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1. A manufacturer of paper products wants to compare the variation in daily production levels at two paper mills.

Independent random
samples of days are selected from each mill, and the production levels (in units) are recorded. The data are show in the table below. Do the
data provided provide evidence to indicate a difference in the population variances at the two paper mills. Use α = 0.10.
Mill 1: 34 18 28 21 40 23 29
25 10 38 32 22 22
Mill 2: 31 13 27 19 22 18 23 22 21
18 15 24 13 19 18 19 23 13
2. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the difference, ρ1 − ρ2, in each of the following situations:
a. n1 = 400, ρˆ1 = 0.65, n2 = 400, ρˆ2 = 0.58
b. n1 = 180, ρˆ1 = 0.31, n2 = 250, ρˆ2 = 0.25
c. n1 = 100, ρˆ1 = 0.46, n2 = 120, ρˆ2 = 0.61

3. A consumer advocacy group wants to determine whether there is a difference between proportions of the two leading automobile models
that need major repairs within 2 years of purchase. A sample of 400 two-year owners of model 1 is contacted, and a sample of 500 two-year
owners of model 2 is contacted. The numbers X1 and X2 of owners who report that their cars needed major repairs within the first two years
are 53 and 78, respectively. Test the null hypothesis that no difference exists between the proportions in population 1 and 2 needing major
repairs against the alternative that a difference does exist. Use α = 0.10
4. Suppose you select independent random samples of five female and five male high school seniors and record their SAT scores. The data
is shown below. Based on this data, calculate the sum of squares for groups (SSG), error (SSE), and total (SST).
Table 1: SAT scores for High School Students
Females Males
539 490
560 520
590 550
620 580
650 610
https://www.coursemerit.com/solution-details/22805/Econ-2810-Intro-to-Statistics-and-Computing-In-
Economics-Problem-Set-3

Evaluating Reliability and Validity

https://www.coursemerit.com/solution-details/41411/PSYC-421-Part-2

When tests are created, they usually are evaluated for their usefulness. To determine the
usefulness of a test, the authors and/or publishers typically assess itspsychometric properties.
Psychometric properties refer to quantifiable characteristics of a test that relate to its statistical
strength or weakness. The main two features that are used to determine whether or not a test is
statistically “strong” are reliability and validity. As you recall from your textbook readings,
there are various types of reliability and validity as well as various ways to quantify each.

For the present assignment, you will be evaluating the reliability and validity of the CES-D using
the fictitious data set provided in Bb. In order to assess/quantify the reliability of the CES-D,
you will be calculating a statistic called Cronbach’s Alpha. Cronbach’s Alpha is used to
estimate a type of reliability called “internal consistency,” or the degree to which each test
question consistently measures the same underlying construct(s). In order to assess/quantify the
validity of the test, you will be calculating a statistic called Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
between total scores on the CES-D and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), another
test designed to measure depressive symptoms. When researchers find the correlation between
two tests designed to measure the same underlying construct(s), they are providing evidence for
the “convergent validity” of the tests.

Before beginning your analyses, please review the 20 questions that comprise the CES-D Scale.
When we sum participants’ scores on all 20 questions, we obtain a Total Score. Several
researchers agree that, in addition to a total score, participants’scores can be categorized into four
(4) subscales: Depressive Affect (DA), Well-Being (W), Somatic (S), and Interpersonal (I) (e.g.,
Hertzog, Van Alstine, Usala, Hultsch, and Dixon, 1990; Knight, Williams, McGee, and Olaman,
1997). Each subscale comprises a different subset of questions and assesses a different feature of
depressive symptomology. The table below indicates which questions on the CES-D Scale
correspond to each subscale.

CES-D Subscales

Q#1 S Q#2 S Q#3 DA Q#4 W Q#5 S

Q#6 DA Q#7 S Q#8 W Q#9 DA Q#10 DA
Q#11 S Q#12 W Q#13 S Q#14 DA Q#15 I
Q#16 W Q#17 DA Q#18 DA Q#19 I Q#20 S

For this assignment, you will:

1. Calculatemeasures of central tendency and variability for the total score and each of
the four (4) subscale scores presented in the SPSS data file, and then create a single
table to present the descriptive statistics that you calculated.
2. Create the appropriate graphs to illustrate the distribution of scores for the total score
and each of the four (4) subscales. (Five graphs in total)
3. Calculate Cronbach’s Alpha for the total scale and for each of thefour subscales, and
then create a single table to present the results of your reliability analyses.
4. Calculate a Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient between the CES-D total scores and
scores on the BDI, and then create a single table to present the results of your validity
analysis.
5. Write a verbal summary of all of your findings. This summary section will include 2
elements:
a. Summarize the results of the descriptive, internal consistency, and validityanalyses
using the information compiled in the table(s)/figures.
b. Interpret the values that you found from the various analyses.
6. Format your table headings and figure captions according to current APA guidelines.
7. See the sample assignment posted in Bb for guidance on how to put together your
assignment.
Be sure to carefully review the Grading Rubric posted in the Assignment Instructions folder so
that you know exactly what is expected of you when completing this assignment.

This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 3.

References

Hertzog, C.; Van Alstine, J.; Usala, P.D.; Hultsch, D.F.; &Dixon, R. (1990).Measurement
properties of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in older
populations.Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
2(1), 64-72. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.2.1.64

Knight, R. G., Williams, S., McGee, R., & Olaman, S. (1997). Psychometric properties of the
Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of women in
middle life.Behavior, Research, and Therapy, 35(4), 373–380.doi:10.1016/S0005-
7967(96)00107-6