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General Parameters
Shrinkage and Creep
The following design parameters can be specified individually as part of each member’s
properties set.

Permanent Load Ratio


This is the ratio of quasi­permanent load to design ultimate load.
i.e. SLS/ULS = (1.0Gk + \2Qk) / (factored Gk + factored Qk*IL reduction)

If Qk is taken as 0 then:
SLS/ULS = (1 / 1.25) = 0.8
Hence, setting the permanent load ratio to 0.8 should provide a conservative upper bound for
all cases.
When determining this ratio more precisely, consideration should be given to the amount of IL
reduction specified, for example (assuming Gk = Qk and \2 = 0.3):

For 50%IL reduction,


SLS/ULS = (1 + 0.3) / (1.25 + 1.5*0.5) = 0.65
For no IL reduction,
SLS/ULS = (1 + 0.3) / (1.25 + 1.5) = 0.47

The program defaults to a permanent load ratio of 0.65 for all members ­ you are
advised to consider if this is appropriate and adjust as necessary.

Relative Humidity
Typical input range 20 to 100%

Age of Loading
This is the age at which load is first applied to the member.
The Age of Loading should include adjustments necessary to allow for cement type and
temperature as defined in EC2 Annex B.

The program defaults the Age of Loading to 14 days for all members ­ you are
advised to consider if this is appropriate and adjust as necessary.

Reinforcement Anchorage Length Parameters


Max. Bond Quality Coefficient
Acceptable input range 0.5 to 1.0

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General Parameters Page 2 of 2

In the bond stress calculation (Cl 8.4.2), the bond quality coefficient η1 can be either 1.0 or 0.7
depending on section depth. Where 0.7 is used the bond strength is reduced and laps are
extended.
Specifying a maximum of 1.0 for the Bond Quality Coefficient allows the coefficient to vary
between 0.7 and 1.0 as required, hence lap lengths will vary accordingly.
Some users may prefer to specify a maximum of 0.7 (which actually fixes the coefficient at 0.7),
the effect is to standardise on the use of extended lap lengths throughout. Further conservatism
can be introduced in all lap lengths by using a value as low as 0.5.

Plain Bars Bond Quality Modifier


Acceptable input range 0.1 to 1.0
In the EC2 Cl 8.4.2 bond stress calculation, there is no factor relating to the rib type of
reinforcement, and no guidance on what adjustments if any should be made for plain bars.
In Tekla Structural Designer a factor “T” has been introduced (as in BS8110) to allow for this
adjustment. It is the users responsibility to enter a suitable value for plain bars. (Until further
guidance becomes available, we would suggest that as per BS8110 a value of 0.5 would be
reasonable.)

Type­1 Bars Bond Quality Modifier


Acceptable input range 0.1 to 1.0
In the EC2 Cl 8.4.2 bond stress calculation, there is no factor relating to the rib type of
reinforcement, and no guidance on what adjustments if any should be made for Type 1 bars.
In Tekla Structural Designer a factor “T” has been introduced (as in BS8110) to allow for this
adjustment. It is the users responsibility to enter a suitable value for Type 1 bars. (Until further
guidance becomes available, we would suggest that as per BS8110 a value of 0.8 would be
reasonable.)

Parent topic
• Concrete Design to EC2

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