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# TUTORIAL-1

## 1. A generating station has a maximum demand of 35000 KW and has a

connected load of 65000 KW. The number of units generated annually is
25.6X107.Calculate: a) the load factor b) the demand factor. The station has a
maximum capacity of the same value as that of the maximum demand.
2. A power station is to supply four regions of loads whose peak loads are 10000
KW, 5000 KW, 8000 KW, and 7000 KW. The diversity factor of the load at
the station is 1.5 and the load factor is 60%. Calculate: a) the maximum
demand b) the annual energy supplied from the station. Assume that the
maximum demand is equal to the installed capacity.
3. A diesel generating station supplies four categories of loads: 500 KW, 540
KW, 250 KW and 170 KW. If the station has a maximum demand of 750 KW,
calculate: a) the annual load factor b) the group diversity factor c) the demand
factor. The number of units supplied annually are16.4X105.
4. Following are the annual peak demand data for a utility for the last 14 years.
Calculate the ME, MAE, MSE, SDE and MAPE for each of the linear,
exponential and parabolic mathematical models. Using the best fitting model,
forecast the annual peak demand for the next 20 years for the utility based on
the MAPE. Take first 9 data as the initialization set.
Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Max.
Demand, 141 150 176 204 216 214 231 244 275 272 278 284 298 312
MW
5. Following are the annual peak demand data of a utility. Find out the best
fitting model out of linear, exponential and parabolic mathematical models
based on their Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). Using the best
fitting model, forecast the annual peak demand for the next 20 years for the
utility. Take first 6 data as the initialization set.
Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Peak demand,
7.3 7.6 7.9 8.3 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.5 10.6
MW
6. When the annual load factors for sufficiently long historical data of a utility
are plotted against time in years, a linear relation as shown below was
obtained.
L.F. =42+0.238X (X=0 for up to the year 1996)
(X=1 for the 1997 and onwards)
The annual energy consumption in MWhr by the utility for the past 16 years
have been tabulated below. Taking first 12 data as the initialization set,
forecast the annual peak demand for the next 25 years assuming the
expression for the load factor holds true for coming 25 years too.
Year 1990 ‘91 ‘92 ‘93 ‘94 ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 2000 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 05

MWhr 252 256 267 287 278 279 282 286 289 293 317 327 335 333 340 341

THE END
Ans.: 1.(a) 0.834 (b) 0.538 2.(a) 20000KW (b) 105.12X106 3.(a) 0.25 (b)1.94 (c) 0.513