others within the cific population groups in ensur-
context of social interac- ing a more successful outcome.
tions, experiences, and out- It was found in certain studies
side media influences. that participants could identify a
recognizable peer, have a
greater sense of self-efficacy,
and then imitate the actions to
learn the proper prevention’s
and actions.
4. Theory of Self-effi- Self-efficacy is an individ- The goal of Self-efficacy is in in- Healthcare providers can inte-  Enhances one’s  Do not always
cacy ual’s belief in his or her in- fluencing the adoption, initiation, grate self-efficacy interventions feeling of accom- guarantee positive
nate ability to achieve goals. and maintenance of healthy be- into patient education, one strat- plishment and feel- outcome expecta-
It is defined by Albert Ban- haviors, as well as curbing un- egy is other people acting on a ings of personal tions
dura as a personal judgment healthy practice. health promotion behavior and well-being  Beliefs about self-
of “how well once can exe- then work with the patient to  Helps one to remain efficacy vary
cute courses of action re- encourage their belief in their calm when ap- greatly between in-
quired to deal with prospec- own ability to change. As an ex- proaching challeng- dividuals, which
tive situations”. ample, when nurses followed-up ing tasks makes them very
individuals with chronic obstruc-  Increases willing- difficult for re-
tive pulmonary disease, they ness to experiment searchers to assess
were found to have increased on new ideas.  Skills may lack re-
self-efficacy in managing breath-  Encourages one to sources and equip-
ing difficulties. set higher expecta- ment necessary for
tion for future per- performance
formance  Basing the result of
 Increases ones per- one task from a
sistence and focus previous task may
on a given task be- be misleading
yond previous lev-  Personal factors
els and distorted
memories of previ-
ous performance
can distort one’s
self efficacy
 One might have
low self-efficacy if
one encounters a
5. Trans-theoretical Transtheoretical model of The goal of this model is to mod- TTM treats the progress of be-  Treats change as  It ignores the social
Model behavioral change is an inte- ify a patient’s problem behav- havioral change as a dynamic, ra- dynamic instead of context with which
grative theory of therapy ior/s. The theory proposes that a ther than an “all or nothing” “all-or-nothing change can occur
that assesses an individual’s person may progress through phenomenon. Strategies  Applies to many  No clear sense for
readiness to act on a new “Stages of Change”. These stages health behaviors how much time is
healthier behavior, and pro- include Precontemplation, Con-  Acknowledgement needed for each
vides strategies or, pro- templation, Preparation, Action, of people’s individ- stage, or how long
cesses of change to guide Maintenance and Termination. ual differences in a person can re-
the individual. The theory The model is also composed of terms of readiness main in a stage
posits that change occurs constructs such as: stages of for change  It assumes that in-
over time. change, processes of change, lev- dividuals are capa-
els of change, self-efficacy, and ble of coherent
decisional balance. The stages- and logical plans in
of-change dimension can be ap- their decision mak-
plied to reduce resistance, in- ing (when it may
crease participation, reduce not always be true)
dropout and increase change  The questionnaire
progress. that have been de-
veloped are not al-
ways standardized
or validated.