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Engineering Procedure

SAEP-332 25 December 2011


Cathodic Protection Commissioning
Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1 Scope.................................................…........ 3
2 Applicable Documents..........................…...... 3
3 Definitions and Abbreviations......................... 4
4 Safety.....................................................….... 7
5 Responsibilities.............................................. 7
6 Qualifications…………………………………... 8
7 General Commissioning Procedures…….….. 8
8 Marine Structures………………………........ 15
9 Buried Pipelines........................................... 17
10 Vessel and Tank Internals............................ 20
11 Plant Facilities.............................................. 23
12 Onshore Well Casings................................. 27
13 Concrete Structures..................................... 29
14 Report Forms............................................... 32

Attachments (Appendices A to K)……………….. 33

Previous Issue: 31 May 2005 Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016


Page 1 of 33
Primary contact: Catte, Darrell Raymond on +966-3-8809630

Copyright©Saudi Aramco 2011. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

Detailed Table of Contents


1 Scope .............................................................................................................................................. 2
2 Applicable Documents.................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Saudi Aramco References ................................................................................................... 3
3 Definitions and Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 4
4 Safety ............................................................................................................................................. 7
5 Responsibilities ............................................................................................................................. 7
6 Engineer/Technician Qualifications ............................................................................................ 8
7 General Commissioning Procedures ........................................................................................... 8
7.1 Test Equipment – General Procedures ................................................................................ 8
7.2 Measurement of Protection Levels and Equipment Performance ....................................... 9
7.3 Bond Box Measurements and Adjustments ...................................................................... 13
7.4 Electrical Isolating Devices............................................................................................... 13
7.5 Soil Access Boxes for Potential Measurements in Paved Areas ....................................... 14
7.6 Stationary Reference Electrode Measurements................................................................. 14
7.7 Impressed Current Anode Junction Box Measurements ................................................... 14
7.8 Power Supply Measurements ............................................................................................ 15
8 Marine Structures - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-300) ................................................. 15
8.1 Reference Electrodes for Marine Structures ..................................................................... 15
8.2 Surveys Required for Marine Structures ........................................................................... 15
8.3 Comprehensive Survey of Submarine Pipelines ............................................................... 16
8.4 Comprehensive Survey of Offshore Platforms ................................................................. 17
9 Buried Pipelines - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-400)..................................................... 17
9.1 Reference Electrodes for Buried Pipelines........................................................................ 17
9.2 Surveys Required for Buried Pipelines ............................................................................. 18
9.3 Comprehensive Survey of Buried Pipelines...................................................................... 19
10 Vessel and Tank Internals - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-500) .................................... 20
10.1 Reference Electrodes for Vessel and Tank Internal Surfaces ........................................... 20
10.2 Surveys Required for Vessel and Tank Internal Surfaces ................................................. 20
10.3 Comprehensive Survey of Tank Internal Surfaces ............................................................ 21
10.4 Comprehensive Survey of Vessel Internal Surfaces ......................................................... 22
11 Plant Facilities – Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-600)....................................................... 23
11.1 Reference Electrodes for Plant Facilities .......................................................................... 23
11.2 Surveys Required for Plant Facilities ................................................................................ 24
11.3 Comprehensive Survey of Tank Bottom External Surfaces .............................................. 24
11.4 Comprehensive Survey of Buried Plant Piping................................................................. 26
11.5 Comprehensive Survey of the Soil Side of Sheet Piling ................................................... 26
12 Onshore Well Casings – Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-700) .......................................... 27
12.1 Reference Electrodes for Onshore Well Casings .............................................................. 27
12.2 Surveys Required for Onshore Well Casings .................................................................... 28
12.3 Comprehensive Survey of Onshore Well Casings ............................................................ 28
13 Concrete Structures - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-800) .............................................. 29
13.1 Reference Electrodes for Existing Reinforced Concrete Structures ................................. 30
13.2 Comprehensive Survey of Concrete Structures ................................................................ 30
14 Report Forms .............................................................................................................................. 32

Page 2 of 33
Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

1 Scope

This procedure covers cathodic protection for all Saudi Aramco facilities. It provides
instructions and establishes responsibilities for commissioning a new cathodic
protection (CP) system or for reactivating an existing system that has been inoperative
for more than 90 days. Compliance with this Engineering Procedure will promote the
following:
a. Installation of all CP equipment in accordance with the design documents.
b. Commissioning of all CP equipment within specified design and manufacturer’s
parameters.
c. Adequate and optimized levels of cathodic protection on all structures addressed by
the cathodic protection design.
d. Minimization of detrimental effects on other structures to acceptable tolerance
levels.

2 Applicable Documents

 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-X-300 Cathodic Protection of Marine Structures
SAES-X-400 Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipelines
SAES-X-500 Cathodic Protection Vessel and Tank Internals
SAES-X-600 Cathodic Protection of Plant Facilities
SAES-X-700 Cathodic Protection of Onshore Well Casings
SAES-X-800 Cathodic Protection for Existing Reinforced
Concrete Structures

Saudi Aramco General Instruction


GI-0002.100 Work Permit System
GI-0428.001 Cathodic Protection Responsibilities

Saudi Aramco Best Practices


SABP-X-003 Cathodic Protection Installation Requirements

Page 3 of 33
Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

3 Definitions and Abbreviations

Bond Cable: A cable installed between two metallic structures to provide electrical
continuity between the structures for the purpose of cathodic protection.

Calcined Petroleum Coke Breeze: A carbonaceous backfill used as a conductive


backfill media for impressed current anodes in soil.

CP: Cathodic Protection

CPA Probe: A CP assessment probe is a multi-electrode probe designed to enable


measurement of the soil resistivity in addition to representative polarized and
depolarized potentials for the pipeline or other buried or immersed metallic structure at
the probe location.

CP Coupon: A CP coupon is a single electrode coupon that has been designed to


enable measurement of representative potentials or current densities on a pipeline or
other buried or immersed metallic structure at the coupon location.

CP System Operating Circuit Resistance: The total effective resistance seen by the
output terminals of the cathodic protection power supply, or the total working resistance
in a galvanic anode system.

CP System Rated Circuit Resistance: The cathodic protection power supply rated
output voltage divided by the rated output current. For photovoltaic power supplies, the
rated output current for this calculation is the design current.

Cross Country Pipeline: A pipeline between; two plant areas, another cross-country
pipeline and a plant area, or between two cross-country pipelines.

CSD: Consulting Services Department

Deep Anode Bed: Anode or anodes connected to a common CP power supply installed
in a vertical hole (typically 25cm diameter) with a depth exceeding 15 m (50 ft).

Design Agency: The organization or company contracted by Saudi Aramco for the
design of a CP system. The Design Agency may be the Design Contractor, the Lump
Sum Turn Key Contractor or an in house design organization of Saudi Aramco.

Drain Point: The location on the cathodically protected structure where the negative
cable from the rectifier or negative junction box is fastened to the structure.

Flowline: A pipeline connected to a well.

Galvanic Anodes: Anodes fabricated from materials such as aluminum, magnesium or


zinc that are connected to the buried structure to provide cathodic protection current

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

without the requirement for an external cathodic protection power supply. Galvanic
anodes are also referred to as sacrificial anodes.

GOSP: Gas and Oil Separation Plant

Hazardous Areas: Those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to
flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers or
filings (see NEC Article 500).

ICCP: Impressed Current Cathodic Protection

Impressed Current Anodes: Anodes fabricated from materials such as High Silicon
Cast Iron (HSCI) or Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) that are immersed or buried and are
connected to the positive terminal of a DC power supply to provide cathodic protection
current.

Megger: A meter designed to measure ground resistivity, or can be connected to


measure resistance in a format that excludes the resistance of the test wires.

MSAER: Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements

NEC: National Electric Code

NEMA: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (USA)

Negative Cable: A cable that is electrically connected (directly or indirectly) to the


negative output terminal of a cathodic protection power supply or to a galvanic anode.
This includes bond cables to a cathodically protected structure.

Off-Plot: Off-plot refers to any area outside of the plot limits.

On-Plot: On-plot refers to any area inside the plot limits.

Perimeter Fence: The fence which completely surrounds an area designated by Saudi
Aramco for a distinct function.

Photovoltaic Module: A number of solar cells wired and sealed into an


environmentally protected assembly.

Pipeline: The term “pipeline” is used generically in this standard and can be used to
refer to any type of pipeline.

Plant Area: A plant area is the area within the plot limits of a process or hydrocarbon
storage facility. Scraper trap and launcher areas are not Plant areas.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

Plot Limit: The plot limit is the boundary around a plant, process or hydrocarbon
storage facility. The plot limit may be physical such as a fence, a wall, the edge of a
road or pipe rack, chains and posts or a boundary indicated on an approved plot plan.

PMT: Project Management Team used as a truncated version of Saudi Aramco Project
Management Team (SAPMT).

Positive Cable: A cable that is electrically connected (directly or indirectly) to the


positive output terminal of an ICCP power supply, including impressed current anode
cables.

Process Pipeline: A pipeline typically associated with a plant process and typically
above ground within a plant facility.

Production Pipeline: A pipeline transporting oil, gas or water to or from a well.


These include flow-lines, test-lines, water injection lines and trunk-lines.

Reference Electrode: An industry standardized electrode used as a common reference


potential for cathodic protection measurements. A copper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4)
reference electrode is typically used for soil applications. A silver/silver chloride
(Ag/AgCl/0.6M Cl) reference electrode is typically used for aqueous applications.

RSA: Responsible Standardization Agent - usually the Saudi Aramco CSD cathodic
protection Subject Matter Expert or the Supervisor of the CSD Cathodic Protection
Team.

SAES: Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard

SAPMT: Saudi Aramco Project Management Team (often shortened to PMT).

Soil Transition Point: The on grade location where a pipeline enters or exits the soil,
i.e., above grade to below grade transition, or below grade to above grade transition.

Subject Matter Expert (SME): For the purposes of this document, the SME shall be
the assigned Consulting Services Department cathodic protection specialist.

Surface Anode Bed: Anode or anodes connected to a common CP power supply,


installed either vertically or horizontally at a depth of less than 15 m (50 ft).

Test-line: A pipeline that is used for testing an individual well or group of wells.

Thermite Weld: An exothermic process to make electrical connections between two


pieces of copper or between copper and steel.

Transmission Pipeline: A cross country pipeline transporting product between GOSPs


WIPs or other process facilities.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

Trunk-line: A pipeline designed to distribute or gather product from two or more


wells, typically connecting flow-lines or injection lines to the associated GOSP or WIP.

Utility-line: A pipeline designed to deliver an end use service product (typically water,
gas or air).

WIP: Water Injection Plant

4 Safety

Personnel working on cathodic protection equipment or taking cathodic protection


measurements are required to follow and comply with all appropriate safety
precautions, including but not limited to the following:
a. Obtain the appropriate work permit as required from the operations foreman in
compliance with Saudi Aramco Work Permit procedures (See GI-0002.100).
b. Personnel must be knowledgeable and qualified in electrical safety precautions prior
to installing, adjusting, repairing or removing cathodic protection equipment.
c. Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as safety glasses, hard hats,
safety shoes with electrically insulated soles, etc. are required. Fall restraining
devices are required when working on the top of structures such as storage tanks.
d. Physical contact with cathodic protection equipment should be avoided when
thunderstorms are in the area. Remote lightning strikes can create hazardous
voltage surges that travel along pipelines.
e. Use insulated test lead clips and terminals. Test clips should be attached to
electrical equipment one at a time. Use one hand to make the connection and keep
the other hand free from resting on any surface.
f. Use caution when test leads longer than 100 meters are extended near overhead high
voltage AC power lines. Hazardous voltages can be induced into the test leads.
g. Use protective equipment such as rubber gloves when making measurements of
pipeline potentials in areas within 200 meters of high voltage power lines. If the
induced AC potentials exceed 12 volts exercise additional caution and consider
using rubber mats in addition to the rubber gloves.

5 Responsibilities

Refer to GI-0428.001, “Cathodic Protection Responsibilities,” for details of the


organizational responsibilities for implementing this Engineering Procedure. PMT shall
ensure that the precommissioning checks (refer to SABP-X-003) have been made for

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

the CP system (including remote monitoring where applicable), and all


precommissioning data forms have been submitted to the CP proponent.

Commissioning a new CP system or re-activating an existing CP system is the


responsibility of the proponent organization in charge of the CP system.
The Consulting Services Department is available upon request to provide assistance to
resolve problems encountered during commissioning.

6 Engineer/Technician Qualifications

Commissioning should be completed by technicians with a minimum of two years


verifiable field experience preferably with a minimum industry certification level of
NACE CP Level 2.

7 General Commissioning Procedures

7.1 Test Equipment – General Procedures

7.1.1 Use industry quality meters, reference electrodes and associated


equipment for CP testing. The following equipment list is the
minimum that should be available for commissioning.

 Multimeter with variable input impedance selection (e.g., Miller


LC-4).
 Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode for soil applications and Ag/AgCl
reference electrode for water.
 Clamp on ammeter designed for measuring DC current flowing in
cable sizes up to 185mm2.
 Clamp on ammeter designed for measuring DC current flowing in
pipeline sizes up to 24 inch.
 Minimum 300 meters of spooled test wire for taking measurements
such as remote potentials, or well casing to well casing voltages.
 Radio Frequency type electrical isolation test meter.
7.1.2 Check the meter batteries to ensure they are adequately charged.
Always have spares readily available.

7.1.3 Check all test leads for continuity and integrity. Always have spares
readily available.

7.1.4 Verify the calibration of all meters annually.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

7.1.5 Use high input impedance meters for structure-to-electrolyte potential


measurements. Meter input impedance should be 20 megohms or
greater. Multimeters with a variable input impedance setting are
required in high resistivity environments.

7.1.6 Use a clamp-on-ammeter for the direct measurements of DC currents.


For pipe current measurements, meters having a current measuring
capacity up to 100 amps with and a variety of clamp sizes are
preferred. Prior to taking any measurements, test the clamp against a
known current flow and record any required correction factor.

7.1.7 Properly maintain copper/copper sulfate reference electrodes, as follows:

 Clean the tips of the copper/copper sulfate electrodes, and ensure


that the electrodes contain an adequate volume of electrolyte with
an excess of copper sulfate crystals.

 Inspect and test the electrodes one against another at least


quarterly. The voltage difference shall not exceed 20 mV. If this
maximum is exceeded:

 Disassemble the electrode.


 Remove the oxide layer on the copper rod with fine sand paper,
then rinse with distilled water.
 Clean and rinse the electrode cylinder with distilled water.
 Fill the electrode cylinder half full with a distilled water
solution saturated with copper sulfate crystals. Use only
distilled water and chemically pure copper sulfate.
 Add a small excess of copper sulfate crystals and reassemble
the electrode.

7.1.8 Properly maintain silver/silver chloride reference electrodes, as


follows:

 Inspect and test silver/silver chloride electrodes, one against


another at least quarterly. A replacement is required if the voltage
difference is greater than 20 mV.

7.2 Measurement of Protection Levels and Equipment Performance

7.2.1 Conduct the commissioning of a new cathodic protection system as


soon as possible after the precommissioning data has been received
from the PMT.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

Commentary Note:

New cathodic protection systems that have been precommissioned, but


do not comply with commissioning specifications defined in the
respective SAES or this document, should be turned on and operated
(if safe and possible) during the interim to provide as near as possible
the necessary cathodic protection until the required modifications to the
CP equipment are completed by PMT.

7.2.2 Conduct the commissioning of a re-activated cathodic protection


system as soon as possible after the conditions that caused the de-
activation of the cathodic protection system have been resolved.
Commentary Note:

Existing de-activated cathodic protection systems that are awaiting re-


activation should be turned on and operated (if safe and possible)
during the interim to provide as near as possible the necessary
cathodic protection until the conditions that are delaying re-activation
are removed or resolved.

7.2.3 The general commissioning procedure for a new or re-activated


cathodic protection system is a four (4) step process as described
below.

1) Conduct an “as-found” survey before energizing the ICCP


power supply (or supplies):
a. Verify that all relevant construction has been completed and
all relevant structures have electrical continuity or isolation as
designed.
b. Verify that all new CP equipment per the design documents
have been installed in a manner that complies with the
respective Engineering Standard(s).
Commentary Note:

It is important to confirm that the correct size of cable has been


installed in accordance with the design document especially for
CP systems constructed with multiple negative cables.

c. Where deemed beneficial by the CP proponent (not mandatory


for precommissioning), determine “as-found” protection levels
and measure incidental current sources and drains. Incidental
current sources include connections to: existing cathodic
protection systems, cathodically protected structures, galvanic
anodes, and bond cables.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

d. Record “as-found” data as applicable, using the


commissioning forms contained in:
 Appendix C for plant buried piping
 Appendix D for external tank bottoms
 Appendix E for tank internals
 Appendix F for onshore well casings/flowlines
 Appendix G for onshore pipelines
 Appendix H for offshore pipelines
 Appendix I for offshore well casings and platforms

2) Energize each new CP impressed current power supply at the


manufacturer’s rated current output and:
a. Verify that each new CP power supply will provide the power
supply rated current output at a voltage no greater than 90% of
the rated voltage. Record the data on the appropriate
commissioning form contained in:
 Appendix A for rectifiers
 Appendix B for photovoltaic systems
b. Verify that each newly installed impressed current anode
operates at or below the maximum current output for that
specific type of anode as specified in the respective SAES.
Record the data on the appropriate commissioning form
contained in:
 Appendix D for external tank bottoms
 Appendix E for vessel and tank internal surfaces
 Appendix J for onshore anode beds
 Appendix K for offshore anode beds

3) Adjust the CP power source(s) to the target current output(s)


specified in the Detailed Design document.

Measure and evaluate the protection levels on the respective


structure(s) at one or more sample locations, typically where
protection levels were determined to be lowest if an “as found”
survey was completed.

4) Complete a final adjustment of each CP power supply to


optimize the level of protection and conduct a final
comprehensive survey.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

a. Measure and record the final operating outputs of each newly


commissioned ICCP power supply and any other ICCP power
supply adjusted during the commissioning.
b. Measure and record the current through each impressed
current anode at the newly commissioned ICCP power supply
locations.
c. Measure the dc voltage difference between the anode bus bar
in the anode junction box and the anode junction box
enclosure. If the voltage between the bus bar and the
enclosure is greater than 12 volts, a non-metallic junction box
should be requested for safety.
d. Measure and record the relevant structure-to-electrolyte
potentials, and/or current as applicable and verify that an
adequate protection status is being achieved at all locations in
accordance with the applicable SAES.
e. Measure and record the current in each circuit for multiple
negative CP systems (all negative junction boxes) to verify
compliance as applicable with the respective SAES and the
design documents.
f. Measure and record the current magnitude and direction at all
bond boxes.
g. Record the “final comprehensive survey” data using the
commissioning forms contained in:
 Appendix A for rectifiers
 Appendix B for photovoltaic systems
 Appendix C for buried plant piping
 Appendix D for external tank bottoms
 Appendix E for tank internals
 Appendix F for onshore well casings
 Appendix G for onshore pipelines
 Appendix H for offshore pipelines
 Appendix I for offshore well casings and platforms
 Appendix J for onshore anode beds
 Appendix K for offshore anode beds

Page 12 of 33
Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

7.3 Bond Box Measurements and Adjustments


a. Tighten each cable connection in the bond box prior to taking current
measurements.
b. Measure the magnitude and direction of the CP current flowing through each
bond connection.
c. If the bond box contains resistors, record the resistance and verify that the
wattage rating of each resistor is adequate.
Commentary Notes:

To measure the resistance introduced by the resistor, temporarily disconnect


one end of the resistor and measure the resistance (ohms) across the
resistor.

To verify that the wattage of the resistor is adequate, verify that the voltage
dropped across the resistor, multiplied by the current through the resistor is
less than the rated wattage of the resistor.

d. Measure the potentials of the pipelines associated with the bond box.

 Measure the pipe-to soil potentials directly over each pipeline, or as near
as practical.

 Potentials should demonstrate adequate protection levels for all relevant


pipelines/structures.

 Potential levels measured on the previously existing pipelines/structures


should be at least as negative during the final comprehensive survey as
were measured during the initial as-found survey (if measurements were
taken during the as-found survey).

7.4 Electrical Isolating Devices


a. With a reference electrode placed in a fixed location, measure the potential
on each side of the isolating device. If the potentials are the same, it
indicates a high probability of a short either through the isolation device or
around the isolation device.
b. If a short is suspected:
 Measure the DC voltage and AC voltage across the isolating device. A
notable difference in either voltage indicates the isolation device is
working properly. If the voltages across the isolation device are
insignificant, continue with the below testing.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

 Visually inspect the piping and other equipment connected to the


electrical isolation equipment to determine if there are any bypass lines,
pipe supports, grounded instruments or other devices that are creating
electrical continuity around the electrical isolation equipment. If so,
document and report accordingly.
 Test the integrity of the isolation device using an RF isolation tester. If a
faulty gasket or sleeve is detected, document and report accordingly.
Commentary Note:

It may be impractical or impossible to use an RF isolation tester on some


types of monolithic isolation joints. In such cases, a defective monolithic
joint may be identified by measurement of current passing through the
isolation device using a clamp-on DC ammeter.

c. Faulty isolating devices shall be recorded as exception items, but shall not
delay commissioning unless the cathodic protection levels on the associated
structures are below acceptable commissioning criteria. In such cases, the
CP systems should be left on to provide as much CP as possible until the
isolation issue is resolved.

7.5 Soil Access Boxes for Potential Measurements in Paved Areas


a. If a test lead connection is not available in the soil access box, connect the
test lead to the structure that the soil access box is over, preferably at the
point on the structure nearest the soil access box.
b. Supplemental soil access points can be made in asphalted areas using a
manual hand drill with a 30mm wood bit (auger type bit).

7.6 Stationary Reference Electrode Measurements


a. Measure the relevant structure potential using the stationary reference
electrode.
b. Measure the relevant structure potential using a portable reference electrode
placed in the same electrolyte as the stationary reference electrode (if
practical).
c. Measure the millivolt difference measured between the stationary reference
electrode and a portable reference electrode placed in the same electrolyte (if
practical).

7.7 Impressed Current Anode Junction Box Measurements


a. Tighten each anode connection and each positive cable connection in the
junction box prior to taking current measurements.

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

b. With the ICCP power supply adjusted to supply the CP power supply rated
current output, measure the current through each anode using the shunts
provided in the anode junction box, or using a clip on ammeter on each
anode cable.
c. With the ICCP power supply adjusted to supply the CP power supply rated
current output, measure the voltage difference between the anode junction
box enclosure and the anode connection bus bar in the anode junction box.
If this is greater than 12 volts, the anode junction box should be replaced
with a non-metallic junction box.
d. Verify that the anode junction box has not been connected to the system
ground.

7.8 Power Supply Measurements

Follow the check lists provided with the commissioning forms in Appendix A
for rectifiers and Appendix B for solar systems.

8 Marine Structures - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-300)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of marine structures are specified in SAES-X-300. Marine structures include
all marine structures and associated equipment addressed by the scope of SAES-X-300.

8.1 Reference Electrodes for Marine Structures

8.1.1 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials for marine structures


with a portable silver/silver chloride reference electrode.

8.1.2 Place the reference electrode as close as possible to the structure to


minimize measurement error associated with the voltage (IR) drop in
the electrolyte.

8.1.3 If there are anodes in the area where the measurements are being taken,
try to place the reference electrode midway between the anodes.

8.1.4 Take the potential measurements at well-defined locations to facilitate


repeatability with future monitoring measurements.

8.1.5 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix I.

8.2 Surveys Required for Marine Structures

8.2.1 The structure-to-electrolyte potential surveys for commissioning of a

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

CP system for a marine structure with an ICCP power supply shall be


conducted as detailed below.
 Conduct the as-found survey before energizing the new ICCP
power supply or supplies.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements will be influenced by the galvanic anodes


and are only required at representative locations sufficient to assist
in the selection of an optimized output for the power supplies and
to determine base line protection levels of electrically isolated
pipelines if applicable.

 Conduct the as-designed survey with the ICCP power supply


adjusted to operate at the design current level specified in the CP
detailed design document.
Commentary Note:

The survey completed with the impressed current power supplies


set to the “design output” serves the purpose of refining a starting
point for optimizing the current output of the new ICCP power
supply or supplies. Potential measurements are only required at
representative locations sufficient to determine an optimized output
for the power supplies.

 Conduct a comprehensive survey with the ICCP power supply


adjusted to operate at an optimized output.

8.2.2 The commissioning structure-to-electrolyte potential survey is


completed only once for new marine structures that are protected only
by galvanic anode systems that cannot be readily disconnected or
adjusted.

8.3 Comprehensive Survey of Submarine Pipelines

8.3.1 Measure and record the operating data for the ICCP power supplies
and the current discharge levels for the associated anodes.

8.3.2 Measure and record the structure-to-electrolyte potentials at:


 both ends of a submarine pipeline
 at the shoreline transition point if applicable
 at the midpoint of sections of subsea pipelines that are greater than
10 km but less than 20 km

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Document Responsibility: Cathodic Protection Standards Committee SAEP-332
Issue Date: 25 December 2011
Next Planned Update: 25 December 2016 Cathodic Protection Commissioning

 at 10 km intervals for sections of subsea pipelines that are 20 km or


greater

8.3.3 If the pipeline starts from or terminates at an onshore facility, measure


the potentials on the buried section of the pipeline at all test locations,
i.e. test stations, bond boxes, above grade transition points, etc.

8.4 Comprehensive Survey of Offshore Platforms

8.4.1 Measure and record the operating data for the ICCP power supplies
and the current discharge levels for the associated anodes.

8.4.2 Verify that each well head is electrically connected to the platform
jacket through a bond cable or a welded continuity bar.

8.4.3 Measure potentials on each main platform jacket leg, on each pipeline
riser, and on each well conductor. The minimum required potential
measurements are as follows:
 In water depths of 15 meters or less, take potential measurements at
three locations: the sea bed, the midpoint, and one meter below the
surface.
 In water depths of 15 to 30 meters, take potential measurements at
four locations: the sea bed, three meters above the sea bed, the
midpoint, and one meter below the surface.
 In water depths of 30 meters or more, take potential measurements
at five locations: the sea bed, three meters above the sea bed, two
intermediate depths, and one meter below the surface.

9 Buried Pipelines - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-400)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of buried pipelines are specified in SAES-X-400. Buried pipelines include
all pipelines and associated equipment addressed by the scope of SAES-X-400.

9.1 Reference Electrodes for Buried Pipelines

9.1.1 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials for buried pipelines with


a portable copper/copper sulfate reference electrode.

9.1.2 To minimize measurement error associated with voltage (IR) drop in


soil, place the reference electrode in close proximity to the pipeline
(usually directly over the top of the pipeline or along the side of
bermed over pipelines).

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9.1.3 Place the reference electrode at locations selected to facilitate


repeatability with future monitoring measurements.

9.1.4 Avoid placement of the reference electrode near buried anodes, bare
copper grounding cables, or steel reinforced concrete pilings or
foundations.

9.1.5 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix G.

9.2 Surveys Required for Buried Pipelines

9.2.1 The structure-to-electrolyte potential survey for commissioning of a


CP system for a buried pipeline with an ICCP power supply shall be
conducted as detailed below.
 Conduct the as-found survey with the pre-existing CP power
supplies operating as near as practical to their respective target
outputs and the new CP power supplies “off” (and the negative
cable disconnected from the rectifier). Do not disconnect bond
station connections or permanent galvanic anodes connected during
the pipeline installation.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements are only required at representative


locations sufficient to determine an optimized output for the power
supplies and to determine base line protection levels at bond boxes
connected to foreign pipelines if applicable.

 Conduct the as-designed survey with the new ICCP power supplies
adjusted to operate at the design current level specified in the CP
detailed design document.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements are only required at representative locations


sufficient to determine an optimized output for the power supplies.

 Conduct a comprehensive survey with the ICCP power supplies


(pre-existing and new) adjusted to operate at an optimized output
determined after assessment of the as-designed survey.
Commentary Note:

The optimization of the CP power supply outputs will often involve


readjustment of the outputs of existing CP power supplies that are
influenced by, or have an influence on the new CP system or
pipeline.

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9.2.2 Complete the structure-to-electrolyte survey for new buried pipelines


protected only by galvanic anodes as an as-found survey with the
galvanic anodes disconnected, followed by the comprehensive survey
with the anodes connected.

9.3 Comprehensive Survey of Buried Pipelines

9.3.1 Measure the operating outputs for the ICCP power supplies.

9.3.2 Measure the current discharge levels for the anodes.

9.3.3 Measure the current magnitude and direction at all galvanic anode
installations.

9.3.4 Measure the current magnitude and direction at all junction boxes,
bond stations, and any other connection point (mechanical or
electrical), where current may come on or off the new pipeline.

9.3.5 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials at all:


 Drain points (wherever an ICCP power supply is connected to the
pipeline)
 Test stations
 Bond stations
 Valves (and other above ground appurtenances)
 Soil transition points

9.3.6 If there are high voltage AC power lines that are within 50 meters of
the pipeline and paralleling the pipeline for more than 500 meters,
measure the structure-to-electrolyte AC voltage potentials at the test
stations, bond stations and any other above ground appurtenance
within 500 meters of the power line. Voltage levels over 12 volts AC
are hazardous and require mitigation.

9.3.7 Measure structure-to-electrolyte readings at locations where a known


foreign pipeline crosses or comes within 75 meters of a Saudi Aramco
pipeline.
 Place the reference cell directly over the crossing, or over the
foreign pipeline at the closest point to the Saudi Aramco pipeline.
 Measure potentials on both structures with the nearest Saudi
Aramco rectifier interrupted (cycling “on” and “off'”) If the Saudi
Aramco CP system is depressing the protection level on the foreign

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pipeline by 50 mV or more, forward written notification to the


owner of the foreign pipeline and implement additional cooperative
testing with corrective action.
 If the protection level on the Saudi Aramco pipeline is less than
acceptable per SAES-X-400, then complete a close interval survey
in the vicinity of the crossing for approximately 150 meters in each
direction over the Saudi Aramco pipeline. If the close interval
survey indicates that interference is occurring on the Saudi Aramco
pipeline, then notify the owner of the foreign pipeline and
implement additional cooperative testing with corrective action.

10 Vessel and Tank Internals - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-500)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of vessel and tank internal surfaces are specified in SAES-X-500. Vessel and
tank internals include all vessels, tanks and associated equipment addressed by the
scope of SAES-X-500.

10.1 Reference Electrodes for Vessel and Tank Internal Surfaces

10.1.1 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials for vessel and tank


internal surfaces with a portable silver/silver chloride reference
electrode where accessibility is practical and with stationary reference
electrodes where provided. Portable reference electrodes typically
cannot be used for vessel internals.

10.1.2 When portable electrodes can be used, place the portable reference
electrode as close as possible to the structure to minimize measurement
error associated with the voltage (IR) drop in the electrolyte.

10.1.3 If there are anodes in the area where the measurements are being taken,
try to place the reference electrode midway between the anodes.

10.1.4 Take the potential measurements at well-defined locations to facilitate


repeatability with future monitoring measurements.

10.1.5 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix E.

10.2 Surveys Required for Vessel and Tank Internal Surfaces

10.2.1 The structure-to-electrolyte potential survey for commissioning of a


CP system for vessel and tank internal surfaces protected with an ICCP
power supply, or galvanic anodes that can all be disconnected from
outside the vessel, shall be conducted as detailed below.

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 An as-found survey is optional but if this survey is done, it should


be completed with the ICCP power supply turned off, and the
negative cable disconnected from the negative terminal of the
rectifier. If galvanic anodes are used that are easily disconnected,
then conduct the as-found survey with the galvanic anodes
temporarily disconnected.
 Conduct the as-designed survey with all galvanic anodes
connected and if applicable, the ICCP power supply adjusted to
operate at the design current level specified in the CP detailed
design document.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements are only required at representative locations


sufficient to determine an optimized output for the power supplies.

 Conduct the optimized comprehensive survey with all galvanic


anodes connected, and if applicable, the ICCP power supply
adjusted to operate at an optimized output determined after
assessment of the as-designed survey.

10.2.2 For new vessels and tanks with internal surfaces protected only by
galvanic anodes that cannot be readily disconnected or adjusted, the
commissioning structure-to-electrolyte potential survey is completed
only with the anodes connected.

10.3 Comprehensive Survey of Tank Internal Surfaces

10.3.1 If the new CP equipment includes ICCP power supplies, measure and
record the operating data and the current discharge levels for the
associated anodes.

10.3.2 Conduct the CP system commissioning for water tank internal surfaces
when the tank is near its normally full level and when practical also
verify that adequate protection is being achieved on the internal surface
of the tank bottom when the water in the tank is at its lowest normal
operating level.

10.3.3 For water tanks with access holes in the tank roof, measure the
structure-to-electrolyte potentials at three depths: 1) at the tank bottom,
2) at the midpoint, and 3) one foot below the water level.

10.3.4 For hydrocarbon tanks, a potential survey cannot typically be


conducted; however, using an ohmmeter or Megger type instrument,

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continuity between all anodes and the tank can be verified prior to
filling the tank.
 Measure and record the resistance of the ohm-meter test leads.
 Measure and record the resistance between any two anodes or
between any anode and the tank shell external surfaces (e.g., at an
uncoated flange face).
 The measured resistance minus the resistance of the test leads
should be less than 0.1 ohm.

10.3.5 Structure-to-electrolyte potential surveys are not required in tanks that


do not have access holes in the roof, or in tanks containing anything
other than water.
Commentary Note:

Stringent adherence to all required safety precautions, including the use


of fall prevention devices, is required when personnel are taking
measurements through tank roof access holes.

10.4 Comprehensive Survey of Vessel Internal Surfaces

10.4.1 If the new CP equipment includes ICCP power supplies, measure and
record the operating data and the current discharge levels for the
associated anodes.

10.4.2 Commissioning measurements for vessel internal surfaces protected by


galvanic anodes are for base line performance data and shall not be
used as the basis to reject or accept a Material Completion Certificate.

10.4.3 If the vessel has been constructed with a monitoring anode or anodes
that are electrically continuous with the vessel shell through a
connection to the external side of the vessel:
 Measure the current in the associated shunt.
Commentary Note:

If there is zero current measured through the shunt at


commissioning, it means the monitoring anode circuit is either not
continuous or shorted. An isolation checker should be used to
determine if the isolation flange is providing adequate isolation. If
the isolation flange is OK, there is likely a discontinuity in the
monitoring anode circuit.

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 Temporarily disconnect the anode(s) and measure a qualitative


instant off measurement between the disconnected anode and the
vessel shell.

10.4.4 Vessels constructed without an anode that is electrically continuous


with the vessel shell through a connection to the external side of the
vessel, do not require any cathodic protection potential commissioning
measurements.

11 Plant Facilities – Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-600)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of plant facilities are specified in SAES-X-600. Plant facilities include all
buried pipelines, tank bottoms, piles etc. addressed by the scope of SAES-X-600.

11.1 Reference Electrodes for Plant Facilities

11.1.1 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials for plant structures with


a portable copper/copper sulfate reference electrode where accessibility
is practical and with stationary reference electrodes where provided.

11.1.2 Place the reference electrode as close as possible to the structure to


minimize measurement error associated with the (IR) drop in the soil.
 For buried horizontal piping sections, place the reference electrode
directly above the buried piping section.
 For buried vertical piping sections, place the reference electrode
within 300 mm of the soil/air transition point for pipe.
 In asphalt or concrete paved areas, place the reference electrode
inside soil access test holes to achieve adequate soil contact.

11.1.3 Take the potential measurements at well-defined locations to facilitate


repeatability with future monitoring measurements.

11.1.4 Avoid placement of the reference electrode near buried anodes, bare
copper grounding cables, or steel reinforced concrete pilings or
foundations. If there are anodes in the area where the measurements
are being taken, try to place the reference electrode midway between
the anodes.

11.1.5 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix C.

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11.2 Surveys Required for Plant Facilities

11.2.1 The structure-to-electrolyte potential survey for commissioning of a


CP system for Plant facilities protected with an ICCP power supply or
galvanic anodes that can all be readily disconnected, shall be
conducted as detailed below.
 Conduct the as-found survey with the ICCP power supply turned
off, and the negative cable disconnected from the negative terminal
of the rectifier. If galvanic anodes are used that are easily
disconnected, then conduct the as-found survey with the galvanic
anodes temporarily disconnected.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements are only required at representative


locations sufficient to determine an optimized output for the power
supplies and to determine base line protection levels at isolated
buried metallic structures and bond boxes connected to foreign
structures if applicable.

 Conduct the as-designed survey with all galvanic anodes


connected and the ICCP power supply adjusted to operate at the
design current level specified in the CP detailed design document.
Commentary Note:

Potential measurements are only required at representative


locations sufficient to determine an optimized output for the power
supplies and to determine base line protection levels at bond boxes
connected to foreign structures if applicable.

 Conduct the optimized comprehensive survey with all galvanic


anodes connected, and the ICCP power supply adjusted to operate
at an optimized output determined after assessment of the as-
designed survey.

11.2.2 For structures protected only by galvanic anodes that cannot be readily
disconnected or adjusted, the commissioning structure-to-electrolyte
potential survey is completed only with the anodes connected.

11.2.3 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix D.

11.3 Comprehensive Survey of Tank Bottom External Surfaces

11.3.1 CP system commissioning for tank bottom external surfaces should be


conducted when the tank contains an appreciable amount of product,

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preferably near its typical operating level.

11.3.2 If the new CP equipment includes ICCP power supplies, measure and
record the operating data and the current discharge levels for the
associated anodes.

11.3.3 Standard methods for measuring the protection levels beneath a tank
bottom are:
 Stationary reference electrodes placed beneath the tank during the
construction of the tank.
 Portable reference electrode on an extension inserted through
access tubes installed through the ring wall during tank
construction.
 Portable reference electrode connected to a drag cable and pulled
through a perforated non-metallic monitoring pipe installed
beneath the tank, extending the full diameter of the tank.
 Portable reference electrode placed at soil access points typically
installed around the perimeter of the tank midway between anodes.
Commentary Note:

Anodes installed around the perimeter of a tank will typically only


be found on existing tanks with CP systems installed prior to 2000.
Tank bottoms installed after 2000 will typically have one or more
stationary electrodes, access tubes through the ring wall, or a
perforated pipe across the tank diameter.

11.3.4 Measure the protection level for tank bottoms installed with grid
anode systems, or individual anodes beneath the tank bottom using
the reference electrode measurement system(s) included with the tank
construction, i.e., stationary reference electrode, access tubes, or
perforated pipe.

11.3.5 The protection level for tank bottoms installed with perimeter anode
systems should be measured using the reference electrode
measurement system(s) provided with the tank construction. If no
below tank measurement system is provided, potential measurements
should be taken around the perimeter of the tank through soil access
holes or with the reference electrode placed midway between anodes
and as close as practical to the tank. Do not take measurements
directly above buried bare copper grounding cables.

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11.4 Comprehensive Survey of Buried Plant Piping

11.4.1 Measure and record the operating data for the ICCP power supplies
and the current discharge levels for the associated anodes. The current
output from each anode should not exceed the maximum allowable
current discharge for commissioning as specified in SAES-X-600.

11.4.2 Measure and record the current magnitude and direction at all galvanic
anode installations.

11.4.3 Measure and record the current magnitude and direction at all junction
boxes, bond stations and any other connection point (mechanical or
electrical) where current may come on or off the new pipeline.

11.4.4 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials at all:


 Drain points (wherever an ICCP power supply is connected to the
pipeline)
 Test stations
 Bond stations
 Valves
 Soil transition points
 Soil access points

11.5 Comprehensive Survey of the Soil Side of Sheet Piling

11.5.1 Measure and record the operating data for the ICCP power supplies
and the current discharge levels for the associated anodes. The current
output from each anode should not exceed the maximum allowable
current discharge for commissioning as specified in SAES-X-600.

11.5.2 Measure and record the current magnitude and direction at all galvanic
anode installations.

11.5.3 Measure and record the current magnitude and direction at all junction
boxes, bond stations and any other connection point (mechanical or
electrical) where current may come on or off the sheet piling.

11.5.4 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials at all:


 Drain points (wherever an ICCP power supply is connected to the
structure)
 Test stations
 Bond stations

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 Soil access points

Connection of the test lead to the structure will typically be made at the
nearest bollard to the respective reference electrode measurement
location.

12 Onshore Well Casings – Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-700)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of onshore well casings are specified in SAES-X-700. Onshore well casings
include all well casings and associated equipment addressed by the scope of SAES-X-700.

12.1 Reference Electrodes for Onshore Well Casings

12.1.1 Reference electrodes (portable copper/copper sulfate) are used for


onshore well casings to determine the functional status of magnesium
anodes if installed in the cellar and to verify that drain point potentials
are acceptable at locations where the negative cable connection from
the CP power supply is connected to a flowline or trunkline.
 To determine the functional status of magnesium anodes placed in
cellars:
 Place the reference electrode in the cellar approximately
halfway between the well casing and the cellar wall (Rectifier
can be “on” or “off”).
 Measure the potential of the casing, first with the anode(s)
connected, then with the anode(s) disconnected from the well
casing.
 A change in potential between the two measurements indicates
the magnesium anode has been installed and is operating
properly.
Commentary Note:

The purpose of this potential measurement is to determine if the


galvanic anodes in the cellar are properly connected to the well
casing and providing some degree of cathodic protection in the
cellar area. In accordance with SAES-X-700, magnesium anodes
are not required if there is no cement in the cellar, or the casing is
coated beneath the cement.

 If the negative cable is connected directly to a flowline or


trunkline, measure the instant off potential (polarized potential)

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using a permanent or portable coupon or probe to verify that drain


point potentials are acceptable per SAES-X-700.

12.1.2 Record the potential measurement data on the commissioning form


contained in Appendix F.

12.2 Surveys Required for Onshore Well Casings

The survey to determine if adequate protection levels are being achieved for
commissioning of a CP system for onshore well casings shall be conducted as
detailed below.
 Conduct the as-found survey with nearby pre-existing CP power supplies
operating as near as practical to their respective target outputs and the new
CP power supply turned “off”.
 Conduct the optimized output survey with the ICCP power supplies (pre-
existing and new) adjusted to supply the optimum amount of current to the
well casing as specified in SAES-X-700 Table 1.
Commentary Note:

The optimization of the CP power supply outputs will often involve readjustment
of the outputs of existing nearby CP power supplies that are influenced by, or
have an influence on the new CP system or well casing.

12.3 Comprehensive Survey of Onshore Well Casings

12.3.1 Measure and record the operating data for the ICCP power supply and
the current discharge levels for the associated anodes. Compliance with
the criteria specified in SAES-X-700 for commissioning performance
is mandatory.

12.3.2 At the well casing, measure and record the current magnitude and
direction on the flowline and on the negative cable connected to the
well casing. To determine the amount of current flowing up the well
casing, consider positive current as current flowing away from the well
in the flowline or the cable. Negative current is current flowing
towards the well in the flowline or the cable. The current in the casing
will then be the mathematical sum of the current measured in the cable
and the current measured in the flowline (see example below).

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Positive current flow direction in flowline


eg. 2.0 amps flowing away from the well
casing (+2 amps)

Positive current flow direction in Well casing current for this


negative cable example would be:
eg. 23 amps flowing away from +23.1 + 2.0 = +25.1 amps
the well casing (+23 amps)

12.3.3 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials at the following


locations:
 Drain points on flowlines or trunklines; wherever an ICCP power
supply is connected directly to a flowline or trunkline, such as
would occur on CP systems that use the flowlines or trunklines to
distribute current to the well casing(s).
Commentary Note:

Structure-to-electrolyte potential measurements are not used as a


Saudi Aramco criterion to establish adequate protection of the well
casing, however, the drain point potentials must not exceed the
maximum acceptable potential level specified in SAES-X-400.

 If a flowline is connected to the well, measure the "On" potential at


the nearest one pin test station on the flowline. If the "On"
potential exceeds the maximum potential allowed for the flowline,
measure the instant off (polarized potential) and if necessary, adjust
the current output of the well casing CP system power source(s) to
reduce the polarized potential to comply with the criterion
specified in SAES-X-400.

12.3.4 For each well casing record the current data and associated
measurements on the Commissioning Report contained in Appendix F.

13 Concrete Structures - Commissioning Surveys (SAES-X-800)

Acceptable protection levels for commissioning CP systems designed for the cathodic
protection of existing reinforced concrete structures are specified in SAES-X-800.

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Existing reinforced concrete structures include all structures addressed by the scope of
SAES-X-800.

13.1 Reference Electrodes for Existing Reinforced Concrete Structures

13.1.1 Measure the structure-to-electrolyte potentials for reinforced concrete


structures with a portable copper/copper sulfate reference electrode
where accessibility is practical and with stationary reference electrodes
where provided.

13.1.2 Take the potential measurements at well-defined locations to facilitate


repeatability with future monitoring measurements.

13.2 Comprehensive Survey of Concrete Structures

13.2.1 Conduct the comprehensive survey approximately 28 days after


completion of the CP system installation using the following
procedure:
a. Measure the natural potentials of the rebar prior to energizing the
rectifier relative to the embedded reference electrodes and
portable surface copper/copper sulfate reference electrodes using
a grid pattern of 1 m by 1 m where possible.
b. Check correct wiring polarity in the rectifier.
c. Energize each rectifier output channel separately beginning with
all controls set for zero output.
d. Increase the current to achieve 10 ma/m² of steel surface area.
e. Record ‘ON’ potentials after 5 minutes. There should be an
increase of between 100-200 mV from natural potentials. If not,
increase current density by 50% of the set output.
f. Following energizing of units as above, carry out interference
testing if applicable.
g. Leave the system energized for 24 hours to stabilize.
h. After 24 hours, record volts, amps, back EMF, ‘ON’ and
instantaneous ‘OFF’ potentials for each channel. Instantaneous
‘OFF’ potentials should be 100 mV or more shifted from natural
potentials. If this requirement is not achieved, increase current
density by 50% and allow 24 hours for stabilization.

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i. Once the 100 mV shifts from the natural potentials have been
achieved, monitor and maintain the rectifier output voltage each
week for four weeks (28 days). At the end of 28 days:
 Record the “ON” and instantaneous “OFF” potentials using
an interrupted cycle.
 Turn the rectifiers off and conduct a depolarization test for
168 hours (7 days). Measure the potential at 24 hours and
168 hours.

13.2.2 Consider that each system has commissioned satisfactorily when the
following three criteria are met:
a. 100 mV decay or more measured up to 24 hours from
instantaneous 'OFF'.
b. 150 mV decay or more measured up to 168 hours from
instantaneous 'OFF'.
c. The instantaneous 'OFF' potentials shall not be more negative
than -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4.
Commentary Note:

Protection levels higher than -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 may


create excessive chemical activity at the interface between the
steel and concrete. This may result in reduced bond strength
and/or hydrogen embrittlement of the steel.

13.2.3 Repeat the depolarization test quarterly for the first 12 months.
a. If the 100 mV criterion is not achieved at all locations or for any
one channel, then increase the output of the respective rectifier
channel by increments of not greater than 20% and repeat the
above tests until the criterion is met. If the upper limit is
exceeded, then reduce the output by 20%.
b. If the criteria are not achieved within three months of the initial
energizing of the system, the contractor shall conduct further
investigation and shall complete the required repairs or upgrades
to the installed system as necessary to achieve the above noted
criteria.
c. Submit all commissioning data as part of the as-built
documentation prior to final acceptance.

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14 Report Forms

Record all data relative to the commissioning and/or re-commissioning of cathodic


protection systems on the Commissioning Report forms attached in Appendix A
through K of this Engineering Procedure. They are listed as follows:
Appendix A Cathodic Protection, Rectifier Commissioning
Appendix B Cathodic Protection, Solar System Commissioning
Appendix C Cathodic Protection, Plant Buried Piping Commissioning
Appendix D Cathodic Protection, External Tank Bottom Commissioning
Appendix E Cathodic Protection, Tank Internal Commissioning
Appendix F Cathodic Protection, Well Casing/Flowline Commissioning
Appendix G Cathodic Protection, Pipeline Commissioning
Appendix H Cathodic Protection, Submarine Pipeline Commissioning
Appendix I Cathodic Protection, Offshore Well Casing/Platform Commissioning
Appendix J Cathodic Protection, Onshore Anode Bed Commissioning
Appendix K Cathodic Protection, Offshore Anode Bed Commissioning

Revision Summary
25 December 2011 Major revision.

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Attachments (Appendices A to K)

- Hold down Ctrl key and click => SAEP-332A to view the Appendices.

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