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Psychology
A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior
 

Dennis Coon

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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition


Dennis Coon

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Brief CONTENTS
Introduction The Psychology of Studying 1
Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology and Research Methods 12
Chapter 2 Brain and Behavior 52
Chapter 3 Child Development 86
Chapter 4 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development 128
Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception 166
Chapter 6 States of Consciousness 216
Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning 258
Chapter 8 Memory 296
Chapter 9 Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity 330
Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion 372
Chapter 11 Personality 410
Chapter 12 Health, Stress, and Coping 450
Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders 486
Chapter 14 Therapies 526
Chapter 15 Gender and Sexuality 564
Chapter 16 Social Behavior 600
Chapter 17 Applied Psychology 644
Appendix Behavioral Statistics 677

vi

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Introduction
The Psychology of Studying 1
CONTENTS
The SQ4R Method—How to Tame a Textbook 1
How to Use Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind
and Behavior 2
Effective Note-Taking—Good Students, Take Note! 2 Human Diversity—Appreciating Social and Cultural
Using and Reviewing Your Notes 3 Differences 25
Study Strategies—Making a Habit of Success 4 The Impact of Culture 25
Self-Regulated Learning—Academic All-Stars 5 Module 1.2: Summary 26
Procrastination—Avoiding the Last-Minute Blues 5
Knowledge Builder 26
Time Management 5
Goal Setting 6 MODULE 1.3: Psychologists and Their Specialties 27
Make Learning an Adventure 6
Psychologists—Guaranteed Not to Shrink 27
Taking Tests—Are You “Test Wise”? 6
Other Mental Health Professionals 27
General Test-Taking Skills 6
Discovering Psychology Is a Career in Psychology
Using Electronic Media—Netting New Knowledge 7
Right for You? 28
Electronic Journeys 8
The Profession of Psychology 28
The Psychology Resource Center 8
Specialties in Psychology 28
Psych Sites 8
Module 1.3: Summary 30
Multimedia CD-ROMs 9
A Final Word 10 Knowledge Builder 30
Knowledge Builder 10
MODULE 1.4: Research Methods, Naturalistic
Interactive Learning 11
Observation, and Correlation 31
Scientific Research—How to Think Like
a Psychologist 31
Chapter 1 The Scientific Method 31
Introducing Psychology Research Methods 33
Naturalistic Observation—Psychology Steps Out! 33
and Research Methods 12 Limitations 34
MODULE 1.1: The Science of Psychology 14 Recording Observations 34
Psychology—Spotlight on Behavior 14 Correlational Studies—In Search of the Perfect
What Is Psychology? 14 Relationship 34
Empirical Evidence 14 Correlation Coefficients 34
Psychological Research 15 Module 1.4: Summary 36
Psychology’s Goals 17 Knowledge Builder 36
Module 1.1: Summary 17
MODULE 1.5: The Psychology
Knowledge Builder 18
Experiment 37
MODULE 1.2: History and Major Perspectives 19 The Psychology Experiment—Where
A Brief History of Psychology— Cause Meets Effect 37
Psychology’s Family Album 19 Variables and Groups 37
Structuralism 19 Critical Thinking That’s Interesting,
Functionalism 19 But Is It Ethical? 39
Behaviorism 20 Placebo Effects, Sugar Pills,
Gestalt Psychology 21 and Saltwater 39
Psychoanalytic Psychology 21 The Experimenter
Human Diversity Women in Psychology 22 Effect 40
Humanistic Psychology 23 Module 1.5:
Psychology Today—Five Ways to View Behavior 24 Summary 40
Recent Trends 24 Knowledge Builder 41
Positive Psychology 24 vi i

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v iii Contents

MODULE 1.6: Clinical and Survey Methods, MODULE 2.3: Subcortex and Endocrine System 74
Critical Thinking 42 The Subcortex—At the Core of the (Brain) Matter 74
The Clinical Method—Data by the Case 42 The Hindbrain 74
Survey Method—Here, Have a Sample 43 The Forebrain 74
Science and Critical Thinking—Healthy Skepticism 44 The Magnificent Brain 76
Thinking about Behavior 44 The Brain of the Future 76
Pseudopsychologies—Palms, Planets, and Personality 45 The Endocrine System—Hormones and Behavior 77
Problems in the Stars 46 Module 2.3: Summary 80
A Look Ahead 48 Knowledge Builder 80
Module 1.6: Summary 48
Knowledge Builder 48 MODULE 2.4: Psychology in Action: Handedness—
If Your Brain Is Right, What’s Left? 81
MODULE 1.7: Psychology in Action: Psychology in the Module 2.4: Summary 84
News—Separating Fact from Fiction 49 Knowledge Builder 84
Module 1.7: Summary 50 Interactive Learning 85
Knowledge Builder 51
Interactive Learning 51
Chapter 3
Chapter 2 Child Development 86

Brain and Behavior 52 MODULE 3.1: Heredity and Environment 88


Heredity and Environment—The Nurture of Nature 88
MODULE 2.1: Neurons, the Nervous System, and Brain Heredity 88
Research 54 Genetic Programming 88
Neurons—Building a “Biocomputer” 54 Environment 89
Parts of a Neuron 54 Prenatal Influences 90
The Nerve Impulse 55 Deprivation and Enrichment 92
Synapses and Neurotransmitters 56 Critical Thinking The Mozart Effect—Smart Music? 93
Discovering Psychology Dollars, Drag Racing, and the Nature-Nurture Interactions 93
Nervous System 57 Module 3.1: Summary 93
The Nervous System—Wired for Action 58 Knowledge Builder 94
Neurons and Nerves 58
Neural Networks 59 MODULE 3.2: The Neonate and Early Maturation 95
Research Methods—Charting the Brain’s Inner Realms 62 The Newborn Baby—The Basic Model Comes
New Images of the Living Brain 62 with Options 95
Module 2.1: Summary 64 The World of the Neonate 95
Knowledge Builder 65 Maturation 97
Motor Development 98
MODULE 2.2: Cerebral Cortex and Lobes Emotional Development 98
of the Brain 66 Module 3.2: Summary 99
The Cerebral Cortex—My, What a Big Brain Knowledge Builder 100
You Have! 66
Corticalization 66 MODULE 3.3: Social Development 101
Cerebral Hemispheres 67 Social Development—Baby, I’m Stuck on You 101
Hemispheric Specialization 68 Attachment 101
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Day Care 102
Human Diversity His and Her Brains? 72 Discovering Psychology What’s Your Attachment Style? 103
Module 2.2: Summary 72 Play and Social Skills 103
Knowledge Builder 73 Affectional Needs 103
Module 3.3: Summary 104
Knowledge Builder 104

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Contents ix

MODULE 3.4: Parental Influences 105 Module 3.7: Summary 125


Maternal and Paternal Influences—Life with Mom Knowledge Builder 126
and Dad 105 Interactive Learning 127
Optimal Caregiving 105
Parenting Styles 106
Ethnic Differences: Four Flavors of Parenting 107 Chapter 4
Side Effects of Child Discipline 108
Positive Psychology: Resilience in Childhood 108 From Birth to Death: Life-Span
Using Psychology To Spank or Not to Spank? 109 Development 128
Module 3.4: Summary 109
Knowledge Builder 110 MODULE 4.1: The Life Cycle 130
The Cycle of Life—Rocky Road or Garden Path? 130
MODULE 3.5: Language Development 111 Module 4.1: Summary 132
Language Development—Fast-Talking Babies 111 Knowledge Builder 133
Language and the “Terrible Twos” 111
The Roots of Language 111 MODULE 4.2: Problems of Childhood 134
Module 3.5: Summary 114 Problems of Childhood—Why Parents Get Gray Hair 134
Knowledge Builder 114 Normal Childhood Problems 134
Serious Childhood Problems 135
MODULE 3.6: Cognitive Development 115 Feeding Disturbances 135
Cognitive Development—How Do Children Learn to Toilet-Training Disturbances 135
Think? 115 Speech Disturbances 135
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 115 Learning Disorders 136
Piaget and Parenting 117 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 136
Piaget Today 117 Autism 136
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 119 Child Abuse—Cycles of Violence 137
Module 3.6: Summary 120 Characteristics of Abusive Parents 137
Knowledge Builder 121 The Abuse Cycle 137
Preventing Child Abuse 138
MODULE 3.7: Psychology in Action: Effective Module 4.2: Summary 139
Parenting—Raising Healthy Children 122 Knowledge Builder 139
Parenting with Consistency 122
Using Constructive Discipline 122 MODULE 4.3: Adolescence and Moral Development 140
Maintaining a Positive Relationship 123 Adolescence—The Best of Times, the Worst of Times 140
Communicating Effectively with Children 124 Puberty 140
Accepting Feelings 124 Early and Late Maturation 140
Encouragement 124 The Search for Identity 142
I-Messages 124 Human Diversity Ethnic Diversity and Identity 142
Using Natural The Transition to Adulthood 143
and Logical Moral Development—Growing a Conscience 143
Consequences 124 Moral Dilemmas 144
Justice or Caring? 145
Module 4.3: Summary 145
Knowledge Builder 146

MODULE 4.4: Adulthood and Aging 147


Challenges of Adulthood—Charting Life’s Ups
and Downs 147
A Midlife Crisis? 148
Middle Age 149
Positive Psychology: Well-Being at Midlife 150

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x Contents

Aging—Will You Still Need Me When I’m 64? 150 Discovering Psychology Are You Color-Blind? 174
The Course of Aging 151 Adapting to Darkness 175
Discovering Psychology What’s Your Life Expectancy? 152 Module 5.1: Summary 175
Positive Psychology: Successful Aging 153 Knowledge Builder 176
Ageism 154
Countering Myths about Aging 154 MODULE 5.2: Hearing, Smell, and Taste 177
Module 4.4: Summary 155 Hearing—Good Vibrations 177
Knowledge Builder 156 How We Hear Sounds 177
Using Psychology Artificial Hearing 179
MODULE 4.5: Death and Dying 157 Smell and Taste—The Nose Knows When
Death and Dying—The Curtain Falls 157 the Tongue Can’t Tell 180
Reactions to Impending Death 157 The Sense of Smell 180
Using Psychology Living Wills and the Quality of Death 158 Taste and Flavors 180
Hospice 159 Module 5.2: Summary 182
Bereavement and Grief 159 Knowledge Builder 182
Critical Thinking Near-Death Experiences—Back from
the Brink 160 MODULE 5.3: Somesthetic
Module 4.5: Summary 161 Senses, Adaptation, Attention,
Knowledge Builder 161 and Gating 183
The Somesthetic Senses—Flying
MODULE 4.6: Psychology in Action: Well-Being by the Seat of Your Pants 183
and Happiness—What Makes a Good Life? 162 The Skin Senses 183
Happiness 162 The Vestibular System 184
Life Satisfaction 162 Using Psychology How You Can
Emotions 162 Control Pain 184
Life Events 162 Adaptation, Attention, and
Personal Factors 163 Gating—Tuning In and Tuning
Wealth 163 Out 186
Education 163 Sensory Adaptation 186
Marriage 163 Selective Attention 186
Religion 163 Sensory Gating 187
Age 163 Module 5.3: Summary 188
Sex 163 Knowledge Builder 188
Work 163
Personality 163 MODULE 5.4: Perceptual Constancies and Perceptual
Goals and Happiness 163 Grouping 189
Meaning and Integrity 163 Perceptual Constancies—Taming an Unruly World 189
Conclusion 164 Perceptual Organization—Getting It All Together 190
Module 4.6: Summary 164 Gestalt Principles 191
Knowledge Builder 164 Module 5.4: Summary 193
Interactive Learning 165 Knowledge Builder 193

MODULE 5.5: Depth Perception 194


Chapter 5 Depth Perception—What If the World Were Flat? 194
Muscular Cues 194
Sensation and Perception 166 Stereoscopic Vision 195
Pictorial Cues for Depth 196
MODULE 5.1: Sensory Systems and Vision 168
Module 5.5: Summary 199
A World of Sensation—What You See Is What You Get 168
Knowledge Builder 199
Sensory Analysis and Coding 168
Vision—Catching Some Rays 169 MODULE 5.6: Perception and Objectivity 200
Structure of the Eye 169
Perception and Objectivity—Believing Is Seeing 200
Rods and Cones 171
Perceptual Learning 200
How We See Colors 172

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Contents xi

Critical Thinking Hallucinations: Sane or Insane? 202 Module 6.2: Summary 230
Attention and Perception 203 Knowledge Builder 231
Perceptual Expectancies 204
Module 5.6: Summary 206 MODULE 6.3: Hypnosis, Meditation, and Sensory
Knowledge Builder 206 Deprivation 232
Hypnosis—Look into My Eyes 232
MODULE 5.7: Extrasensory Perception 207 Hypnotic Susceptibility 232
Extrasensory Perception—Do You Believe in Magic? 207 Discovering Psychology Swinging Suggestions 233
An Appraisal of ESP 207 Inducing Hypnosis 233
Stage ESP 209 Effects of Hypnosis 234
Module 5.7: Summary 210 Stage Hypnosis 234
Knowledge Builder 210 Meditation—The 20-Minute Vacation 235
Performing Concentrative Meditation 235
MODULE 5.8: Psychology in Action: Becoming a Better The Relaxation Response 235
Eyewitness to Life 211 Positive Psychology: Mindfulness and Well-Being 236
Implications 211 Using Psychology Sensory Deprivation—Getting
Positive Psychology: Perceptual Awareness 212 a Little REST 236
The Value of Paying Attention 213 Module 6.3: Summary 237
How to Become a Better “Eyewitness” to Life 213 Knowledge Builder 237
Module 5.8: Summary 214
Knowledge Builder 214 MODULE 6.4: Psychoactive Drugs 238
Interactive Learning 215 Drug-Altered Consciousness—The High and Low
of It 238
How Drugs Affect the Brain 238
Chapter 6 Dependence 238
Uppers—Amphetamines,
States of Consciousness 216 Cocaine, MDMA,
Caffeine, Nicotine 239
MODULE 6.1: Altered States and Sleep 218 Cocaine 239
States of Consciousness—The Many Faces of Awareness 218 MDMA
Altered States of Consciousness 218 (“Ecstasy”) 242
Human Diversity Consciousness and Culture 218 Caffeine 242
Sleep—A Nice Place to Visit 219 Nicotine 243
The Need for Sleep 219 Using Psychology New
Biological Rhythms 220 Strategies to Stop Smoking 245
Sleep Needs and Patterns 221 Downers—Sedatives, Tranquilizers, and Alcohol 245
Stages of Sleep—The Nightly Roller-Coaster Ride 222 Barbiturates 245
Stages of Sleep 223 GHB 245
Two Basic Kinds of Sleep 224 Tranquilizers 246
Module 6.1: Summary 225 Alcohol 246
Knowledge Builder 225 Marijuana and Hallucinogens—What’s in the Pot? 249
LSD and PCP 249
MODULE 6.2: Sleep Disturbances and Dreaming 226 Marijuana 249
Sleep Disturbances—Showing Nightly: Sleep Wars! 226 Drug Use in Perspective 251
Insomnia 226 A Look Ahead 251
Using Psychology Behavioral Remedies for Insomnia 227 Module 6.4: Summary 251
Sleepwalking and Sleeptalking 227 Knowledge Builder 252
Nightmares and Night Terrors 228
Sleep Apnea 228
Dreams—A Separate Reality? 229
REM Sleep Revisited 229
Dream Worlds 229
Dream Theories 229

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x ii Contents

MODULE 6.5: Psychology in Action: Exploring and Using Psychology Conditioning and Conservation 275
Using Dreams 253 Learning Aids 275
Dream Work 254 Module 7.2: Summary 276
Using Your Dreams 254 Knowledge Builder 277
Dreams and Creativity 255
Lucid Dreaming 255 MODULE 7.3: Partial Reinforcement
Module 6.5: Summary 256 and Stimulus Control 278
Knowledge Builder 256 Partial Reinforcement—Las Vegas, a Human
Interactive Learning 257 Skinner Box? 278
Schedules of Partial Reinforcement 278
Stimulus Control—Red Light, Green Light 280
Chapter 7 Module 7.3: Summary 281
Knowledge Builder 282
Conditioning and Learning 258
MODULE 7.4: Punishment 283
MODULE 7.1: Learning and Classical Conditioning 260
Punishment—Putting the Brakes on Behavior 283
What Is Learning—Does Practice Make Perfect? 260 Variables Affecting Punishment 283
Classical Conditioning 260 Using Punishment Wisely 284
Operant Conditioning 260 Side Effects of Punishment 284
Classical Conditioning—Does the Name Pavlov Ring Using Psychology If You Must Punish, Here’s How 285
a Bell? 261 Module 7.4: Summary 286
Pavlov’s Experiment 261
Knowledge Builder 286
Principles of Classical Conditioning—Teach Your Little
Brother to Salivate 262 MODULE 7.5: Cognitive Learning and Imitation 287
Acquisition 262
Cognitive Learning—Beyond Conditioning 287
Expectancies 263
Cognitive Maps 287
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery 263
Latent Learning 287
Generalization 263
Modeling—Do as I Do, Not as I Say 288
Discrimination 264
Observational Learning 289
Classical Conditioning in Humans—An Emotional
Modeling and Television 290
Topic 264
Critical Thinking Violent Video Games—Toxic Kombat? 291
Conditioned Emotional Responses 264
Module 7.5: Summary 292
Using Psychology Blink If Your Brain Is Healthy 265
Vicarious, or Secondhand, Conditioning 265 Knowledge Builder 292
Module 7.1: Summary 266
MODULE 7.6: Psychology in Action: Behavioral Self-
Knowledge Builder 267 Management––A Rewarding Project 293
MODULE 7.2: Operant Conditioning 268 Self-Managed Behavior 293
Self-Recording 293
Operant Conditioning—Can Pigeons Play Ping-Pong? 268
Good Ways to Break Bad Habits 294
Positive Reinforcement 268
Alternate Responses 294
Acquiring an Operant Response 269
Extinction 294
The Timing of Reinforcement 270
Response Chains 294
Shaping 270
Cues and Antecedents 294
Operant Extinction 271
Contracting 294
Negative Reinforcement 271
Getting Help 294
Punishment 272
Where to Obtain More Information 294
Operant Reinforcers—What’s Your Pleasure? 272
Module 7.6: Summary 295
Primary Reinforcers 272
Secondary Reinforcers 273 Knowledge Builder 295
Feedback 274 Interactive Learning 295

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Contents xi i i

Exceptional Memory—Wizards of Recall 309


Eidetic Imagery 310
Exceptional Memory 310
Memory Champions 310
Module 8.3: Summary 312
Knowledge Builder 312

MODULE 8.4: Forgetting 313


Forgetting—Why We, Uh, Let’s See; Why We, Uh . . .
Forget! 313
When Encoding Fails 313
Discovering Psychology Card Magic! 314
Memory Decay 315
Cue-Dependent Forgetting 315
Interference 316
Chapter 8 Repression and Suppression of Memories 317
Critical Thinking The Recovered Memory/False Memory
Memory 296 Debate 318
Flashbulb Memories 319
MODULE 8.1: Memory Systems 298 Memory Formation—Growing Memories 319
Stages of Memory—Do You Have a Mind Like a Steel Consolidating Memories 319
Trap? Or a Sieve? 298 The Brain and Memory 320
Sensory Memory 298 Module 8.4: Summary 321
Short-Term Memory 298 Knowledge Builder 321
Long-Term Memory 299
Human Diversity Cows, Memories, and Culture 300 MODULE 8.5: Improving Memory 322
Module 8.1: Summary 300 Improving Memory—Keys to the Memory Bank 322
Knowledge Builder 300 Memory Strategies 322
Using Psychology Memory Detectives 324
MODULE 8.2: STM and LTM 301 Module 8.5: Summary 325
Short-Term Memory—Do You Know the Magic Knowledge Builder 325
Number? 301
Recoding Information 301 MODULE 8.6: Psychology in Action: Mnemonics—
Rehearsing Information 301 Memory Magic 326
Long-Term Memory—Where the Past Lives 302 Example 1 327
Constructing Memories 302 Example 2 327
Organizing Memories 303 Example 3 327
Critical Thinking Hypnosis, Imagination, and Memory 304 Example 4 327
Skill Memory and Fact Memory 305 Module 8.6: Summary 328
Module 8.2: Summary 306 Knowledge Builder 328
Knowledge Builder 306 Interactive Learning 329
MODULE 8.3: Measuring Memory and Exceptional
Memory 307
Measuring Memory—The Answer Is on the Tip
Chapter 9
of My Tongue 307 Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity 330
Recalling Information 307
Recognizing Information 308 MODULE 9.1: Imagery, Concepts, and Language 332
Relearning Information 308 What Is Thinking?—It’s All in Your Head! 332
Implicit and Explicit Memories 308 Some Basic Units of Thought 332

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xiv Contents

Mental Imagery—Does a Frog Have Lips? 332 Intuition 364


The Nature of Mental Images 332 Framing 365
Concepts—I’m Positive, It’s a Whatchamacallit 334 Wisdom 365
Forming Concepts 334 Module 9.4: Summary 365
Types of Concepts 335 Knowledge Builder 366
Language—Don’t Leave Home without It 336
Discovering Psychology Colorful Thoughts 337 MODULE 9.5: Psychology in Action: Enhancing
The Structure of Language 337 Creativity—Brainstorms 367
The Animal Language Debate 339 Brainstorming 369
Module 9.1: Summary 340 Living More Creatively 370
Knowledge Builder 341 Module 9.5: Summary 370
Knowledge Builder 370
MODULE 9.2: Problem Solving and Artificial Interactive Learning 371
Intelligence 342
Problem Solving—Getting an Answer in Sight 342
Mechanical Solutions 342
Solutions by Understanding 342
Chapter 10
Heuristics 342 Motivation and Emotion 372
Insightful Solutions 343
Human Diversity How to Weigh an Elephant 345 MODULE 10.1: Overview of Motivation 374
Common Barriers to Problem Solving 345 Motivation—Forces that Push and Pull 374
Artificial Intelligence—I Compute, therefore I Am 346 A Model of Motivation 374
AI and Cognition 346 Primary Motives and Homeostasis 375
Module 9.2: Summary 347 Module 10.1: Summary
Knowledge Builder 348 Knowledge Builder 376

MODULE 9.3: Intelligence 349 MODULE 10.2: Hunger, Thirst, Pain, and Sex 377
Human Intelligence—The IQ and You 349 Hunger—Pardon Me, My Hypothalamus
Defining Intelligence 349 Is Growling 377
Intelligence Tests 349 Brain Mechanisms 377
Intelligence Quotients 350 Discovering Psychology What’s Your BMI? (We’ve Got
The Wechsler Tests 352 Your Number.) 379
Culture-Fair Tests 352 Obesity 379
Group Tests 353 Other Factors in Hunger 381
Variations in Intelligence 353 Eating Disorders 381
The Mentally Gifted 354 Using Psychology Behavioral
Using Psychology Frames of Mind—Eight Intelligences? 355 Dieting 382
Mental Retardation 355 Primary Motives
Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence 356 Revisited—Thirst, Sex, and
Human Diversity The Bell Curve: Race, Culture, and IQ 357 Pain 384
Module 9.3: Summary 358 Thirst 384
Knowledge Builder 359 Pain 384
The Sex Drive 385
MODULE 9.4: Creative Thinking and Intuition 360 Module 10.2: Summary 385
Creative Thinking—Down Roads Less Traveled 360 Knowledge Builder 386
Tests of Creativity 360
Stages of Creative Thought 362 MODULE 10.3: Arousal, Achievement,
and Growth Needs 387
Positive Psychology: The Creative Personality 362
Critical Thinking Madness and Creativity 363 Stimulus Drives—Skydiving, Horror Movies,
Intuitive Thought—Mental Shortcut? Or Dangerous and the Fun Zone 387
Detour? 363 Arousal Theory 387
Levels of Arousal 388

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Contents xv

Using Psychology Coping with Test Anxiety 389


Learned Motives—In Pursuit of Excellence 389
Chapter 11
The Need for Achievement 389 Personality 410
Critical Thinking Mail-Order Motivation? 390
The Key to Success 391 MODULE 11.1: Overview of Personality,
Motives in Perspective—A View from the Pyramid 391 Trait Theories 412
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 392 The Psychology of Personality—Do You Have
Turning Play into Work 393 Personality? 412
Module 10.3: Summary 393 Traits 412
Knowledge Builder 394 Types 413
Self-Concept 414
MODULE 10.4: Emotion and Physiological Arousal 395 Personality Theories 414
Inside an Emotion—How Do You Feel? 395 Human Diversity Self-Esteem and Culture—Hotshot or Team
Primary Emotions 395 Player? 415
The Brain and Emotion 396 The Trait Approach—Describe Yourself in 18,000 Words
Physiology and Emotion—Arousal, Sudden Death, or Less 415
and Lying 396 Predicting Behavior 415
Fight or Flight 396 Discovering Psychology What’s Your Musical Personality? 416
Lie Detectors 398 Describing People 416
Module 10.4: Summary 399 Classifying Traits 416
The Big Five 418
Knowledge Builder 399
Traits, Consistency, and Situations 419
MODULE 10.5: Emotional Expression Do We Inherit Personality? 419
and Theories of Emotion 400 Critical Thinking The Minnesota Twins 420
Module 11.1: Summary 420
Expressing Emotions—Making Faces
and Talking Bodies 400 Knowledge Builder 421
Facial Expressions 400
Human Diversity Cultural Differences in Emotion 401
MODULE 11.2: Psychoanalytic Theory 422
Body Language 401 Psychoanalytic Theory—Id Came to Me in a Dream 422
Theories of Emotion—Several Ways to Fear a Bear 402 The Structure of Personality 422
The James-Lange Theory (1884–1885) 402 The Dynamics of Personality 423
The Cannon-Bard Theory (1927) 402 Personality Development 424
Schachter’s Cognitive Theory of Emotion (1971) 402 Module 11.2: Summary 425
The Facial Feedback Hypothesis 404 Knowledge Builder 426
A Contemporary Model of Emotion 404
Module 10.5: Summary 405 MODULE 11.3: Behavioral and Social Learning
Theories 427
Knowledge Builder 406
Learning Theories of Personality—Habit I Seen You
MODULE 10.6: Psychology in Action: Emotional Before? 427
Intelligence—The Fine Art of Self-Control 407 How Situations Affect Behavior 427
Self-Awareness 407 Personality  Behavior 428
Empathy 407 Social Learning Theory 428
Managing Emotions 407 Behavioristic View of Development 429
Understanding Emotions 407 Module 11.3: Summary 431
Using Emotion 407 Knowledge Builder 431
Emotional Flexibility 407
Positive Psychology and Positive Emotions 408 MODULE 11.4: Humanistic Theories 432
Authentic Happiness 408 Humanistic Theory—Peak Experiences and Personal
Becoming Emotionally Smart 408 Growth 432
Module 10.6: Summary 408 Maslow and Self-Actualization 432
Knowledge Builder 409 Using Psychology Steps toward Self-Actualization 433
Interactive Learning 409 Positive Psychology: Positive Personality Traits 434
Carl Rogers’ Self Theory 434

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xvi Contents

Using Psychology Possible Selves—Trying on a Self Frustration—Blind Alleys and Lead Balloons 459
for Size 435 Using Psychology Coping with Traumatic Stress 460
Humanistic View of Development 435 Reactions to Frustration 460
Personality Theories—Overview and Comparison 436 Coping with Frustration 462
Module 11.4: Summary 436 Conflict—Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Well, Maybe 462
Knowledge Builder 437 Managing Conflicts 464
Module 12.2: Summary 464
MODULE 11.5: Personality Assessment 438 Knowledge Builder 465
Personality Assessment—Psychological Yardsticks 438
The Interview 438 MODULE 12.3: Defenses, Helplessness,
Direct Observation and Rating Scales 438 and Depression 466
Personality Questionnaires 440 Psychological Defense—Mental Karate? 466
Projective Tests of Personality—Inkblots and Hidden Learned Helplessness—Is There Hope? 468
Plots 441 Depression 469
Critical Thinking Honesty Tests—Do They Tell the Truth? 442 A Problem for Everyone 470
The Rorschach Inkblot Test 442 Using Psychology Coping with Depression 470
The Thematic Apperception Test 443 Module 12.3: Summary 471
Sudden Murderers—A Research Example 444 Knowledge Builder 471
Module 11.5: Summary 444
Knowledge Builder 445 MODULE 12.4: Stress and Health 472
Stress and Health—Unmasking a Hidden Killer 472
MODULE 11.6: Psychology in Action: Barriers Life Events and Stress 472
and Bridges—Understanding Shyness 446 Psychosomatic Disorders 474
Elements of Shyness 446 Biofeedback 474
Situational Causes of Shyness 446 The Cardiac Personality 475
Dynamics of the Shy Personality 446 Hardy Personality 476
Shy Beliefs 447 Using Psychology Strategies for Reducing Hostility 477
Social Skills 447 Positive Psychology: Hardiness, Optimism, and
Conversation 447 Happiness 477
Module 11.6: Summary 448 The Value of Social Support 477
Knowledge Builder 448 The General Adaptation Syndrome 478
Interactive Learning 449 Discovering Psychology Feeling Stressed? You’ve Got
a Friend 478
Stress, Illness, and the Immune System 479
Chapter 12 Module 12.4: Summary 480
Knowledge Builder 480
Health, Stress, and Coping 450
MODULE 12.5: Psychology in Action: Stress
MODULE 12.1: Health Psychology 452 Management 481
Health Psychology—Here’s to Your Good Health 452 Managing Bodily Reactions 481
Behavioral Risk Factors 452 Exercise 481
Health-Promoting Behaviors 453 Meditation 481
Early Prevention 454 Progressive Relaxation 481
Community Health 454 Guided Imagery 481
Positive Psychology: Wellness 455 Modifying Ineffective Behavior 482
Module 12.1: Summary 455 Slow Down 482
Knowledge Builder 455 Organize 483
Strike a Balance 483
MODULE 12.2: Stress, Frustration, and Conflict 456 Recognize and Accept Your Limits 483
Stress—Thrill or Threat? 456 Write about Your Feelings 483
When Is Stress a Strain? 456 Avoiding Upsetting Thoughts 484
Appraising Stressors 457 Coping Statements 484
Coping with Threat 458 Lighten Up 484

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Contents xvi i

Module 12.5: Summary 484 The Schizophrenic Brain 513


Knowledge Builder 485 Implications 514
Interactive Learning 485 Module 13.3: Summary 514
Knowledge Builder 515

Chapter 13 MODULE 13.4: Mood Disorders 516


Mood Disorders—Peaks and Valleys 516
Psychological Disorders 486 Major Mood
Disorders 516
MODULE 13.1: Normality and Psychopathology 488
What Causes Mood
Normality—What Is Normal? 488 Disorders? 517
Discovering Psychology Crazy for a Day 489 Using Psychology
Core Features of Disordered Behavior 489 Understanding Postpartum
Human Diversity The Politics of Madness 490 Depression 518
Classifying Mental Disorders—Problems by the Book 490 Disorders in
An Overview of Psychological Disorders 491 Perspective—Psychiatric
Human Diversity Running Amok with Cultural Maladies 494 Labeling 519
Insanity 494 Social Stigma 519
Module 13.1: Summary 495 Module 13.4:
Knowledge Builder 495 Summary 520
Knowledge Builder 520
MODULE 13.2: Personality Disorders
and Anxiety-Based Disorders 496 MODULE 13.5:
Personality Disorders—Blueprints for Maladjustment 496 Psychology in Action:
Maladaptive Personality Patterns 496 Suicide—Lives on the
Antisocial Personality 497 Brink 521
Anxiety-Based Disorders—When Anxiety Rules 498 Season 521
Adjustment Disorders 498 Sex 521
Anxiety Disorders 498 Age 521
Stress Disorders 501 Income 521
Dissociative Disorders 501 Marital Status 521
Somatoform Disorders 502 Immediate Causes of Suicide 522
Anxiety and Disorder—Four Pathways to Trouble 502 Preventing Suicide 522
Psychodynamic Approach 502 How You Can Help 523
Humanistic-Existential Approaches 503 Crisis Intervention 523
Behavioral Approach 504 Module 13.5: Summary 523
Cognitive Approach 504 Knowledge Builder 524
Module 13.2: Summary 504 Interactive Learning 524
Knowledge Builder 505

MODULE 13.3: Psychosis, Delusional Disorders, and


Schizophrenia 506 Chapter 14
Psychotic Disorders—Life in the Shadow of Madness 506 Therapies 526
The Nature of Psychosis 506
Delusional Disorders—An Enemy behind Every Tree 508 MODULE 14.1: Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis 528
Paranoid Psychosis 508 Psychotherapy—Getting Better by the Hour 528
Schizophrenia—Shattered Reality 509 Dimensions of Therapy 528
Disorganized Schizophrenia 509 Origins of Therapy—Bored Skulls and Hysteria
Catatonic Schizophrenia 510 on the Couch 529
Paranoid Schizophrenia 510 Psychoanalysis—Expedition into the Unconscious 530
Critical Thinking Are the Mentally Ill Prone to Violence? 511 Psychoanalysis Today 531
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia 511 Module 14.1: Summary 531
The Causes of Schizophrenia 511 Knowledge Builder 532

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x v iii Contents

MODULE 14.2: Insight Therapies 533 Psychosurgery 555


Humanistic Therapies—Restoring Human Potential 533 Hospitalization 555
Client-Centered Therapy 533 Community Mental Health
Existential Therapy 533 Programs 556
Gestalt Therapy 534 Module 14.5: Summary 556
Psychotherapy at a Distance—Psych Jockeys Knowledge Builder 557
and Cybertherapy 534
Media Psychologists 534 MODULE 14.6: Psychology
Telephone Therapists 535 in Action: Self-Management
Cybertherapy 535 and Seeking Professional
Telehealth 536 Help 558
Module 14.2: Summary 536 Covert Reward and
Knowledge Builder 536 Punishment––Boosting Your
“Willpower” 558
MODULE 14.3: Behavior Therapy 537 Covert Sensitization 558
Behavior Therapy—Healing by Learning 537 Thought Stopping 559
Aversion Therapy 537 Covert Reinforcement 559
Using Psychology Puffing Up an Aversion 538 Self-Directed Desensitization––Overcoming Common
Desensitization 538 Fears 559
Discovering Psychology Feeling a Little Tense? Relax! 540 Procedure for Constructing a Hierarchy 560
Module 14.3: Summary 541 Using the Hierarchy 560
Seeking Professional Help––When, Where, and How? 560
Knowledge Builder 542
Locating a Therapist 560
MODULE 14.4: Operant Therapies and Cognitive Options 561
Therapies 543 Qualifications 561
Evaluating a Therapist 562
Operant Therapies—All the World Is a Skinner Box? 543
Module 14.6: Summary 562
Non-reinforcement and Extinction 543
Reinforcement and Token Economies 544 Knowledge Builder 563
Cognitive Therapy—Think Positive! 545 Interactive Learning 563
Cognitive Therapy for Depression 545
Using Psychology Ten Irrational Beliefs—Which Do You
Hold? 546 Chapter 15
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy 546
Module 14.4: Summary 547 Gender and Sexuality 564
Knowledge Builder 547 MODULE 15.1: Sex, Gender, and Androgyny 566
Sexual Development—Circle One: XX or XY? 566
MODULE 14.5: Group Therapy, Helping Skills, and Female or Male? 566
Medical Therapies 548 Prenatal Sexual Development 567
Group Therapy—People Who Need People 548 Gender Identity 568
Psychodrama 548 Critical Thinking Robert or Roberta—Can Sex Be
Family Therapy 548 Assigned? 569
Group Awareness Training 549 Origins of Male-Female Differences 569
Psychotherapy—An Overview 549 Gender Roles 570
Core Features of Psychotherapy 550 Gender Role Socialization 570
The Future of Psychotherapy 551 Discovering Psychology Man’s Work 571
Basic Counseling Skills 551 Androgyny—Are You Masculine, Feminine, or
Human Diversity Cultural Issues in Counseling and Androgynous? 572
Psychotherapy 552 Psychological Androgyny 572
Medical Therapies—Psychiatric Care 553 Module 15.1: Summary 573
Drug Therapies 553 Knowledge Builder 574
Electroshock 554

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Contents xix

MODULE 15.2: Sexual Behavior and Sexual Relationships and Sexual Adjustment 595
Orientation 575 Disagreements about Sex 596
Sexual Behavior—Mapping the Erogenous Zone 575 Bridges to Sexual Satisfaction 596
Sexual Arousal 575 Intimacy and Communication 596
Critical Thinking “What Do Women Want?” 576 Avoid “Gunnysacking” 596
Sexual Orientation—Who Do You Love? 578 Be Open about Feelings 596
Homosexuality 578 Don’t Attack the Other Person’s Character 596
Human Diversity Genes, the Brain, and Sexual Don’t Try to “Win” a Fight 597
Orientation 579 Recognize that Anger Is Appropriate 597
Module 15.2: Summary 579 Try to See Things through Your Partner’s Eyes 597
Knowledge Builder 580 Don’t Be a “Mind-Reader” 597
Module 15.4: Summary 597
MODULE 15.3: Sexual Response, Attitudes, Knowledge Builder 598
and Behavior 581 Interactive Learning 599
Human Sexual Response—Sexual Interactions 581
Comparing Male and Female Responses 582
Atypical Sexual Behavior—Trench Coats, Whips, Leathers, Chapter 16
and Lace 583
Paraphilias 583 Social Behavior 600
Attitudes and Sexual Behavior—The Changing Sexual
MODULE 16.1: Affiliation, Friendship, and Love 602
Landscape 584
Is the Revolution Over? 585 Affiliation and Attraction—Come Together 602
The Crime of Rape 586 Social Comparison Theory 602
Critical Thinking Gender Role Stereotyping and Rape 586 Interpersonal Attraction 603
STDs and Safer Sex —Choice, Risk, and Responsibility 587 Self-Disclosure 604
HIV/AIDS 587 Loving and Liking—Dating, Rating, Mating 605
Behavioral Risk Factors 589 Sex, Evolution, and Mate Selection 605
Risk and Responsibility 590 Module 16.1: Summary 606
Module 15.3: Summary 590 Knowledge Builder 607
Knowledge Builder 591
MODULE 16.2: Groups, Social Influence, and
MODULE 15.4: Psychology in Action: Sexual Conformity 608
Problems—When Pleasure Fades 592 Life in Groups—People, People, Everywhere 608
Desire Disorders 592 Group Structure, Cohesion, and Norms 608
Treatment 592 Making Attributions 609
Arousal Disorders 592 Social Influence—Follow the Leader 610
Male Erectile Disorder 592 Conformity 610
Treatment 593 Using Psychology Groupthink—Agreement at Any Cost 611
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder 593 Module 16.2: Summary 612
Treatment 594 Knowledge Builder 612
Orgasm Disorders 594
Female Orgasmic Disorder 594 MODULE 16.3: Obedience and Compliance 613
Treatment 594 Obedience—Would You Electrocute a Stranger? 613
Male Orgasmic Disorder 594 Milgram’s Obedience Studies 613
Treatment 594 Discovering Psychology Quack Like a Duck 615
Premature Ejaculation 594 Compliance—A Foot in the Door 615
Treatment 595 Assertiveness Training—Standing Up for Your Rights 616
Sexual Pain Disorders 595 Using Psychology How to Drive a Hard Bargain 617
Treatment 595 Module 16.3: Summary 618
Summary 595 Knowledge Builder 618

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xx Contents

MODULE 16.4: Attitudes and Persuasion 619 MODULE 16.7: Psychology in Action:
Attitudes—Doomsday for the Seekers 619 Multiculturalism—Living with Diversity 640
Belief  Emotion  Action 619 Breaking the Prejudice Habit 640
Forming Attitudes 619 Beware of Steretyping 640
Attitudes and Behavior 620 Seek Individuating Information 640
Attitude Change—Why the “Seekers” Went Public 621 Don’t Fall Prey to Just-World Beliefs 640
Persuasion 621 Be Aware of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 640
Cognitive Dissonance Theory 622 Remember, Different Does Not Mean Inferior 641
Forced Attitude Change—Brainwashing and Cults 623 Understand that Race Is a Social Construction 641
Brainwashing 623 Look for Commonalities 641
Cults 623 Set an Example for Others 641
Module 16.4: Summary 625 Tolerance and Cultural Awareness 641
Knowledge Builder 625 Module 16.7: Summary 642
Knowledge Builder 642
MODULE 16.5: Prejudice and Intergroup Conflict 626 Interactive Learning 643
Prejudice—Attitudes that Injure 626
Becoming Prejudiced 626
The Prejudiced Personality 626 Chapter 17
Intergroup Conflict—The Roots of Prejudice 627
Critical Thinking Terrorists, Enemies, and Infidels 628 Applied Psychology 644
Experiments in Prejudice 629 MODULE 17.1: Industrial-Organizational
Module 16.5: Summary 631 Psychology 646
Knowledge Builder 631 Industrial-Organizational Psychology—Psychology
at Work 646
MODULE 16.6: Aggression and Prosocial Behavior 632
Personnel Psychology 646
Aggression—The World’s Most Dangerous Animal 632 Job Analysis 646
Instincts 632 Using Psychology The Sweet Smell of Success? Not Always. 647
Biology 632 Selection Procedures 647
Frustration 633 Theories of Management—What Works at Work? 649
Social Learning 634 Theory X and Theory Y 649
Preventing Aggression 634 Job Satisfaction 650
Parents as TV Guides 635 Using Psychology Flextime 651
Prosocial Behavior—Helping Others 635 Job Enrichment 652
Using Psychology School Violence—Warning Signs and Organizational Culture 652
Remedies 636 Communication at Work—Getting the Message Across 652
Bystander Intervention 637 Effective Communication 652
Who Will Help Whom? 638 Using Psychology Desk Rage and Healthy Organizations 653
Positive Psychology: Everyday Heroes 638 Being a Good Listener 654
Module 16.6: Summary 638 Module 17.1: Summary 655
Knowledge Builder 639 Knowledge Builder 655

MODULE 17.2: Environmental Psychology 656


Environmental Psychology—Life in the Big City 656
Personal Space 657
Spatial Norms 657
Environmental Influences 658
Stressful Environments 659
Toxic Environments 661
Sustainable Lifestyles 661
Discovering Psychology Planet in Peril? 662
Social Traps 662

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Contents xxi

Using Psychology Reduce, Reuse, Recycle 664


Environmental Problem Solving 664
Appendix
Conclusion 666 Behavioral Statistics 677
Module 17.2: Summary 666
Knowledge Builder 666 MODULE A.1: Descriptive Statistics 678
Descriptive Statistics—Psychology by the Numbers 678
MODULE 17.3: The Psychology of Law and Sports 667 Graphical Statistics 678
Psychology and Law—Judging Juries 667 Measures of Central Tendency 678
Jury Behavior 667 Measures of Variability 679
Jury Selection 667 Standard Scores 681
Critical thinking Death-Qualified Juries 668 The Normal Curve 681
Sports Psychology—The Athletic Mind 669 Module A.1: Summary 682
Positive Psychology: Peak Performance 671 Knowledge Builder 683
Module 17.3: Summary 672
Knowledge Builder 672 MODULE A.2: Inferential Statistics 684
Inferential Statistics—Significant Numbers 684
MODULE 17.4: Psychology in Action: Space Samples and Populations 684
Psychology—Life on the High Frontier 673 Significant Differences 684
The Challenge of Living Aloft 673 Correlation—Rating Relationships 684
Space Habitats 673 Relationships 685
General Environment 673 The Correlation Coefficient 685
Privacy 674 Module A.2: Summary 687
Sensory Restriction 674 Knowledge Builder 688
Cultural Differences 674 Interactive Learning 688
Social Isolation 674
Conflict Resolution and Mental Health 674
Life on Spaceship Earth 675
Module 17.4: Summary 675
Knowledge Builder 675
Interactive Learning 676

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Copyright 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User

Preface
To the Student—An Invitation To the Instructor—A Concise
to Psychology Survey of Psychology
Psychology is an exciting field. It is at once familiar, exotic, Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior was
surprising, and challenging. Most of all, psychology is chang- written to provide a concise, but complete, first course in psy-
ing. In fact, this book is just a “snapshot” of a colorful passing chology. It is organized in modules, which are grouped into
scene. Yet, change makes psychology especially fascinating: chapters, to allow flexibility in assigning topics for your
What, really, could be more intriguing than our evolving course. Throughout this text, I have tried to select only the
knowledge of human behavior? very “best” material from the many topics that could be pre-
Psychology is about each of us. Psychology asks, “How can sented. Nevertheless, Psychology covers not only the heart of
we step beyond ourselves to look objectively at how we live, psychology, but also many topics at the cutting edge of cur-
think, feel, and act?” Psychologists believe the answer is through rent knowledge. New information, anecdotes, perspectives,
careful thought, observation, and inquiry. As simple as that may and narratives appear throughout the Tenth Edition. The re-
seem, it is the guiding light for all that follows in this text. sult is a concise text that is readable, manageable, informa-
Each chapter of this book will take you into a different tive, and motivating.
realm of psychology, such as personality, abnormal behavior,
memory, consciousness, and child development. Each realm Readability and Narrative Emphasis
is complex and fascinating in its own right, with many path- Selecting a textbook is half the battle in teaching a successful
ways, landmarks, and interesting detours to discover. Psy- course. A good text does much of the work of informing stu-
chology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior is your dents. This frees class time for discussion, extra topics, or me-
passport to an adventure in learning. Like any journey of dis- dia presentations. It also leaves students asking for more.
covery, your “tour” of psychology will help you better under- When a book overwhelms students or cools their interest,
stand yourself, others, and the world around you. It’s defi- teaching and learning suffer.
nitely a trip worth taking. Many introductory psychology students are reluctant
I sincerely hope you will find human behavior as fasci- readers. No matter how interesting a text may be, its value is
nating as I do. In the pages that follow, I have done all that I lost if students fail to read it. That’s why I’ve worked hard to
could imagine to make your journey through psychology en- make this a clear, readable, and engaging text. I want students
joyable and worthwhile. to read with genuine interest and enthusiasm, not merely as
an obligation.
Getting Started To encourage students to read, I made a special effort to
To help you get off to a good start, a short Introduction pre- weave narrative threads through every chapter. Everyone
cedes Chapter 1. The Introduction describes study skills you loves a good story, and the story of psychology is among the
can use to get the most out of this text and your psychology best. Throughout Psychology, I have used intriguing anecdotes
course. It also tells how you can explore psychology through and examples to encourage reading and sustain interest. As
the Internet, electronic databases, and interactive CDs. students explore concepts, they are asked to think about ideas
Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior is and relate them to their own experiences. For example, the
your passport to an adventure in learning. Please view this September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center are
book as a long letter from me to you. It is, in a very real sense, used to illustrate flashbulb memories and the impact of trau-
written about you, for you, and to you. matic stressors.
xxiii

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Licensed to: iChapters User

xxiv Preface

Practical Applications Students can also make use of PsychologyNow, a web-


Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior is de- based, personalized study system that provides a pretest and
signed to give students a clear grasp of major concepts, with- a posttest for each chapter and separate chapter quizzes.
out burying them in details. At the same time, it offers a PsychologyNow can also create personalized study plans that
broad overview that reflects psychology’s rich heritage of point students to areas in the text that will help them master
ideas. I think students will find this book informative and in- course content. An additional set of integrative questions
tellectually stimulating. Moreover, I have emphasized the helps students pull all of the material together.
many ways that psychology relates to daily life.
A major feature of this book are the Psychology in Action Human Diversity
modules found in each chapter. These high-interest discus- Today’s students reflect the multicultural, multifaceted nature
sions bridge the gap between theory and practical applica- of contemporary society. In Psychology, students will find nu-
tions. I believe it is fair for students to ask, “Does this mean merous discussions of human diversity, including differences
anything to me? Can I use it? Why should I learn it if I can’t?” in race, ethnicity, culture, gender, abilities, sexual orientation,
The Psychology in Action modules show students how to and age. Too often, such differences needlessly divide people
solve practical problems and manage their own behavior. into opposing groups. My aim throughout this text is to dis-
This allows them to see the benefits of adopting new ideas, courage stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and intoler-
and it breathes life into psychology’s concepts. Within chap- ance. I’ve tried to make this book gender neutral and sensitive
ters, briefer “Using Psychology” highlight boxes also present to diversity issues. All pronouns and examples involving fe-
practical information that students can put to use. males and males are equally divided by gender. In artwork,
photographs, and examples, I have tried to portray the rich di-
Modular Approach versity of humanity. Many topics and examples encourage stu-
and Integrated Study Guide dents to appreciate social, physical, and cultural differences
The chapters of this text are divided into short, self-contained and to accept them as a natural part of being human.
modules. Each module concludes with a summary and a fea-
ture called a Knowledge Builder. These “mini-study guides” Positive Psychology
challenge students to relate concepts to their own experiences, Over the past 100 years, psychologists have paid ample atten-
to quiz themselves, and to think critically about the principles tion to the negative side of human behavior. This is easy to
they are learning. For this edition, I have improved the qual- understand because we urgently need to find remedies for hu-
ity and variety of questions in the Learning Check portion of man problems. However, Martin E. P. Seligman and Mihaly
the Knowledge Builders. As a result, Learning Check ques- Csikszentmihalyi have urged us to also study optimal function-
tions are similar in difficulty to in-class test questions and they ing or “positive psychology.” What do we know, for instance,
provide better feedback to students. If students would like about love, happiness, creativity, well-being, self-confidence,
more feedback and practice, a great new printed supplement, and achievement? Throughout this book, I have attempted to
Concept Modules with Note Taking and Practice Exams, is bun- answer such questions for students. My hope is that students
dled with this text. Also, a traditional Study Guide is available. who read this text will gain an appreciation for the potential we
all have for optimal functioning. Also, of course, I hope that
Electronic Resources they will leave introductory psychology with emotional and in-
To encourage further explorations, students will find a sec- tellectual tools they can use to enhance their lives.
tion called Interactive Learning at the end of each chapter.
The websites described there offer a wealth of information on How Chapter Features Support
topics related to psychology. Students are also directed to rel- the SQ4R Method
evant articles in InfoTrac® College Edition, Wadsworth’s ex- Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior uses an
clusive online college library. All chapters include a list of rel- SQ4R, active-learning format to make studying psychology a
evant modules in PsychNow! This excellent CD-ROM from rewarding experience. Notice how the steps of the SQ4R
Wadsworth provides students with a rich assortment of in- method—survey, question, read, recite, relate, and review—are
teractive learning experiences, animations, and simulations. incorporated into the modular design.
On the Internet, students can visit this text’s Book Com-
panion Website, where they will find quizzes, a final exam, Survey At the beginning of each chapter, several features help
chapter-by-chapter web links, flashcards, an audio glossary in students build cognitive maps of upcoming topics. A short vi-
Spanish and English, and more (www.psychology.wadsworth. gnette arouses interest, provides a preview of the main topic of
com/0534605931). the chapter, and focuses attention. Next, a list of Modules and

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Preface xxv

Survey Questions provides an overview of the chapter. To help Knowledge Builder includes a series of “Relate” questions.
students structure their learning, the same Survey Questions These questions encourage students to associate new con-
appear again in the modules, where they are used to introduce cepts with personal experiences and prior knowledge.
major topics. The Survey Questions also appear in the Study A course in psychology naturally contributes to critical
Guide to give students a consistent framework for learning. thinking abilities. To further facilitate critical thinking, each
Knowledge Builder also includes one or more Critical Think-
Question Throughout each chapter, italicized questions ing questions. These stimulating questions challenge students
serve as advance organizers that prompt students to look for to think critically and analytically about psychology. Each is
important ideas as they read. These questions also establish a followed by a brief answer with which students can compare
dialogue in which the concerns and reactions of students are their own thoughts. Many of these answers cite research find-
anticipated. This ongoing dialogue clarifies difficult points— ings and are informative in their own right.
in a lively give-and-take between questions and responses.
Review As noted, all important terms appear in a Running
Read I’ve made every effort to make this a clear, readable Glossary throughout the book, which aids review. To help
text. To further aid comprehension, I’ve used a full array of students consolidate their learning, each module concludes
traditional learning aids. These include: boldface terms (with with a bulleted summary of major ideas presented in the unit.
phonetic pronunciations), bullet summaries, a robust illus- As also noted, Psychology in Action modules show students
tration program, summary tables, a name index, a subject in- how psychological concepts relate to practical problems, in-
dex, and a detailed glossary. As an additional aid, figure and cluding problems in their own lives. The information found
table references are marked with small geometric shapes. in the Psychology in Action modules helps reinforce learning
These “placeholders” make it easier for students to return to by illustrating psychology’s practicality.
reading after they have paused to view a table or figure.
When important terms first appear, they are immediately Critical Thinking
defined. In this way, students get clear definitions when and The active, questioning nature of the SQ4R method is, in it-
where they need them—in the general text itself. In addition, self, an inducement to think critically. Many of the guide
a parallel Running Glossary defines key terms in the page questions that introduce topics in the text act as models of
margins. The Running Glossary makes it easier for students critical thinking. More important, Chapter 1 contains a dis-
to find, study, and review important terms. cussion of critical thinking skills and a rational appraisal of
In each chapter, several boxed highlights discuss high- pseudo-psychologies. In addition, the discussion of research
interest topics related to human diversity, using psychology, methods in Chapter 1 is actually a short course on how to
and critical thinking. In addition, new Discovering Psychol- think clearly about behavior. It is augmented by suggestions
ogy highlights get students involved through in-text demon- about how to critically evaluate claims in the popular media.
strations and self-assessment exercises. Highlights are stimu- Chapter 9, “Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity,” includes
lating but non-intrusive supplements to the main text. They many topics that focus on thinking skills. Throughout the
enrich the presentation and encourage students to think text, many boxed highlights promote critical thinking about
about the ideas they are learning. specific topics that students should approach with healthy
skepticism. As mentioned earlier, every Knowledge Builder in-
Recite At the end of each module, a Knowledge Builder cludes Critical Thinking questions. Taken together, these fea-
gives students a chance to test their understanding and recall tures will help students gain thinking skills of lasting value.
of preceding topics. Knowledge Builders are small, built-in
study guides that include a Learning Check (a short, non-
comprehensive quiz). Learning Checks serve as a form of
recitation to enhance learning. They also help students ac-
Psychology: A Modular
tively process information and assess their progress. Students Approach to Mind and
who miss any items are asked to backtrack and clarify their
understanding before reading more.
Behavior —What’s New?
Thanks to psychology’s vitality, this text is improved in many
Relate Cognitive psychology tells us that elaborative re- ways. A notable change is the enhanced modular format of the
hearsal is one of the best ways to form lasting memories. Tenth Edition. As mentioned earlier, topics are still grouped
Through elaborative rehearsal we make new information by chapters. However, modules are now more clearly defined
more meaningful by relating it to existing, familiar knowl- within chapters. Specifically, each numbered module begins
edge. To help students practice elaborative rehearsal, each on a separate page and concludes with a point-by-point sum-

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Licensed to: iChapters User

xxvi Preface

mary and a Knowledge Builder. Entire chapters or individual • Recent findings update what we know about the ori-
modules can be assigned with equal ease, and reading assign- gins of right- and left-handednesss.
ments can be closely integrated with your course syllabus. • A new highlight, “Dollars, Drag Racing, and the Ner-
The Tenth Edition of Psychology: A Modular Approach to vous System,” shows students how to perform a “try-it”
Mind and Behavior features some of the most recent and in- demonstration that illustrates the speed of neural pro-
teresting information in psychology. The following annota- cessing.
tions highlight some of the new topics and features that ap- • The discussion of how hormones affect behavior has
pear in this edition. been shortened and updated.

Introduction: The Psychology of Studying Chapter 3: Child Development


The Introduction shows students how to read effectively,
This chapter has been shortened and streamlined in various
study more efficiently, take good notes, prepare for tests, per-
ways.
form well on various types of tests, create study schedules,
and avoid procrastination. The advice to students in this edi- • A new highlight, “To Spank or Not to Spank?,” dis-
tion has been adapted to match the new modular format of cusses empirical evidence that provides the rationale for
the text. In addition, I have moved the discussion of self- minimizing or avoiding the use of spanking to disci-
regulated learning here. (It was formerly in Chapter 7.) My pline children.
goal is to help students apply active learning principles to the • A second new highlight, “What’s Your Attachment
entire course, not just the second half. Style?,” helps students relate their adult relationship
patterns to those laid down by their early attachments
Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology to caregivers.
and Research Methods • Research updates enhance discussions of the Mozart ef-
This chapter has been lightly revised, including the changes fect, sensitive periods and language, temperament, in-
listed here. fant facial preferences, the social smile, and parenting.
• A revised table gives a better view of the early develop-
ment of psychology. Chapter 4: From Birth to Death:
• A new highlight, “Is a Career in Psychology Right for Life-Span Development
You?,” presents a series of questions students can an- This chapter continues to focus on special challenges and
swer about themselves to see if a career in psychology problems that occur at various points in life. Erikson’s theory
might suit them. provides an initial overview of the life span, followed by
• The clinical method is now illustrated by the classic selected topics from the psychology of childhood, adoles-
study of the Genain sisters, four identical quadruplets cence, adulthood, aging, and death. This chapter features the
who all became schizophrenic. The chance of four updates listed here.
identical quads all becoming schizophrenic is about one • A new highlight, “What’s Your Life Expectancy?,” al-
in 1.5 billion. Thus, the Genain sisters show students lows students to predict their own approximate life ex-
why clinical studies sometimes provide insights that pectancy.
can’t be obtained by other means.
• The discussion of Kohlberg’s theory of moral develop-
• Brief research updates improve discussions of current ment is easier to understand.
trends in psychology, prescription privileges, mecha-
• Information about personal development and well-being
nisms of the placebo effect, self-fulfilling prophecies,
at midlife has been improved, including an updated dis-
the survey method and Internet surveys, and the falla-
cussion of menopause, andropause, and the climacteric.
cies of graphology.
• A new positive psychology topic, “Seniors with Atti-
tude,” documents that people who have a positive out-
Chapter 2: Brain and Behavior look about aging tend to live years longer than those
This chapter has been rewritten to make complex informa-
who take a dim view of old age.
tion easier to understand.
• Improved art clarifies the events that take place during Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
an action potential. The basic organization of this chapter remains unchanged.
• Art illustrating the lobes of the cerebral cortex and the Revisions mostly involve research updates and new informa-
limbic system has also been improved. tion, where appropriate. This chapter has always appeared to

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Preface xxvii

be long (in pages) because it is heavily illustrated. To avoid in- Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning
timidating students, I have condensed the text while retain- This chapter needed few changes. Nevertheless, I have rewrit-
ing the art. As a result, the chapter is more approachable and ten it to make the principles of learning more accessible to
the time required to read it is comparable to other chapters. students. In addition, three new highlights and some worth-
Additional revisions are listed here. while research updates enhance this chapter. The topic of
• Improved art clarifies the structures and functions of self-regulated learning has been moved to the Introduction,
the retina, the ear, the vestibular system, and taste re- where it adds to the presentation of helpful study skills.
ceptors in the tongue.
• A new highlight, “Blink If Your Brain Is Healthy,” de-
• A new photo gives students a clearer look at how the scribes recent research suggesting that eye-blink condi-
Ames room distorts size and depth perception. tioning (classical conditioning) may be useful for iden-
• The discussion of olfaction has been updated to reflect tifying the very early stages of dementia.
recent research findings. • New examples help students differentiate negative rein-
• A new highlight, “Hallucinations: Sane or Insane?,” ex- forcement from punishment.
plains why hallucinations are regarded as a symptom of • A new highlight, “Conditioning and Conservation,”
mental disorders and tells how “sane hallucinations” explains how operant principles have been used to en-
can occur. courage energy conservation and recycling.
• Brief new coverage of inattentional blindness has been • A new highlight, “Violent Video Games—Toxic Kom-
added. bat?,” reviews recent evidence that indicates violent
• A brief new discussion examines the causes of the video games increase aggressive behavior.
“other-race effect” in facial recognition.
• “Miss Cleo” and similar TV frauds are debunked in the
discussion of ESP.
Chapter 8: Memory
• A new highlight, “Cows, Memories, and Culture,”
• An updated discussion of perceptual accuracy includes briefly explores cultural differences in the types of in-
a table (based on recent research) that summarizes ma- formation we store in memory.
jor factors that affect eyewitness perceptions.
• An interesting new highlight, “Card Magic!,” uses a
popular “card trick” to show how distraction and en-
Chapter 6: States of Consciousness coding failure affect memory.
This chapter is enhanced by research updates, new topics, • Research updates improve discussions of short-term
and other improvements. memory, constructive processing, eyewitness memories,
• A brief new discussion, “Teenage Sleep Zombies,” doc- the “own race effect,” memory cues, interference, re-
uments the connection between chronic teenage sleep pression, and consolidation.
deprivation and adolescent moodiness.
• The discussion of REM sleep and dreaming has been Chapter 9: Cognition, Intelligence,
reorganized to better connect related subjects.
and Creativity
• A new highlight, “Swinging Suggestions,” uses the • This chapter covers the new Fifth Edition of the
Chevreul pendulum to give students insight into hyp- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (the SB5), published
nosis and the basic suggestion effect. in 2003. The SB5 now measures five cognitive factors
• A brief new discussion, “Positive Psychology: Mindful- (rather than four) and it can be scored for verbal and
ness and Well-being,” explores the benefits of mindful- performance intelligence.
ness as a positive state of consciousness. • An interesting new highlight, “Colorful Thoughts,”
• A brief new section, “How Drugs Affect the Brain,” ex- uses the Stroop test to reveal that many people uncon-
plains synaptic mechanisms underlying drug effects. sciously associate celebrity names with the words white
• “Street” names are now listed for commonly abused drugs. or black (an obvious reference to the person’s race).
• More information is provided about the damaging ef- • A new highlight, “How to Weigh an Elephant,” ex-
fects of binge drinking and alcohol abuse. plains how one’s cultural heritage can aid or impair
• Research updates address the functions of REM sleep, problem solving.
the nature of emotions in dreams, the benefits of medi- • A new highlight, “Madness and Creativity,” documents
tation, the effects of smoking on health, and the im- that many of history’s renowned artists, writers, poets,
pact of marijuana use on quality of life. and composers suffered from mood disorders. In doing

Copyright 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User

xxviii Preface

so, it provides a fascinating look at the question, “Is ge- in context and it shortens the Psychology in Action feature,
nius next to insanity?” which was disproportionately long in the prior edition.
• A brief new discussion draws a distinction between in- • The discussion of health psychology and behavioral
telligence and wisdom. risk factors has been updated and streamlined.
• Research updates have been added to discussions of • A revised discussion presents the latest research on the
gestural languages and evolution, the characteristics of topic of of health-promoting behaviors.
creative people, the role of emotion in intuitive
• Two brief new positive psychology sections discuss in-
thought, and techniques for promoting creative prob-
teresting linkages among hardiness, optimism, happi-
lem solving.
ness, social support, stress reduction, and health.
• A new highlight, “Feeling Stressed? You’ve Got a
Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion Friend,” describes research showing that thinking about
• An engaging new vignette opens this chapter to promote a friend, or even a pet, can reduce stress when people
interest in the modules that follow. The chapter has also are in difficult situations.
been streamlined for greater interest and readability. • This chapter also includes detailed updates on behav-
• A new highlight, “What’s Your BMI? (We’ve Got Your ioral risk factors, the disease-prone personality, refusal
Number),” shows students how to find out if their cur- skills training, unpredictability and stress, job burnout,
rent body weight is healthy or potentially risky. the nature of threat, coping with threat, hostility and
• The discussion of hunger now discusses how large food the Type A personality, psychoneuroimmunology, and
portions (especially fast-food portions) contribute to stress management.
overeating and the obesity epidemic.
• New art helps students better understand connections Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders
between emotional reactions and activity in the auto- • The section of this chapter that discusses anxiety disor-
nomic system. ders is more concise and includes updated information
• A revised discussion of emotional intelligence discusses about stress disorders.
the value of positive emotions, authentic happiness, • A new highlight, “Crazy for a Day,” helps students appre-
and the skills that comprise emotional maturity. ciate how powerfully social norms constrain our actions,
• Research updates improve discussions of hunger, obe- and how they contribute to judgments of normality.
sity, eating disorders, sex drive, intrinsic motivation and • A revised table clarifies differences between various per-
creativity, sudden death related to intense emotion, and sonality disorders.
sensitivity to threatening facial expressions. • A new table presents the anxiety disorders in a way that
will help students recognize and remember them.
Chapter 11: Personality • An updated discussion of biochemical explanations of
• Social learning theory is now more clearly differenti- schizophrenia now includes the influence of glutamate
ated from behavioral theories of personality. Also, levels on dopamine systems.
Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy has been added. • A brief new section discusses the impact of social
• A new highlight, “What’s Your Musical Personality?,” stigma and psychiatric labeling.
describes an interesting study that relates personality • This chapter also has brief updates on borderline person-
traits to musical tastes. ality, antisocial personality, phobias, stress disorders, the
• A brief new section presents research on the human causes of schizophrenia, and the causes of depression.
strengths identified by Martin Seligman and other posi-
tive psychologists. Chapter 14: Therapies
• This chapter also benefits from brief research updates • Positive psychotherapy is now included in the list of
on self-esteem, the consistency of traits, trait-situation basic therapy types.
interactions, the Big Five, and shyness. • Some types of distance therapy are starting to produce
good results. I have revised the discussion of distance
Chapter 12: Health, Stress, and Coping therapy to reflect this progress and the greater acceptance
In addition to the research updates described in the list that that telephone counseling and telehealth are receiving.
follows, suggestions for coping with conflict and frustration • A revised highlight, “Feeling a Little Tense? Relax!,”
have been moved into the chapter. This places the suggestions teaches students the tension-release method of deep

Copyright 2006 Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User

Preface xxix

muscle relaxation. This exercise provides insight into • More information is presented about symbolic preju-
desensitization, and prepares students for a later discus- dice and the unconscious origins of discrimination.
sion of self-directed desensitization. • I’ve updated the section on the causes of human aggres-
• New studies are reported showing that virtual reality sion, including the effects of media violence.
exposure can be used to successfully treat phobias. • A new highlight, “School Violence—Warning Signs
• The discussion of eye movement desensitization and re- and Remedies,” presents warning signs that may help
processing (EMDR) presents recent evidence for and identify students at risk for violence. It also suggests
against the effectiveness of this controversial therapy. steps that parents can take to reduce the likelihood of
• A brief new section discusses the future of psychother- violence.
apy, as predicted by a panel of experts. • A brief new section, “Positive Psychology: Everyday
• Research updates are found in discussions of virtual re- Heroes,” discusses various ways in which “we do well
ality exposure, EMDR, group therapy, deinstitutional- by doing good.”
ization, and the use of paraprofessionals. • This chapter has been improved by small, but valuable
updates on interpersonal attraction, self-disclosure,
mate selection, role conflicts, discrimination, race bias,
Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality intergroup conflict, and social stereotypes.
• In view of the controversy surrounding John Money’s
research on gender assignment, the entire discussion of
intersexual infants has been revised. Chapter 17: Applied Psychology
• Coverage of the debate concerning the biological basis • A new highlight, “Desk Rage and Healthy Organiza-
of male-female differences in cognitive abilities has also tions,” identifies common causes of workplace anger
been updated. and describes the characteristics of organizations that
promote well-being among their employees.
• A new highlight, “Robert or Roberta—Can Sex be As-
signed?,” briefly discusses the debate about gender as- • The module on evironmental psychology has been up-
signment and the best way to treat intersexual infants. dated and reorganized.
• A new highlight, “Man’s Work,” summarizes a recent • A new highlight, “Planet in Peril?,” is designed to alert
study showing that self-assertive, achievement-oriented students to a variety of threats to the environment and
behaviors are frowned on in women. apprise them of an emerging ecological worldview.
• Information about HIV and AIDS reflects the latest
findings.
• Additional small updates address male-female intellec- A Complete Course—Teaching
tual differences, sex role socialization, the hormonal ba-
sis of sex drive, aphrodisiacs, sexual orientation, and
and Learning Supplements
patterns of sexual behavior in the United States. A rich array of supplements accompanies Psychology: A Mod-
ular Approach to Mind and Behavior, including several that
make use of the latest technologies. These supplements are
Chapter 16: Social Behavior designed to make teaching and learning more effective. Many
• A brief new section discusses the concepts of in-group are available free to professors or students. Others can be
and out-group. packaged with this text at a discount. For more information
• The discussion of attribution theory is shorter and eas- on any of the listed resources, please call the Thomson Learn-
ier to understand. ing™ Academic Resource Center at 800-423-0563.
• A new highlight, “Quack Like a Duck,” recasts a classic
classroom exercise as an in-text demonstration of obe- Student Support Materials
dience. Introductory students must learn a multitude of abstract con-
• A new highlight, “How to Drive a Hard Bargain,” ex- cepts, which can make a first course in psychology difficult.
plains how car dealers use compliance strategies on po- The materials listed here will greatly improve students’
tential buyers. It also explains how to resist compliance chances for success.
pressures.
• The section titled “Forced Attitude Change— Concept Modules with Note Taking and Practice Exams
Brainwashing and Cults” has been revised to reflect the Created by Art VanDeventer of Thomas Nelson Community
role of cults in terrorism. College and Franklin Dumond formerly of Southeastern Illi-

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Licensed to: iChapters User

xxx Preface

nois College, this booklet includes key concepts in each chap- text. Contact your sales representative for ordering informa-
ter, a place to take notes, and a practice exam of 20 multiple- tion or for a demonstration.
choice questions (ISBN: 0-495-03115-1).
Sniffy™ the Virtual Rat, Lite Version 2.0 There’s no better
Study Guide with Language Development Guide The Study way to master the basic principles of learning than working
Guide, prepared by Thuy Karafa of Ferris State University, is with a real laboratory rat. However, this is usually impracti-
an invaluable student resource. It contains a variety of study cal in introductory psychology courses. Sniffy the Virtual Rat
tools, including: Chapter Overviews, Recite and Review (fill- offers a fun, interactive alternative to working with lab ani-
in-the-blank), Connections (matching), Check Your Memory mals. This innovative and entertaining software teaches stu-
(True/False), Final Survey and Review (fill-in-the-blank), and dents about operant and classical conditioning by allowing
Mastery Test. A language development section, written by them to condition a virtual rat. Users begin by training Sniffy
Robert Moore of Marshalltown Community College, clarifies to press a bar to obtain food. Then they progress to studying
idioms, special phrases, cultural and historical allusions, and the effects of reinforcement schedules and simple classical
difficult vocabulary (ISBN: 0-495-03114-3). conditioning. In addition, special “Mind Windows” enable
students to visualize how Sniffy’s experiences in the Skinner
Careers in Psychology: Opportunities in a Changing World Box produce learning. The Sniffy CD-ROM includes a Lab
This informative booklet, written by Tara L. Kuther, is a Manual that shows students how to set up various operant
Wadsworth exclusive. The pamphlet describes the field of and classical conditioning experiments. Sniffy™ the Virtual
psychology, as well as how to prepare for a career in psychol- Rat, Lite Version 2.0 may be packaged with this text for a dis-
ogy. Career options and resources are also discussed. Careers count (ISBN: 0-534-63357-9).
in Psychology can be packaged with this text at no additional
cost to students (ISBN 0-534-61776-X). Internet Resources
The Internet is providing new ways to exchange information
Multimedia CD-ROMs and enhance education. In psychology, Wadsworth is at the
Interactive CD-ROMs make it possible for students to di- forefront in making use of this exciting technology.
rectly experience some of the phenomena they are studying.
The following CDs from Wadsworth provide a wealth of en- Book Companion Website As users of this text, you and your
gaging modules and exercises. students will have access to the Psychology: A Modular Approach
to Mind and Behavior section of the Wadsworth Psychology
PsychNow! Interactive Experiences in Psychology 2.0 Resource Center (http://www.psychology.wadsworth.com/
This exciting CD-ROM was created by Joel Morgovsky, 0534605931). Access is free and no pincode is required. This
Lonnie Yandell, Elizabeth Lynch, and project consultant outstanding site features chapter-by-chapter online tutorial
Dennis Coon. An updated and enlarged PsychNow! (ISBN: 0- quizzes, a final exam, chapter-by-chapter web links, flashcards,
534-59046-2) is perfectly matched to Psychology: A Modular and more! This also includes an audio glossary in Spanish and
Approach to Mind and Behavior. At the end of each chapter of English.
this text, students will find a list of PsychNow! modules they
can access for additional, “hands-on” learning. vMentor™ Available as part of PsychologyNow!, or separately,
PsychNow! provides a multimedia experience that allows vMentor offers FREE live, one-on-one tutoring! When you
students to explore psychology like never before. Stunning adopt this text, you give your students access to virtual office
graphics and animations, interesting video clips, interactive ex- hours—one-on-one, online tutoring help from a subject-area
ercises, and web links bring psychology to life. With PsychNow!, expert with a copy of the text. In vMentor’s virtual classroom,
students can do more than just read about a topic—they can students interact with the tutor and other students using two-
read, watch, listen, react, and reflect on the meaning of their way audio, an interactive whiteboard for illustrating the
own responses. PsychNow!, which is available for Macintosh and problem, and instant messaging. To ask a question, students
Windows, contains 39 fully interactive modules that will en- simply click to raise a “hand” (ISBN: 0-534-4071-7).
hance their understanding. Students can also conduct 15 dif-
ferent “Interactive Research Experiments” in areas such as neu- PsychologyNow™ This valuable new study aid is available
rocognition, perception, memory, concepts, and imagery. The free to students. This web-based program, by Franklin
latest edition includes eight new “Interact Now” Collaborative Dumond formerly of Southeastern Illinois College, helps
Labs and new “Quiz Game Now” quizzes. your students discover the areas of text where they need to fo-
Although PsychNow! can be used alone, it is also available cus their efforts through a series of diagnostic pretests and
in a discount bundle for students when packaged with this posttests, personalized study plans with learning modules

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Preface xxxi

that parallel the modules in the book, eBook files, and other Instructor’s Resource Manual The Instructor’s Manual, by
integrated media elements. While students can use Psy- Sandra Dittman of Troy State University, contains resources
chologyNow™ without any instructor setup or involvement, designed to streamline and maximize the effectiveness of your
an Instructor Gradebook is available for you to monitor stu- course preparation. In a three-ring binder format for the first
dent progress (ISBN: 0-495-03127-5). time, this IRM is a treasure trove—from the introduction
section, which includes grading rubrics, a sample syllabus,
InfoTrac College Edition InfoTrac College Edition is a power- and a Resource Integration Guide—to a full array of chapter
ful online learning resource, consisting of thousands of full- resources. Each chapter includes learning objectives, discus-
text articles from hundreds of journals and periodicals. Stu- sion questions, lecture enhancements, role-playing scenarios,
dents using Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and “one-minute motivators,” broadening our cultural horizons
Behavior receive four months of free access to InfoTrac College exercises, journal questions, suggestions for further reading,
Edition. This fully searchable database offers over 20 years’ media suggestions, web links, and InfoTrac College Edition
worth of full-text articles from thousands of scholarly and integration (ISBN: 0-495-03120-8).
popular sources—updated daily and available 24 hours a day
from any computer with Internet access. By doing a simple Test Bank The Test Bank was prepared by Jeannette Murphey
keyword search, students can quickly generate a list of relevant of Meridian Community College. It includes over 4,500
articles from thousands of possibilities. Then they can select multiple-choice questions organized by chapter and by
full-text articles to read, explore, and print for reference or fur- Learning Objectives. All items, which are classified as factual,
ther study. InfoTrac College Edition’s collection of articles can conceptual, or applied, include correct answers and page ref-
be useful for doing reading and writing assignments that reach erences from the text. All questions new to this edition are
beyond the pages of this text. Students also have access to In- identified by an asterisk. Every chapter of the Test Bank also
foWrite, which provides extensive resources for writing papers, includes essay questions that tie into the learning objectives
including suggested topics, APA guidelines, and more. (Info- (ISBN: 0-495-03121-6).
Trac College Edition is at http://www.infotrac-college.com.)
ExamView Computerized Testing This software helps you
Thomson Learning Web Tutor Toolbox This online supple- create, deliver, and customize tests and study guides (both in
ment helps students succeed by taking them into an environ- print and online). In just minutes, this easy-to-use system can
ment rich with study and mastery tools, communication generate the assessment and tutorial materials your students
aids, and additional course content. For students, Web Tutor need. ExamView offers both a Quick Test Wizard and an On-
offers real-time access to a full array of study tools, including line Test Wizard that guide you step-by-step through the
flashcards (with audio), practice quizzes and tests, online tu- process of creating tests. ExamView shows the test you are
torials, exercises, asynchronous discussion, a whiteboard, and creating on the screen exactly as it will print or display online.
an integrated e-mail system. Students will also have inte- Using a database prepared by Sandra Madison, you can build
grated access to InfoTrac College Edition, the online library, as tests of up to 250 questions using up to 12 question types.
well as to the Newbury House Online Dictionary, an interac- ExamView’s complete word processing capabilities also allow
tive dictionary that gives users instant access to definitions you to enter an unlimited number of new questions or edit
(including audio pronunciations). existing questions (ISBN: 0-495-03122-4).
Professors can use Web Tutor Toolbox to offer virtual of-
fice hours, to post syllabi, to set up threaded discussions, to WebTutor™ Advantage With WebTutor™ Advantage’s
track student progress on quizzes, and more. You can cus- text-specific, pre-formatted content and total flexibility, you
tomize the content of Web Tutor in any way you choose, in- can easily create and manage your own custom course web-
cluding uploading images and other resources, adding web site. WebTutor Advantage’s course management tools give
links, and creating course-specific practice materials. (Web you the ability to provide virtual office hours, post syllabi, set
Tutor Toolbox on WebCT, ISBN: 0-534-27490-0; Toolbox on up threaded discussions, track student progress, and access
Blackboard, ISBN: 0-534-27491-9.) password-protected Instructor Resources for lectures and
class preparation. This powerful resource also provides robust
Essential Teaching Resources communication tools, such as a course calendar, asynchro-
As every professor knows, teaching an introductory psychol- nous discussion, real-time chat, a whiteboard, and an inte-
ogy course is a tremendous amount of work. The supple- grated e-mail system. And both versions now come with a
ments listed here should not only make life easier for you, daily news feed from NewsEdge, an authoritative source for
they should also make it possible for you to concentrate on late-breaking news (WebTutor™ Advantage for Blackboard,
the more creative and rewarding facets of teaching. ISBN: 0-495-03117-8; WebTutor™ Advantage for WebCT,

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Licensed to: iChapters User

xxxii Preface

ISBN: 0-495-03116-X; WebTutor™ Advantage Plus for and many more! The digital library offers a convenient way to
Blackboard, ISBN: 0-495-03119-4; WebTutor™ Advantage access an appropriate clip for every lecture. An accompanying
Plus for WebCT, ISBN: 0-495-03119-4). handbook contains a detailed description, the approximate
running time, and questions for each clip. It also offers instruc-
Multimedia Manager Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM: A Mi- tions on how to insert links to the clips in your PowerPoint pre-
crosoft® PowerPoint® Tool This one-stop lecture and class sentations. Available exclusively to instructors who adopt
preparation tool was created by Andrew Getzfeld of New Jer- Wadsworth psychology texts (ISBN: 0-534-57671-0).
sey City University. It contains ready-to-use slides in Mi-
crosoft® PowerPoint®, and allows you to assemble, edit, pub- Wadsworth Media Guide for Introductory Psychology
lish, and present custom lectures for your course. You can This essential instructor resource, edited by Russell J. Watson,
easily create a personalized, media-enhanced presentation by contains hundreds of video and feature film recommenda-
combining text-specific lecture outlines and art from this text tions for all major topics in Introductory Psychology (ISBN:
along with your own materials. In addition, all videos from 0-534-17585-6).
Wadsworth’s Psychology Digital Video Library 3.0 can be eas-
ily integrated into PowerPoint® for more interactive presenta- Supplementary Books
tions. The CD-ROM also contains a full Instructor’s Manual No text can cover all of the topics that might be included in
and Test Bank in Microsoft Word (ISBN: 0-495-03124-0). an introductory psychology course. If you would like to en-
rich your course, or make it more challenging, the
JoinIn™ on TurningPoint® JoinIn™ content for Response Wadsworth titles listed here may be of interest.
Systems allows you to transform your assessment tools with
instant in-class quizzes and polls. Wadsworth’s exclusive Challenging Your Preconceptions: Thinking Critically
agreement to offer TurningPoint® software lets you pose about Psychology, Second Edition This paperbound book
book-specific questions and display students’ answers seam- (ISBN: 0-534-26739-4), written by Randolph Smith, helps
lessly within the Microsoft PowerPoint slides of your own lec- students strengthen their critical thinking skills. Psychologi-
ture, in conjunction with the “clicker” hardware of your cal issues such as hypnosis and repressed memory, statistical
choice (ISBN: 0-495-03193-3). seduction, the validity of pop psychology, and other topics
are used to illustrate the principles of critical thinking.
Transparency Acetates If you customarily use transparen-
cies in class, a nice set is available to illustrate and enliven Writing Papers in Psychology: A Student Guide The Sixth
your lectures. Approximately 150 text-specific transparencies, Edition of Writing Papers in Psychology (ISBN: 0-534-52395-1),
selected by Dennis Coon, make it easy to display tables, by Ralph L. Rosnow and Mimi Rosnow, is a valuable “how-to”
graphs, charts, and drawings from this text (ISBN: 0-495- manual for writing term papers and research reports. This new
03177-1). edition has been updated to reflect the latest APA guidelines.
The book covers each task with examples, hints, and two com-
Videotapes and Films plete writing samples. Citation ethics, how to locate informa-
Wadsworth offers a variety of videotapes and films to en- tion, and new research technologies are also covered.
hance classroom presentations. Many video segments in the
Wadsworth collection pertain directly to major topics in this College Survival Guide: Hints and References to Aid Col-
text, making them excellent lecture supplements. lege Students This Fourth Edition of Bruce Rowe’s College
Survival Guide (ISBN: 0-534-35569-2) is designed to help
Wadsworth Film and Video Library for Introductory Psy- students succeed. Rowe provides valuable tips on how to fi-
chology Adopters can select from a variety of continually nance an education, how to manage time, how to study for
updated film and video options. The Wadsworth Film and and take exams, and more. Other sections focus on main-
Video Library includes selections from the Discovering Psy- taining concentration, credit by examination, use of the
chology series, the Annenberg series, and Films for Humanities. credit/no credit option, cooperative education programs, and
Contact your local sales representative or Wadsworth Mar- the importance of a liberal arts education.
keting at 877-999-2350 for details.
Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Psychology How well do
Psychology Digital Video Library Version 3.0 CD-ROM This the concepts of psychology apply to various cultures? What
CD-ROM contains a diverse selection of classic and contem- can we learn about human behavior from cultures different
porary clips, including “Little Albert,” “The Action Potential,” from our own? These questions lie behind a collection of

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Preface xxxiii

original articles written by William F. Price and Rich Crapo. Dawn Strongin, CSU, Stanislaus
The Fourth Edition of Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Psychol- Shawn Talbot, Kellogg Community College
ogy (ISBN: 0-534-54653-6) contains articles on North Lisa Wood, Ouchita Technical College.
American ethnic groups as well as cultures from around the
world. I would also like to thank the following reviewers of the previ-
ous edition: Brian R. Bate, Cuyahoga Community College;
Culture and Psychology: People Around the World, Sec- James R. Bean, Lock Haven University; Gary A. Biel,
ond Edition David Matsumoto’s unique book (ISBN: 0- Schreiner University; Martin Bourgeois, University of
534-35436-X) discusses similarities and differences in re- Wyoming; T. L. Brink, Crafton Hills Community College;
search findings in the United States and other cultures. By Lucy Capuano-Brewer, Ventura College; Roy Cohen, Mesa
doing so, it helps students see psychology and their own be- Community College; Robert S. Coombs, Southern Adventist
havior from a broader, more culturally aware perspective. University; Beatrice M. de Oca, Western New Mexico
University; Linda DiDesidero, Capitol College; David N.
The ‘Net, the Web, and You This paperback by Daniel Entwistle, Malone College; Christopher J. Frost, Southwest
Kurland offers a brief, comprehensive, easy-to-understand in- Texas State University; Adrienne Garro, Kean University;
troduction to the Internet. It is useful for any course that re- Gordon Hammerle, Adrian College; Mark L. Harmon, Reed-
quires students to use the Internet for research or inquiry ley College–North Centers; Robert A. Hayes, Westfield State
(ISBN: 0-534-51281-X). College; Diedra T. Hayman, Virginia Western Community
College; William R. Holt, University of Massachusetts–
Summary Dartmouth; Lawrence Jesky, Seton Hill College; Diana
I sincerely hope that teachers and students will consider this Jimeno, University of Illinois–Urbana/Champaign; James
book and its supporting materials a refreshing change from J. Johnson, Illinois State University; William G. LaChappelle,
the ordinary. Creating it has been quite an adventure. In the Brevard Community College; Fred Leavitt, California State
pages that follow, I think students will find an attractive University at Hayward; John F. Lindsay, Jr., Georgia College &
blend of the theoretical and the practical, plus many of the State University; Britton L. Mace, Southern Utah University;
most exciting ideas in psychology. Most of all, I hope that Denise McClung, West Virginia University–Parkersburg;
students using this book will discover that reading a college Michael McVay, Colby Community College; Sandra Merry-
textbook can be entertaining and enjoyable. man, Southwest Texas State University; Robert L. Moore,
Marshalltown Community College; Colleen Moran, Glouces-
ter County College; Donna Webster Nelson, Winthrop Uni-
versity; Caroline Olko, Nassau Community College–SUNY;
Acknowledgments Randall E. Osborne, Southwest Texas State University;
Psychology is a cooperative effort requiring the talents and Michelle L. Pilati, Rio Hondo College; Kathy Pillow-Price,
energies of a large community of scholars, teachers, re- Arkansas State University–Beebe; Beth Robinson, Lubbock
searchers, and students. Like most endeavors in psychology, Christian University; Cynthia Ross, Las Positas College;
this book reflects the efforts of many people. I deeply appre- Edward Samulewicz, Rosemont College; Karen K. Saules,
ciate the contributions the following professors, whose sage Eastern Michigan University; Donna Love Seagle, Chat-
advice helped improve the Tenth Edition of Psychology: A tanooga State Technical Community College; Barbara Biondo
Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior: Sloan, Marshalltown Community College; Steven M. Specht,
Utica College; Martha S. Spiker, University of Charleston;
Judith Balcerzak, Ventura County Community College, Elizabeth Swenson, John Carroll University; Inger Thompson,
Ventura College Glendale Community College; Robert J. Wood, Las Positas
Bakhtawar Bhadha, Glendale College College.
LeAnn Binger, Richard Bland College Producing Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and
John Dilworth, Kellogg Community College Behavior and its supplements was a formidable task. I am es-
Patricia Donat, Mississippi University for Women pecially indebted to each of the following individuals for sup-
porting this book: Susan Badger, Sean Wakely, Eve Howard,
Cindy Lehar, York County Community College
and Vicki Knight.
Katherine McNellis, Lakeshore Technical College I also wish to thank the individuals at Wadsworth who so
Bill Roe, Phoenix College generously shared their knowledge and talents over the past
James Scepansky, Cedar Crest College year. These are the people who made it happen: Vernon Boes,

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xxxiv Preface

Chris Caldeira, Jerilyn Emori, Jeremy Judson, Jennifer I am grateful to Marianne Taflinger for her wisdom, cre-
Keever, Laurel Anderson, and Margaret Parks. ativity, humor, and unflagging support. Marianne has unmis-
It has been a pleasure to work with such a gifted group of takably made this a better book.
professionals and many others at Wadsworth. I especially want Last of all, I would like to thank my wife Sevren, for
to thank Jeremy Judson for his valuable editorial assistance. making the journey worthwhile.

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Psychology

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Psychology
A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior
 

Dennis Coon

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Dennis Coon

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Appendix Behavioral
Statistics
Statistics from “Heads” to “Tails”
Let’s say a friend of yours invites you to try your hand at a Perhaps a decision could have been made in this hy-
“game of chance.” He offers to flip a coin and pay you a pothetical example without using statistics. But notice how
dollar if the coin comes up heads. If the coin shows tails, much clearer the situation becomes when it is expressed
you must pay him a dollar. He flips the coin: tails—you pay statistically.
him a dollar. He flips it again: tails. Again: tails. And again: Psychologists try to extract and summarize useful in-
tails. And again: tails. formation from the observations they make. To do so, they
At this point you are faced with a choice. Should you use two major types of statistics. Descriptive statistics
continue the game in an attempt to recoup your losses? Or summarize or “boil down” numbers so they become more
should you assume that the coin is biased and quit before meaningful and easier to communicate to others. In com-
you really get “skinned”? Taking out a pocket calculator (and parison, inferential statistics are used for decision making,
the statistics book you carry with you at all times), you com- for generalizing from small samples, and for drawing con-
pute the odds of obtaining 5 tails in a row from an unbiased clusions. As was the case in the coin-flipping example,
coin. The probability is 0.031 (roughly 3 times out of 100). psychologists must often base decisions on limited data.
If the coin really is honest, 5 consecutive tails is a rare Such decisions are much easier to make with the help of
event. Wisely, you decide that the coin is probably biased inferential statistics. Let’s see how statistics are used in
and refuse to play again. (Unless, of course, your “friend” psychology.
is willing to take “tails” for the next 5 tosses!)

MODULE A.1 Descriptive Statistics MODULE A.2 Inferential Statistics


Survey Question: What are descriptive statistics? Survey Question: What are inferential statistics?
Survey Question: How are statistics used to identify an aver- Survey Question: How are correlations used in psychology?
age score?
Survey Question: What statistics do psychologists use to
measure how much scores differ from one another?

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MODULE

A.1 Descriptive Statistics


Let’s say you have completed a study on human behavior. The re- ▲TABLE A.2 Frequency Distribution
sults seem interesting, but can you really tell what your data re- of Hypnotic Susceptibility Scores
veal, just by looking at a jumble of numbers? To get a clear pic-
CLASS INTERVAL NUMBER OF PERSONS IN CLASS
ture of how people behaved, you will probably turn to descriptive
0–19 10
statistics. By summarizing the results of your study, statistics will
help you draw valid conclusions about what you observed. 20–39 20
40–59 40
60–79 20
Descriptive Statistics— 80–99 10
Psychology by the Numbers
Histogram
Survey Questions What are descriptive statistics? How are
statistics used to identify an average score? What statistics do
50
psychologists use to measure how much scores differ from one
another? 40

Frequency
Statistics bring greater clarity and precision to psychological
30
thought and research. To see how, let’s begin by considering
three basic types of descriptive statistics: graphical statistics, 20
measures of central tendency, and measures of variability. Let’s
start with graphical statistics, which present numbers picto- 10
rially, so they are easier to visualize.
0–19 20–39 40–59 60–79 80–99
Graphical Statistics Class intervals
▲ Table A.1 shows simulated scores on a test of hypnotic sus-
✦FIGURE A.1 Frequency histogram of hypnotic susceptibility scores con-
ceptibility given to 100 college students. With such disorga- tained in Table A.2.
nized data, it is hard to form an overall “picture” of the differ-
ences in hypnotic susceptibility. But by using a frequency is recorded. In ▲ Table A.2, the raw data from Table A.1 have
distribution, large amounts of information can be neatly orga- been condensed into a frequency distribution. Notice how
nized and summarized. A frequency distribution is made by much clearer the pattern of scores for the entire group be-
breaking down the entire range of possible scores into classes comes.
of equal size. Next, the number of scores falling into each class Frequency distributions are often shown graphically to
make them more “visual.” A histogram, or graph of a fre-
quency distribution, is made by labeling class intervals on the
▲TABLE A.1 Raw Scores of Hypnotic Susceptibility
abscissa (horizontal line) and frequencies (the number of
55 86 52 17 61 57 84 51 16 64 scores in each class) on the ordinate (vertical line). Next, bars
22 56 25 38 35 24 54 26 37 38
are drawn for each class interval; the height of each bar is de-
termined by the number of scores in each class (✦Fig. A.1).
52 42 59 26 21 55 40 59 25 57 An alternate way of graphing scores is the more familiar fre-
91 27 38 53 19 93 25 39 52 56 quency polygon (✦Fig. A.2). Here, points are placed at the
66 14 18 63 59 68 12 19 62 45 center of each class interval to indicate the number of scores.
Then the dots are connected by straight lines.
47 98 88 72 50 49 96 89 71 66
50 44 71 57 90 53 41 72 56 93 Measures of Central Tendency
57 38 55 49 87 59 36 56 48 70 Notice in Table A.2 that more scores fall in the range 40–59
33 69 50 50 60 35 67 51 50 52 than elsewhere. How can we show this fact? A measure of
central tendency is simply a number describing a “typical
11 73 46 16 67 13 71 47 25 77
score” around which other scores fall. A familiar measure of
678

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Module A.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 679

Polygon
The Mode A final measure of central tendency is the mode. The
mode is simply the most frequently occurring score in a group
50 of scores. If you were to take the time to count the scores in
Table A.3, you would find that the mode of Group l is 65, and
40
the mode of Group 2 is 60. The mode is usually easy to obtain.
Frequency

30
However, the mode can be an unreliable measure, especially in
a small group of scores. The mode’s advantage is that it gives the
20 score actually obtained by the greatest number of people.

10
Measures of Variability
Let’s say a researcher discovers two drugs that lower anxiety
0–19 20–39 40–59 60–79 80–99
in agitated patients. However, let’s also assume that one drug
Class intervals consistently lowers anxiety by moderate amounts, whereas
the second sometimes lowers it by large amounts, sometimes
✦FIGURE A.2 Frequency polygon of hypnotic susceptibility scores con-
tained in Table A.2.
has no effect, or may even increase anxiety in some patients.
Overall, there is no difference in the average (mean) amount
of anxiety reduction. Even so, an important difference exists
central tendency is the mean, or “average.” But as we shall
between the two drugs. As this example shows, it is not
see in a moment, there are other types of “averages” that can
enough to simply know the average score in a distribution.
be used. To illustrate each we need an example: ▲ Table A.3
Usually, we would also like to know if scores are grouped
shows the raw data for an imaginary experiment in which
closely together or scattered widely.
two groups of subjects were given a test of memory. Assume
Measures of variability provide a single number that tells
that one group was given a drug that might improve mem-
how “spread out” scores are. When the scores are widely
ory (let’s call the drug Rememberine). The second group re-
spread, this number gets larger. When they are close together
ceived a placebo. Is there a difference in memory scores be-
it gets smaller. If you look again at the example in Table A.3,
tween the two groups? It’s difficult to tell without
you will notice that the scores within each group vary widely.
computing an average.
How can we show this fact?
The Mean As one type of “average,” the mean is calculated
by adding all the scores for each group and then dividing by Descriptive statistics Mathematical tools used to describe and
the total number of scores. Notice in Table A.3 that the summarize numeric data.
means reveal a difference between the two groups. Inferential statistics Mathematical tools used for decision making, for
The mean is sensitive to extremely high or low scores in generalizing from small samples, and for drawing conclusions.

a distribution. For this reason it is not always the best mea- Graphical statistics Techniques for presenting numbers pictorially,
often by plotting them on a graph.
sure of central tendency. (Imagine how distorted it would be Frequency distribution A table that divides an entire range of scores
to calculate average yearly incomes from a small sample into a series of classes and then records the number of scores that fall
of people that happened to include a multimillionaire.) In into each class.
such cases the middle score in a group of scores—called the Histogram A graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of
scores falling in each class is represented by vertical bars.
median—is used instead.
Frequency polygon A graph of a frequency distribution in which the
number of scores falling in each class is represented by points on a line.
The Median The median is found by arranging scores from Central tendency The tendency for a majority of scores to fall in the
the highest to the lowest and selecting the score that falls in midrange of possible values.
the middle. In other words, half the values in a group of Mean A measure of central tendency calculated by adding a group of
scores and then dividing by the total number of scores.
scores fall below the median and half fall above. Consider, for
Median A measure of central tendency found by arranging scores from
example, the following weights obtained from a small class of the highest to the lowest and selecting the score that falls in the middle.
college students: 105, 111, 123, 126, 148, 151, 154, 162, That is, half the values in a group of scores fall above the median and
182. The median for the group is 148, the middle score. Of half fall below.
course, if there is an even number of scores, there will be no Mode A measure of central tendency found by identifying the most
frequently occurring score in a group of scores.
“middle score.” This problem is handled by averaging the two
Variability The tendency for a group of scores to differ in value.
scores that “share” the middle spot. This procedure yields a Measures of variability indicate the degree to which a group of scores
single number to serve as the median (see bottom panel of differ from one another.
Table A.3).

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680 Appendix BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS

▲TABLE A.3 Raw Scores on a Memory Test ▲TABLE A.4 Computation of the Standard Deviation
for Subjects Taking Rememberine
GROUP 1 MEAN  65
or a Placebo
DEVIATION
GROUP 1 GROUP 2 SCORE MEAN DEVIATION (d) SQUARED (d2)
SUBJECT REMEMBERINE PLACEBO 65  65  0 0
1 65 54 67  65  2 4
2 67 60 73  65  8 64
3 73 63 65  65  0 0
4 65 33 58  65  7 49
5 58 56 55  65  10 100
6 55 60 70  65  5 25
7 70 60 69  65  4 16
8 69 31 60  65  5 25
9 60 62 68  65  3 9
10 68 61 292

Sum 650 540


 
sum of d2 292
SD     29.2
  5.4
Mean 65 54 n
10

Median 66 60 GROUP 2 MEAN  54


DEVIATION
 Sum of all scores,  SCORE MEAN DEVIATION (d) SQUARED (d2)
Mean   or 
N number of scores 54  54  0 0
Mean 65  67  73  65  58  55  70  69  60  68 60  54  6 36
 
Group 1 10 63  54  9 81
650
   65 33  54  21 441
10
56  54  2 4
Mean 54  60  63  33  56  60  60  31  62  61
  60  54  6 36
Group 2 10
540 60  54  6 36
   54
10 31  54  23 529

Median  the middle score or the mean of the two middle scores* 62  54  8 64

Median  55 58 60 65 65 67 68 69 70 73 61  54  7 49
Group 1 1276

65  67
 
   66 sum of d2 1276
2 SD      127.6
  11.3
n 10

Median  31 33 54 56 60 60 60 61 62 63
Group 2
makes the range 32. Scores in Group 2 are more spread out
60  60 than those in Group 1.
   60
2

* indicates middle score(s) The Standard Deviation A better measure of variability is the
standard deviation (an index of how much a typical score dif-
fers from the mean of a group of scores). To obtain the stan-
The Range The simplest way would be to use the range, dard deviation, we find the deviation (or difference) of each
which is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. score from the mean and then square it (multiply it by itself ).
In Group 1 of our experiment, the highest score is 73, and These squared deviations are then added and averaged (the to-
the lowest is 55; thus, the range is 18 (73  55  18). In tal is divided by the number of deviations). Taking the square
Group 2, the highest score is 63, and the lowest is 31; this root of this average yields the standard deviation (▲Table A.4).

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Module A.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 681

Notice again that the variability for Group 1


(5.4) is smaller than that for Group 2 (where
the standard deviation is 11.3).

Standard Scores
A particular advantage of the standard devia- Standard
deviations
tion is that it can be used to “standardize”
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
scores in a way that gives them greater mean-
ing. For example, John and Susan both took
Cumulative
psychology midterms, but in different classes. 0.1% 2.3% 15.9% 50.0% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9%
percentages
John earned a score of 118, and Susan scored Percentile
110. Who did better? It is impossible to tell equivalents 1 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 99
without knowing what the average score was
on each test, and whether John and Susan z-scores
scored at the top, middle, or bottom of their –4.0 –3.0 –2.0 –1.0 0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0

classes. We would like to have one number


T-scores
that gives all this information. A number that 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
does this is the z-score. College
To convert an original score to a z-score, board
scores 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
we subtract the mean from the score. The re-
sulting number is then divided by the stan- IQ
dard deviation for that group of scores. To il- scores 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160
lustrate, Susan had a score of 110 in a class
with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation ✦FIGURE A.3 The normal curve. The normal curve is an idealized
of 10. Therefore, her z-score is 1.0 (▲ Table A.5). John’s mathematical model. However, many measurements in psychology closely
score of 118 came from a class having a mean of 100 and a approximate a normal curve. The scales you see here show the relation-
standard deviation of 18; thus his z-score is also 1.0 (see ship of standard deviations, z-scores, and other measures to the curve.
Table A.5). Originally it looked as if John did better on his
midterm than Susan did. But we now see that, relatively events are determined by the action of a large number of fac-
speaking, their scores were equivalent. Compared to other tors. Therefore, like chance events, measures of psychological
students, each was an equal distance above average. variables tend to roughly match a normal curve. For example,
direct measurement has shown such characteristics as height,
The Normal Curve memory span, and intelligence to be distributed approxi-
When chance events are recorded, we find that some out- mately along a normal curve. In other words, many people
comes have a high probability and occur very often; others have average height, memory ability, and intelligence. How-
have a low probability and occur infrequently; still others ever, as we move above or below average, fewer and fewer
have little probability and occur rarely. As a result, the distri- people are found.
bution (or tally) of chance events typically resembles a nor- It is very fortunate that so many psychological variables
mal curve (✦Fig. A.3). A normal curve is bell-shaped, with a tend to form a normal curve, because much is known about
large number of scores in the middle, tapering to very few ex- the curve. One valuable property concerns the relationship
tremely high and low scores. Most psychological traits or between the standard deviation and the normal curve. Specif-
ically, the standard deviation measures off set proportions of

▲TABLE A.5 Computation of a z-score


X  X score  mean Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
z    or  group of scores.
SD standard deviation
Standard deviation An index of how much a typical score differs from
Susan: the mean of a group of scores.
110  100 10 z-score A number that tells how many standard deviations above or
z      1.0
10 10 below the mean a score is.

John: Normal curve A bell-shaped distribution, with a large number of


scores in the middle, tapering to very few extremely high and low
118  100 18
z      1.0 scores.
18 18

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Licensed to: iChapters User

682 Appendix BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS

curve do not change. This makes it possible to compare var-


ious tests or groups of scores if they come from distributions
that are approximately normal.

MODULE

A.1 Summary
• The results of psychological studies are often expressed
2.14% 13.59% 34.13% 34.13% 13.59% 2.14%
–3 SD –2 SD –1 SD Mean +1 SD +2 SD +3 SD
as numbers, which must be summarized and inter-
preted before they have any meaning.
✦FIGURE A.4 Relationship between the standard deviation and the nor-
mal curve. • Summarizing numbers visually, by using various types
of graphs, makes it easier to see trends and patterns in
the results of psychological investigations.
the curve above and below the mean. For example, in ✦Fig- • Two basic questions about a group of numbers are:
ure A.4, notice that roughly 68 percent of all cases (IQ scores, What is the average (central tendency)? And, how
memory scores, heights, or whatever) fall between one stan- much do the numbers vary (variability)?
dard deviation above and below the mean ( 1 SD); 95 per- • Descriptive statistics organize and summarize numbers.
cent of all cases fall between  2 SD; and 99 percent of the • Graphical statistics, such as histograms and frequency
cases can be found between  3 SD from the mean. polygons, are used to represent numbers pictorially.
▲ Table A.6 gives a more complete account of the rela-
• Measures of central tendency define the “typical score”
tionship between z-scores and the percentage of cases found in a group of scores.
in a particular area of the normal curve. Notice, for example,
• The mean is found by adding all the scores in a group
that 93.3 percent of all cases fall below a z-score of 1.5. A
and then dividing by the total number of scores.
z-score of 1.5 on a test (no matter what the original, or “raw,”
score was) would be a good performance, since roughly 93 • The median is found by arranging a group of scores
percent of all scores fall below this mark. Relationships be- from the highest to the lowest and selecting the middle
tween the standard deviation (or z-scores) and the normal score.
• The mode is the score that occurs most frequently in a
group of scores.
▲TABLE A.6 Area Under the Normal Curve • Measures of variability provide a number that shows
as a Percentage of Total Area how much scores vary.
for a Variety of z-Scores • The range is the difference between the highest score
PERCENTAGE PERCENTAGE and the lowest score in a group of scores.
OF AREA TO THE OF AREA TO THE • The standard deviation shows how much, on average,
Z-SCORE LEFT OF THIS VALUE RIGHT OF THIS VALUE
all the scores in a group differ from the mean.
3.0 SD 00.1 99.9
• To change an original score into a standard score (or z-
2.5 SD 00.6 99.4 score), you must subtract the mean from the score and
2.0 SD 02.3 97.7 then divide the result by the standard deviation.
1.5 SD 06.7 93.3 • Standard scores (z-scores) tell, in standard deviation
units, how far above or below the mean a score is. This
1.0 SD 15.9 84.1
allows meaningful comparisons between scores from
0.5 SD 30.9 69.1 different groups.
0.0 SD 50.0 50.0 • Scores that form a normal curve are easy to interpret
0.5 SD 69.1 30.9 because the properties of the normal curve are well
known.
1.0 SD 84.1 15.9
1.5 SD 93.3 06.7
2.0 SD 97.7 02.3
2.5 SD 99.4 00.6
3.0 SD 99.9 00.1

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Module A.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 683

KNOWLEDGE BUILDER
Descriptive Statistics

Relate Do you think the distribution of scores 4. If scores are placed in order, from the
Let’s say you ask 100 people how long they in your study of sleep would form a normal smallest to the largest, the median is de-
sleep each night and record their answers. curve? Why or why not? fined as the middle score. T or F?
How could you show these scores graphi- 5. As a measure of variability, the standard
cally? Learning Check deviation is defined as the difference be-
To find the average amount of sleep for 1. __________________________ sta- tween the highest and lowest scores. T
your subjects, would you prefer to know the tistics summarize numbers so they be- or F?
most frequent score (the mode), the middle come more meaningful or easier to com- 6. A z-score of 1 tells us that a score fell
score (the median), or the arithmetic aver- municate; one standard deviation below the mean
age (the mean)? __________________________ sta- in a group of scores. T or F?
How could you determine how much tistics are used for decision making, gen- 7. In a normal curve, 99 percent of all
sleep times vary? That is, would you prefer eralizing, or drawing conclusions. scores can be found between 1 and
to know the highest and lowest scores (the 2. Histograms and frequency polygons are 1 standard deviations from the mean.
range), or the average amount of variation graphs of frequency distributions. T or F? T or F?
(the standard deviation)? 3. Three measures of central tendency are
How would you feel about receiving the mean, the median, and the
your scores on classroom tests in the form ___________________.
of z-scores?

ANSWERS 1. Descriptive, inferential 2. T 3. mode 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F

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Licensed to: iChapters User

MODULE

A.2 Inferential Statistics


You would like to know if boys are more aggressive than girls. Significant Differences
You observe a group of 5-year-old boys and girls on a play- In our imaginary drug experiment, we found that the average
ground. After collecting data for a week you find that the boys memory score was higher for the group given the drug than it
committed more aggressive acts than the girls. Could this dif- was for persons who didn’t take the drug (the placebo group).
ference just be a meaningless fluctuation in aggression? Or Certainly this result is interesting, but could it have occurred
does it show conclusively that boys are more aggressive than by chance? If two groups were repeatedly tested (with neither
girls? Inferential statistics were created to answer just such receiving any drug), their average memory scores would some-
questions. times differ. How much must two means differ before we can
consider the difference “real” (not due to chance)?
Notice that the question is similar to one discussed ear-
lier: How many tails in a row must we obtain when flipping
Inferential Statistics— a coin before we can conclude that the coin is biased? In the
Significant Numbers case of the coin, we noted that obtaining 5 tails in a row is a
rare event. Thus, it became reasonable to assume that the
Survey Question What are inferential statistics? coin was biased. Of course, it is possible to get 5 tails in a row
Let’s say that a researcher studies the effects of a new therapy when flipping an honest coin. But since this outcome is un-
on a small group of depressed individuals. Is she or he inter- likely, we have good reason to suspect that something other
ested only in these particular individuals? Usually not, since than chance (a loaded coin, for instance) caused the results.
except in rare instances, psychologists seek to discover general Similar reasoning is used in tests of statistical significance.
laws of behavior that apply widely to humans and animals. Tests of statistical significance provide an estimate of how
Undoubtedly the researcher would like to know if the ther- often experimental results could have occurred by chance
apy holds any promise for all depressed people. As stated ear- alone. The results of a significance test are stated as a probabil-
lier, inferential statistics are techniques that allow us to make ity. This probability gives the odds that the observed difference
inferences. That is, they allow us to generalize from the be- was due to chance. In psychology, any experimental result that
havior of small groups of subjects to that of the larger groups could have occurred by chance 5 times (or less) out of 100 (in
they represent. other words, a probability of .05 or less) is considered signifi-
cant. In our memory experiment, the probability is .025 (p 
.025) that the group means would differ as much as they do by
Samples and Populations chance alone. This allows us to conclude with reasonable cer-
In any scientific study, we would like to observe the entire set, tainty that the drug actually did improve memory scores.
or population, of subjects, objects, or events of interest.
However, this is usually impossible or impractical. Observing
all Catholics, all cancer patients, or all mothers-in-law could
be both impractical (since all are large populations) and im- Correlation—Rating Relationships
possible (since people change denominations, may be un-
Survey Question How are correlations used in psychology?
aware of having cancer, and change their status as relatives).
In such cases, samples (smaller cross sections of a population) Psychologists are very interested in detecting relationships be-
are selected, and observations of the sample are used to draw tween events: Are children from single-parent families more
conclusions about the entire population. likely to misbehave at school? Is wealth related to happiness?
For any sample to be meaningful, it must be represen- Is there a relationship between childhood exposure to lead
tative. That is, the sample group must truly reflect the and IQ at age 10? Is the chance of having a heart attack re-
membership and characteristics of the larger population. lated to having a hostile personality? All of these are questions
In our earlier hypothetical study of a memory drug, it about correlation.
would be essential for the sample of 20 people to be repre- Many of the statements that psychologists make about
sentative of the general population. A very important as- behavior come from keen observations and measures of exist-
pect of representative samples is that their members are ing phenomena. A psychologist might note, for example, that
chosen at random. In other words, each member of the the higher a couple’s socioeconomic and educational status,
population must have an equal chance of being included in the smaller the number of children they are likely to have. Or
the sample. that grades in high school are related to how well a person is
684

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Module A.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 685

(a) (b) relation suggests that no relationship exists between two


measures (see graph D). This might be the result of compar-
ing subjects’ hat sizes (X) to their college grades (Y). Graphs
E and F both show a negative relationship (or correlation).
Y Y
Notice that as values of one measure increase, those of the
second become smaller. An example might be the relation-
ship between amount of alcohol consumed and scores on a
r = +1.00 r = 0.91
test of coordination: Higher alcohol levels are correlated with
X X lower coordination scores.
(c) (d)
The Correlation Coefficient
The strength of a correlation can also be expressed as a coef-
ficient of correlation. This coefficient is simply a number
Y Y falling somewhere between 1.00 and 1.00. If the number
is zero or close to zero, it indicates a weak or nonexistent re-
lationship. If the correlation is 1.00, a perfect positive
r = 0.56 r = 0.00 relationship exists; if the correlation is 1.00, a perfect
negative relationship has been discovered. The most com-
X X
monly used correlation coefficient is called the Pearson r. Cal-
(e) (f) culation of the Pearson r is relatively simple, as shown in
▲ Table A.7. (The numbers shown are hypothetical.)
As stated in Chapter 1, correlations in psychology are
rarely perfect. Most fall somewhere between zero and plus or
Y Y minus 1. The closer the correlation coefficient is to 1.00 or
1.00, the stronger the relationship. An interesting example

r = –0.66 r = –1.00
X X Population An entire group of animals, people, or objects belonging to
a particular category (for example, all college students or all married
✦FIGURE A.5 Scatter diagrams showing various degrees of relationship for women).
a positive, zero, and negative correlation. (Adapted from Pagano, 1981.)
Sample A smaller subpart of a population.
Representative sample A small, randomly selected part of a larger
likely to do in college. Or even that as rainfall levels increase population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole
population.
within a given metropolitan area, crime rates decline. In these
Random selection Choosing a sample so that each member of the
instances, we are dealing with the fact that two variables are population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
co-relating (varying together in some orderly fashion). Statistical significance The degree to which an event (such as the
The simplest way of visualizing a correlation is to construct results of an experiment) is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone.
a scatter diagram. In a scatter diagram, two measures (grades in Correlation The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship
between two events, measures, or variables.
high school and grades in college, for instance) are obtained.
Scatter diagram A graph that plots the intersection of paired
One measure is indicated by the X axis and the second by the Y measures; that is, the points at which paired X and Y measures cross.
axis. The scatter diagram plots the intersection (crossing) of Positive relationship A mathematical relationship in which increases
each pair of measurements as a single point. Many such mea- in one measure are matched by increases in the other (or decreases
surement pairs give pictures like those shown in ✦Figure A.5. correspond with decreases).
Zero correlation The absence of a (linear) mathematical relationship
between two measures.
Relationships Negative relationship A mathematical relationship in which increases
Figure A.5 also shows scatter diagrams of three basic kinds of in one measure are matched by decreases in the other.
relationships between variables (or measures). Graphs A, B, Coefficient of correlation A statistical index ranging from 1.00 to
1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.
and C show positive relationships of varying strength. As you
Perfect positive relationship A mathematical relationship in which
can see, in a positive relationship, increases in the X measure the correlation between two measures is 1.00.
(or score) are matched by increases on the Y measure (or Perfect negative relationship A mathematical relationship in which
score). An example would be finding that higher IQ scores the correlation between two measures is 1.00.
(X) are associated with higher college grades (Y). A zero cor-

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Licensed to: iChapters User

686 Appendix BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS

▲TABLE A.7 IQ and Grade Point Average for Computing Pearson r


GRADE POINT X SCORE Y SCORE
STUDENT NO. IQ (X) AVERAGE (Y) SQUARED (X2) SQUARED (Y2) X TIMES Y (XY)
1 110 1.0 12,100 1.00 110.0
2 112 1.6 12,544 2.56 179.2
3 118 1.2 13,924 1.44 141.6
4 119 2.1 14,161 4.41 249.9
5 122 2.6 14,884 6.76 317.2
6 125 1.8 15,625 3.24 225.0
7 127 2.6 16,124 6.76 330.2
8 130 2.0 16,900 4.00 260.0
9 132 3.2 17,424 10.24 422.4
10 134 2.6 17,956 6.76 348.4
11 136 3.0 18,496 9.00 408.0
12 138 3.6 19,044 12.96 496.8
Total 1503 27.3 189,187 69.13 3488.7

(X) (Y)
XY   
N
r  
 
  
2
( X) ( Y)2
X2   Y2  
N N

1503(27.3)
3488.7   
12
 
 

2
(1503) (27.3)2
189,187   69.13   
12 12

69.375
   0.856  0.86
81.088

Adapted from Pagano, 1981.

of some typical correlations is provided by a study that com- her score on the other. For example, most colleges have for-
pared the IQs of adopted children with the IQs of their bio- mulas that use multiple correlations to decide which appli-
logical mothers. At age 4, the children’s IQs correlated .28 cants have the best chances for success. Usually the formula
with their mothers’ IQs. By age 7 the correlation was .35. includes such predictors as high school GPA, teacher ratings,
And by age 13 it had grown to .38. extracurricular activities, and scores on the Scholastic Assess-
ment Test (SAT) or some similar test. Although no single pre-
Prediction Correlations often provide highly useful infor- dictor is perfectly correlated with success in college, together
mation. For instance, it is valuable to know that there is a the various predictors correlate highly and provide a useful
correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer rates. technique for screening applicants.
Another example is the fact that higher consumption of alco- There is an interesting “trick” you can do with correla-
hol during pregnancy is correlated with lower birth weight tions that you may find useful. It works like this: If you
and a higher rate of birth defects. There is a correlation be- square the correlation coefficient (multiply r by itself ), you
tween the number of recent life stresses experienced and the will get a number telling the percent of variance (amount of
likelihood of emotional disturbance. Many more examples variation in scores) accounted for by the correlation. For ex-
could be cited, but the point is, correlations help us to iden- ample, the correlation between IQ scores and college grade
tify relationships that are worth knowing. point average is .5. Multiplying .5 times .5 gives .25, or
Correlations are particularly valuable for making predic- 25 percent. This means that 25 percent of the variation in
tions. If we know that two measures are correlated, and we college grades is accounted for by knowing IQ scores. In
know a person’s score on one measure, we can predict his or other words, with a correlation of .5, college grades are

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Module A.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 687

“squeezed” into an oval like the one shown in graph C, Fig- daily life, the information on which we act is largely correla-
ure A.5. IQ scores take away some of the possible variation in tional. This should make us more humble and more tentative
corresponding grade point averages. If there were no correla- in the confidence with which we make pronouncements
tion between IQ and grades, grades would be completely free about human behavior.
to vary, as shown in Figure A.5, graph D.
Along the same line, a correlation of 1.00 or 1.00 MODULE

means that 100 percent of the variation in the Y measure is


accounted for by knowing the X measure: If you know a per-
A.2 Summary
son’s X score, you can tell exactly what the Y score is. An ex- • Inferential statistics are used to make decisions, to gen-
ample that comes close to this state of affairs is the high cor- eralize from samples, and to draw conclusions from
relation (.86) between the IQs of identical twins. In any data.
group of identical twins, 74 percent of the variation in the • Most studies in psychology are based on samples. Find-
“Y” twins’ IQs is accounted for by knowing the IQs of their ings from representative samples are assumed to also
siblings (the “X’s”). apply to entire populations.
• In psychology experiments, differences in the average
Correlation and Causation It is very important to recognize performance of groups could occur purely by chance.
that finding a correlation between two measures does not au- Tests of statistical significance tell us if the observed
tomatically mean that one causes the other: Correlation does differences between groups are common or rare. If a
not demonstrate causation. When a correlation exists, the difference is large enough to be improbable, it suggests
best we can say is that two variables are related. Of course, that the results did not occur by chance alone.
this does not mean that it is impossible for two correlated • Pairs of scores that vary together in an orderly fashion
variables to have a cause-and-effect relationship. Rather, it are said to be correlated.
means that we cannot conclude, solely on the basis of correla- • Correlation is used to identify relationships between
tion, that a causal link exists. To gain greater confidence that events or measures and to make predictions.
a cause-and-effect relationship exists, an experiment must be • The relationship between two variables or measures can
performed (see Chapter 1). be positive or negative.
Often, two correlated measures are related as a result of
• Correlation coefficients tell how strongly two groups of
the influence of a third variable. For example, we might ob-
scores are related.
serve that the more hours students devote to studying, the
better their grades. Although it is tempting to conclude that • Correlation alone does not demonstrate cause-and-
more studying produces (causes) better grades, it is possible effect links between variables or measures.
(indeed, it is probable) that grades and the amount of study
time are both related to the amount of motivation or interest
a student has. Percent of variance A portion of the total amount of variation in a
The difference between cause-and-effect data and data group of scores.
that reveal a relationship of unknown origin is one that Causation The act of causing some effect.
should not be forgotten. Since we rarely run experiments in

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688 Appendix BEHAVIORAL STATISTICS

KNOWLEDGE BUILDER
Inferential Statistics

Relate A woman you know drinks more cof- 3. If the results of an experiment could
Informally, you have probably inferred some- fee in the winter than she does in the have occurred by chance alone less than
thing about a population of people based on summer. She also has more colds in the 25 times out of 100, the result is consid-
the small sample you have observed di- winter. She decides to reduce the amount ered statistically significant. T or F?
rectly. How could statistics improve the ac- of coffee she drinks to help prevent colds. 4. A scatter diagram can be used to plot
curacy of your inferences? What can you tell her about correlation and visualize a
If you were trying to test whether a and causation? ______________________________
drug causes birth defects, what level of sta- between two groups of scores.
tistical significance would you use? If you Learning Check 5. In a negative relationship, increases in X
were doing a psychology experiment, what 1. In inferential statistics, observations of a scores correspond to decreases in Y
level would you be comfortable with? __________________________ are scores. T or F?
See if you can identify at least one used to make inferences and draw con- 6. A perfect positive correlation exists
positive relationship and one negative rela- clusions about an entire when the correlation coefficient is 0.00.
tionship involving human behavior that you _____________________________. T or F?
have observed. How strong to you think the
2. A representative sample can be obtained 7. It is important to remember that correla-
correlation would be in each case? What
by selecting members of the sample at tion does not demonstrate
correlation coefficient would you expect
_________________________. _____________________________.
to see?

ANSWERS 1. sample, population 2. random 3. F 4. correlation 5. T 6. F 7. causation

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will calculate basic descriptive statistics and more advanced
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GLOSSARY
Ablation Surgical removal of tissue. causes while attributing one’s own be- ulate salt balance, adjust the body to
havior to external causes (situations stress, and affect sexual functioning.
Absolute threshold The minimum
and circumstances).
amount of physical energy necessary Adrenaline A hormone produced by
to produce a sensation. Acuity That aspect of visual percep- the adrenal glands that tends, in gen-
tion having to do with the sharpness eral, to arouse the body.
Accommodation (perceptual)
or resolution of images.
Changes in the shape of the lens of Affect Pertaining to emotion or
the eye that serve to focus objects at Acupuncture The Chinese medical art feelings.
varying distances. of relieving pain and treating illness by
Affectional needs One’s emotional
inserting thin needles at various points
Accommodation (Piaget) The modi- needs in general but, especially, needs
on the body.
fication of existing mental patterns to for love, attention, and affection.
fit new demands. Acute stress disorder Psychological
Afterimage A visual sensation that
disturbance lasting up to 1 month fol-
Acetylcholine The neurotransmitter persists after a stimulus is removed.
lowing stresses, such as natural disas-
released by neurons to activate muscles.
ters or military combat, that would Ageism Discrimination or prejudice
Achieved role A role that is assumed produce anxiety in anyone who expe- based on a person’s age.
voluntarily. rienced them.
Aggression Any action carried out
Achievement motivation A need for Adaptation level An internal or men- with the intent of harming another
success or the attainment of excellence. tal “average” or “medium” point that is person.
used to judge amounts.
Acquisition The period in condition- Aggression cues Stimuli or signals that
ing during which a response is rein- Adaptive behaviors (emotion) Ac- are associated with aggression and tend
forced. tions that aid humans and animals in to elicit it.
their attempts to survive and adapt to
Action component That part of an at- Agnosia A disturbance in the ability
changing conditions.
titude consisting of how one tends to to perceive the meaning of stimuli,
act toward the object of the attitude. Adaptive behaviors (retardation) Ba- such as words, objects, or pictures.
sic skills and actions considered neces-
Action potential The nerve impulse, Agoraphobia (without panic) Persons
sary for self-care and for dealing suc-
which is a rapid change in electrical fear that something extremely embar-
cessfully with the environment.
charge across the cell membrane. rassing will happen to them if they
Addiction Development of physical leave the house or enter unfamiliar
Activation As reflected in facial ex-
dependence on a drug such that crav- situations.
pressions, the degree of arousal experi-
ing and physical discomfort (with-
enced by the person making the ex- Alarm reaction First stage of the
drawal symptoms) occur in its absence.
pression. G.A.S., during which bodily resources
Adjustment disorder Emotional dis- are mobilized to cope with a stressor.
Activation-synthesis hypothesis The-
turbance caused by stressors within the
ory that relates dream content to motor All-or-nothing thinking Classifying
range of common experience; stress is
commands in the brain, which are objects or events as absolutely right or
ongoing and produces anxiety and
made, but not carried out, during sleep. wrong, good or bad, acceptable or un-
physical symptoms.
acceptable, and so forth.
Actor In making attributions, the per-
Adolescence The socially defined pe-
son whose behavior is being interpreted. Altered state of consciousness A con-
riod between childhood and adulthood.
dition of awareness distinctly different
Actor-observer bias When making at-
Adrenal glands Endocrine glands in quality or pattern from waking
tributions, the tendency to attribute
whose hormones arouse the body, reg- consciousness.
the behavior of others to internal
G-1

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G-2 Glossary

Alzheimer’s disease An age-related principles that may apply to human than the night sky overhead, because
disease characterized by memory loss, behavior. there are more depth cues near the
mental confusion, and in its later horizon.
Anorexia nervosa Active self-starvation
stages, a nearly total loss of mental
or a sustained loss of appetite that has Applied psychology The use of psy-
abilities.
psychological origins. chological principles and research
Ambiguous stimuli Patterns that methods to solve practical problems.
Anosmia Loss or impairment of the
allow more than one perceptual
sense of smell. Applied research Scientific study un-
organization.
dertaken to solve immediate practical
Antecedents Events that precede a re-
Ambivalence Mixed positive and neg- problems.
sponse.
ative feelings or simultaneous attrac-
Approach-approach conflict A condi-
tion and repulsion. Anterograde amnesia Loss of the abil-
tion in which a person or animal must
ity to form or retrieve memories for
Ambivalent attachment An emo- choose between two positive, or desir-
events that occur after an injury or
tional bond marked by conflicting able, alternatives.
trauma.
feelings of affection, anger, and emo-
Approach-avoidance conflict An un-
tional turmoil. Anthropomorphic fallacy The error
pleasant condition in which a person
of attributing human thoughts, feel-
American Sign Language A language or animal is simultaneously attracted
ings, or motives to animals.
system of hand gestures used by deaf to and repelled by the same goal.
and hearing-impaired persons. Antidepressant A mood-elevating drug.
Arousal The overall level of excitation
Ames room An intentionally dis- Antipsychotic A drug that, in addi- or activation in a person or animal.
torted room that interrupts perceptual tion to having tranquilizing effects,
Arousal theory A theory of motiva-
constancies. also tends to reduce hallucinations and
tion that assumes people prefer to
delusional thinking.
Amnesia Loss of memory (partial or maintain “ideal,” or comfortable, lev-
complete) for past events and, espe- Antisocial personality A person who els of arousal.
cially, loss of memory for one’s identity. seems to lack a conscience; is emo-
Artificial intelligence Any artificial
tionally shallow, impulsive, and selfish;
Amphetamines A class of synthetic system (often a computer program)
and tends to manipulate others; also
drugs that have stimulant effects on that is capable of human-like problem
referred to as a sociopath or psy-
the nervous system. solving or skilled responding.
chopath.
Anagrams Test A test of creativity in Ascribed role A role that is assigned to
Anxiety Apprehension, dread, or un-
which subjects try to make as many a person; a role one has no choice about
easiness similar to fear but based on an
new words as possible from the letters playing.
unclear threat.
in a given word.
Assertiveness training Instruction in
Anxiety disorder A disorder charac-
Anal stage In Freud’s theory, the how to be self-assertive.
terized by disruptive feelings of fear,
psychosexual stage corresponding
apprehension, or anxiety or by distor- Assessment Evaluation or measure-
roughly to the period of toilet train-
tions in behavior that are anxiety ment.
ing (age 1 to 3) and characterized by
related.
a preoccupation with the process of Assimilation In Piaget’s theory, the
elimination. Anxiety reduction hypothesis An ex- application of existing mental patterns
planation of the self-defeating nature to new situations (that is, the new sit-
Androgen Any of a number of male
of many avoidance responses that em- uation is assimilated to existing mental
sex hormones, especially testosterone.
phasizes the immediate reinforcing ef- schemes).
Androgyny The presence of both fects of relief from anxiety.
Association cortex All areas of the
“masculine” and “feminine” traits in a
Aphasia A speech disturbance result- cerebral cortex that are not specifically
single person (as masculinity and fem-
ing from damage to language areas on sensory or motor in function.
ininity are traditionally defined within
the temporal lobes of the brain.
one’s culture). Astigmatism Defects in the cornea,
Apparent distance hypothesis An ex- lens, or eye that cause some areas of
Animal model In research, an animal
planation of the moon illusion stating vision to be out of focus.
whose behavior is used to discover
that the horizon seems more distant

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Glossary G-3

Astrology False system based on the with aversive (painful or uncomfort- suggested actions as if they were invol-
belief that human behavior is influ- able) stimuli. untary.
enced by the position of stars and
Aversive stimulus Any stimulus that Behavior modification The applica-
planets.
produces discomfort or displeasure. tion of learning principles to change
Attention Orienting toward or focus- human behavior, especially maladap-
Avoidance learning Learning that oc-
ing on some stimulus. tive behavior.
curs when making a particular re-
Attitude A learned tendency to re- sponse delays or prevents the onset of Behavior therapy The use of learning
spond to people, objects, or institu- a painful or unpleasant stimulus. principles to make constructive
tions in a positive or negative way. changes in behavior.
Avoidance-avoidance conflict An un-
Attitude scale A collection of attitude pleasant condition requiring a choice Behavioral assessment Recording the
statements with which respondents in- between two negative, or mutually un- frequency of various behaviors.
dicate agreement or disagreement. desirable, alternatives.
Behavioral medicine The study of be-
Attribution The process of making Avoidant attachment An emotional havioral factors associated with physi-
inferences about the causes of one’s bond marked by a tendency to resist cal illness and its treatment.
own behavior and that of others. In commitment to others.
Behavioral personality theory Any
emotion, the process of attributing
Axon A thin fiber that conducts in- model of personality that emphasizes
perceived arousal to a particular
formation away from the cell body of observable behavior, stimuli and re-
source.
a neuron. sponses, and the impact of learning.
Auditory area Sites on the temporal
Babbling The repetition by infants of Behavioral risk factors Behaviors that
lobes where auditory information
meaningless language sounds (includ- increase the chances of disease or in-
registers.
ing both vowel and consonant jury or that shorten life expectancy.
Auditory ossicles The three small sounds).
Behaviorism The study of overt, ob-
bones that link the eardrum to the
Bait shyness An unwillingness or hes- servable behavior.
inner ear.
itation on the part of animals to eat a
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) A
Authenticity In Carl Rogers’s terms, particular food; often caused by the
list of 60 personal traits including
the ability of a therapist to be genuine presence of a taste aversion.
“masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral”
and honest regarding his or her feelings.
Barbiturate One of a large group of traits; used to rate one’s degree of an-
Authoritarian parents Parents who sedative drugs. drogyny.
enforce rigid rules and demand strict
Barnum effect The tendency to con- Beta-endorphin A natural chemical
obedience to authority.
sider a personal description accurate if produced by the pituitary gland that is
Authoritarian personality A personal- it is stated in very general terms. similar in structure and painkilling ef-
ity pattern characterized by rigidity, fect to opiate drugs such as morphine.
Base rate The basic rate at which an
inhibition, prejudice, and an excessive
event occurs over time; the basic prob- Biased sample A sample that does not
concern with power, authority, and
ability of an event. accurately reflect the population from
obedience.
which it was drawn.
Baseline A record of the initial fre-
Authoritative parents Parents who
quency of a target behavior. Bibliotherapy Use of books to impart
supply firm and consistent guidance
helpful information, either alone or as
combined with love and affection. Basic needs The first four levels of
an adjunct to other forms of therapy.
needs in Maslow’s hierarchy; lower
Autonomic nervous system The
needs tend to be more potent than Binge drinking Consuming five or
neural system that connects the brain
higher needs. more drinks in a short time (four
with the internal organs and glands.
drinks for women).
Basic research Scientific inquiry done
Autonomy A freedom from depen-
to advance basic knowledge, not to Binocular depth cues Depth cues that
dence on external authority or the
solve a practical problem. function only when both eyes are used.
opinions of others.
Basic suggestion effect The tendency Biochemical abnormality A distur-
Aversion therapy Suppression of an
of hypnotized persons to carry out bance of the body’s chemical systems,
undesirable response by associating it

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G-4 Glossary

especially in brain chemicals or neuro- Brain dominance The language- Cannabis sativa The hemp plant,
transmitters. producing cerebral hemisphere. from whose leaves and flowers mari-
juana and hashish are derived.
Biofeedback Information about bod- Brainstem The lowest portions of the
ily activities that aids voluntary regula- brain, including the cerebellum, Cannon-Bard theory According to
tion of bodily states. medulla, and reticular formation. this theory, emotional feelings and
bodily arousal occur simultaneously
Biological determinism Belief that be- Brainstorming Method of creative
and both begin with activity in the
havior is controlled by biological thinking that separates the production
thalamus.
processes, such as heredity or evolution. and evaluation of ideas.
Cardinal trait A personality trait so
Biological predisposition The pre- Brainwashing Engineered or forced
basic or powerful that all or most of a
sumed biological readiness of humans attitude change involving a captive
person’s activities spring from exis-
to learn certain skills, such as how to audience.
tence of the trait.
use language.
Branching program A computer pro-
Caregiving styles Identifiable patterns
Biological rhythm Any cycle of biolog- gram that gives learners corrective in-
of parental caretaking and interaction
ical activity, such as sleep and waking formation and exercises based on the
with children.
cycles or changes in body temperature. nature of their errors.
Caretaker speech An exaggerated pat-
Biopsychologist A psychologist who Brightness The intensity of light re-
tern of speech used by adults when
studies the relationship between be- flected from or emanating from a
talking to infants.
havior and biological processes, espe- surface.
cially activity in the nervous system. Case study An intensive investigation
Brightness constancy The apparent
of the behavior of a single person.
Biopsychology The study of biologi- (or relative) brightness of various ob-
cal processes as they relate to behavior. jects remains the same as long as each Cataplexy A sudden temporary paral-
object is illuminated by the same ysis of the muscles.
Bipolar disorders Emotional disorders
amount of light.
involving both depression and ex- Catatonic episode Period of extreme
tremely elevated or manic moods and Broca’s area A language area in the stupor, immobility, and unrespon-
behavior. brain related to grammar and pronun- siveness.
ciation.
Bipolar I disorder A mood disorder Catatonic schizophrenia Schizophre-
in which a person has episodes of Bulimia nervosa Excessive eating nia marked by stupor, rigidity, unre-
mania and also periods of deep (gorging) usually followed by self- sponsiveness, posturing, mutism,
depression. induced vomiting and/or taking and sometimes, agitated, purposeless
laxatives. behavior.
Bipolar II disorder A mood disorder
in which a person is mostly depressed Burnout A job-related condition of Causation The act of causing some
(sad, despondent, guilt ridden) but has mental, physical, and emotional ex- effect.
also had one or more mildly manic haustion.
Central nervous system The brain
episodes.
Caffeine A natural drug with stimu- and spinal cord.
Birth injury Any injury or damage lant properties; found in coffee, tea,
Central traits The core traits that
that occurs to an infant during delivery. and chocolate and added to artificial
characterize an individual personality.
beverages and medicines.
Bisexual A person romantically and
Cerebellum A cauliflower-shaped pro-
erotically attracted to both men and Caffeinism Excessive consumption of
jection at the base of the brain that
women. caffeine, leading to dependence and a
controls posture and coordination.
variety of physical and psychological
Blind spot A portion of the retina
complaints. Cerebral cortex The layer of tissue
lacking visual receptors (the point
that forms the outer layer and surface
where the optic nerve leaves the eye). Camouflage Designs that break up
of the cerebrum; the cerebral cortex is
figure-ground organization, making
Bottom-up processing Organizing responsible for basic sensory and mo-
objects more difficult to see.
perceptions by beginning with low- tor functions as well as higher mental
level features. processes in humans.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-5

Cerebral hemispheres The right and Cocaine A crystalline drug derived from Communicator In persuasion, the
left halves of the cerebrum. coca leaves; used as a central nervous person presenting arguments or infor-
system stimulant and local anesthetic. mation.
Cerebrum The two large hemispheres
that cover the upper part of the brain. Cochlea The snail-shaped organ that Community health campaign
makes up the inner ear. A community-wide education program
Character Personal characteristics that
that provides information about factors
have been judged or evaluated; a per- Coefficient of correlation A statistical
that affect health and what to do about
son’s desirable or undesirable qualities. index ranging from 1.00 to 1.00
them.
that indicates the direction and degree
Chemical senses Senses, such as smell
of correlation. Community mental health center A
and taste, that respond to chemical
facility offering a wide range of mental
molecules. Cognition The process of thinking,
health services, such as prevention,
knowing, or mentally processing
Chemotherapy Use of psychoactive counseling, consultation, and crisis in-
information.
drugs to treat mental or emotional tervention.
disturbances. Cognitive-behavioral therapy The
Community psychology Use of com-
use of learning principles to change
Chromosomes Thread-like structures munity resources to promote mental
maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and
(“colored bodies”) in the nucleus of health and treat or prevent mental
feelings that underlie emotional and
each cell that are made up of DNA, health problems.
behavioral problems.
which carries the genes. Normal hu-
Comparative psychology The study
man cells have 23 pairs of chromo- Cognitive behaviorism An approach
and comparison of the behavior of dif-
somes (46 total). that combines behavioral principles
ferent species, especially animals.
with cognition (perception, thinking,
Chronological age A person’s age in
anticipation) to explain behavior. Compensation Counteracting a real
years.
or imagined weakness by emphasizing
Cognitive dissonance An uncomfort-
Circadian rhythms Cyclical changes desirable traits or by seeking to excel in
able clash between self-image, thoughts,
in bodily function and arousal that other areas.
beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and
vary on a schedule approximating one
one’s behavior. Competence As a factor in interper-
24-hour day.
sonal attraction, the degree of general
Cognitive learning Higher-level
Clairvoyance The purported ability ability or proficiency a person displays.
learning involving thinking, knowing,
to perceive events at a distance or
understanding, and anticipation. Compliance Bending to the requests
through physical barriers.
of a person who has little or no au-
Cognitive map A mental image of an
Classical conditioning A basic form thority or other form of social power.
area (building, city, country) that
of learning in which existing reflex re-
guides movement from one location Compulsion An act an individual
sponses come to be elicited by new
to another. feels driven to repeat, often against his
stimuli (also known as respondent
or her will.
conditioning). Cognitive psychology The study of
human thinking, knowing, under- Computer simulations Computer
Client-centered therapy A non-directive
standing, and information processing. programs that mimic some aspect of
therapy based on drawing insights
human thinking, decision making, or
from conscious thoughts and feelings; Cognitive therapy The use of learn-
problem solving.
emphasizes accepting one’s true self. ing principles and other methods to
change maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
Clinical psychologist A specialist who
and feelings. Learning aided by computer-presented
treats or does research on psychologi-
information and exercises.
cal problems. Color blindness A total inability to
perceive colors. Concentrative meditation Mental ex-
Clinical study An intensive investiga-
ercise based on focusing attention on a
tion of the behavior of a single person, Color weakness An inability to fully
single target of contemplation.
especially one suffering from some in- distinguish some colors from others.
jury, disease, or disorder. Concept A generalized idea represent-
Common traits Personality traits that
ing a class of related objects or events.
Closure Gestalt term for the percep- are shared by most members of a par-
tual tendency to complete figures by ticular culture.
“closing” or ignoring small gaps.

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G-6 Glossary

Concept formation The process of Conflict A stressful condition that oc- Consequences Test A test of creativ-
classifying information into meaning- curs when a person must choose be- ity based on listing the consequences
ful categories by direct experience, rule tween incompatible or contradictory that would follow a basic change in
learning, or exposure to prototypes alternatives. the world.
(idealized models).
Conformity Bringing one’s behavior Conservation In Piaget’s theory, mas-
Conceptual rule A formal rule by into agreement or harmony with tery of the concept that the volume of
which one may decide whether an ob- norms or with the behavior of others matter remains unchanged (is con-
ject or event is an example of a partic- in a group. served) even when the shape or ap-
ular concept. pearance of objects changes.
Confrontation In existential therapy,
Concrete operational stage Period of the process of confronting clients with Consistency When making attribu-
cognitive development during which their own values and with the need to tions, noticing that a behavior changes
children become able to use the con- take responsibility for the quality of very little on different occasions.
cepts of time, space, volume, and their existence.
Consolidation Process by which rela-
number, but in ways that remain sim-
Congenital problems Problems or de- tively permanent memories are formed
plified and concrete.
fects that originate during prenatal de- in the brain.
Condensation Combining several velopment.
Constructive processing Reorganiz-
people, objects, or events into a single
Conjunctive concept A concept de- ing memories on the basis of logic,
dream image.
fined by the presence of two or more inference, or the addition of new in-
Conditional statement A statement specific features. (For example, to formation.
that contains a qualification, often of qualify as an example of the concept
Context Information surrounding a
the if-then form. an object must be both red and trian-
stimulus that gives meaning to the
gular.)
Conditioned aversion A learned dis- stimulus; with regard to behavior, the
like or conditioned negative emotional Connector neuron A nerve cell that social situation, behavioral setting, or
response to some stimulus. serves as a link between two others. other surrounding circumstances in
which an action takes place.
Conditioned emotional response An Connotative meaning The subjective,
emotional response that has been linked personal, or emotional meaning of a Continuous reinforcement A sched-
to a previously non-emotional stimulus word or concept. ule of reinforcement in which every
by classical conditioning. correct response is followed by a rein-
Conscience In Freudian theory, the
forcer.
Conditioned response A reflex re- part of the superego that causes guilt
sponse linked to a new stimulus when its standards are not met. Control (experimental) Eliminating,
through learning. identifying, or equalizing all factors in
Conscious Region of the mind that
an experiment that could affect the
Conditioned stimulus A previously includes all mental contents
outcome.
neutral stimulus that acquires the ca- (thoughts, images, feelings, memories,
pacity to evoke a response by being and so on) a person is aware of at any Control (stress) With regard to stress,
paired with an unconditioned stimulus. given moment. the ability to exert some influence over
one’s circumstances.
Conditioning chamber An apparatus Consciousness A person’s experience
designed for the study of operant con- of mental awareness, including current Control group In an experiment, sub-
ditioning in animals; a Skinner box. sensations, perceptions, memories, and jects exposed to all conditions except
feelings. the independent variable.
Conditions of worth Internal standards
used to judge the value of one’s thoughts, Consensus The degree to which people Control questions In a polygraph
actions, feelings, or experiences. respond alike. In making attributions, exam, questions that almost always
consensus implies that responses are ex- provoke anxiety, thus providing a
Conduction deafness Poor transfer
ternally caused. baseline of emotional responsiveness.
of sounds from the eardrum to the in-
ner ear. Consequences Effects that follow a re- Conventional moral reasoning Moral
sponse. thinking based on a desire to please
Cones Visual receptors for colors and
others or to follow accepted rules and
daylight visual acuity.
values.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-7

Convergence The simultaneous turn- Covert sensitization Use of aversive Curare A drug that competes with
ing inward of the two eyes as they fo- imagery to reduce the occurrence of acetylcholine, causing paralysis.
cus on nearby objects. an undesired response.
Curiosity drive A hypothesized drive
Convergent thought Thinking di- Cranial nerve One of 12 major assumed to underlie a wide range of
rected toward discovery of a single es- nerves that leave the brain without investigative and stimulus-seeking be-
tablished correct answer; conventional passing through the spinal cord. haviors.
thinking.
Created image A mental image that Curve of forgetting A graph that
Conversion disorder A symptom or has been assembled or invented rather shows the amount of memorized in-
disability that appears to be physical than simply remembered. formation remembered after varying
but that actually results from anxiety, lengths of time.
Critical situations Situations during
stress, or emotional conflict.
childhood that are capable of leaving a Curvilinear relationship A relation-
Cooing Spontaneous repetition of lasting imprint on personality. ship that forms a curved line when
vowel sounds by infants. graphed.
Critical thinking An ability to evalu-
Coping statements Reassuring, self- ate, compare, analyze, critique, and Cyclothymic disorder Moderate
enhancing statements that are used to synthesize information. manic and depressive behavior that
stop self-critical thinking. persists for 2 years or more.
Cross-cultural psychologist A psy-
Corpus callosum The large bundle of chologist who studies the ways in Dark adaptation The process by
fibers connecting the right and left which culture affects human behavior. which the eye adapts to low illumina-
cerebral hemispheres. tion and becomes more light sensitive,
CT scan Computed tomography
principally by a shift to rod vision.
Correlation An orderly relationship scan; a computer-enhanced X-ray im-
between two events, measures, or age of the brain. Data Observed facts or evidence
variables. (data: plural; datum: singular).
Cue External stimuli or signs that
Correlational study A non-experimental guide responses, especially those that Data reduction system Any system
study designed to measure the degree signal the likely presence or absence of that selects, analyzes, or condenses in-
of relationship (if any) between two or reinforcement. formation.
more events, measures, or variables.
Cult A group that professes great de- Daydream A vivid waking fantasy.
Corticalization An increase in the rel- votion to some person, idea, or thing.
Declarative memory That part of
ative size of the cerebral cortex.
Cultural psychologist A psychologist long-term memory containing factual
Counseling psychologist A specialist who studies the ways in which culture information.
who treats milder emotional and behav- affects human behavior.
Deductive thought Thought that ap-
ioral disturbances.
Cultural relativity Perceptions and plies a general set of rules to specific
Counselor An adviser who helps peo- judgments made relative to the values of situations; for example, using the laws
ple solve problems related to marriage, one’s culture. of gravity to predict the behavior of a
career, schoolwork, or the like. single falling object.
Cultural values The values attached
Counterirritation Using mild pain to to various objects and activities by Deep lesioning Use of an electrode
block more intense or long-lasting people in a given culture. (electrified wire) to destroy small areas
pain. deep within the brain.
Culture An ongoing pattern of life,
Courtesy bias The tendency to give characterizing a society at a particular Deep sleep Stage 4 sleep; the deepest
“polite” answers to avoid hurting an stage in its development or at a given form of normal sleep.
interviewer’s feelings. point in history.
Defense mechanisms Habitual and
Covert behavior A response that is in- Culture-fair test A test (such as an often unconscious psychological strate-
ternal or hidden from view. intelligence test) designed to mini- gies used to avoid or reduce anxiety.
mize the importance of skills and
Covert reinforcement Using positive Deinstitutionalization Reduced use
knowledge that may be more com-
imagery to reinforce desired behavior. of full-time commitment to mental
mon in some cultures than in others.
institutions to treat mental disorders.

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G-8 Glossary

Delta waves Large, slow brain waves that emotional stimuli while the person is natural or prearranged situation un-
occur in deeper sleep (stages 3 and 4). deeply relaxed. dertaken to form an impression of his
or her personality.
Delusion A false belief held against all Determinism The doctrine that all
contrary evidence. behavior has prior causes. Discounting Downgrading internal
explanations of behavior when a per-
Delusional disorder A psychosis Detoxification To remove poison or
son’s actions appear to have strong ex-
marked by severe delusions of the effects of poison; in the treatment
ternal causes.
grandeur, jealousy, persecution, or of alcoholism, the withdrawal of the
similar preoccupations. patient from alcohol. Discovery learning Learning based on
insight or understanding rather than
Demonology In medieval Europe, the Developmental level An individual’s
on mechanical application of rules.
study of demons and the treatment of current state of physical, emotional,
persons “possessed” by demons. and intellectual development. Discrimination Treating members of
various social groups differently in cir-
Dendrites Fibers projecting from Developmental milestone A signifi-
cumstances where their rights or treat-
nerve cells that receive information cant turning point or marker in per-
ment should be identical.
from other neurons and carry it to the sonal development.
cell body. Discriminative stimuli Stimuli that
Developmental psychologist A psy-
precede rewarded and non-rewarded
Denial Protecting oneself from an un- chologist who studies the course of
responses in operant conditioning and
pleasant reality by refusing to perceive human growth and development.
that come to exert some control over
it or believe it.
Developmental psychology The study whether the response is made.
Denotative meaning The exact, dic- of progressive changes in behavior and
Disease-prone personality A person-
tionary definition of a word or con- abilities from conception to death.
ality style associated with poor health;
cept; its objective meaning.
Developmental task Any skill that marked by persistent negative emo-
Dependent variable In an experi- must be mastered, or personal change tions, including anxiety, depression,
ment, the condition (usually a behav- that must take place, for optimal de- and hostility.
ior) that reflects the effects of the in- velopment at a particular life stage.
Dishabituation A reversal of
dependent variable.
Deviant communication Patterns of habituation.
Depressant A substance that decreases communication that cause guilt, anxiety,
Disinhibition The removal of inhibi-
activity in the body and nervous system. confusion, anger, conflict, and emo-
tion, resulting in the acting out of be-
tional turmoil.
Depression A state of deep despon- havior that normally would be re-
dency marked by apathy, emotional Deviation IQ An IQ obtained statis- strained.
negativity, and behavioral inhibition. tically from a person’s relative standing
Disjunctive concept A concept de-
in his or her age group.
Depressive disorders Emotional dis- fined by the presence of at least one of
orders primarily involving sadness, de- Diet The types and amounts of food several possible features. (For example,
spondency, and depression. and drink regularly consumed over a to qualify, an object must be either
period of time. blue or circular.)
Deprivation In development, the loss
or withholding of normal stimulation, Difference threshold The smallest Disorganized schizophrenia Schizo-
nutrition, comfort, love, and so forth; change in stimulus intensity that can be phrenia marked by incoherence, disor-
a condition of lacking. detected by an observer. ganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and
flat or grossly inappropriate emotions.
Depth cues Perceptual features that Digit-span test A test of attention
impart information about distance and short-term memory in which a Displaced aggression Redirecting ag-
and three-dimensional space. string of digits is recalled. gression to a target other than the ac-
tual source of one’s frustration.
Depth perception The ability to see Direct instruction Presentation of
three-dimensional space and to accu- factual information by lecture, Dissection Separation of tissues into
rately estimate distances. demonstration, and rote practice. their parts.
Desensitization Reducing fear or anx- Direct observation (personality) Any Dissociative amnesia Loss of memory
iety by repeatedly exposing a person to observation of a person’s behavior in a (partial or complete) for past events and,

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Glossary G-9

especially, loss of memory for one’s per- Dopamine An important transmitter settings or situations to promote
sonal identity. substance found in the brain, espe- learning.
cially in the limbic system, an area as-
Dissociative disorder Temporary am- Effective parents Parents who supply
sociated with emotional response.
nesia, multiple personality, or deper- firm and consistent guidance com-
sonalization. Double approach-avoidance conflict bined with love and affection.
An unpleasant state in which one is si-
Dissociative fugue Fleeing to escape Effector cells Cells in muscles and
multaneously attracted to and repelled
extreme emotional conflict, anxiety, or glands specialized for the production
by each of two alternatives.
threat. of responses.
Double-blind experiment A test in
Dissociative identity disorder The Ego In Freudian theory, the executive
which neither subjects nor experi-
presence of two or more distinct per- part of personality that directs ratio-
menters know which subjects are in the
sonalities or personal identities (multi- nal, realistic behavior.
experimental group.
ple personality).
Ego ideal In Freudian theory, the part
Down syndrome A genetic disorder
Distinctiveness As a basis for making of the superego representing ideal be-
caused by the presence of an extra
causal attributions, noticing that a be- havior; a source of pride when its stan-
chromosome; results in mental
havior occurs only under a specific dards are met.
retardation.
(distinct) set of circumstances.
Egocentric thought Thought that is
Dream symbols Images in dreams
Distractors False items included with self-centered and fails to consider the
that serve as visible signs of hidden
a correct item to form a test of recog- viewpoints of others.
ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, rela-
nition memory (for example, the
tionships, and so forth. Eidetic imagery The ability to retain a
wrong answers on a multiple-choice
“projected” mental image long enough
test). Drill and practice A basic computer-
to use it as a source of information.
assisted learning format, typically con-
Disuse Theory that memory traces
sisting of questions and answers. Ejaculation The release of sperm and
weaken when memories are not peri-
seminal fluid by the male at the time
odically used or retrieved. Drive The psychological expression of
of orgasm.
a motive; for example, hunger, thirst,
Divergent thought Thinking that
or a drive for success. Elaborative rehearsal Rehearsal that
produces many ideas or alternatives; a
links new information with existing
major element in original or creative Drug interaction A combined effect
memories and knowledge.
thought. of two drugs that exceeds the addition
of one drug’s effects to the other. Electra conflict Freudian concept re-
Divided attention Allotting mental
ferring to a girl’s sexual attraction to
space or effort to various tasks or parts Drug tolerance A reduction in the
her father and resultant feelings of ri-
of a task. body’s response to a drug.
valry with her mother.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; a Dysthymic disorder A moderate level
Electrical stimulation of the brain
twisted, ladder-like molecular structure of depression that has persisted for
(ESB) Direct electrical stimulation
containing the chemical code for 2 years or more but has not included
and action of brain tissue.
genetic information. periods of severe depression.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) A
Dogmatism An unwarranted positive- Easy child A child who is tempera-
medical treatment for severe depres-
ness or certainty in matters of belief or mentally relaxed and agreeable.
sion, consisting of an electric shock
opinion.
Echo A brief continuation of sensory passed directly through the brain,
Dominant gene A gene whose influ- activity in the auditory system after a which produces a convulsion.
ence will be expressed each time the sound is heard.
Electrode Any wire, needle, or metal
gene is present.
Eclectic Selected from many sources. plate used to electrically stimulate
Door-in-the-face effect The ten- nerve tissue or to record its activity.
Educational psychology The study of
dency for a person who has refused a
learning, teaching, and related topics. Electroencephalograph (EEG) A de-
major request to subsequently be
vice designed to detect, amplify, and
more likely to comply with a minor Educational simulations Computer
record electrical activity in the brain.
request. programs that simulate real-world

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G-10 Glossary

Electromagnetic spectrum The full Encoding failure Failure to store suf- Environmental psychology The for-
range of electrical and magnetic wave- ficient information to form a useful mal study of how environments affect
lengths, including X-rays, radio waves, memory. behavior.
light waves, and so forth.
Encounter group A group experience Episodic drive A drive that occurs
Emotion A state characterized by based on intensely honest expressions in distinct episodes associated
physiological arousal, subjective feel- of feelings and reactions of partici- with particular conditions (for
ings, changes in facial expression, and pants to one another. example, pain avoidance, sexual
adaptive behaviors. motivation).
Endocrine system Glands whose se-
Emotion-focused coping Managing cretions pass directly into the blood- Episodic memory A subpart of declar-
or controlling one’s emotional reaction stream or lymph system. ative memory that records personal ex-
to a stressful or threatening situation. periences that are linked with specific
Endogenous depression Depression
times and places.
Emotional appraisal Evaluating the that appears to be produced from
personal meaning of a situation; within (perhaps by chemical imbal- Equal-status contact Social interac-
specific emotions are assumed to ances in the brain) rather than as a re- tion that occurs on an equal footing,
result from various appraisals, such action to life events. without obvious differences in power
as an appraisal of threat leading to or status.
Endorphins A class of chemicals pro-
anxiety.
duced by the pituitary gland that are Ergotism A pattern of psychotic-like
Emotional attachment A close emo- similar in structure and painkilling ef- symptoms that accompanies poisoning
tional bond that infants form with fect to opiate drugs such as morphine. by ergot fungus.
their parents, caregivers, or others.
Energizers Mood-elevating drugs. Erogenous zone Any body area that
Emotional bonding An especially produces pleasurable sensations.
Engineering psychology A specialty
close emotional bond between infants
concerned with the design of machines Eros Freud’s name for the “life in-
and their parents, caregivers, or others
and work environments so that they are stincts” postulated by his theory.
(another term for attachment).
compatible with human perceptual and
Escape Reducing discomfort by leav-
Emotional component One’s feelings physical capacities.
ing frustrating situations or by psycho-
toward the object of an attitude.
Engram Hypothesized physical logically withdrawing from them.
Emotional expression Any behavior changes that take place in the brain
Escape learning Learning to make a
that gives an outward sign of emotion, as it stores information; a memory
response in order to end an aversive
especially those signs that communi- trace.
(painful or uncomfortable) stimulus.
cate emotional states to others.
Enkephalins Opiate-like brain chemi-
Estrogen Any of a number of female
Emotional feelings The private, cals that regulate reactions to pain and
sex hormones.
subjective experience of having an stress.
emotion. Estrus Changes in the reproductive
Enriched environment An environ-
organs and sexual drives of animals
Emotional tone The underlying emo- ment deliberately made more novel,
that create a desire for mating; par-
tional state an individual is experienc- complex, and perceptually stimulating.
ticularly used to refer to females in
ing at any given moment.
Enrichment In development, any at- heat.
Empathy A capacity for taking an- tempt to make a child’s environment
Ethnocentrism Placing one’s own
other’s point of view; the ability to feel more novel, complex, and perceptually
group or race at the center—that is,
what another is feeling. or intellectually stimulating.
tending to reject all other groups but
Empirical evidence Facts or informa- Environment (“nurture”) The sum to- one’s own.
tion gained by direct observation or tal of all external conditions affecting
Ethologist A person who studies the
experience. development.
natural behavior patterns of animals.
Encoding Changing information Environmental assessment Measure-
Evolutionary psychology Study of the
into a form that allows it to be stored ment and analysis of the effects an envi-
evolutionary origins of human behavior
in memory and manipulated in ronment has on the behavior of people
patterns.
thought. within that environment.

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Glossary G-11

Excitement General emotional Expert witness A person recognized ate feelings that help define what emo-
arousal associated with activation of by a court of law as being qualified to tion a person is feeling.
the autonomic nervous system. give expert testimony on a specific
Fact memory That part of long-term
topic.
Excitement phase The first phase of memory containing factual informa-
sexual response, indicated by initial Explicit memory A memory that a tion (declarative memory).
signs of sexual arousal. person is aware of having; a memory
Factor analysis A statistical technique
that is consciously retrieved.
Exhibitionism Deriving sexual pleasure used to correlate multiple measure-
from displaying the genitals (usually) to Exploration drive Drive to investigate ments. Measurements that form “clus-
an unwilling viewer (“flashing”). unfamiliar areas of the environment. ters” of correlations are assumed to re-
flect some general underlying factor.
Existential therapy An insight therapy Expressive behavior Behavior that ex-
that focuses on the problems of exis- presses or communicates emotion. Fallacy of positive instances The ten-
tence, such as death, meaning, choice, dency to remember or notice informa-
External cause A cause of behavior
and responsibility; emphasizes making tion that fits one’s expectations, while
that is assumed to lie outside a person.
courageous life choices. forgetting discrepancies.
External eating cue Any external
Exorcism In medieval Europe, the prac- False positive An erroneous sense of
stimulus that tends to encourage
tice of expelling or driving off an “evil recognition.
hunger or to elicit eating.
spirit,” especially one residing in the
Familial retardation Mild mental re-
body of a person who is “possessed.” Extinction A gradual decrease in the
tardation associated with homes that
frequency of a non-reinforced response.
Expectancy An anticipation concern- are intellectually, nutritionally, and
ing future events or relationships. Extracellular thirst Thirst caused by a emotionally impoverished.
reduction in the volume of fluids
Experiment A formal trial undertaken Family therapy Technique in which
found between body cells.
to confirm or disconfirm a fact or all family members participate, both
principle. Extraneous variable In an experi- individually and as a group, to change
ment, any condition prevented from destructive relationships and commu-
Experimental group In a controlled
influencing the outcome. nication patterns.
experiment, the group of subjects ex-
posed to the independent variable or Extrasensory perception The pur- Fantasy A product of the imagination
experimental manipulation. ported ability to perceive events determined mainly by one’s motives or
in ways that cannot be explained feelings. Fantasy may be used as an es-
Experimental psychologist One who
by known capacities of the sensory cape mechanism.
scientifically studies human and animal
organs.
behavior. Feature detector A sensory system highly
Extrinsic motivation Motivation attuned to a specific stimulus pattern.
Experimental self-observation
based on obvious external rewards,
Wilhelm Wundt’s technique of com- Feedback Information on the effects a
obligations, or similar factors.
bining trained introspection with response has had that is returned to
objective measurement. Extrovert A person whose attention is the person performing the response
directed outward; a bold, sociable, (also known as knowledge of results).
Experimental subjects Humans or
outgoing person.
animals whose behavior is investigated Feeding system Areas on each side of
in an experiment. Eye movement desensitization A re- the hypothalamus that initiate eating
duction in fear or anxiety that occurs when stimulated.
Experimenter effect Changes in sub-
when a person holds upsetting
jects’ behavior caused by the unin- Feeling of knowing The ability to
thoughts in mind while rapidly mov-
tended influence of an experimenter’s predict beforehand whether one will
ing the eyes from side to side.
actions. be able to remember something.
Facial blend A facial gesture that
Expert systems Computer programs de- Female orgasmic disorder An inabil-
mixes parts of two or more basic facial
signed to respond as a human expert ity to reach orgasm during intercourse.
expressions.
would; programs based on the knowl-
Female sexual arousal disorder A lack
edge and rules that underlie human ex- Facial feedback hypothesis Explana-
of physical arousal to sexual stimulation.
pertise in specific topics. tion that says facial expressions gener-

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G-12 Glossary

Fetal alcohol syndrome A pattern of Flashbulb memories Memories cre- Free will The doctrine that human
birth complications and bodily defects ated at times of high emotion that beings are capable of freely making
in infants caused by consumption of al- seem especially vivid. choices.
cohol by the mother during pregnancy.
Flat affect An extreme lack of emotion. Free-floating anxiety Anxiety that is
Fetal damage A congenital problem; very general and pervasive.
Fluency In tests of creativity, fluency
that is, damage or injury that occurs to
refers to the total number of solutions Frequency theory Holds that, in hear-
the fetus during prenatal development.
produced. ing, the cochlea converts tones up to
Fetishism Gaining sexual gratification about 4,000 hertz into nerve impulses
fMRI scan Functional magnetic reso-
from inanimate objects; especially, an that match the frequency of each tone.
nance imaging that records brain activity.
inability to achieve sexual arousal
Frontal lobes Areas at the top front of
without the object. Foot-in-the-door effect The tendency
the cerebral cortex that include sites
for a person who has first complied
Field experiment An experiment con- associated with the control of move-
with a small request to be more likely
ducted in a natural setting. ment, the processing of smell, and
later to fulfill a larger request.
higher mental functions.
Figure-ground organization A basic
Forcible rape Sexual intercourse car-
perceptual organization in which part Frontal lobotomy The destruction of
ried out against the victim’s will, un-
of a stimulus appears to stand out as brain tissue in frontal areas of the
der the threat of force.
an object (figure) against a less promi- brain.
nent background (ground). Forebrain The highest brain areas, in-
Frotteurism Sexually touching or rub-
cluding the hypothalamus, thalamus,
Five-factor model A model proposing bing against a non-consenting person.
corpus callosum, and cerebrum.
that the five most universal dimen-
Frustration An internal emotional
sions of personality are extroversion, Formal operations stage Period of cog-
state resulting from interference with
agreeableness, conscientiousness, neu- nitive development marked by a capac-
satisfaction of a motive or blocking of
roticism, and openness to experience. ity for abstract, theoretical, and hypo-
goal-directed behavior.
thetical thinking.
Fixation (cognition) The tendency to
Frustration-aggression hypothesis Hy-
repeat wrong solutions or faulty re- Fovea A small depression at the center
pothesis stating that frustration tends to
sponses, especially as a result of becom- of the retina containing only cones
lead to aggression.
ing blind to alternatives. and providing the greatest sharpness of
vision. Fugue Taking flight to escape extreme
Fixation (Freudian) In Freudian the-
emotional conflict, anxiety, or threat.
ory, lasting conflicts developed during Frame of reference A mental or emo-
a particular psychosexual stage as a re- tional perspective used for evaluating Fully functioning person Carl
sult of frustration or overindulgence. events. Rogers’s term for persons living in har-
mony with their deepest feelings, im-
Fixed action pattern (FAP) An in- Framing In thought, the terms in
pulses, and intuitions.
stinctual chain of movements found in which a problem is stated or the way
almost all members of a species. that it is structured. Functional fixedness A rigidity in
problem solving caused by an inability
Fixed interval schedule A pattern in Fraternal twins Twins conceived from
to see new uses for familiar objects.
which a reinforcer is given only when two separate eggs. Fraternal twins are
a correct response is made after a set no more alike genetically than other Functional MRI An MRI scan that
amount of time has passed since the siblings. records brain activity.
last reinforced response. Responses
Free association In psychoanalysis, Functional solution A detailed, prac-
made before the time interval has
the technique of having a client say tical, and workable solution.
ended are not reinforced.
anything that comes to mind, regard-
Functionalism School of psychology
Fixed ratio schedule A pattern in which less of how embarrassing or unimpor-
concerned with how behavior and men-
a set number of correct responses must tant it may seem.
tal abilities help people adapt to their
be made to get a reinforcer. For exam-
Free choice The ability to freely make environments.
ple, a reinforcer is given for every four
choices that are not controlled by ge-
correct responses. Fundamental attributional error The
netics, learning, or unconscious forces.
tendency to attribute the behavior of

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Glossary G-13

others to internal causes (personality, and worries about work, relationships, Glucagon-like peptide 1 A substance
likes, and so forth). ability, or impending disaster. in the brain that terminates eating.
Galvanic skin response (GSR) A Generalized reinforcer A secondary Goal The target or objective of a mo-
change in the electrical resistance (or reinforcer that has become indepen- tivated and directed chain of behaviors.
inversely, the conductance) of the skin dent of direct association with primary
Gonadal sex Sex as indicated by the
due to activity in the sweat glands as- reinforcers.
presence of ovaries (female) or testes
sociated with arousal or anxiety.
Genome An organism’s entire set of (male).
Ganzfeld A perceptual “blank screen”; genes.
Gonads The primary sex glands—the
usually achieved by creating a uniform
Genes Specific areas on a strand of testes in males and ovaries in females.
white visual field and a neutral audi-
DNA that carry hereditary informa-
tory tone. Grammar A set of rules for combin-
tion affecting various personal charac-
ing language units into meaningful
Gate control theory Proposes that teristics.
speech or writing.
pain messages pass through neural
Genetic abnormality Any abnormal-
“gates” in the spinal cord. Graphology False system based on
ity in the genes, including missing
the belief that handwriting can reveal
Gender Psychological and social char- genes, extra genes, or defective genes.
personality traits.
acteristics associated with being male or
Genetic sex Sex as indicated by the
female; defined especially by one’s gen- Grasping reflex A neonatal reflex con-
presence of XX (female) or XY (male)
der identity and learned gender roles. sisting of grasping objects placed in
chromosomes.
the palms.
Gender bias A tendency for re-
Genital sex Sex as indicated by the
searchers to base conclusions solely on Gray matter Areas in the nervous sys-
presence of male or female genitals.
subjects of one sex (usually males). tem that have a grayish color due to a
Genital stage In Freud’s theory, the cul- high concentration of nerve cell bodies.
Gender role socialization The process
mination of personality development,
of learning behaviors considered appro- Group cohesiveness The degree of at-
marked, among other things, by the at-
priate for one’s sex in a given culture. traction among group members or
tainment of mature adult sexuality.
their degree of commitment to re-
Gender role stereotypes Oversimplified
Gerontologist One who scientifically maining in the group.
and widely held beliefs about the basic
studies aging and its effects.
characteristics of men and women. Group intelligence test Any intelli-
Gestalt A German word meaning gence test that can be administered to
Gender roles Separate patterns of
“form,” “pattern,” or “whole.” a group of people with minimal super-
traits, mannerisms, interests, and be-
vision.
haviors that are regarded as “male” and Gestalt psychology The school of
“female” by one’s culture. psychology emphasizing the study of Group prejudice Prejudice held out
thinking, learning, and perception in of conformity to group views.
General adaptation syndrome (G.A.S.)
whole units, not by analysis into parts.
A series of bodily reactions to pro- Group sanctions Rewards and pun-
longed stress that occurs in three stages: Gestalt therapy An approach that fo- ishments (such as approval or disap-
alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. cuses on immediate experience and proval) administered by groups to en-
awareness to help clients rebuild force a degree of conformity among
General intelligence test A test that mea-
thinking, feeling, and acting into con- members.
sures a wide variety of mental abilities.
nected wholes; emphasizes the integra-
Group structure The network of
General solution A solution that tion of fragmented experiences.
roles, communication pathways, and
states the requirements for success but
GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) An il- power in a group.
not in enough detail for further action.
licit central nervous system depressant
Group therapy Psychotherapy con-
Generalization Transfer of a learned that produces intoxication and sedation.
ducted with a group of people.
response from one stimulus situation
Giantism Excessive bodily growth
to other similar situations. Groupthink A compulsion by mem-
caused by too much growth hormone.
bers of decision-making groups to
Generalized anxiety disorder The
Giftedness Either the possession of a maintain agreement, even at the cost
person is in a chronic state of tension
high IQ or special talents or aptitudes. of critical thinking.

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G-14 Glossary

Growth needs In Maslow’s hierarchy, Hertz One cycle (or vibration) per Hormone A glandular secretion that
the higher-level needs associated with second. affects bodily functions or behavior.
self-actualization (needs that con-
Heterosexism The belief that hetero- Hospice A medical facility or pro-
tribute to personal growth and full de-
sexuality is better or more natural than gram dedicated to providing optimal
velopment of personal potential).
homosexuality. care for persons who are dying.
Guided imagery Intentional visualiza-
Heterosexual A person romantically Hue Classification of colors into basic
tion of images that are calming, relax-
and erotically attracted to members of categories of red, orange, yellow,
ing, or beneficial in other ways.
the opposite sex. green, blue, indigo, and violet.
Gustation The sense of taste.
Heuristic Any strategy or technique Human growth sequence The general
Habit A deeply ingrained, learned that aids problem solving, especially pattern of physical development from
pattern of behavior. by limiting the number of possible so- conception to death.
lutions to be tried.
Habituation A decrease in perceptual Human immunodeficiency virus
response to a repeated stimulus. Hierarchy A rank-ordered series of (HIV) The sexually transmitted virus
higher and lower amounts, levels, de- that disables the immune system and
Hair cells Receptor cells within the
grees, or steps. causes AIDS.
cochlea that transduce vibrations into
nerve impulses. Hierarchy of needs A rank ordering Human nature Those traits, qualities,
of needs based on their presumed potentials, and behavior patterns most
Halfway house A community-based
strength or potency. characteristic of the human species.
facility for individuals making the
transition from an institution (mental Higher order conditioning Classical Humanism An approach to psychol-
hospital, prison, and so forth) to inde- conditioning in which a conditioned ogy that focuses on human experience,
pendent living. stimulus is used to reinforce further problems, potentials, and ideals.
learning; that is, a CS is used as if it
Hallucination An imaginary sensation— Hyperopia Difficulty focusing nearby
were a US.
such as seeing, hearing, or smelling some- objects (farsightedness).
thing that does not exist in the external Hippocampus A structure in the
Hypersomnia Extreme daytime
world. brain associated with the regulation of
sleepiness.
emotions and the transfer of informa-
Hallucinogen Any substance that al-
tion from short-term memory to long- Hyperthyroidism Faster metabolism
ters or distorts sensory impressions.
term memory. and excitability caused by an overactive
Halo effect The tendency of an inter- thyroid gland.
Homeostasis A steady state of bodily
viewer to extend a favorable or unfa-
equilibrium normally maintained au- Hypnic jerk A reflex muscle twitch
vorable impression to unrelated as-
tomatically by various physiological throughout the body that often occurs
pects of an individual’s personality.
mechanisms. as one is falling asleep.
Handedness A preference for using
Homogamy Marriage of two people Hypnagogic images Vivid mental im-
the right or left hand in most activities.
who are similar to one another. ages that may occur just as one enters
Hardy personality A personality style stage 1 sleep; although somewhat
Homophobia A powerful fear of ho-
associated with superior stress resistance. dream-like, the images are usually not
mosexuality.
associated with REMs.
Hassle Any distressing, day-to-day
Homosexual A person romantically and
annoyance; also called a microstressor. Hypnosis An altered state of con-
erotically attracted to same-sex persons.
sciousness characterized by narrowed
Health psychology Study of the ways
Honesty test A paper-and-pencil test attention and increased suggestibility.
in which psychological principles can
designed to detect attitudes, beliefs,
be used to maintain and promote Hypnotic susceptibility scale Any test
and behavior patterns that predispose a
health. designed to assess an individual’s ca-
person to engage in dishonest behavior.
pacity for becoming hypnotized.
Heredity (“nature”) The transmission
Hormonal sex Sex as indicated by a
of physical and psychological charac- Hypoactive sexual desire A persistent
preponderance of estrogens (female) or
teristics from parents to offspring loss of sexual motivation.
androgens (male) in the body.
through genes.

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Glossary G-15

Hypochondriac A person who is ex- Illogical thought Thought that is in- possible cause of some change in behav-
cessively preoccupied with minor bod- tuitive, invalid, or haphazard. ior. The values that this variable takes do
ily problems or who complains about not depend on any other condition;
Illusion A misleading or distorted
illnesses that appear to be imaginary. they are chosen by the experimenter.
perception.
Hypochondriasis A preoccupation Individual intelligence test A test of
Illusory figure An implied shape that
with minor bodily problems and the intelligence designed for administra-
is not actually bounded by an edge or
presence of illnesses that appear to be tion to a single individual by a trained
an outline.
imaginary. specialist.
Image Most often, a mental represen-
Hypoglycemia Below-normal blood Individual traits Personality traits
tation that has picture-like qualities;
sugar level. that comprise a person’s unique indi-
an icon.
vidual qualities.
Hypopituitary dwarfism Shortness
Imitation An attempt to match one’s
and smallness caused by too little Individuating information Informa-
own behavior to another person’s be-
growth hormone. tion that helps define a person as an
havior.
individual rather than as a member of
Hypothalamus A small area at the
Immune system System that mobi- a group or social category.
base of the brain that regulates many
lizes bodily defenses (such as white
aspects of motivation and emotion, es- Inductive thought A type of thinking
blood cells) against invading microbes
pecially hunger, thirst, and sexual be- in which a general rule or principle is in-
and other disease agents.
havior. ferred from a series of specific examples;
Implicit memory A memory that a for instance, inferring the laws of gravity
Hypothesis The predicted outcome
person does not know exists; a mem- by observing many falling objects.
of an experiment or an educated guess
ory that is retrieved unconsciously.
about the relationship between vari- Industrial-organizational psychology The
ables. Impossible figure A stimulus pattern psychology of work and organizations, es-
that cannot be organized into a stable pecially with respect to personnel selec-
Hypothyroidism Slower metabolism
perception. tion, human relations, and management.
and sluggishness caused by an underac-
tive thyroid gland. Imprinting A rapid and relatively per- Information bits Meaningful units of
manent type of learning that occurs dur- information, such as numbers, letters,
Hysteria Wild emotional excitability
ing a limited time period early in life. words, or phrases.
sometimes associated with the devel-
opment of apparent physical disabili- Inattentional blindness Failure to Information chunks Information bits
ties (numbness, blindness, and the perceive a stimulus that is in plain grouped into larger units.
like) without known physical cause. view but not the focus of attention.
Innate behavior Inborn, unlearned be-
Icon A mental image or representation. In-basket test A testing procedure havior.
that simulates the individual decision-
Id According to Freud, the most primi- Insanity Legally, a mental disability
making challenges that executives face.
tive part of personality, which remains shown by an inability to manage one’s
unconscious, supplies energy to other Incentive value The value a goal holds affairs or to be aware of the conse-
parts of the psyche, and demands im- for a person or animal above and be- quences of one’s actions.
mediate gratification. yond the goal’s ability to fill a need.
Insecure-ambivalent attachment An
Ideal self An idealized image of one- Incongruence State that exists when anxious emotional bond marked by a
self (the person one would like to be). there is a discrepancy between one’s desire to be with a parent or caregiver
experiences and self-image or between and resistance to being reunited.
Identical twins Twins who develop
one’s self-image and ideal self.
from the same egg and who, therefore, Insecure-avoidant attachment An
have identical genes. Incongruent person A person who anxious emotional bond marked by a
has an inaccurate self-image or a per- tendency to avoid reunion with a par-
Identification Incorporating the goals
son whose self-image differs greatly ent or caregiver.
and values of another person into
from the ideal self.
one’s own behavior; feeling emotion- Insight A sudden mental reorganiza-
ally connected to a person and want- Independent variable In an experiment, tion of a problem that causes the solu-
ing to be like him or her. the condition being investigated as a tion to seem self-evident.

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G-16 Glossary

Insomnia Difficulty in getting to Intracellular thirst Thirst triggered stimulus that can be reliably detected
sleep or staying asleep. when fluid is drawn out of cells due to as a change in amount, value, or in-
an increased concentration of salts and tensity.
Instructional games Educational
minerals outside the cell.
computer programs designed to re- Just-world beliefs Belief that people
semble games in order to motivate Intrauterine environment The physical generally get what they deserve.
learning. and chemical environment within the
Justification In cognitive dissonance
uterus during prenatal development.
Instrumental behavior Behavior di- theory, the degree to which one’s ac-
rected toward the achievement of some Intrinsic motivation Motivation that tions are justified by rewards or other
goal; behavior that is instrumental in comes from personal enjoyment of an ac- circumstances.
producing some effect. tivity rather than from external rewards.
Keyword method As an aid to memory,
Intelligence An overall capacity to think Introspection To look within; to ex- using a familiar word or image to link
rationally, act purposefully, and deal ef- amine one’s own thoughts, feelings, or two items.
fectively with the environment. sensations.
Kinesics Study of the meaning of
Intelligence quotient (IQ) An index Introvert A person whose attention is body movements, posture, hand ges-
of intelligence defined as a person’s focused inward; a shy, reserved, self- tures, and facial expressions, com-
mental age divided by his or her centered person. monly called body language.
chronological age and multiplied by
Intuitive thought Quick, impulsive Kinesthetic imagery Images created
100.
thinking that makes little or no use of by produced, remembered, or imag-
Interference The tendency for new formal reasoning and logic. ined muscular sensations.
memories to impair retrieval of older
Inverted U function A curve, roughly Kinesthetic senses The senses of body
memories, and the reverse.
in the shape of an upside-down U, that movement and positioning.
Internal cause A cause of behavior that relates the quality of performance to
Knowledge of results During learn-
is assumed to lie within a person— levels of arousal.
ing, feedback or information provided
for instance, a need, preference, or
Ion An electrically charged molecule. about the correctness of responses or
personality trait.
other aspects of performance.
Ion channels Channels through the
Internal representation Any image,
axon membrane. Language A collection of words or
concept, precept, symbol, or process
symbols and rules for combining
used to mentally represent information Iris Colored circular muscle of the eye
them, which allows them to be used
during thought. that opens and closes to admit more
for thinking and communication.
or less light into the eye.
Internet A connection of networks
Large-group awareness training Any of
that enables computers to communi- Irrelevant questions In a polygraph
a number of programs (many of them
cate with one another, usually exam, neutral, non-threatening, or non-
commercialized) that claim to increase
through the telephone system. emotional questions.
self-awareness and facilitate constructive
Interpersonal attraction Social attrac- Ishihara test A test for color blindness personal change.
tion to another person. and color weakness.
Latency (Freudian) According to
Interview (personality) A face-to-face James-Lange theory According to this Freud, a period in childhood when
meeting held for the purpose of gain- theory, emotional feelings follow bod- psychosexual development is more or
ing information about an individual’s ily arousal and come from awareness less interrupted.
personal history, personality traits, cur- of such arousal.
Latency (response) The amount of
rent psychological state, and so forth.
Jigsaw classroom A method of reduc- time that passes between the presenta-
Intimate distance The most private ing prejudice in which each student re- tion of a stimulus and the occurrence
space immediately surrounding the ceives a different part of a body of in- of a response.
body (about 18 inches from the skin). formation needed to complete a project
Latent dream content The hidden or
or prepare for a test.
Intracranial stimulation Direct elec- symbolic meaning of a dream, as re-
trical stimulation and activation of Just noticeable difference The vealed by dream interpretation and
brain tissue. amount of increase or decrease in a analysis.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-17

Latent learning Learning that occurs Limbic system A system of intercon- Maintenance rehearsal Silently repeat-
without obvious reinforcement and nected structures in the forebrain that ing or mentally reviewing information
that remains unexpressed until rein- are closely associated with emotional to hold it in short-term memory.
forcement is provided. response.
Major depressive disorder A mood
Lateralization Specialization in the Limen A threshold or a limit. disorder in which the person has suf-
abilities of the brain hemispheres. fered one or more intense episodes of
Linear relationship A relationship that
depression.
Law of effect Responses that lead to forms a straight line when graphed.
desirable effects are repeated; those that Major mood disorders Disorders
Lithium carbonate A drug used to
produce undesirable results are not. marked by lasting extremes of mood or
lessen mood swings in persons suffering
emotion and often accompanied by psy-
Learned helplessness A learned in- from some types of affective disorders.
chotic symptoms.
ability to overcome obstacles or to
Lobes (cerebral cortex) Areas on the
avoid punishment. A learned state of Major tranquilizers (antipsychotics)
cortex bordered by major fissures or
passivity and inaction in the face of Drugs that, in addition to having tran-
associated with particular functions.
aversive stimuli. quilizing effects, also tend to reduce hal-
Localization of function The princi- lucinations and delusional thinking.
Learning Any relatively permanent
ple stating that sensations are deter-
change in behavior that can be attrib- Maladaptive behavior Behavior that
mined by the area of the brain that is
uted to experience but not to fatigue, makes it more difficult for a person to
activated.
malnutrition, injury, and so forth. adapt to his or her environment and
Lock and key theory The theory of meet the demands of day-to-day life.
Learning psychologist A psychologist
olfaction that relates odors to the
who studies how learning occurs. Male erectile disorder An inability to
shapes of chemical molecules.
maintain an erection for sexual inter-
Learning theorist A psychologist in-
Logical thought Drawing conclusions course.
terested in the ways that learning
on the basis of formal principles of
shapes and explains personality. Male orgasmic disorder An inability
reasoning.
to reach orgasm during intercourse.
Leptin A substance released by fat
Logotherapy A form of existential
cells that inhibits eating. Manic Extremely excited, hyperactive,
therapy that emphasizes the need to
or irritable.
Lesbianism Female homosexuality. find and maintain meaning in one’s
life. Manifest dream content The surface,
Lexigram A geometric shape used as a
“visible” content of a dream; dream
symbol for a word. Long-term memory (LTM) The
images as they are remembered by the
memory system used for relatively per-
Libido In Freudian theory, the force, dreamer.
manent storage of meaningful infor-
primarily pleasure-oriented, that ener-
mation. Manipulation drive Drive to investi-
gizes the subparts of personality.
gate objects by touching and handling
Looking chamber An experimental
Life change units (LCUs) Numerical them.
apparatus used to test infant percep-
values assigned to each life event on
tion by presenting visual stimuli and Mantra A word or sound used as the
the Social Readjustment Rating Scale
observing infant responses. focus of attention in concentrative
and used to predict the likelihood of
meditation.
illness. Loudness The intensity of a sound;
determined by the amplitude of sound Marijuana The leaves and flowers of
Life expectancy The average number
waves. the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.
of years a person of a given sex, race,
and nationality can expect to live. Low-ball technique A strategy in Masochism Deriving sexual arousal or
which commitment is gained first to pleasure from having pain inflicted
Life stages Widely recognized periods
reasonable or desirable terms, which are during the sex act.
of life corresponding to various ages
then made less reasonable or desirable.
and broad phases of development. Mass media Collectively, all media
Lucid dream A dream in which the that reach very large audiences (maga-
Light sleep Stage 1 sleep; marked by
dreamer feels awake and capable of zines, for instance, are a medium of
small, irregular brain waves and some
normal thought and action. mass communication).
alpha waves.

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G-18 Glossary

Massed practice A practice schedule Memory The mental system for re- Metabolic rate The rate at which en-
in which studying continues for long ceiving, storing, organizing, altering, ergy is consumed by bodily activity.
periods, without interruption. and recovering information.
Methamphetamine A stimulant drug
Mastery training Reinforcement of re- Memory cue Any stimulus associated closely related to amphetamine in
sponses that lead to mastery of a threat with a particular memory. The pres- structure and effect.
or control over one’s environment. ence of such cues usually enhances
Micro-electrode An electrode small
memory retrieval.
Masturbation Production of sexual plea- enough to record the activity of a sin-
sure or orgasm through manipulation of Memory decay The fading or gle neuron.
the genitals (other than by intercourse). weakening of memories assumed to
Micromovements Tiny, nearly imper-
occur when memory traces become
Maternal influences The aggregate of ceptible movements associated with
weaker.
all psychological effects mothers have changes in muscular tension and
on their children. Memory structure The pattern of as- activity.
sociations among bits of information
Maternity blues A brief and relatively Microsleep A momentary shift in brain-
stored in memory.
mild state of depression often experi- wave patterns to those of sleep.
enced by mothers 2 or 3 days after Memory traces Hypothesized physical
Microstressor Any distressing, day-to-
giving birth. changes that take place in the brain as
day annoyance; also called a hassle.
it stores information; engrams.
Maturation The physical growth and
Midbrain The area of the brain con-
development of the body and nervous Mental age The average mental abil-
sisting of structures linking the fore-
system. ity displayed by people of a given age.
brain and the brainstem.
Maximum life span The biologically Mental disorder A significant impair-
Mild punishment Punishment that
determined maximum number of ment in psychological functioning.
has a relatively weak effect, especially
years humans could live under optimal
Mental hospitalization Confinement punishment that only temporarily
conditions.
to a protected environment that pro- slows responding.
MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphet- vides various forms of therapy for
Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)
amine) A stimulant drug closely related mental, emotional, and behavioral
A hypothesized explanation for hyper-
to amphetamine and commonly known problems.
activity, involving a lag in brain devel-
as Ecstasy.
Mental retardation The presence of a opment or low-level damage to the
Mean world view Viewing the world developmental disability, a formal IQ brain.
and other people as dangerous and score below 70, or a significant im-
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
threatening. pairment of adaptive behavior.
Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) The latest
Means-ends analysis An analysis of Mental rotation The ability to change version of one of the best-known and
how to reduce the difference between the position of an image in mental most widely used objective personality
the present state of affairs and a de- space to examine it from a new per- questionnaires.
sired goal. spective.
Minor tranquilizers Drugs (such as
Mechanical solution A problem solu- Mesmerize To hypnotize. Valium) that produce relaxation or re-
tion achieved by trial and error or by a duce anxiety.
Meta-analysis A statistical technique
fixed procedure based on learned
for combining the results of many Mirror technique Observing another
rules.
studies on the same subject. person reenact one’s own behavior,
Meditation A mental technique for like a character in a play; designed
Meta-needs In Maslow’s hierarchy,
quieting the mind and body. to help persons to see themselves more
those needs above and beyond the ordi-
clearly.
Medulla The enlarged stalk at the base nary; needs associated with impulses for
of the brain that connects to the spinal self-actualization. MMPI-2 profile A graphic represen-
cord and controls vital life functions. tation of an individual’s scores on each
Metabolic disorder Any disorder in
of the primary scales of the MMPI-2.
Melatonin A hormone produced by metabolism (the rate of energy pro-
the pineal gland in response to cycles duction and use in the body). Mnemonic A memory system or aid.
of light and dark.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-19

Model (learning) A person (either live Motor neuron A nerve cell that car- depend on one another to meet each
or filmed) who serves as an example ries motor commands from the central person’s needs or goals.
for observational learning or vicarious nervous system to muscles and glands.
Myelin A fatty layer coating some ax-
conditioning.
Motor program A mental plan or ons that increases the rate at which
Model (scientific) In research, an ani- model that guides skilled movement. nerve impulses travel along the axon.
mal whose behavior is used to derive
Motor skill A series of actions Myoclonus Restless spasms of the leg
principles that may apply to human
molded into a smooth and efficient muscles that disturb sleep.
behavior.
performance.
Myopia A visual defect that makes it
Modeling Any process in which in-
MRI scan Magnetic resonance imag- difficult to focus distant objects (near-
formation is imparted by example, be-
ing; a computer-enhanced three- sightedness).
fore direct practice is allowed.
dimensional representation of the
Narcolepsy A serious sleep distur-
Monocular depth cues Depth cues brain or body, based on the body’s
bance in which the individual suffers
that can be sensed with one eye. response to a magnetic field.
uncontrollable sleep attacks.
Mood A low-intensity, long-lasting Müller-Lyer illusion A stimulus con-
Natural clinical test An accident or
emotional state. sisting of two parallel lines tipped with
other natural event that provides psy-
inward or outward pointing V’s. Al-
Mood disorder A major disturbance chological data.
though they are of equal length, one
in mood or emotion, such as depres-
of the lines appears longer than the Natural selection Darwin’s theory
sion or mania.
other. that evolution favors those plants
Moon illusion The apparent change and animals best suited to their living
Multiculturalism Giving equal status,
in size that occurs as the moon moves conditions.
recognition, and acceptance to differ-
from the horizon (large moon) to
ent ethnic, racial, and cultural groups. Natural setting The environment in
overhead (small moon).
which an organism typically lives.
Multiple approach-avoidance conflict
Moral anxiety Apprehension felt
Being simultaneously attracted to and Naturalistic observation Observation
when one’s thoughts, impulses, or ac-
repelled by each of several alternatives. and recording of naturally occurring
tions conflict with standards enforced
behavior that is not manipulated
by the superego. Multiple aptitude test Test that mea-
experimentally.
sures two or more aptitudes.
Moral development The develop-
Near-death experience A pattern of
ment of values, beliefs, and Multiple personality A form of disso-
experiences that may occur when a
thinking abilities that act as a ciative disorder in which a person de-
person is clinically dead and then
guide regarding what is acceptable velops two or more distinct personali-
resuscitated.
behavior. ties.
Need An internal deficiency that may
Moro reflex Neonatal reflex evoked Muscular imagery Any mental repre-
energize behavior.
by sudden loss of support or the sentation based on produced, remem-
sounding of a loud noise; in response, bered, or imagined muscular sensa- Need for achievement (nAch) The
the arms are extended and then tions; for instance, the images desire to excel or meet some internal-
brought toward each other. produced when one imagines ham- ized standard of excellence.
mering a nail.
Morphemes The smallest meaningful Need for power The desire to have
units in a language, such as syllables or Muscular responses Visible move- social impact and control over others.
words. ment of the muscles or unseen
Need to affiliate The desire to associ-
changes in their tension, which creates
Motivation Mechanisms within an ate with other people.
kinesthetic sensations.
organism that initiate, sustain, and di-
Negative after-potential A drop in
rect activities. Mutual absorption With regard to
electrical charge below the resting
romantic love, the almost exclusive at-
Motor cortex An area on the potential.
tention lovers give to one another.
top of the brain directly associ-
Negative attention seeking A pattern,
ated with control of voluntary Mutual interdependence A condition
seen especially in children, in which
movements. in which two or more persons must
misbehavior is used to gain attention.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

G-20 Glossary

Negative instance In concept learn- Neuropeptide Y A substance in the Norm (testing) An average score for a
ing, an object or event that does not brain that initiates eating. designated group of people.
belong to the concept class.
Neuropeptides Brain chemicals that Normal curve A bell-shaped curve with
Negative reinforcement Occurs when regulate the activity of neurons, thereby a large number of scores in the middle,
a response is followed with an end to influencing memory, emotion, pain, tapering to very few extremely high and
discomfort or with the removal of a hunger, and other behavior. low scores.
negative state of affairs.
Neurosis An outdated term once used NREM sleep Non-rapid eye move-
Negative relationship A relationship to refer, as a group, to anxiety disor- ment sleep characteristic of stages 2, 3,
in which increases in one measure cor- ders, somatoform disorders, dissocia- and 4, and largely dream free.
respond to decreases in the other. tive disorders, and some forms of de-
Obedience Conformity to the de-
pression.
Negative self-statements Self-critical mands of an authority.
thoughts that increase anxiety and Neurotic anxiety Apprehension felt
Object In making attributions, the
lower performance. when the ego must struggle to maintain
aim, motive, or target of an action.
control over id impulses.
Negative transfer Mastery of one task
Object permanence Concept, gained
conflicts with learning or performing Neurotransmitter Any of a number of
in infancy, that objects continue to ex-
another. chemical substances secreted by neurons
ist even when they are hidden from
that alter activity in other neurons.
Neglect Ignoring one side of vision or view.
of the body after damage to a brain Neutral stimulus A stimulus that fails
Objective test A test that gives the
hemisphere. to elicit a response.
same score when different people cor-
Neo-Freudian A personality theorist Nicotine A potent stimulant drug rect it.
who accepts the broad features of found primarily in tobacco; nicotine is
Observation Directly gathering data
Freud’s theory but has revised the theory a known carcinogen.
by recording facts or events.
to fit his or her own concepts.
Night blindness A visual defect in
Observational learning Learning
Neonate A newborn infant during the which daylight vision is normal, but
achieved by watching and imitating the
first weeks following birth. blindness occurs under conditions of
actions of another or noting the conse-
low illumination.
Nerve A bundle of neuron fibers sup- quences of those actions.
ported by connective tissue; nerves can Night terror A very frightening
Observer bias The tendency of an
be seen with the unaided eye; neuron NREM sleep episode.
observer to distort observations or
fibers are microscopic projections from
Nightmare An upsetting dream. perceptions to match his or her
single cells.
expectations.
Non-homeostatic drive A drive that
Nerve deafness Deafness caused by dam-
is relatively independent of physical Observer effect Changes in a person’s
age to the hair cells or auditory nerve.
deprivation cycles or bodily need behavior brought about by an aware-
Network model A model of memory states. ness of being observed.
that views it as an organized system of
Non-reinforcement Withholding re- Obsession Recurring irrational or dis-
linked information.
inforcement after selected responses turbing thoughts or mental images a
Neurilemma A layer of living cells that (in other words, extinction training). person cannot prevent.
encases the axons of some neurons.
Nonsense syllables Invented three-letter Obsessive-compulsive disorder An
Neurogenesis The production of new words used to test learning and memory. extreme, unavoidable preoccupation
brain cells. with certain thoughts and compulsive
Noradrenaline A hormone produced
performance of certain behaviors.
Neurological soft signs Subtle behav- by the adrenal glands that tends to
ioral signs of brain dysfunction, in- arouse the body; noradrenaline is asso- Occipital lobes Portion at the back of
cluding clumsiness, an awkward gait, ciated with anger. the cerebral cortex that includes areas
poor hand-eye coordination, and other where vision registers in the brain.
Norm (social) An accepted (but often
perceptual and motor problems.
unspoken) standard of conduct for ap- Oedipus conflict Freudian concept re-
Neurons Individual nerve cells. propriate behavior. ferring to a boy’s sexual attraction to

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-21

his mother and feelings of rivalry with Organ of Corti Center part of the Overly permissive parents Parents
his father. cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, who give their children little guidance,
and membranes. allow them too much freedom, or do
Olfaction The sense of smell.
not require the child to take responsi-
Organic mental disorder A mental or
Olfactory area Sites on the frontal bility for his or her actions.
emotional problem caused by mal-
lobes where information on smell reg-
function of the brain. Overprotection Excessively guarding
isters.
and shielding a child from possible
Organic psychosis A psychosis caused
Open-ended interview An interview stresses.
by a known brain injury or disease.
in which persons are allowed to freely
Overt behavior An action or response
state their views. Organismic valuing Placing value on
that is directly observable.
an experience on the basis of how one
Operant conditioning Learning based
responds to it as an entire organism; Ovulation The release of an ovum
on the consequences of responding.
judgment made directly on the basis (egg cell) by the ovaries; ova combine
Operant extinction The weakening of one’s perceptions and feelings. with sperm cells to begin the growth
or disappearance of a non-reinforced of an embryo.
Organizational psychology A field
operant response.
that focuses on the psychology Pain disorder Pain that has no identi-
Operant reinforcer Any event that re- of work and on behavior within fiable physical cause and appears to be
liably increases the probability or fre- organizations. of psychological origin.
quency of responses it follows.
Orgasm A climax and release of sex- Palmistry False system that claims to
Operant shaping Gradually molding ual excitement. reveal personality traits and to predict
responses by rewarding ever-closer ap- the future by “reading” lines on the
Orientation response The pattern of
proximations to a final desired pattern. palms of the hands.
changes occurring throughout the
Operant stimulus discrimination body that prepares an organism to re- Panic disorder (with agoraphobia)
The tendency to make a response ceive information from a particular The person is in a chronic state of
when stimuli previously associated stimulus. anxiety and also has brief moments of
with reward are present and to with- sudden, intense, unexpected panic. In
Originality In tests of creativity, origi-
hold the response when stimuli associ- addition, the person fears that these
nality refers to the degree of novelty or
ated with non-reward are present. panic attacks will occur in public
unusualness of the solutions produced.
places or unfamiliar situations.
Operant stimulus generalization The
Otolith organs Vestibular structures
tendency to respond to stimuli similar Panic disorder (without agoraphobia)
sensitive to movement, acceleration, and
to those present when an operant re- The person is in a chronic state of
gravity.
sponse was acquired. anxiety and also has brief moments of
Oval window A membrane on the sudden, intense, unexpected panic.
Operational definition Defining a
cochlea connected to the third audi-
scientific concept by stating the spe- Paranoid psychosis A delusional dis-
tory ossicle.
cific actions or procedures used to order centered especially on delusions
measure it. For example, “hunger” Overdisclosure Self-disclosure that ex- of persecution.
might be defined as “the number of ceeds what is appropriate for a partic-
Paranoid schizophrenia Schizophre-
hours of food deprivation.” ular relationship or social situation.
nia marked by a preoccupation with
Opponent-process theory (sensation) Overeating Eating in excess of one’s delusions or by frequent auditory hal-
The theory of color vision stating that daily caloric needs. lucinations related to a single theme,
three coding systems (red or green, yel- especially grandeur or persecution.
Overgeneralization Blowing a single
low or blue, black or white) are used
event out of proportion by extending Paraphilias Compulsive or destructive
by the visual system to analyze color
it to a large number of unrelated deviations in sexual preferences or
information.
situations. behavior.
Oral stage In Freud’s theory, the pe-
Overlearning Study or learning that Paraprofessional An individual who
riod early in life when infants are pre-
continues after initial mastery of skills works in a near-professional capacity
occupied with the mouth as a source
or information. under the supervision of a more
of pleasure and means of expression.
highly trained person.

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G-22 Glossary

Parapsychology The study of extra- Peer counselor A non-professional Personal interview Formal or infor-
normal psychological events, such as person who has learned basic counsel- mal questioning of job applicants to
extrasensory perception. ing skills. learn their qualifications and to gain
an impression of their personalities.
Parasympathetic rebound Excess ac- Peer group A group of people who
tivity in the parasympathetic nervous share similar social status. Personal prejudice Prejudicial atti-
system following a period of intense tudes held toward persons who are
Perception The mental process of or-
emotion. perceived as a direct threat to one’s
ganizing sensations into meaningful
own interests.
Parasympathetic system A branch patterns.
of the autonomic system responsible Personal space An area immediately
Perceptual category A preexisting
for quieting the body and conserving surrounding the body that is regarded as
class, type, or grouping.
energy. private and subject to personal control.
Perceptual defense Resistance to
Parietal lobes Area at the top of the Personality An individual’s unique and
perceiving threatening or disturbing
brain that includes sites where bodily relatively unchanging psychological
stimuli.
sensations register in the brain. characteristics and behavior patterns.
Perceptual expectancy (or set) A readi-
Part learning Separately studying sub- Personality disintegration A shatter-
ness to perceive in a particular manner,
parts of a larger body of information ing of the coordination among
induced by strong expectations.
(such as sections of a textbook chapter). thoughts, actions, and emotions nor-
Perceptual features Important ele- mally found in personality.
Partial hospitalization Treatment in
ments of a stimulus pattern, such as
which patients spend only part of their Personality disorder A deeply in-
lines, shapes, edges, spots, and colors.
time at the hospital. grained, unhealthy, maladaptive per-
Perceptual habits Established patterns sonality pattern.
Partial reinforcement A pattern in
of perceptual organization and atten-
which only some responses are rein- Personality psychologist A psycholo-
tion.
forced (also called intermittent rein- gist who studies personality traits and
forcement). Perceptual hypothesis An initial guess dynamics.
regarding the correct way to organize
Partial reinforcement effect Greater Personality questionnaire A paper-
(perceive) a stimulus pattern.
resistance to extinction is found in re- and-pencil test consisting of questions
sponses acquired on a schedule of par- Perceptual stimulation Varied, pat- designed to reveal various aspects of
tial reinforcement. terned, and meaningful sensory input. the respondent’s personality.
Passion The presence of heightened Performance intelligence Intelligence Personality theory An interrelated
arousal in one’s emotional response to measured by solving puzzles, assembling system of concepts and principles used
another person. objects, completing pictures, and doing to understand and explain personality.
other non-verbal tasks.
Passive compliance Passively bending to Personality trait A behavioral charac-
unreasonable demands or circumstances. Peripheral nervous system All parts teristic displayed in most situations.
of the nervous system lying outside
Paternal influences The aggregate of Personality type A style of personality
the brain and spinal cord.
all psychological effects fathers have defined by a group of related traits.
on their children. Peripheral vision Vision at the pe-
Personnel psychology Branch of
riphery (edges) of the visual field.
Peak experiences Temporary mo- industrial-organizational psychology
ments of self-actualization, marked by Personal distance The distance main- concerned with testing, selection, place-
feelings of ecstasy, harmony, and deep tained when interacting with close ment, and promotion of employees.
meaning. friends (about 18 inches to 4 feet from
Persuasion A deliberate attempt to
the body).
Peak performance A performance change attitudes or beliefs with infor-
during which physical, mental, and Personal frustration A negative emo- mation and arguments.
emotional states are harmonious and tional state caused by personal charac-
PET scan Positron emission tomogra-
optimal. teristics that hinder satisfaction of a
phy; a computer-generated image of
motive or that block progress toward a
Pedophilia Sex with children, or child brain activity, based on glucose con-
goal.
molesting. sumption in the brain.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-23

Phallic stage In Freud’s theory, the Pictorial depth cues Features found Positive reinforcement Occurs when
psychosexual stage (roughly age 3 to in paintings, drawings, and pho- a response is followed with a reward or
6) when a person is preoccupied with tographs that impart information other positive event.
the genitals as a source of pleasure. about space, depth, and distance.
Positive relationship A relationship in
Phantom limb The illusory sensation Pineal gland Gland in the brain that which increases in one measure corre-
that a limb still exists after it is lost helps regulate body rhythms and sleep spond to increases in the other.
through accident or amputation. cycles.
Positive self-regard Thinking of one-
Phenylketonuria A genetic disease Pitch Higher or lower tones; related self as a good, lovable, worthwhile
that allows phenylpyruvic acid to ac- to the frequency of sound waves. person.
cumulate in the body.
Pituitary gland The “master gland” at Positive transfer Mastery of one task
Philosophy The study of knowledge, the base of the brain whose hormones aids learning or performing another.
reality, and human nature. influence the output of other endocrine
Positron emission tomography An im-
glands.
Phobia An intense and unrealistic fear age of brain activity based on glucose
of some object or situation. Place theory Theory of hearing consumption.
which says that higher- and lower-
Phobic disorder A type of anxiety dis- Possible self A collection of thoughts,
frequency tones are detected at spe-
order in which irrational fears (phobias) beliefs, feelings, and images concern-
cific locations in the cochlea.
are focused on specific objects, activi- ing a self one could become.
ties, or situations. Placebo A substance that resembles a
Posttraumatic stress disorder Psycho-
drug but has no chemical effect.
Phonemes The basic sounds of a lan- logical disturbance lasting more than
guage that can be joined into syllables Placebo effect Changes in behavior 1 month following stresses, such as
and words. due to expectations that a drug (or natural disasters or military combat,
other treatment) will have some effect. that would produce anxiety in anyone
Photon One quantum of light energy.
who experienced them.
Plasticity The brain’s capacity for re-
Photoreceptor Sensory receptors sen-
vising its organization. Postconventional moral reasoning
sitive to light and specialized for the
Moral thinking based on carefully exam-
transduction of light stimuli into Plateau phase The second phase of
ined and self-chosen moral principles.
neural impulses. sexual response during which physical
arousal is further heightened. Postpartum depression A mild to
Phototherapy A treatment for sea-
moderately severe depression that be-
sonal affective disorder that involves Pleasure principle The principle un-
gins within 3 months following
exposure to bright, full-spectrum der which the id operates, consisting
childbirth.
light. of a desire for immediate satisfaction
of wishes, desires, or needs. Power assertion The use of physical
Phrenology False and antiquated sys-
punishment or coercion to enforce child
tem based on the belief that personal- Polygenic characteristics Personal
discipline.
ity traits are revealed by the shape of characteristics that are influenced by a
the skull. combination of genes. Preadaptation Gradual matching of
sleep-waking cycles to a new time
Physical attractiveness A person’s de- Polygraph A device for recording sev-
schedule before an anticipated major
gree of physical beauty, as defined by eral physiological activities, typically
change in circadian rhythms.
his or her culture. including heart rate, blood pressure,
respiration, and galvanic skin response; Precognition The purported ability to
Physical dependence Physical addic-
commonly called a “lie detector.” accurately predict future events.
tion, as indicated by the presence of
drug tolerance and withdrawal symp- Population An entire group of ani- Preconscious An area of the mind
toms. mals or people belonging to a particu- that contains information not cur-
lar category (for example, all college rently in consciousness but that can be
Physiological changes in emotion
students or all married women). voluntarily brought to awareness.
Changes in bodily activities (especially
involuntary responses) that accompany Positive instance In concept learning, Preconventional moral reasoning
emotional states. an object or event that belongs to the Moral thinking based on the conse-
concept class. quences of one’s choices or actions

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G-24 Glossary

(punishment, reward, or an exchange Primary sexual characteristics Gender tured stimuli. Subjects are presumed
of favors). as defined by the genitals and internal to project their own thoughts and im-
reproductive organs. pulses onto these stimuli.
Prefrontal lobotomy An antiquated
surgery in which portions of the Primary visual area Main area of the Prosocial behavior Behavior toward
frontal lobes were destroyed or discon- cerebral cortex that processes visual in- others that is helpful, constructive, or al-
nected from other brain areas. formation. truistic.
Prejudice A negative attitude or pre- Primate A member of the family of Prototype An ideal, or model, used as a
judgment held against members of a mammals including humans, apes, prime example of a particular concept.
particular group of people. and monkeys.
Proxemics Systematic study of the
Premack principle Any high- Priming Activating implicit (hidden) human use of space, particularly in-
frequency response can be used to memories by providing partial infor- terpersonal space in various social
reinforce a low-frequency response. mation that is linked with them. settings.
Premature ejaculation Ejaculation Principle of motor primacy Principle Pseudo-memories False memories
that consistently occurs before the that motor, muscular, and physical de- that a person believes are real or
man and his partner want it to occur. velopment must precede the learning accurate.
of certain skills.
Preoperational stage Period of intellec- Pseudo-psychology Any false and un-
tual development during which children Proactive interference The tendency scientific system of beliefs and prac-
begin to use language and think symbol- for old memories to interfere with the tices that is offered as an explanation
ically, yet remain intuitive and egocen- retrieval of newer memories. of behavior.
tric in their thought.
Proactive maternal involvement Sen- Psi phenomena Events that seem to
Prepared childbirth Techniques to sitive caregiving in which a mother ac- lie outside the realm of accepted scien-
manage discomfort and facilitate birth tively provides her child with educa- tific laws.
with a minimum of painkilling drugs. tional experiences.
Psyche The mind, mental life, and
Presbyopia Farsightedness caused by a Problem-focused coping Directly personality as a whole.
loss of elasticity in the lens due to aging. managing or remedying a stressful or
Psychiatric social worker A profes-
threatening situation.
Pressure A stressful condition that oc- sional who applies social science prin-
curs when a person must respond at, Procedural memory That part of ciples to help patients in clinics and
or near, maximum capacity for long long-term memory made up of condi- hospitals.
time periods. tioned responses and learned skills.
Psychiatrist A medical doctor
Primary appraisal The first step in Productivity The capacity of lan- who specializes in treating mental
coping with a threatening situation, guage for generating new ideas and disorders.
consisting of deciding whether the sit- possibilities.
Psychoactive drug A substance capa-
uation is indeed a threat.
Programmed instruction Any learn- ble of altering attention, memory,
Primary auditory area Main area on ing format that presents information judgment, sense of time, self-control,
the temporal lobes where hearing in small amounts, gives immediate mood, or perception.
registers. practice, and provides continuous
Psychoanalysis A Freudian approach
feedback to learners.
Primary emotions According to to psychotherapy emphasizing the ex-
Plutchik, the most basic emotions are Progressive relaxation A method for ploration of unconscious conflicts.
fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, an- producing deep relaxation of all parts
Psychoanalyst A mental health pro-
ticipation, joy, and acceptance. of the body.
fessional (usually a medical doctor)
Primary motives Innate motives Projection Attributing one’s own feel- trained to practice psychoanalysis.
based on biological needs. ings, shortcomings, or unacceptable
Psychoanalytic theory Freudian the-
impulses to others.
Primary reinforcers Unlearned rein- ory of personality that emphasizes un-
forcers; usually those that satisfy physio- Projective tests Psychological tests conscious forces and internal conflicts
logical needs. making use of ambiguous or unstruc- in its explanations of behavior.

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Glossary G-25

Psychodrama A therapy in which Psychosexual stages In Freud’s theory followed with the removal of a positive
clients act out personal conflicts and of personality development, the oral, reinforcer (response cost).
feelings in the presence of others who anal, phallic, and genital stages, during
Pupil The dark spot at the front of
play supporting roles. which various personality traits are
the eye through which light passes.
formed.
Psychodynamic theory Any theory of
Racism Racial prejudice that has be-
behavior that emphasizes internal con- Psychosis A severe psychological disor-
come institutionalized (that is, it is re-
flicts, motives, and unconscious forces. der characterized by a retreat from real-
flected in government policy, schools,
ity, hallucinations and delusions, dis-
Psychokinesis The purported ability and so forth) and that is enforced by
turbed emotions, and social withdrawal.
to mentally alter or influence objects the existing social power structure.
or events. Psychosocial dilemma A conflict, be-
Random assignment The use of
tween personal impulses and the social
Psycholinguist A specialist in the psy- chance (for example, flipping a coin)
world, that affects development.
chology of language and language de- to assign subjects to experimental and
velopment. Psychosomatic disorder Illness in control groups.
which psychological factors contribute
Psychological dependence Drug de- Random search strategy Trying possi-
to bodily damage or to damaging
pendence that is based primarily on ble solutions to a problem in a more
changes in bodily functioning.
emotional or psychological needs. or less random sequence.
Psychosurgery Any surgical alteration
Psychological situation A situation as Rapid eye movements (REMs) Swift
of the brain designed to bring about
it is perceived and interpreted by an eye movements during sleep.
desirable behavioral or emotional
individual, not as it exists objectively.
changes. Rating scale A list of various personal-
Psychological trauma A psychological ity traits or aspects of behavior on
Psychotherapist Anyone who does
injury or shock, such as that caused by which a person is rated, during or after
psychological therapy. Persons who
violence, abuse, neglect, separation, observation of the person’s behavior.
call themselves psychotherapists are
and so forth.
not always psychologists. Rational-emotive behavior therapy
Psychologist An individual highly (REBT) An approach that attempts to
Psychotherapy Any form of psycho-
trained in the methods, factual knowl- change or remove irrational beliefs that
logical treatment for behavioral or
edge, and theories of psychology. cause emotional problems.
emotional problems.
Psychology The scientific study of Rationalization Justifying one’s own
Psychotic disorder A severe psycho-
human and animal behavior. behavior by giving reasonable and “ra-
logical disorder characterized by a re-
tional” but false reasons for it.
Psychometrics Mental measurement treat from reality, by hallucinations
or testing. and delusions, and by social with- Reaction formation Preventing dan-
drawal. gerous or threatening impulses from
Psychoneuroimmunology Study of
being expressed by exaggerating oppo-
the links among behavior, disease, and Puberty The biologically defined pe-
site behavior.
the immune system. riod during which a person matures
sexually and becomes capable of Readiness Sufficient maturation for
Psychopath An individual who ap-
reproduction. rapid acquisition of a skill.
pears to make no distinctions between
right and wrong and who feels no Public distance Distance at which Reality principle The principle by
guilt about destructive or antisocial formal interactions, such as giving a which the ego functions, involving de-
behavior. speech, occur (about 12 feet or more laying action (or pleasure) until it is
from the body). appropriate.
Psychopathology The scientific study
of mental, emotional, and behavioral Punisher Any event that decreases the Reality testing Obtaining additional
disorders; also refers to abnormal or probability or frequency of responses it information to check on the accuracy
maladaptive behavior, itself. follows. of perceptions.
Psychophysics The study of the rela- Punishment Occurs when a response Recall To supply or reproduce memo-
tionship between physical stimuli and is followed with pain or an otherwise rized information with a minimum of
the sensations they evoke in a human negative event or when a response is external cues.
observer.

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G-26 Glossary

Receptive meditation Meditation in Refractory period A short time pe- REM rebound The occurrence of ex-
which attention is widened to include riod after orgasm during which males tra amounts of REM sleep in a person
an awareness of one’s total subjective ex- are unable to again reach orgasm. who has been deprived of REM sleep.
perience.
Refreezing In brainwashing, the process REM sleep Sleep marked by rapid
Receptor sites Areas on the surface of of rewarding and strengthening new at- eye movements, a return to stage 1
neurons and other cells that are sensi- titudes and beliefs. EEG patterns; usually associated
tive to neurotransmitters or hormones. with dreaming.
Refusal skills training Training that
Recessive gene A gene whose influ- teaches youngsters how to resist influ- Replicate To reproduce or repeat.
ence will be expressed only when it is ences to begin smoking (can also be
Representative sample A small, ran-
paired with a second recessive gene (it applied to other drugs, such as alcohol
domly selected part of a larger popula-
cannot be expressed when paired with or cocaine).
tion that accurately reflects character-
a dominant gene).
Regression Any return to an earlier, istics of the whole population.
Reciprocal inhibition Principle that more infantile behavior pattern.
Representativeness heuristic A ten-
one emotional state can block another,
Rehearsal Silently repeating or men- dency to select wrong answers because
such as joy preventing fear or anxiety
tally reviewing information to hold it they seem to match preexisting mental
inhibiting pleasure.
in short-term memory or aid its long- categories.
Recitation As a memory aid, repeat- term storage.
Repression Unconsciously pushing
ing aloud information one wishes to
Reinforcement Any event that brings out or barring from awareness un-
retain.
about learning or increases the proba- wanted memories.
Recoding Reorganizing or otherwise bility that a particular response will
Research method A systematic ap-
transforming information to facilitate occur.
proach to answering scientific questions.
storage in memory.
Reinforcement value The subjective
Resistance Blocking that occurs in
Recognition Memory in which previ- value a person attaches to a particular
psychoanalysis during free associa-
ously learned material is correctly activity or reinforcer.
tion; topics the client resists thinking
identified as that which was seen be-
Relational concept A concept defined or talking about.
fore.
by the relationship between features of
Resolution (sexual) The fourth phase
Redintegration The process of recon- an object or between an object and its
of sexual response, involving a return
structing an entire complex memory surroundings (for example, “greater
to lower levels of sexual tension and
after observing or remembering only a than,” “lopsided”).
arousal.
part of it.
Relaxation response The pattern of
Respondent conditioning Another
Reference group Any group that an physiological changes that occurs in the
term for classical conditioning.
individual identifies with and uses as a body at times of relaxation.
standard for social comparison. Respondent reinforcement In classi-
Relearning Learning again something
cal conditioning, reinforcement that
Reflection In client-centered therapy, that was previously learned. Used
occurs when the unconditioned stimu-
the process of rephrasing or repeating to measure one’s memory of prior
lus closely follows the conditioned
thoughts and feelings so that clients learning.
stimulus.
become aware of what they are saying
Relevant questions In a polygraph
about themselves. Response Any muscular action, glan-
exam, questions to which only a guilty
dular activity, or other identifiable
Reflex An innate, automatic response person should react.
behavior.
to a stimulus; for example, an eye
Reliability The ability of a test to
blink, knee jerk, or dilation of the Response chaining The assembly of a
yield the same score, or nearly the
pupil. series of responses into a chain of ac-
same score, each time it is given to the
tions leading to reinforcement.
Reflex arc The simplest behavior pat- same person.
tern, involving only three neurons; Response cost Punishment that oc-
REM behavior disorder A failure of
leads from a stimulus to an automatic curs when a response leads to the re-
normal muscle paralysis, leading to vi-
response, such as an eye blink or knee moval of a positive reinforcer.
olent actions during REM sleep.
jerk.

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Licensed to: iChapters User

Glossary G-27

Response-contingent Applying rein- Rhodopsin The photosensitive pigment Savings score The amount of time
forcement, punishment, or other conse- in the rods. saved (expressed as a percentage) when
quences only when a certain response is relearning information.
Rods Visual receptors that are respon-
made.
sive to dim light but produce only Scaffolding The process of adjusting
REST Restricted Environmental black and white sensations. instruction so that it is responsive to a
Stimulation Therapy. beginner’s behavior and supports the
Role conflict An upsetting condition
beginner’s efforts to understand a
Resting potential The electrical that exists when a person tries to oc-
problem or gain a mental skill.
charge that exists between the inside cupy two or more roles that make
and outside of a neuron at rest. conflicting demands on behavior. Scapegoating Selecting a person or
group of people to take the blame for
Retardation Mental capacity signifi- Role model A person who serves
conditions not of their making; habit-
cantly below average; traditionally de- as a positive example of desirable
ual redirection of aggression toward
fined as an IQ score below 70. behavior.
some person or group.
Reticular activating system (RAS) A Role-playing The dramatic enactment
Schedule of reinforcement A rule or
part of the reticular formation that ac- or reenactment of significant life events.
plan for determining which responses
tivates the cerebral cortex.
Role reversal Taking the role of an- will be reinforced.
Reticular formation A network of other person to learn how one’s own
Schizophrenia A psychosis character-
fibers within the medulla associated behavior appears from the other per-
ized by delusions, hallucinations, apa-
with attention, alertness, and activa- son’s perspective.
thy, and a “split” between thought and
tion of higher brain areas.
Romantic love A combination of inti- emotion.
Retina The light-sensitive layer of macy and passion that does not in-
Schizotypal personality A non-
cells at the back of the eye. clude much commitment.
psychotic personality disorder involv-
Retinal Part of the chemical com- Rooting reflex Neonatal reflex elicited ing withdrawal, social isolation,
pound that makes up rhodopsin (also by a light touch to the cheek, causing and odd behavior, but no break
known as retinene). the infant to turn toward the object with reality.
and attempt to nurse.
Retinal disparity Small discrepancies Science A body of knowledge gained
in the images falling on each retina Rorschach Inkblot Test A projective through systematic observation and
caused by separation of the eyes. test comprised of ten standardized experimentation.
inkblots that are described by the per-
Retrieval Recovering information Scientific Conducted strictly accord-
son taking the test.
from memory. ing to the principles of evidence used
Run of luck A statistically unusual in the natural sciences.
Retroactive interference The ten-
outcome (as in getting five heads in a
dency for new memories to interfere Scientific method Testing the truth of
row when flipping a coin) that could
with the retrieval of old memories. a proposition through careful mea-
still occur by chance alone.
surement and controlled observation.
Retrograde amnesia Loss of memory
Sadism Deriving erotic satisfaction by
for events that preceded a head injury Scientific observation Orderly observa-
inflicting pain on another; more
or other amnesia-causing event. tion designed to answer questions about
broadly, love of cruelty.
the world.
Reversibility of thought Recognition
Sample A subset or portion of a
that relationships involving equality or Scientist-practitioner model Training
population.
identity can be reversed (for example, of clinical psychologists to do both re-
if A  B, then B  A). Satiety system Areas on the bottom search and therapy.
middle of the hypothalamus that ter-
Reversible figure A stimulus pattern Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
minate eating.
that allows perceivers to reverse figure- Depression that occurs during fall and
ground organization. Saturation That quality of colors re- winter; presumably related to de-
lated to their being very pure, from a creased exposure to sunlight.
Reward Anything that produces plea-
narrow area of the spectrum, or free
sure or satisfaction; a positive rein- Secondary appraisal Deciding how to
from mixture with other colors.
forcer. cope with a threat or challenge.

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G-28 Glossary

Secondary elaboration Making a Self-assertion A direct, honest expres- Self-testing Answering self-administered
dream more logical and complete sion of feelings and desires. questions.
while remembering it.
Self-awareness Consciousness of one- Semantic differential A measure of
Secondary motives Motives based on self as a person. connotative meaning obtained by rat-
learned psychological needs. ing words or concepts on several di-
Self-concept Personal perception of
mensions.
Secondary reinforcer A learned rein- one’s own personality traits; a collection
forcer; often one that gains reinforcing of beliefs, ideas, and feelings about one’s Semantic memory A subpart of de-
properties through association with a pri- own identity. clarative memory that records imper-
mary reinforcer. sonal knowledge about the world.
Self-disclosure The process of reveal-
Secondary sexual characteristics Sex- ing private thoughts, feelings, and per- Semantics The study of meanings in
ual features other than the genitals sonal history to others. language.
and reproductive organs—such as the
Self-efficacy Belief in your capacity to Semicircular canals Fluid-filled
breasts, body shape, and facial hair.
produce a desired result. vestibular canals; the sensory organs
Secondary traits Personality traits for balance.
Self-esteem Regarding oneself as a
that are inconsistent or relatively
worthwhile person; a positive evalua- Sensate focus Form of therapy that
superficial.
tion of oneself. directs a couple’s attention to natural
Secure attachment A stable and posi- sensations of sexual pleasure.
Self-evaluation Positive and negative
tive emotional bond.
feelings held toward oneself. Sensation The immediate response in
Sedative A substance that calms, the brain caused by excitation of a
Self-fulfilling prophecy A prediction
tranquilizes, or induces sleep by sensory organ.
that prompts people to act in ways that
depressing activity in the nervous
make the prediction come true. Sensation and perception psycholo-
system.
gist A psychologist with expert
Self-handicapping Arranging to per-
Selective attention Voluntarily focus- knowledge on the sense organs and
form under conditions that usually
ing on a selected portion of sensory the processes involved in perception.
lower performance so as to have an ex-
input, most likely by rerouting mes-
cuse available for a poor showing. Sensation seeking A personality char-
sages within the brain.
acteristic of persons who prefer high
Self-help group A group of people
Selective combination In problem levels of stimulation.
who share a particular type of problem
solving, the ability to connect seem-
and provide mutual support to one Sensitive period During develop-
ingly unrelated items of information.
another. ment, a period of increased sensitivity
Selective comparison The ability to to environmental influences. Also, a
Self-hypnosis A state of hypnosis at-
relate a present problem to similar time during which certain events must
tained without the aid of a hypnotist;
problems solved in the past or to prior take place for normal development to
autosuggestion.
experience. occur.
Self-image Total subjective perception
Selective encoding The mental abil- Sensitivity group A group experience
of one’s body and personality (another
ity to select relevant information designed to increase self-awareness and
term for self-concept).
while ignoring useless or distracting sensitivity to others.
information. Self-recording Self-management
Sensorimotor stage Stage of intellec-
based on keeping records of response
Selective perception Perceiving only tual development during which sen-
frequencies.
certain stimuli among a larger array of sory input and motor responses be-
possibilities. Self-regulated learning Active, self- come coordinated.
guided learning.
Self A continuously evolving concep- Sensory adaptation A decrease in sen-
tion of one’s personal identity. Self-reinforcement Praising or reward- sory response to an unchanging stimulus.
ing oneself for having made a particular
Self-actualization The ongoing Sensory analysis The capacity of sen-
response (such as completing a school
process of fully developing one’s per- sory systems to separate incoming in-
assignment).
sonal potential. formation into important elements.

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Glossary G-29

Sensory coding Various codes used by Sexism Institutionalized prejudice Shyness A tendency to avoid others,
the sense organs to transmit informa- against members of either sex, based plus uneasiness and strain when
tion to the brain. solely on their gender. socializing.
Sensory conflict theory Attributes Sexual and gender identity disorders Signal In early language development,
motion sickness to mismatched infor- Any of a wide range of difficulties any behavior, such as touching, vocal-
mation from vision, the vestibular with sexual identity, deviant sexual be- izing, gazing, or smiling, that allows
system, and kinesthesis. havior, or sexual adjustment. non-verbal interaction and turn-taking
between parent and child.
Sensory deprivation Any major re- Sexual aversion Fear, anxiety, or dis-
duction in the amount or variety of gust about engaging in sex. Similarity In interpersonal attraction,
sensory stimulation. the extent to which two people are
Sexual disorder Any of a wide range
alike in background, age, interests, at-
Sensory gating Alteration of incom- of difficulties with sexual identity, sex-
titudes, beliefs, and so forth.
ing sensory messages in the spinal ual behavior, or sexual adjustment.
cord, before they reach the brain. Single-blind experiment An arrange-
Sexual masochism Deriving sexual
ment in which subjects remain un-
Sensory memory The first stage of pleasure from having pain inflicted
aware of whether they are in the ex-
memory, which holds an explicit and during the sex act.
perimental group or the control
literal record of incoming information
Sexual orientation One’s degree of group.
for 2 seconds or less.
emotional and erotic attraction to
Single-word stage In language devel-
Sensory neuron A nerve cell that car- members of the same sex, opposite
opment, the period during which a
ries information from the senses to- sex, or both sexes.
child first begins to use single words.
ward the central nervous system.
Sexual sadism Gaining sexual plea-
Situational context The social situa-
Separation anxiety Distress displayed sure by inflicting pain during the
tion, behavioral setting, or general cir-
by infants when they are separated sex act.
cumstances in which an action takes
from their parents or principal care-
Sexual script An unspoken mental place.
givers.
plan that defines a “plot,” dialogue,
Situational demands Unstated expec-
Serial position effect The tendency and actions expected to take place in a
tations that define desirable or appro-
for the greatest number of memory er- sexual encounter.
priate behavior in various settings and
rors to occur in the middle portion of
Sexually transmitted disease A dis- social situations.
an ordered list.
ease that is typically passed from one
Situational determinants External con-
Set A predisposition to respond in a person to the next through intimate
ditions that strongly influence behavior.
certain way. physical contact; a venereal disease.
Situational test Simulating real-life
Set point A theoretical proportion of Shape constancy The perceived shape
conditions so that a person’s reactions
body fat that tends to be maintained of objects is unaltered by changes in
may be directly observed.
by changes in hunger and eating. the shape of their images on the
retina. Size constancy The perceived size of
Setting In making attributions, the
objects remains unchanged despite
social and/or physical environment in Shaping Gradually molding responses
changes in the size of the images they
which an action occurs. to a final desired pattern.
cast on the retina.
Severe punishment Intense punish- Short-term dynamic therapy Mod-
Size-distance invariance The strict re-
ment; by definition, punishment capa- ern psychodynamic therapy de-
lationship that exists between the dis-
ble of suppressing a response for long signed to produce insights within
tance an object lies from the eyes and
periods. a shorter time than traditional
the size of its image.
psychoanalysis.
Sex One’s biological classification as
Skin receptors Sensory organs for
female or male. Short-term memory (STM) The
touch, pressure, pain, cold, and warmth.
memory system used to hold small
Sex drive The strength of one’s
amounts of information for relatively Skin senses The senses of touch, pres-
motivation to engage in sexual
brief time periods. sure, pain, heat, and cold.
behavior.

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G-30 Glossary

Sleep apnea Repeated interruption of Social motives Learned motives ac- Somatic pain Pain from the skin,
breathing during sleep. quired as part of growing up in a par- muscles, joints, and tendons.
ticular society or culture.
Sleep deprivation Being deprived of Somatic system The system of nerves
desired or needed amounts of sleep. Social nonconformity Failure to linking the spinal cord with the body
conform to societal norms or the and sense organs.
Sleep patterns The order and
usual minimum standards for social
duration of daily sleep and waking Somatic therapy Any bodily therapy,
conduct.
periods. such as drug therapy, electroconvulsive
Social phobia An intense, irrational fear therapy, or psychosurgery.
Sleep spindles Distinctive bursts of
of being observed, evaluated, embar-
brain-wave activity that indicate a per- Somatization disorder Afflicted per-
rassed, or humiliated by others in social
son is asleep. sons have numerous physical com-
situations, such as eating, writing, blush-
plaints. Typically, they have consulted
Sleep stages Various levels of sleep ing, or speaking in public.
many doctors, but no organic cause for
depth identified by brain-wave pat-
Social power The capacity to control, their distress can be identified.
terns and behavioral changes.
alter, or influence the behavior of an-
Somatoform disorder The presence
Sleep-deprivation psychosis A major other person.
of physical symptoms that mimic dis-
disruption of mental and emotional
Social psychology The study of human ease or injury for which there is no
functioning brought about by lack of
social behavior (behavior that is influ- identifiable physical cause.
sleep.
enced by one’s relationship with others).
Somatoform pain Pain that has no
Sleeptalking Speaking while asleep.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale identifiable physical cause and appears
Slow-to-warm-up child A child who (SRRS) A scale that rates the impact to be of psychological origin.
is temperamentally restrained, unex- of various life events on the likelihood
Somatosensory area The part of the
pressive, or shy. of illness.
parietal lobes that serves as a receiving
Social comparison Making judgments Social referencing Observing others in area for bodily sensations.
about ourselves through comparison social situations to obtain information
Somesthetic sense Pertaining to sen-
with others. or guidance.
sations produced by the skin, muscles,
Social development The development Social reinforcement Praise, atten- joints, viscera, and organs of balance.
of self-awareness, attachment to care- tion, approval, and/or affection from
Somnambulist One who sleepwalks.
givers, and relationships with other others.
children and adults. Sound wave A cyclic compression of
Social role Expected behavior pat-
air molecules.
Social distance Distance at which im- terns associated with particular social
personal interaction takes place (about positions (such as daughter, worker, Source traits Basic underlying traits of
4 to 12 feet from the body). student). personality; each source trait is reflected
in a larger number of surface traits.
Social distance scale An attitude mea- Social stereotypes Oversimplified im-
sure that asks people to rate the degree ages of the traits of individuals who Spaced practice A practice schedule
to which they would be willing to belong to a particular social group. that alternates study periods with brief
have contact with a member of an- rests. (Massed practice, in comparison,
Social support Close, positive rela-
other group. continues for long periods, without
tionships with other people.
interruption.)
Social influence Changes in a person’s
Socialization The process of learning
behavior induced by the presence or Spatial neglect A tendency to ignore
to live in a particular culture by
actions of others. the left or right side of one’s body and
adopting socially acceptable values and
the left or right side of visual space af-
Social learning theory An approach behavior.
ter damage to one of the brain hemi-
that combines learning principles with
Sociopath Another name for the psy- spheres.
cognitive processes (perception, think-
chopath or antisocial personality.
ing, anticipation), plus the effects Specific phobia An intense, irrational
of observational learning, to explain Soma The main body of a neuron or fear of specific objects, activities, or
behavior. other cell. situations.

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Glossary G-31

Spinal nerve One of 62 major nerves with respect to power, privilege, im- Stress inoculation Use of positive
that channel sensory and motor in- portance, and so forth. coping statements to control fear and
formation in and out of the spinal anxiety.
Status inequalities Differences in the
cord.
power, prestige, or privileges of two or Stress management The application
Split-brain operation A surgical tech- more persons or groups. of behavioral strategies to reduce stress
nique in which the corpus callosum is and improve coping skills.
Stereocilia Bristle-like structures on
cut, functionally disconnecting the
hair cells. Stress reaction The physical response
two cerebral hemispheres.
to stress, consisting mainly of bodily
Stereoscopic vision Perception of space
Spontaneous recovery The reappear- changes related to autonomic nervous
and depth caused chiefly by the fact
ance of a learned response after its ap- system arousal.
that the eyes receive different images.
parent extinction.
Stressor A specific condition or event
Stereotype An inaccurate, rigid, and
Spontaneous remission The disap- in the environment that challenges or
oversimplified image of members of a
pearance of a psychological distur- threatens a person.
social group, especially an out-group.
bance without the aid of therapy.
Stroboscopic movement Illusion of
Stereotyped response A rigid, repeti-
Sports psychology Study of the psy- movement in which an object is shown
tive, and non-productive response
chological and behavioral dimensions in a rapidly changing series of positions.
made mechanically and without regard
of sports performance.
for its appropriateness. Structuralism The school of thought
SQ4R method A reading method in psychology concerned with analyz-
Stimulant A substance that produces
based on these steps: survey, question, ing sensations and personal experience
a temporary increase of activity in the
read, recite, relate, and review. into basic elements.
body and nervous system.
Stage of exhaustion Third stage of Structured interview An interview
Stimulation deafness Deafness result-
the G.A.S., at which time the body’s that follows a prearranged plan, usu-
ing from damage caused by exposure
resources are exhausted and serious ally defined by asking a series of
to excessively loud sounds.
health consequences occur. planned questions.
Stimulus Any physical energy sensed
Stage of resistance Second stage of Subcortex All brain structures below
by an organism.
the G.A.S., during which bodily ad- the cerebral cortex.
justments to stress stabilize but at a Stimulus control The tendency of
Subjective discomfort Personal, private
high physical cost. stimuli present when an operant re-
feelings of discomfort or unhappiness.
sponse is acquired to subsequently
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale A
control when and where the response Subjective experience Reality as it is
widely used individual test of intelli-
is made. perceived and interpreted, not as it ex-
gence; a direct descendant of Alfred
ists objectively; personal, private, non-
Binet’s first intelligence test. Stimulus discrimination The learned
objective experience.
ability to detect differences in stim-
State-dependent learning Memory
uli, often produced by reinforcing Sublimation Working off frustrated
influenced by one’s bodily state at the
responses to one stimulus but not desires or unacceptable impulses in
time of learning and at the time of re-
another. substitute activities that are construc-
trieval. Improved memory occurs
tive or accepted by society.
when the bodily states match. Stimulus generalization The ten-
dency to respond to stimuli similar to, Subliminal perception Perception of
Statistical abnormality Abnormality
but not identical to, a conditioned a stimulus presented below the thresh-
defined on the basis of an extreme
stimulus. old for conscious recognition.
score on some measure or dimension,
such as IQ or anxiety. Stimulus motives Innate needs for Substance-related disorder Abuse
stimulation and information. of or dependence on a mood- or
Statistical significance Experimental
behavior-altering drug.
results that would rarely occur by Stress The condition that occurs
chance alone. when a challenge or a threat forces Successive approximations A series of
a person to adjust or adapt to the steps that change behavior to a desired
Status An individual’s position in a
environment. response pattern.
group or social structure, especially

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G-32 Glossary

Sucking reflex Rhythmic sucking move- Syntax Rules for ordering words THC Tetrahydrocannabinol, the
ments elicited by touching the neonate’s when forming sentences. main active chemical in marijuana.
mouth.
Systematic desensitization A guided Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Sudden infant death syndrome reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion. A projective test consisting of 20 dif-
(SIDS) The sudden, unexplained ferent scenes and life situations
Target behaviors Actions or other be-
death of an apparently healthy infant. about which respondents make
haviors (such as speech) that a behav-
up stories.
Superego In Freudian theory, an in- ior therapist seeks to modify.
ternalization of parental values and so- Theory A system designed to interre-
Task centering Focusing on the task
cietal standards. late concepts and facts in a way that
at hand, rather than on one’s own feel-
summarizes existing data and predicts
Superordinate goal A goal that ex- ings or needs.
future observations.
ceeds or overrides all others; a goal
Taste aversion An active dislike for a
that renders other goals relatively less Therapy placebo effect Improvement
particular food; frequently created
important. caused not by the actual process of
when the food is associated with ill-
therapy but by a client’s expectation
Superstitious behavior In condi- ness or discomfort.
that therapy will help.
tioning, a behavior repeated be-
Taste bud The receptor organ for
cause it seems to produce reinforce- Thought stopping Use of aversive
taste.
ment, even though it is actually stimuli to interrupt or prevent upset-
unnecessary. Telepathy The purported ability to ting thoughts.
directly know another person’s
Support group A group formed to Threat An event or situation perceived
thoughts.
provide emotional support for its as potentially harmful to one’s well-
members through discussion of shared Temperament The physical founda- being.
stresses and concerns. tion of personality, including emo-
Thyroid gland Endocrine gland
tional and perceptual sensitivity, en-
Suppression A conscious effort to not whose hormones help regulate metab-
ergy levels, typical mood, and so forth.
think of something or to keep it from olism (the production and expenditure
awareness. Temporal lobes Areas on each side of of energy within the body).
the cerebral cortex that include the
Surface traits The visible or observ- Time out To produce extinction, re-
sites where hearing registers in the
able traits of one’s personality. moving a person from a situation in
brain.
which rewards for maladaptive behav-
Survey method The use of public
Test anxiety High levels of arousal ior are available; also, the withholding
polling techniques to answer psycho-
and worry that seriously impair test of social reinforcers (attention, ap-
logical questions.
performance. proval) when undesirable responses are
Syllogism A format for analyzing log- made.
Test battery A group of tests and in-
ical arguments.
terviews given to the same individual. Tinnitus A ringing or buzzing sensa-
Symbolic prejudice Prejudice that is tion in the ears not caused by an ex-
Test standardization Establishing
expressed in disguised fashion. ternal stimulus.
standards for administering a test and
Symbolization In Carl Rogers’s the- interpreting scores. Tip-of-the-tongue state The experi-
ory, the process of admitting an ex- ence of feeling that a memory is avail-
Testosterone Male sex hormone, se-
perience to awareness. able but being unable to retrieve it.
creted mainly by the testes and re-
Sympathetic system A branch of the sponsible for the development of male Token economy A therapeutic pro-
autonomic system responsible for sexual characteristics. gram in which desirable behaviors are
arousing and activating the body at reinforced with tokens that can be ex-
Thalamus A structure at the center of
times of stress. changed for goods, services, activities,
the brain that relays sensory informa-
and privileges.
Synapse The microscopic space, be- tion to the cerebral cortex.
tween an axon terminal and another Token reinforcer A tangible sec-
Thanatos The death instinct postu-
neuron, over which neurotransmitters ondary reinforcer such as money, gold
lated by Freud.
pass. stars, poker chips, and the like.

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Glossary G-33

Tokens Symbolic rewards, or sec- Trepanning In modern usage, any Unipolar disorder A mood disorder in
ondary reinforcers (such as plastic surgical procedure in which a hole is which a person experiences extended
chips, gold stars, or points), that can bored in the skull; historically, the periods of deep depression but has no
be exchanged for real reinforcers. chipping or boring of holes in the history of ever having been manic.
skull to “treat” mental disturbance.
Top-down processing Applying Unstructured interview An interview
higher-level knowledge to rapidly or- Trichromatic theory The theory of in which conversation is informal and
ganize sensory information into a color vision based on the assumption topics are taken up freely as they arise.
meaningful perception. that there are three types of cones,
Unusual Uses Test A test of creativity
with peak sensitivity to red, green, or
Trait profile A graphic representation in which subjects try to think of new
blue.
of the ratings obtained by an individ- uses for a common object.
ual (or sometimes a group) on each of Tryptophan A sleep-promoting
Vacillation Wavering in intention or
several personality traits. amino acid.
feelings.
Trait theorist A psychologist who is Tunnel vision Vision restricted to the
Validity The ability of a test to mea-
interested in classifying, analyzing, and center of the visual field.
sure what it purports to measure.
interrelating traits, and in discovering
Turn-taking In early language devel-
their origins, to understand and ex- Validity scales Scales that tell whether
opment, the tendency of parent and
plain personality. test scores should be invalidated for ly-
child to alternate in the sending and
ing, inconsistency, or “faking good.”
Trait-situation interaction Variations receiving of signals or messages.
in behavior that occur when the ex- Variable Any condition that changes
Tympanic membrane The eardrum.
pression of a trait is influenced by set- or can be made to change; a measure,
tings or circumstances. Type A personality A personality type event, or state that may vary.
with an elevated risk of heart disease;
Traits (personality) Relatively perma- Variable interval schedule A sched-
characterized by time urgency, anger,
nent and enduring qualities of behavior ule in which a reinforcer is given for
and hostility.
that a person displays in most situations. the first correct response made after a
Type B personality All personality varied amount of time has passed
Transducer A device that converts en-
types other than Type A; a low- (measured from the previous rein-
ergy from one system into energy in
cardiac-risk personality. forced response). Responses made be-
another.
fore the time interval has ended are
Unconditional positive regard Unshak-
Transference In psychoanalysis, the ten- not reinforced.
able love and approval given without
dency of a client to transfer to the thera-
qualification. Variable ratio schedule A pattern in
pist feelings that correspond to those the
which a varied number of correct re-
client had for important persons in his Unconditioned response An innate
sponses must be made to get a rein-
or her past. reflex response elicited by an uncondi-
forcer. For example, a reinforcer is
tioned stimulus.
Transformation In Piaget’s theory, the given after three to seven correct re-
mental ability to change the shape or Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus sponses; the actual number changes
form of a substance (such as clay or innately capable of eliciting a re- randomly.
water) and to perceive that its volume sponse.
Verbal intelligence Intelligence mea-
remains the same.
Unconscious Region of the mind that sured by answering questions involv-
Transformation rules Rules by which is beyond awareness, especially im- ing vocabulary, general information,
a simple declarative sentence may be pulses and desires not directly known arithmetic, and other language- or
changed to other voices or forms (past to a person. symbol-oriented tasks.
tense, passive voice, and so forth).
Undifferentiated schizophrenia Vestibular senses The senses of bal-
Transvestic fetishism Achieving sex- Schizophrenia lacking the specific fea- ance, body position, and acceleration.
ual arousal by wearing clothing of the tures of catatonic, disorganized, or
Vicarious classical conditioning Clas-
opposite sex. paranoid types.
sical conditioning brought about by
Traumatic stress A stressful experi- Unfreezing In brainwashing, a loos- observing another person react to a
ence that produces psychological in- ening of convictions about former val- particular stimulus.
jury or intense emotional pain. ues, attitudes, and beliefs.

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G-34 Glossary

Vicarious desensitization A reduction gressive behavior; also, the tendency Withdrawal of love Withholding af-
in fear or anxiety that takes place vi- for eyewitnesses to focus almost en- fection to enforce child discipline.
cariously (“secondhand”) when a client tirely on an assailant’s weapon.
Withdrawal symptoms Physical ill-
watches models perform the feared
Weber’s law States that the just no- ness and discomfort that accompany
behavior.
ticeable difference is a constant pro- the withdrawal of an addictive drug.
Visible spectrum That portion of the portion of the original stimulus inten-
Working memory Another name for
electromagnetic spectrum to which sity; actually applies most accurately to
short-term memory, especially as it
the eyes are sensitive. stimuli in the mid-range of intensities.
is used for thinking and problem
Visual acuity The clarity or sharpness Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- solving.
of visual perception. Third Edition (WAIS-III) A widely
X chromosome The female chromo-
used adult intelligence test that rates
Visual cliff An apparatus that looks some contributed by the mother; pro-
both verbal and performance intelli-
like the edge of an elevated platform duces a female when paired with an-
gence.
or cliff; used to test for depth percep- other X chromosome and a male when
tion in infants and baby animals. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Chil- paired with a Y chromosome.
dren-Third Edition (WISC-III) A
Visual pigment A chemical found in Y chromosome The male chromo-
widely used intelligence test for children
the rods and cones that is sensitive to some contributed by the father; pro-
that rates both verbal and performance
light. duces a male when paired with an
intelligence.
X chromosome. Fathers may give ei-
Voyeurism Deriving sexual pleasure from
Wellness A positive state of good ther an X or a Y chromosome to their
viewing the genitals of others, usually
health; more than the absence of disease. offspring.
without their knowledge or permission
(peeping). Wernicke’s area An area of the brain Yerkes-Dodson law A qualification of
related to language comprehension. the inverted U function that states the
Waiting-list control group A group
relationships among arousal, task com-
of people who receive no treatment in White matter Portions of the nervous
plexity, and performance.
experiments designed to test the effec- system that appear white due to the
tiveness of psychotherapy. presence of myelin. Zener cards A deck of 25 cards bear-
ing various symbols and used in early
Waking consciousness A state of nor- Whole learning Studying an entire
parapsychological research.
mal, alert awareness. package of information (such as a
complete poem) at once. Zone of proximal development
Warning system Pain based on large
Refers to the range of tasks a child
nerve fibers; warns that bodily damage Wish fulfillment Freudian belief that
cannot yet master alone but that she
may be occurring. the content of many dreams reflects
or he can accomplish with the guid-
unfulfilled desires that cannot be con-
Weapons effect The observation that ance of a more capable partner.
sciously expressed.
weapons serve as strong cues for ag-

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